Sunteți pe pagina 1din 155

The 23rd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM

on MINE PLANNING & EQUIPMENT SELECTION

MPES 2015
Smart Innovation in Mining

Editors: C. Musingwini, S. Rupprecht, B. Genc, and R.K. Singhal

911 November 2015

Sandton Convention Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa

Abstracts of papers presented at the symposium

THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY


JOHANNESBURG 2015

23rd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM


on MINE PLANNING & EQUIPMENT SELECTION

MPES 2015

Smart Innovation in Mining

911 November 2015

Sandton Convention Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa

SAIMM PUBLICATIONS
THE MONOGRAPH SERIES
Ml

M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
M8
M9

Lognormal-De Wijsian Geostatistics for Ore Evaluation


(2nd ed 1981) D.G. Krige

An Introduction to Geostatistical Methods of Mineral Evaluation


(2nd ed 1981) J.-M.M. Rendu
Principles of Flotation
(1982) (3rd imp. 1986) Edited by R.P. King

Increased Underground Extraction of Coal


(1982) Edited by C.J. Fauconnier and R.W.O. Kersten
Rock Mechanics in Mining Practice
(1983) (3rd imp. 1986) Edited by S. Budavari

Assay and Analytical Practice in the South African Mining Industry


(1986) W.C. Lenahan and R. de L. Murray-Smith
The Extractive Metallurgy of Gold in South Africa,
2 volumes (1987) Edited by G.G Stanley
Mineral and Metal Extraction An Overview
(1994) L.C. Woollacott and R.H. Eric

Rock Fracture and Rockburstsan illustrative study


(1997) Edited by W.D. Ortlepp

THE SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS SERIES


SPI

SP2

SP3

SP4
SP5
SP6
SP7
SP8

Proceedings, Underground Transport Symposium


(1986) Edited by R.C.R. Edgar
Backfill in South African Mines (1988)

Treatment and Re-use of Water in the Minerals Industry (1989)


COREX Symposium 1990
(1990) Edited by H.M.W. Delport and P.J. Holaschke

Measurement, Control, and Optimization in Mineral Processing


(1994) Edited by H.W. Glen
Handbook on Hard-rock Strata Control
(1994) A.J.S. Spearing

Rock Engineering for underground coal mining


(2002) J. Nielen van der Merwe and Bernard J. Madden

Second Edition: Rock Engineering for underground coal mining


(2010) J. Nielen van der Merwe and Bernard J. Madden

SUPPLEMENT TO THE SAIMM JOURNAL

The Metals and Minerals Industry in South Africa - Part 1 (1989)


Edited by H.W. Glen

THE SYMPOSIUM SERIES

Mathematical Statistics and Computer Applications in Ore


Valuation (1966)
S2 Planning Open Pit Mines (1970) (4th imp.)
Edited by P.W.J. van Rensburg
S3 Application of Computer Methods in the Mineral Industry
(APCOM 1973) Edited by M.D.G. Salamon
S4 Infacon 1974 Edited by H.W. Glen
S5 Proceedings of the 12th CMMI Congress 2 volumes (1982) Edited by
H.W. Glen
S6 Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines (1984) Edited by N.C. Gay and
E.H. Wainwright
S7 The Planning and Operation of Open Pit and Strip Mines (1986)
Edited by J.P. Deetlefs
S8 GOLD 100: Proceedings of the International Conference on Gold
(1986)
Volume 1: Gold Mining Technology Edited by H. Wagner and
R.P. King
Volume 2: Extractive Metallurgy of Gold Edited by C.E. Fivaz and
R.P. King
Volume 3: Industrial Uses of Gold Edited by G. Gafner and R.P. King
S9 APCOM 87: Proceedings of the Twentieth International
Symposium on the Application of Computers and Mathematics in
the Mineral Industries (1987)
Volume 1: Mining Edited by L. Wade, R.W.O. Kersten and
J.R. Cutland
Volume 2: Metallurgy Edited by R.P. King and I.J. Barker
Volume 3: Geostatistics Edited by I.C. Lemmer, H. Schaum and
F.A.G.M. Camisani-Calzolari
S10 International Deep Mining Conference (1990)
Volume 1: Innovations in Metallurgical Plant Edited by G.A. Brown
and P. Smith and
Application of Materials Engineering in the Mining Industry Edited
by B. Metcalfe
Volume 2: Technical Challenges in Deep Level Mining Edited by
D.A.J. Ross-Watt and P.D.K. Robinson
S11 Infacon 6 ( Incorporating Incsac) (1992)
Edited by H.W. Glen
S12 Massmin 92 Edited by H.W. Glen (out of print)
S13 Minefill 93 Edited by H.W. Glen
S14 XVth CMMI Congress Publications (1994)
Volume 1: Mining Edited by H.W. Glen Volume 2: Metals
Technology and Extractive Metallurgy (1994) Edited by H.W. Glen
S15 Surface Mining 1996 Edited by H.W. Glen
S16 Hidden Wealth (1996) Edited by H.W. Glen
S17 Heavy Minerals 1997 Edited by R.E. Robinson
S18 The 8th International Platinum Symposium (1998)
S19 Mining in Africa 98
S20 Extraction Metallurgy Africa 98
S21 Sixth International Symposium for Rock Fragmentation by
Blasting (1999)
S22 Metallurgy Africa 99
S23 Heavy Minerals 1999 Edited by R.G. Stimson
S24 Tunnels under Pressure Technical Editor T.R. Stacey
S25 Mine Hoisting 2000
S26 CoalThe Future (2000)
S27 The Fifth International Symposium on Rockburst and Seismicity in
Mines (RaSim 5) (2001)
S28 6th International Symposium on Mine Mechanization and
Automation (2001)
S29 XIV International Coal Preparation Congress and Exhibition
S30 Surface Mining 2002Modern Developments for the New
Millennium
S31 IFSA 2002, Industrial Fluidization South Africa
S31A APCOM 2003Application of Computers and Operations
Research in the Minerals Industries
S32 ISSA/Chamber of Mines ConferenceMines and Quarries:
Prevention of Occupational Injury and Disease
S1

S33
S34
S35
S36
S37
S38
S39
S40
S41
S42
S43
S44
S45
S46
S47
S48
S49
S50
S51
S52
S53
S54
S55
S56
S57
S58
S59
S60
S61
S62
S63
S64
S65
S66
S67
S68
S69
S70
S71
S72
S73
S74
S75
S76
S77
S78
S79
S80
S81
S82
S83
S84
S84
S85
S86
S87

ISRMTechnology Roadmap for Rock Mechanics


Heavy Minerals Conference 2003
Safety in Mines Research Institutes (2003)
VII International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes & Salts
(2004)
Tenth International Ferroalloys Congress INFACONX 2004
Deep and high stress mining 2004
Platinum adding value 2004
Base MetalsSouthern Africas response to changing global base
metals market dynamics 2005
Strategic versus Tactical approaches in mining 2005
Best practices in rock engineering SARES 2005
IFSA 2005, Industrial Fluidization South Africa
Southern African Pyrometallurgy 2006 International Conference
Stability of rock slopes in open pit mining and civil engineering
situations
Platinum Surges Ahead 2006
Hydraulic Transport of Solids - Hydrotransport 17 (2007)
Fourth Southern African Base Metals Conference Africas base
metals resurgence
Heavy Minerals Conference, 2007
Cave Mining Conference, 2007
International Symposium on Lead and Zinc processing Lead &
Zinc 2008
Surface Mining 2008
Platinum in transformation 2008
IFSA 2008, Industrial Fluidization South Africa
Hydrometallurgy Conference 2009
Shotcrete for Africa 2009
Base Metals Conference 2009
Heavy Minerals Conference, 2009
Hard Rock SafeSafety Conference 2009
Sampling and Blending 2009
World Gold 2009 Conference
Physical Beneficiation Conference 2010
Second Hardrock SafeSafety Conference 2010
Platinum in Transition Boom or Bust 2010
South African Pyrometallurgy 2011 International Conference
Minefill 2011 (10th International Symposium on Mining with
Backfill)
Base Metals Conference 2011
MineSafe 2011 Conference
Iron Ore and Manganese Ore Metallurgy 2011
Percolation leaching: The status globally and in Southern Africa
IFSA 2011, Industrial Fluidization South Africa
Southern Hemisphere International Rock Michanics Symposium
2012
Platinum Conference A catalyst for change 2012
Ferrous 2012Ferrous and Base Metals Development Network
Conference
Diamonds - Source to use 2013
Sampling and analysis: Best-practice in African mining 2013
Base Metals Conference 2013
Precious Metals 2013 ConferenceThe Precious Metals
Development Network (PMDN)
Physical Beneficiation 2013 Conference
21st Century challenges to the southern African coal sector
Furnace Tapping Conference 2014
Platinum Conference PlatinumMetal for the Future 2014
IFSA 2014, Industrial Fluidization South Africa
Copper Cobalt Africa 2015
The Danie Krige Geostatistical Conference 2015
The Danie Krige Geostatistical Conference 2015
World Gold Conference 2015
Slope Stability 2015
AMI: Nuclear Materials Development Network Conference 2015

Published by The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


Fifth Floor, Chamber of Mines Building, 5 Hollard Street, Johannesburg, 2107
Republic of South Africa
The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2015
ISBN 978-1-920410-79-7

REVIEWING PROCESS AND LIST OF REVIEWERS


We received a total of 165 abstracts and from these we have published 103 papers. In order to deliver quality
conference proceedings, all the published papers were independently peer-reviewed by experts in the respective
specialist fields in order to ensure the highest relevance and quality.
The abstracts were first forwarded to the Organising Committee for initial acceptance. Once an abstract was accepted
the author(s) was informed and advised of the deadline date for the paper submission. The complete papers were then
sent to at least two independent reviewers (blind review). Depending on the comments received from the reviewers the
author(s) had to make suggested and requested changes received from the reviewers and submit the revised paper.
The revised paper was then forwarded to the reviewers for final acceptance. Once the revised paper was accepted by
the reviewers, the paper was then sent to the desktop publishing (DTP) department for proofreading and formatting.
The author(s) received a final copy for approval before the paper could be published.
The Organising Committee would like to thank the reviewers listed below, for their
efforts in reviewing papers in these proceedings:
A. Bals
M. Biffi
C. Birch
K. Chabedi
G. Chitiyo
W. De Graaf
C. Dohm
A. Dougall
P. Fraser
B. Genc
J. Guy-Taylor
M. Handley
H. Ilgner
T. Jordaan
W. Joughin
G. Krafft
G. Lane
R. Latypov
P. Leeuw
D. Limpitlaw
K. Lomberg
R.C.A. Minnitt
G. Mitchell
M. Mochubele
L. Monsamy
H. Mtegha
C. Musingwini
N. Mutemeri

J. Napier
P. Neingo
G. Njowa
G. Nyawo
D. Olivier
T. Paterson
C. Prins
B. Prout
R. Phillis
S.V. Rungan
S. Rupprecht
S. Siebert
G.L. Smith
F. Terblanche
T. Tholana
H. Thomas
P. Turner
E. Uludag
S. Uludag
R. Vermeulen
J. Visser
D. Vogt
I. Wermuth
M. Woodhall
H. Yilmaz
R. Webber-Youngman
T. Zvarivadza
L. Zindi

Printed by Camera Press, Johannesburg

23rd
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
on MINE PLANNING & EQUIPMENT SELECTION

MPES 2015

Smart Innovation in Mining


INTERNATIONAL CHAIR
Dr. Raj K. Singhal
HONORARY CHAIR
Mr. Mike Teke

CHAIRMAN MPES 2015


Prof. Cuthbert Musingwini

Dr Bekir Genc
Dr Steven Rupprecht
Mr Alastair Macfarlane
Mr Kelello Chabedi
Mr Jannie Maritz
Mr Godknows Njowa
Mr Mike Woodhall
Prof. Jim Porter

LOCAL ORGANISING COMMITTEE

Professor Monika Hardygra


Prof. Carsten Drebenstedt
Prof. Uday Kumar

Mr Alex Bals
Dr Andre Dougall
Dr Gordon L. Smith
Dr Craig Smith
Mr I. Wermuth
Mr C. Birch
Mr G. Lane

CO-CHAIRS

Prof. Kostas Fytas


Prof. Petr.Sklenicka

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISING COMMITTEE

Dr C. Chiwetelu
Prof. Hani Mitri
Dr Nuray Demirel
Dr Marilena Cardu
Dr Fiona Mavroudis
Dr Meimei Zhang
Prof. Ge Hao
Prof. Celal Karpuz
Prof. Liu Mingju
Dr Mohan Yellishetty
Prof. Hideki Shimada
Dr Gento Mogi
Dr Vera Muzgina
Dr Morteza Osanloo
Dr Juri- Rivaldo Pastarus

Prof. Hakan Schunnesson


Ms. M. Singhal
Dr Eleonora. Widzyk-Capehart
Prof. Antonio Nieto
Prof. Michael A. Zhuravkov
Prof. Sukumar Bandopadhaya
Prof. Ferri Hassani
Dr Noune.Melkoumian
Dr Joerg Benndorf
Prof. Giorgio Massacci
Dr Maria Menegaki
Prof. Svetlana V.Yeffremova
Prof. Pivnyak Gennadiy
Prof. Vladimir Kebo
Dr Marie Vrbova

Foreword

he International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection (MPES) was


started some twenty-five years ago. Since then it has been held regularly, becoming an
internationally recognized event committed to technology transfer. MPES has been held
in Turkey, Greece, Canada, Kazakhstan, Australia, the Czech Republic, Brazil, India,
Australia, China, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, and Italy. MPES is being held in
South Africa for the first time.
The basic aim of MPES 2015 is to contribute to the development of highly productive
methods and technologies for the various segments of the mining and mineral processing
industries. The theme of the 2015 Symposium is Smart Innovation in Mining. Major topics to
be covered at MPES 2015 are data collection and modelling: state-of-the-art-practices; mineral
resource and mineral reserve estimation and reporting; economic and technical feasibility
studies; mine development case studies; design, planning, and optimization of surface and underground mines;
transition from surface to underground mining; rock mechanics and geotechnical applications; mining equipment
selection, operation, control, monitoring, and optimization; mechanization and automation of mining processes;
application of information technology; short interval/planning and control; resource- to-market: reconciliation and
optimization; productivity and competitiveness of mining operations; sustainability: improving health, safety, and
environmental practice and performance; and mine closure and rehabilitation in mine planning.
MPES derives its strength from the coalition of various worldwide institutions. MPES 2015 is supported by a number
of organizations. To be noted are the Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Universite Laval;
China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing; the National Technical University of Athens, Greece (NTUA);
Dipartimento di Geoingegneria e Tecnologie Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, Italy; Western Australian
School of Mines, Curtin University of Technology, Australia; National Mining University of Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk;
International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment; American Society for Mining and Reclamation;
School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, University of Alberta, Canada; Mining Engineering Department,
Lulea University, Sweden; Faculty of Mining and Geology, VSB - Technical University, Ostrava, Czech Republic;
Hokkaido University, Mineral Resources Engineering Department, Japan; Faculty Geoengineering, Mining and Geology,
Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland; Department of Mining, Metals and Materials, McGill University; Department
of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University; DIGET-Politechnico di Torino, Italy;
School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Nottingham, UK. Mining Engineering
Department, University of British Columbia; Middle East Technical University Mining Engineering Department, Turkey;
SASE, and Monash University Australia; and Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
The organization and success of such a symposium is due mainly to the tireless efforts of many individuals, authors
included. All members of the Organizing Committees and conference chairpersons have contributed greatly. The support
of our plenary session speakers, invited speakers, and co-chairs is gratefully acknowledged. In addition, recognition is
accorded to my co-editor and Chairperson of this symposium Professor Cuthbert Musingwini, who together with his local
organizing committee made MPES2015 a success. I also wish to acknowledge the contribution of Mohini Singhal, my
wife, who has been involved with MPES since its inception. She is a committee member of MPES organization and is an
associate editor of the International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment. She shares my workload and
maintains the continuity of our work in my absence. We both are committed to making each symposium a successful
one.
As the International Chair and founder of this series of symposia, I would like to recognize the support of Mr. Mike
Teke, our Honorary Chair. Thanks are due to the conference secretariat of the Southern African Institute of Mining and
Metallurgy, especially Mr. Raymond van der Berg, Head of Conferencing and Ms. Nazli Mamdoo, Conference
publications co-ordinator.
This symposium provides a forum for the presentation, discussion, and debate of state-of-the-art and emerging
technologies in the field of mining. Authors from over 20 countries with backgrounds in computer sciences, mining
engineering, research, technology, and management representing government, industry, and academia concerned with
mining and mineral production have contributed to these Proceedings. The contents of this volume will be of interest to
engineers, scientists, consultants, and government personnel who are responsible for dealing with the development and
application of innovative technologies in the minerals industries.
Dr R.K. Singhal
Chair: International Organising Committee

Foreword

t is indeed a great pleasure and privilege for me to introduce the 23rd International
Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection (MPES 2015). MPES was started
some 25 years ago and South Africa is honoured to be hosting it for the first time.
Throughout its history, the MPES symposium has been recognised as a leading forum for
bringing together mining professionals in order to promote international exchange of
technological developments and new ideas on all aspects related to mine planning and
equipment selection. MPES 2015 aims to continue this rich tradition but, emphasising the
theme of Smart Innovation in Mining. Authors from different technical backgrounds and
coming from over 20 different countries have contributed to the range of papers published in
these conference proceedings. The proceedings will be of interest to technical professionals
in government, industry and academia as they brace up to developing policies, technologies
and skills to transition our industry into 21st century mining.
The ripple effects of the Global Financial Crisis of mid-2008 still remain a challenge to our mining industry as
commodity prices continue to be depressed in 2015 leading to what the media has coined a bloodbath of job losses. It
is imperative that forums such as this one, help us to share and formulate strategies to take our industry forward. Our
world at a population of approximately 7 billion, with a growing and rapidly urbanising population, will inevitably require
greater quantities of minerals. Mining professionals are central to ensuring minerals necessary for civilisation can be
extracted economically, safely and sustainably as a future without mining is unimaginable for survival of humankind. The
demand for more minerals is against a background that we are fast running out of the luxury of good grade deposits. For
example in 2010, Mller and Frimmel analysed the average gold grade in leading gold mining countries; South Africa,
Australia, Canada, Brazil and USA and showed that the average gold grade declined from about 20g/t in the 1850s to
about 5g/t in the 2000s. They extrapolated the trend into the future and concluded that the average gold grade will be as
low as 0.9 g/t by the year 2050. Our only option is to innovate and be smart about how we mine. We are already
undertaking seabed mining and research is underway for mining asteroids in outer space in future.
It requires enormous effort, experience and dedication to organise and deliver a successful conference like this one
and to produce a volume of proceedings like the one in your hands. In my role as Chair of the Local Organising
Committee, I therefore would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere appreciation to all who contributed
toward making this conference a success. Accordingly, I would like to extend my gratitude to our delegates, authors,
keynote speakers, session chairpersons, reviewers, the conference secretariat of the Southern African Institute of Mining
and Metallurgy especially Mr. Raymond van der Berg and Ms. Nazli Mamdoo, members of the Organising Committee,
our Honorary Chair, Mr Mike Teke, and our International Chair Dr Raj Singhal. I would also like to acknowledge our
willing and generous sponsors of this event as without their financial support and presence, we would not have been
able to deliver a high quality and enjoyable conference.
I wish you all a successful conference.
Prof. C. Musingwini
Chair: Organising Committee

The organisers of the conference wish to


thank the following sponsors for their support
-oOo-

Sponsors

SHELL PECTEN

Contents
Session 3: Mine Planning and Optimization

Integrating mining loading and hauling equipment selection and replacement decisions using stochastic
nonlinear programming
G. Santelices, R. Pascual, A. Luer-Villagra, A. Mac Cawley, and D. Galar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optimal and conventional sizing of an ore hoisting system
A. Cano, C.E. Arroyo, A. Curi, and P.H. Campos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading and haulage modelling and simulation in a Brazilian iron ore mine
P.D. Campos, C.E. Arroyo, A. Curi, and A. Cano. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 4: Mining Technical Systems

An investigation of crack formation in surface paste disposal


A. Bascetin, O. Ozdemir, S. Tuylu. and D. Adiguzel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enterprise interoperability of mining technical and commercial data-sets
M. Woodhall and E. Strydom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cost-effective vehicle management information systems
S. Gruber, S. Mendes, and F.C. de Vos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 5: Mechanization and Automation

Comparison of production rates using different loadhaul-dump fleet configurations: a case study from
Kiirunavaara Mine
B. Skawina, A. Salama, J. Greberg, and H. Schunnesson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel cell technology in underground mining
P. Valicek, F. Fourie, and G. Lugg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water-hydraulic solutions for longhole drilling, wide raise development, and hydro-stoping
P.D. Fraser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 6: Open Pit Mining

Development of production management at a surface mining operation


E. Baafi and G. Shaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safe and efficient dump body removal and installation by means of the Kimbo Dump Body Exchange System
M.A. Gimnez* and N. Schwarz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optimize the technology, process, and people to achieve a rolling plan process
D. Hanekom, N. Nel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 7: Mine Planning and Optimization

Poor sampling, grade distributions, and financial outcomes


R.C.A. Minnitt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The effect of geological uncertainty on achieving short-term targets: a quantitative approach using
stochastic process simulation
M. Soleymani Shishvan and J. Benndorf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Geological loss estimation, reconciliation and its relevance to the mine extraction strategy at Union Mine
W. Janeke and G. Langwieder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making hard decisions in mining operations
M. Yavuz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 8: Mining Technical Systems

Measuring Design and Layout software utilization in the South African mining industry
B. Genc and C. Musingwini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Implementation of novel subsurface deformation sensing device for open pit slope stability
monitoring - the Networked Smart Markers system
E. Widzyk-Capehart, C. Hlck, O. Fredes, I. Pedemonte, and S. Steffen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In-situ stress measurement errors implications in mine planning, design, and performance
F.T. Suorineni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Field experiments on flight behaviour of fragmented rocks and control measure of fly rock
T. Sasaoka, Y. Takahashi, H. Inoue, H. Shimada, H. Tanaka, and Y. Takeuchi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 9: Mechanization and Automationt

Engineering principles for the design of a personnel transportation system


R.C.W. Webber-Youngman and G.M.J. van Heerden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in acoustic emission during linear cutting
C. Buschgens and T. Bartnitzki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A review of diagnosis of steel cord conveyor belt cores condition, with applicability to puncture
resistance and operations in Poland
M. Bajda, R. Baej, H.M. Hardygra, and L. Jurdziak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The importance of people in the process of converting a narrow-tabular, hard-rock mine to mechanization
D. Vogt and T. Hattingh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page No.

3
4

6
7

9
10

11

12
13
14

15

16

17
18

19

20
21

22

23

24

Contents (continued)
Session 10: Open Pit Mining

Page No.

Enhancement of productivity in surface mines through analysis of Production Index- a case study
M. Mohammadi, P. Rai, T. Mansouri, and A.M.M. Panahi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Impact of electric excavators on voltage quality of a Vietnam open pit coalmines 6 kV electrical system
T. Le Xuan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methodical support of modelling and scheduling of mining and transport operations using trucks and conveyors
Z.A. Adilkhanova and A.A. Boyandinova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Concept of analysis of operational efficiency of mining and transport complexes in opencast mining
D.G. Bukeikhanov, S.Zh. Galiyev, G.K, Samenov, and M.M. Turdakhunov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 11: Mine Planning and Optimization

Multinomial logistic regression analysis of a stochastic mine production system


N.S. Magagula, C. Musingwini, and M.M. Ali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A real-options technique to determine safety stock for mining production
Z. Song . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 12: Mining Technical Systems

Chaos in iron ore price prediction


M. Minaei Mobtaker and M. Osanloo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microscopic analyses of Bushveld Complex rocks under the influence of high temperatures
G.O. Oniyide and H. Yilmaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 13: Mechanization and Automation

Mogalakwena Mine: mutual coexistence of mining selectivity with the effectiveness and efficiency of high-volume
mechanized mining and processing
T. Muzondo and A. Willemse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fundamentals of traffic control and dispatching in surface mining
G. Nyawo and P. Leeuw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 14: Mine Planning and Optimization

Immersive mine design


L.D. Meyer, E.P. Preis, J. Jacobs, and P. Moller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Study on the characteristics of EMR signals induced from fracture of rock samples and their application in rockburst
prediction in a copper mine
E. Wang, X. Liu, Z. Li, X. He, and L. Qiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 15: Mining Technical Systems

CFD code Fluent as a tool for gas flow study in underground coal mines
P. Stasa, O. Kodym, and V. Kebo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rock strength domaining at Mogalakwena Mine, South Africa
J.P. Germiquet and R.C.A. Minnitt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 16: Mechanization and Automation

Determination of fleet size and cost per tonne for a circular open pit mine an illustrative comparative study
T. Zvarivadza and C.K. Chabedi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A review of hard-rock cutting equipment technology development at Anglo American and Anglo Platinum
D. Janicijevic and P. Valicek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 17

Impact of the South African mineral resource royalty on cut-off grades for narrow tabular Witwatersrand
gold deposits
C. Birch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning for uncertainties in open pit to underground transition for gold mines
S. Opoku. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Estimating mine planning software utilization for decision-making strategies in the South African coal mining sector
B. Genc and C. Musingwini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 18: Mine Planning and Optimization

Determination of value-at-risk for long-term production planning in open pit mines in an environment of
price uncertainty
M. Rahmanpour and M. Osanloo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining a reliable ultimate pit design under conditions of grade, price, and slope uncertainty
M. Rahmanpour and M. Osanloo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A holistic approach to mine planning
P. Doig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 19: Mining Technical Systems

A new approach for rock mass characterization using density of intersection points on free surfaces
A. Turanboy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

26

27

28
29

30

31

32
33

34

35
36
37
38
39

40
41

42

43

44

45

46

47

Contents (continued)
Selection of a suitable schematic diagram for 35/6kV coal mine transformer substations to protect
correction capacitor banks from series resonance caused by power harmonics
L. Xuan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rock slope design at great depth as open pit mining progresses beyond the available experience base:
expected behaviour and potentially robust design approaches
T. Zvarivadza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session 20: Mechanization and Automation
Mining equipment overall efficiency improvement initiative instrumental in turning around the overall
performance of a mine a case study
H. Fourie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management operating systems to optimize mechanization within Anglo American Platinum
G. Krafft, S. Strydom, F. Fourie, P. Valicek, and J. Sevenoaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identification of key performance areas and indicators in the southern African underground coal mining delivery
environment
A.W. Dougall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 21: Underground Mining


Experience of developing new iron ore deposits in Kazakhstan
A.I. Yedilbayev, K.Sh. Chokin, V.D. Yugay, V.F. Zyabkin, and V.S. Muzgina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-seam mining of the deep Waterberg resources
C.K. Chabedi and T. Zvarivadza. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Room and pillar mining systems for Polish copper orebodies
J. Butra, R. Dbkowski, and M. Szpak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 22: Mine Planning and Optimization


Optimization of mining operations with intermediate storage based on operational scheduling
S.I. Petrovich, M.A. Faizulin, N.G. Stukalova, and V.S. Muzgina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introducing geological risk assessment into strategic LOM planning using conditional simulation
B. Abelleira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Impact of footwall fault on mine planning, grade dilution, and plant recoveries: risks and amelioration
strategies adopted to ensure business continuity and long-term viability of MSZ mining at Unki Mine, Zimbabwe
C. Musa, O. Mandingaisa, C. Mwatahwa, and S. Malenga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Implications of IFRIC 20 in mine planning and financial reporting for surface mining operations
G. Njowa, C. Musingwini, and A.N. Clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 23: Mining Technical Systems


Predicting average block size of blasted rock in calcite quarries using regression and artificial neural
networks analysis
S. Kahraman and B. Aykan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towards virtualization of underground mines using mobile robots from 3D scans to virtual mines|
S. Grehl, M. Sastuba, M. Donner, M. Ferber, F. Schreiter, H. Mischo, and B. Jung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The power of the worked-out mine: Conceptual designs for mine-based pumped-storage hydroelectricity
W.P. Nel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMART maintenance and prescriptive asset management for mining
D. Galar, A. Thaduri, U. Kumar, and R. Pascual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 24: Mechanization and Automation


Narrow reef mechanized mining layout at Anglo American Platinum
F. Fourie, P. Valicek, G. Krafft, and J. Sevenoaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The use of a smart communication technology platform to bring convergence to smart mining technologies
L. Zindi and J. Guy-Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilization of underground spaces
V. Dirner, A. Kirly, and A. Wlochov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 25: Underground Mining


3D geotechnical input to optimize 5 shaft at Tumela Mine
M.R. Makgato and S. Malenga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance of two EPBMs in twin metro tunnel construction in soft ground
I. Ocak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trends in productivity in the South African gold mining industry
P.N. Neingo and T. Tholana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The tribute system as a funding model for artisanal and small-scale mining: a Zimbabwean case study
T. Zvarivadza and T. Tholana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 26: Mine Planning and Optimization


Mine planning and safety issues for artisanal mining in underground operations
S.M. Rupprecht. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Dednam Fault at 5W, Bathopele Mine its impact on mining, planning, and risk management strategies
L.L. Kekana and B. Manyike. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page No.
48
49
50

51

52
53

54

55

56

57
58

59
60

61

62

63

65

66

67
68

69

70

71
72

73

Contents (continued)
Session 27: Sustainability

Impacts of groundwater in business planning at Dishaba Mine


S.E. Ngubane, R. Maakamedi, C. Mademutsa, and S. Malenga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synthesis and determination of heavy and rare metals adsorption capacity of carbon materials from rice hulls,
cellulose, and lignin
A. Zharmenov, S. Yefremova, Yu. Sukharnikov, A. Kablanbekov, K. Anarbekov, and Y.E. Yesengarayev . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 29: Mine Planning and Optimization

Computer-aided design models of technologies and processes in open pit mining


M.M. Turdakhunov, A.A. Lisenkov, S.B. Lysenko, S.S. Bukeikhanova, and A.T. Imankulova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modelling of technological processes for creating computer-aided design systems of deep ore quarries
D.G. Bukeikhanov, M.M. Turdakhunov, S.Zh. Galiyev, and S.S. Bukeikhanova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 30: Mining Technical Systems

Automated operative expert system for subsoil use


A.A. Boyandinova and Z.A. Adilkhanova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The amendment of the Mine Ventilation Instruction
P. Zapletal and P. Prokop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 31: Sustainability

Material for construction of seabed structures using fly ash-surfactant mixtures


A. Hamanaka, H. Shimada, T. Sasoaka, Y. Yoshida, and S. Fujita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resolving artisanal and small-scale mining challenges: moving from conflict to cooperation for sustainability
in mine planning
T. Zvarivadza and A.S. Nhleko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 32: Mine Planning and Optimization

Compliance and the SAMREC Code


S.M. Rupprecht. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assessment of possibility for safe mining of resources at Arcelor Mittal Temirtaus Zapadniy Karazhal mine by
the numerical simulation methods
R. Khojayev, R. Gabaidullin, and S. Assainov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optimization of ash content in overburden dumps: a numerical approach
T. Gupta, M. Yellishetty, and T.N. Singh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Estimating cost of equity in project discount rates using the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Gordons
Wealth Growth Model
A.S. Nhleko and C. Musingwini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Risk assessment in open pit mining and economic uncertainty modelling for optimal decision-making using
stochastic simulation - a case study of an iron ore deposit
A.B. Jalloh, K. Sasaki, and Y. Jalloh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 33: Mining Technical Systems

Flow behaviour of tailing paste in surface paste disposal technology


O. Ozdemir, A. Bascetin, D. Adiguzel, and S. Tuylu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open pit scheduling features to improve project economy
S. Sabanov* and M. Beare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect of curing time on elastic material behaviour of thin spray-on liners
D. Guner and H. Ozturk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sanity through associations in the artisanal and small-scale mining sector
T. Zvarivadza and P.N. Neingo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mine planning through effective identification of key performance indicators in Surface Mining
A.W. Dougall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Session 34: Sustainability

Selective disposal of mine wastes in an iron ore operation


A. Curi and A. C.P. da Rocha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysis of CO2 storage possibilities in underground mines
J. Zavada, P. Stasa, and K. Matejckova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The mining engineering PQM strategy at a South African comprehensive university
A.W. Dougall and S.R. Rupprecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Particulate matter emissions from a bauxite residue basin and impact assessment on air quality
V. Dentoni, B. Grosso, C. Levanti, and G. Massacci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation of the pollution potential of tailings basins
M. Cigagna, V. Dentoni, and B. Grosso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page No.
74
75
76

77

78

79

80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87

88

89

90

91
92

93

94

95

96

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
G. Santelices, R. Pascual, A. Ler-Villagra, A. Mac Cawley, and D. Galar

Integrating mining loading and hauling equipment


selection and replacement decisions using stochastic
nonlinear programming
G. Santelices*, R. Pascual*, A. Ler-Villagra, A. Mac Cawley*, and D. Galar
* Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Santiago, Chile

Universidad Andrs Bello, Santiago, Chile

Lule University of Technology, Lule, Sweden


Equipment selection is a key strategic decision in the design of a material handling system,
because an improper outcome will lead to operational problems and unnecessary investment
costs. No previous work has simultaneously integrated the selection and equipment
replacement problems in a multiperiod production schedule. The contribution of this study is
to join both decisions in a stochastic, nonlinear model that optimizes the fleet by minimizing
the life-cycle costs, subject to a stochastic production rate constraint. The framework was
tested with a mining case study. Results indicate that the developed model ensures, with a
high probability of achieving a determined production target producing good robust
solutions.
Keywords: Equipment selection, equipment replacement, production assurance, nonlinear stochastic programming, mining industry.

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A. Cano, C.E. Arroyo, A. Curi, and P.H. Campos

Optimal and conventional sizing of an ore hoisting


system
A. Cano*, C.E. Arroyo, A. Curi, and P.H. Campos
*Federal University of Goias, Brazil
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
,
Federal University of Ouro Preto, Brazil

In underground mining, loading and haulage operations have as their main goal to be
efficient, and the deeper they can reach the higher their costs are. The selection of a proper
system, or a combination of systems, depends upon the associated costs, as well as the
expected return on investment. Therefore, it is very important to properly evaluate the options
so as to make the right decision.
In this work, it is shown the sizing of a hoisting system depends on calculating the motor
power, rope diameter, sheave diameter, material volume to be moved, and work cycle
variables like frictional resistance, inertia, and acceleration that allow the system to reach
appropriate speeds. The rope, it should resist the tensile stress, considering safety factors. To
obtain an optimal solution to this multivariable problem, it is necessary to use nonlinear
modelling, which will provide a solution based on an objective function subjected to
restrictions.
Keywords: sizing, optimization, hoisting, nonlinear programming.

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
P.D. Campos, C.E. Arroyo, A. Curi, and A. Cano

Loading and haulage modelling and simulation in a


Brazilian iron ore mine
P.D. Campos*, C.E. Arroyo, A. Curi*, and A. Cano

*Federal University of Ouro Preto, Brazil


Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Federal University of Goias, Brazil

This work is mainly focused on simulating the mining operations of a large Brazilian iron
ore mine located at the Iron Quadrangle, specifically the loading and haulage operations on
different mining fronts, given the restrictions concerning the different discharge points, ore
variability, quality, grain size, and desired minimum mass dumped in each point.
The simulated model was constructed using the Arena program and information based
on one month of operation at the mine. The data comprised: loading time, manoeuver time,
dumping time, loaded truck haul time, empty truck haul time, maintenance and refuelling
time, etc. This data was obtained from reports generated by the dispatch system used by the
company, and then treated for use in system modelling. The results of the model application
are presented and analysed, so being able to evaluate the adherence of the model to the real
system, as well as a comparison of the results provided, like tonnage of material moved
during the period studied.
Keywords: modelling, simulation, loading, haulage, ARENA.

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A. Bascetin, O. Ozdemir, S. Tuylu. and D. Adiguzel

An investigation of crack formation in surface


paste disposal
A. Bascetin, O. Ozdemir, S. Tuylu. and D. Adiguzel
Istanbul University, Turkey
Nowadays, disposal or deposition methods of mine process tailings in conventional tailings
dams are controversial due to a series of tailings dam accidents that have occurred in recent
years. For this reason, the studies of deposition of tailings as a material with lower water
content on surface are becoming important. One of the important alternatives to conventional
methods is surface paste disposal, which is the depositing of tailings as a paste on surface. In
this study, the paste deposition of mine process tailings from a lead-zinc underground mine
in Turkey was simulated in laboratory-scale tests. Cracking occurred on the paste surfaces
was analysed using a digital image analysis. The results showed that the crack intensity
increased almost fourfold during the wetting-drying tests. This indicates that the stability of
the paste material is affected by climatic conditions, and therefore there is a need to improve
the stability using a binder such as cement ( 2% in some laboratory and pilot-scale studies).
Keywords: Pn-Zn tailings, surface paste disposal, crack density analysis.

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M. Woodhall and E. Strydom

Enterprise interoperability of mining technical and


commercial data-sets
M. Woodhall and E. Strydom
MineRP, South Africa
The mining industry traditionally has a silo-based approach to information management.
More than 323 applications from 91 vendors indicate a large and growing body of software
with a glut of data and file formats all concentrated on the mining space.
Using an open standard format for the amalgamation of all spatial data from minings
disparate disciplines opens up significant opportunities for cross-discipline information
sharing and true enterprise information management.
Using existing toolsets for handling big data (all the mining data) and optimization
techniques long available in other industries and now applied to mining, MineRP is closing
the gap between mining technical and financial management domains. This has impacts for
all stakeholders production, finance, shareholders, communities, and government alike.
This paper and presentation will highlight the progress achieved and emerging
opportunities for sharing information based on data amalgamation.

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
S. Gruber, S. Mendes, and F.C. de Vos

Cost-effective vehicle management information


systems for opencast mining
S. Gruber, S. Mendes, and F.C. de Vos
The Cyset Corporation
With the recent downturn in commodity prices, it has become even more important to focus
on cost containment and efficiency improvements. In opencast mining, load and haul costs
can comprise 20% or more of the total operating expenditure as well as a significant portion
of the capital expenditure. As such, the load and haul operations tend to be a major focus area
for efficiency improvement.
In order to drive efficiency improvements, information is required around cycle times,
adherence to compliance requirements such as workshop visits and shift change times among
others. Traditional dispatch systems are able to present much of this information, but the
costs of implementing these systems can be prohibitive in small- to medium-sized mines.
To address this need, The Cyest Corporation has developed an innovative solution using
Android devices, available at a much lower cost than some traditional fleet management
systems and which allow for the automated, unbiased reporting of typical performance
indicators. The reports and analyses produced can show the results specific to an individual
truck, allowing actionable diagnostics. By automatically capturing and reporting on this
information via cloud services, the operational leaders at opencast mines now have the
information available to drive efficiency improvements within their load and haul operations
in a scientific and objective manner.
Keywords: Vehicle tracking, cost-effectiveness, fleet performance management, load
and haul, efficiency improvement, cycle time.

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
B. Skawina, A. Salama, J. Greberg, and H. Schunnesson

Comparison of production rates using different loadhaul-dump fleet configurations: a case study from
Kiirunavaara Mine
B. Skawina, A. Salama, J. Greberg, and H. Schunnesson
Lule University of Technology, Lule, Sweden
Increasing mining depths place new demands on the various mining processes and unit
operations. The aim of the mine haulage system is to move the rock mass from one location
to another in the most efficient manner by minimizing the long- and short-term operational
costs while meeting production targets. Underground loaders are used for this type of
operation. Depending on the chosen approach, the efficiency of moving the rock mass will
vary and by evaluating and selecting one or more of the hauling options, the production rate
can be improved. This paper aims to estimate, using discrete event simulation (DES), the
rate at which ore can be hauled, using different diesel and electric load-haul-dump (LHD)
machines, from drawpoints to the orepasses. The study was conducted for Loussavaara
Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) mine in Sweden, where one of the largest iron ore deposits in
Europe is extracted using sublevel caving. The study shows the production of the different
fleet configuration based on the number, size, and type of LHD machines, and concludes by
identifying the fleet configurations that fulfill the 10 000 t/d production target.
Keywords: load-haul-dump machines; production rate; discrete event simulation; fleet
configuration.

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
P. Valicek, F. Fourie, and G. Lugg

Fuel cell technology in underground mining


P. Valicek*, F. Fourie*, and G. Lugg
*New Mining Technology AAP

Fuel Cells AAP


Introduction
Fuel cell technology has been around for many years and has been successfully utilized in various applications (aerospace,
automotive, surface power generation). A decision was taken by Anglo American Platinum (AAP) to develop fuel cell
technology so that it can be used in an underground environment. This project forms part of AAPs strategy towards zero
emissions underground as well as the creation of the first Eco Stope. The project also serves as an opportunity to develop
a new market for AAPs platinum and platinum group metals (PGMs) through the creation of hydrogen fuel cell-based
products.
This paper provides information regarding the integration of the fuel cell technology into AAPs narrow reef mining
operations and focuses specifically on the surface and underground results that have been achieved from the production
and proof-of-concept (POC) trials on the 10 t fuel cell loco and fuel cell dozer.
The objectives of the project are to:
 Ensure the fuel cell is safe to operate in underground conditions
 Develop a hybrid fuel cell/ lithium ion battery-powered locomotive to replace the current lead-acid battery power
pack
 Create zero emissions underground
 Create a solution that is both economically viable as well as sustainable
 Create and develop new markets for future platinum benefication.
In order to meet the objectives it is important to understand the current challenges that are facing the use of the fuel cell
technology underground. The fuel cell (FC) technology is currently constrained by the following:
 High capital requirements
 Infrastructure required to support the FC technology (hydrogen pipelines, H2 availability)
 Operational requirements (IT).

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
P.D. Fraser

Water-hydraulic solutions for longhole drilling, wide


raise development, and hydro-stoping
P.D. Fraser
Hydro Power Equipment (Pty) Ltd, Randburg, South Africa
If innovation is the key to survival, then it is vital to consider new approaches to old
challenges. This paper presents three such innovative solutions and the reasoning behind
them. All are based on hydropower technology, that is, the use of high-pressure waterhydraulics to power mining operations, to improve the working environment, and to save
energy. The first solution harnesses the ability of water-powered, in-the-hole (ITH) hammers
to drill long, straight holes accurately, to develop orepasses, to drill blasting slots in massive
orebodies, and to drill long, large-diameter (105 to 350 mm) service holes. The second
solution describes using a monorail-mounted drill rig to speedily develop wide, tee-shaped
raises, thus opening up stope face length more profitably than conventional alternatives. It
also promises a safe new mechanized mining method for narrow, dipping, tabular orebodies.
Lastly, developments in hand-held drilling systems are reported. These offer reductions in
energy and water usage, improvements in productivity and mining efficiencies, and can be
retrofitted in existing conventional operations. Importantly, all three solutions require
relatively little capital and have low all-in operating costs.

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
E. Baafi and G. Shaw

Development of production management at a surface


mining operation
E. Baafi and G. Shaw
Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences,
University of Wollongong, Australia
The Caterpillar Fleet Production and Cost Analysis (FPC) system was used to develop a
discrete simulation model to project and reproduce events occurring in an open pit mine
operation. The developed model was used to establish proactive production projections for
short-term planning purposes as well as supporting more structured fleet allocation decision
processes at the start of shifts.
The paper outlines the development of time and motion data collection techniques
through to data analysis, model development, and verification. The optimum truck
allocations that could be used for selecting daily truck assignments to each operating shovel
unit were identified. Furthermore, proactive production estimates were produced which
projected expected productive movement for upcoming shifts. This information improved
short-term planning designs and provided a secondary set of information for the mine.

10

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M.A. Gimnez and N. Schwarz

Safe and efficient dump body removal and


installation by means of the
Kimbo Dump Body Exchange System
M.A. Gimnez* and N. Schwarz

*Novamine, Antofagasta, Chile


Schwarz Global Consulting, Johannesburg, South Africa

There is a growing trend in opencast mining operations to use larger haul trucks, as the
increased hauling capacity benefits productivity and cost optimization. The dump body of
the haul truck is a primary wear item and replacement of dump body, which can weigh in
excess of 50 t, presents a major challenge to the maintenance crews. The standard method
for dump body removal and installation is by means of one or two high-capacity mobile
cranes. Such an operation is labour-intensive, time-consuming, and working with such a
large suspended load is extremely hazardous. The KIMBO Dump Body Exchange System,
designed and manufactured by Novamine, based in Chile, addresses all of these issues by
changing the standard method of operation from a suspended load to a supported load
scenario, by means of a hydraulic lift system.

11

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
D. Hanekom, N. Nel, and A. Smith

Optimize the technology, process, and people to


achieve a rolling plan process
D. Hanekom, N. Nel, and A. Smith
Anglo American Platinum
Tactical mine planning encompasses the routine planning activities required to sustain
existing operations and implement new projects. A rolling plan is defined as a plan that is
designed to continue over the life of mine and is subject to regular review and updating
according to changing circumstances. The vision at Anglo American Platinum was to
implement a monthly rolling plan process. This would change the business planning process
in that the business plan would simply be a copy of the rolling plan at a point in time. This
paper will highlight the journey travelled by Anglo American Platinum in changing the
business planning process from annual life-of-mine processes to a monthly rolling plan
scheduled for the life-of-mine. It will show the integration between technology, process, and
people that was required for the successful implementation of a rolling plan process in the
planning department.

12

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
R.C.A. Minnitt

Poor sampling, grade distributions, and financial


outcomes
R.C.A. Minnitt
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand
This study examines the problems faced by open-pit mine superintendents who are required
to make choices about how to direct their materials, either to the waste dump or to the mill.
The paper explores the effects of introducing a 10% sampling error and a 0.9-times to 1.1times sampling bias on positively skewed distributions for precious and base metals,
negatively skewed distributions in the case of bulk commodities, and normal distributions as
is the case for coal deposits. Parent distributions for each commodity were created on a 2525
m grid using transformations of gold, iron ore, and coal data-sets, spatially based on a nonconditional Gaussian simulation. Ordinary kriging of grades for the three commodities into
a 1010 m grid provided the reference case against which the distributions with the sampling
error and sampling bias for the commodities were compared. Imposing cut-off grades on the
actual-versus-estimated scatterplots of the three commodities allowed the distributions to be
classified into components of waste, dilution, ore, and lost ore. Ordinary kriging of values
for each deposit type acted as the reference data-set against which the effects and influence
of 10% sampling error and 0.9-times to 1.1-times sampling bias are measured in each deposit
type. Indications are that the influence of error and bias is not as significant in gold deposits
as it is in iron ore and coal deposits, where the introduction of small amount of error and bias
can severely affect the deposit value.

13

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M. Soleymani Shishvan and J. Benndorf

The effect of geological uncertainty on achieving


short-term targets: a quantitative approach using
stochastic process simulation
M. Soleymani Shishvan and J. Benndorf
Resource Engineering Section, Department of Geoscience & Engineering,
Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Continuous mining systems containing multiple excavators, producing multiple products of
raw materials, are highly complex exhibiting strong interdependency between constituents.
Furthermore, some random variables govern the system which causes uncertainty in the
supply of raw materials: uncertainty in knowledge about the reserve, the quantity demanded
by the customers, and the unscheduled breakdown behaviour of equipment. This paper
presents a new stochastic-based mine process simulator capturing different sources of
uncertainties. It aims to quantify the effect of geological uncertainty and its impacts on the
ability to deliver contractually defined coal quantities, qualities, and on the system efficiency
in terms of utilization of major equipment. For the first time two different areas of research
are combined: geostatistical simulation for capturing geological uncertainty and stochastic
process simulation to predict the large continuous mining systems performance and
reliability.
The process of modelling and simulation in this specific production environment is
discussed in detail. Problem specification and a new integrated simulation approach are
presented. A case study in a large continuous coal mine is used to demonstrate the impacts
and evaluate results for finding optimal production control decisions to increase average
utilization and control coal quality and quantity. The new approach is expected to lead to
more robust decisions, and improved efficiencies and coal quality management.

14

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
W. Janeke and G. Langwieder

Geological loss estimation, reconciliation and its


relevance to the mine extraction strategy at
Union Mine
W. Janeke and G. Langwieder
Anglo American Platinum
Union Mine was split into two mines during August 2011. North Mine consisted of Richard
Shaft and the 1 South Declines. South Mine consisted of Spud Shaft, Union Deeps, 3 South
Declines, 4 South Declines and 4B South Declines. In October 2013 the two mines were once
again merged into one consolidated Union Mine.
This splitting and re-merging of Union Mine entailed some challenges, one of which was
the geological loss estimation and the reconciliation within and between the two entities.
Among others, these challenges included artificial structural domain boundaries, different
mine extraction strategies and different reconciliation approaches relating to the geological
loss estimation for the two entities. These had to be overcome in order to reconcile back from
the single Union Mine to Union North- and South Mine in 2012 and again to reconcile back
from the two mines to one Union Mine in 2013.
This paper considers the importance of a group standard on geological loss estimation,
and especially the reconciliation of mined-out areas as well as the importance of collaboration
between neighbouring mines, not only in the geosciences domain but also in all other
departments to ensure a well-directed mining extraction strategy that can be applied to the
entire Union Mines complex in alignment with the overall goals of the company.
Emphasis is placed on how the geological loss domains are utilized to fit the structural
interpretation and lead the mine design and scheduling process in the context of business
planning. It also illustrates the impact on the mine extraction strategy, in particular during
the BP15 construction during 2014, in a business context in Anglo American Platinum. For
clarity purposes, it must be stated that this does not include mining losses, but only geological
losses. The known component of the geological loss is excluded from the design and the
unknown component is subtracted from the scheduling.

15

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M. Yavuz

Making hard decisions in mining operations


M. Yavuz
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Mining Eng. Department, Turkey
Engineers sometimes encounter situations requiring them to select the optimum option from
alternatives related with mining operations. Experienced engineers can select the optimum
choice based on their judgment and intuition. However, decision-making (DM) methods can
offer support in making the optimum selection for a particular application in a scientific way.
DM is an important process in mining engineering, like other engineering branches.
Every mining engineer makes several decisions in their daily work. Most of the decisions
made by mining engineers are completely instinctive according to their past experience, and
there is not any DM method applied.
In this study, an equipment selection problem was analysed by using three DM methods
the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), TOPSIS, and fuzzy AHP methods. The advantages
and disadvantages of each DM method are presented.
Keywords: Decision-making, AHP, TOPSIS, fuzzy AHP, equipment selection.

16

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
B. Genc and C. Musingwini

Measuring Design and Layout software utilization


in the South African mining industry
B. Genc and C. Musingwini
School of Mining Engineering, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
Mine planning software has contributed, and continues to contribute, to the development of
the South African mining industry. As mine planning software usage becomes more
widespread, it is imperative that a methodology to evaluate software utilization for enhanced
decision-making strategies in South Africa is established. This paper introduces a new
methodology that uses three variables, namely commodity, functionality, and time-stamp. In
this paper, only one of the six mine planning software functionalities termed the Design
and Layout functionality, is applied to five selected commodities, using 2012 and 2014 timestamps as these were the data collection dates when the database was developed and updated,
respectively.
The methodology is useful for stakeholders reviewing existing software combinations or
intending to purchase new software in the near future, and who want to compare the
attractiveness of a certain software package for strategic, tactical, or operational purposes.
These stakeholders include mining companies, consulting companies, educational
institutions, and software providers.
Keywords: Mine planning, software utilization, design and layout software, database,
South Africa.

17

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
E. Widzyk-Capehart, C. Hlck, O. Fredes, I. Pedemonte, and S. Steffen

Implementation of novel subsurface deformation


sensing device for open pit slope stability monitoring
- the Networked Smart Markers system
E. Widzyk-Capehart, C. Hlck, O. Fredes, I. Pedemonte, and S. Steffen
University of Chile
Comprehensive and rigorous surface and subsurface monitoring to determine slope
displacement in open pit mining is one of the most important means of assessing overall slope
performance. The monitoring campaigns are aimed towards achieving and maintaining safe
operating conditions, providing advance notice of zones of potentially unstable ground,
providing geotechnical information for analysing any slope instability mechanism that
develops, designing appropriate remedial action plans, and assessing the performance of the
implemented slope design.
Todays surface displacement monitoring instruments are sophisticated; they include
automated wireline extensometers, universal EDM total stations, 3D digital photogrammetry
and laser scanning, and ground-based and satellite-based radar. Together, they can provide a
real-time 3D record of any surface movements that may be taking place around the walls of
the pit. However, in-ground displacement monitoring instruments are less sophisticated.
Typically, they include shear strips and/or time domain reflectometers (TDRs),
extensometers, and inclinometers placed in boreholes to locate or examine the propagation
of subsurface movement after evidence of subsurface deformation has been detected at the
surface. Less regularly, they are placed where it is anticipated that movement may not be
detected by surface instruments. Rarely, if ever, are they able to detect in real time subsurface
deformation as it develops and propagates to the surface.
This paper describes the first steps in the implementation of the novel Networked Smart
Markers (NSM) technology for subsurface deformation monitoring in large open pits. A case
study of the trial installation at an open pit mine in Chile shows the importance of a welldesigned installation, resulting in a robust and successful installation. This procedure would
lead towards a more comprehensive monitoring campaign with further development of the
NSM platform for multi-sensor, multi-variable monitoring.

18

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
F.T. Suorineni

In-situ stress measurement errors implications in


mine planning, design, and performance
F.T. Suorineni
UNSW Australia School of Mining Engineering, Kensington, Sydney
The far field stress state is apparently recognized as an important input in the design and
performance of underground excavations. However, accurate measurement of in-situ stresses
remains a challenge in geo-engineering. Hoek (1994) raised serious concerns on the
reliability of in-situ stress measurement results when he stated that techniques for measuring
in-situ stress, although greatly improved from what they were previously, still give an amount
of scatter that would be unacceptable in almost any other branch of engineering. This
statement remains valid today. Errors in in-situ stress measurements are in the range of 15
to 30%, and are often worse. There is lack of attention to the improvement of in-situ stress
measurement methods and little effort in in-situ stress measurement data processing
techniques to minimize the errors. To the contrary, most experienced personnel in this field
and the mining industry are giving up for various reasons including cost and measurement
challenges. This paper provides evidence unequivocal of the serious adverse effects of not
using acceptable in-situ stress states in mine planning and design, and on performance during
operations. Case histories are provided to buttress these observations. It is concluded that
there is urgent need for re-focusing of efforts in developing appropriate technologies for
reliable measurement of the far field stress state in our search for improving mine safety and
productivity.
Keywords: In-situ stress errors, mine planning and design, case histories.

19

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
T. Sasaoka, Y. Takahashi, H. Inoue, H. Shimada, H. Tanaka, and Y. Takeuchi

Field experiments on flight behaviour of fragmented


rocks and control measure of fly rock
T. Sasaoka*, Y. Takahashi*, H. Inoue*, H. Shimada*, H. Tanaka, and Y. Takeuchi
*Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan

Los Pelambres Mine, Chile

Kasuga Mine Co. Ltd, Japan


Rock blasting is an excavation and fragmentation technique widely adopted in various fields
of mining, civil, and construction engineering because of its economical and efficient aspects.
However, in cases where the blasting standards or conditions are not appropriate, blasting
operations may have a noticeable impact on the surrounding environment, such as ground
vibration, fly rock, noise, etc. In particular, it is said that more than 70% of accidents relating
to the usage of explosives are caused by fly rock. Fly rock may cause serious damage to
buildings, humans, and objects in the surrounding area. Therefore, one of the keys to
successful and safe mining operations is to control the flying behavior of fragmented rock
and prevent the occurrence of fly rock. However, a detailed guideline for prevention of fly
rock has not been developed to date.
In this research, a series of blasting tests were conducted in a metalliferous mine under
different blasting standards and rock mass conditions by using a high-speed camera in order
to investigate the flying characteristics of fragmented rocks and the mechanism of fly rock.
Keywords: fragmented rocks, fly rock.

20

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
R.C.W. Webber-Youngman and G.M.J. van Heerden

Engineering principles for the design of a personnel


transportation system
R.C.W. Webber-Youngman* and G.M.J. van Heerden

*University of Pretoria
Anglo American Platinum

This article describes the re-engineering principles applied in the design of a personnel
transportation system for a platinum mine in the Rustenburg area of South Africa. It
incorporates conveyor belt travelling, chairlift operation and also includes consideration of
proposed changes / modifications to existing conveyor belt infrastructure.
The purpose of the project was to identify the appropriate option and / or combination of
transportation options through a process of evaluation that would be safe in terms of
personnel transportation and cost effectiveness. If alternative measures could be found to
transport personnel (in other words not using belt riding as a means of transport), it would
have a significant positive spin-off increasing the availability of the belt, to increase
production. This paper therefore explores the feasibility of new interventions investigated.
The design in consideration at the Bafokeng Rasimone Platinum Mine consisted of two
shaft systems, namely the North Shaft and South Shaft. Each shaft system comprises of twin
decline shafts. One of which is equipped with a conveyor belt for rock and personnel
transportation and the other with a winder for track bound material transport. From the
date of commissioning of the shafts, the conveyor belt was used for personnel transportation.
The conveyor belt is equipped with platforms for getting off and on the belt and a number of
safety devices designed to ensure the safety of personnel travelling on the conveyor belt.
Intensive training in the practical aspects of belt riding was given to each and every person
and unsupervised riding on the belt was only undertaken once belt riding competence was
demonstrated. Despite this, the safety results were poor, having experienced 106 injuries
between 2006 and May 2013. Fortunately no fatalities were reported during this period.
It was therefore needed to investigate alternative means for personnel transportation or
through engineered solutions to the current conveyor belt infrastructure in the safest, most
effective and most economical way. There was a major risk of safety related stoppages being
imposed following another belt incident. This would prevent the mine from transporting
personnel underground by belt and subsequently result in major production losses. From the
commissioning of the Phase 2 shaft deepening project on both shafts, the decision was to
install dedicated chairlifts for personnel transportation opposed to the man riding conveyor
belt installed in the Phase 1 area. The chairlift installations were in operation since 2004 and
no chairlift related incidents were recorded thus far. According to safety statistics it was
clear that the chairlift installation is the safer method for the transportation of people in the
shaft.
To fulfil the study objectives, it was recommended that both primary (new chairlift
decline with infrastructure) and secondary options (modifications to the current conveyor
belt infrastructure) be considered for implementation on both North Shaft and South Shaft to
eliminate accidents and incidents as a result of belt transportation. The associated capital
expenditure (CAPEX) would be approximately ZAR 200 million. Considering the future
impact on the business as a whole, this would definitely be CAPEX well spent! The
approximate amount due to section 54 related stoppages varies but conservatively spoken is
normally in excess of R 10 million per day.
Keywords: personnel transportation, conveyor belt, chairlift, re-engineering, evaluation.

21

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
C. Bschgens and T. Bartnitzki

Changes in acoustic emission during linear cutting


C. Bschgens and T. Bartnitzki
Institute for Mining and Metallurgical Machinery, RWTH Aachen University
The use of new cutting machines is an approach to establish continuous mining methods in
hard-rock deposits. Its main objective is to facilitate faster mine development and access to
the orebody. Up to now, problems have been encountered leading to high bit consumption
and low cutting performance of cutting machines due to an increased wear of the cutting
tools. Currently a system is lacking which monitors the cutting process and therefore, enables
cutting force and wear to be estimated.
The aim of this paper is to introduce acoustic emission (AE) technology as a suitable tool
for condition monitoring of hard-rock cutting tools. A system capable of detecting strain
during the cutting process can increase the productivity of rock cutting units. Additionally,
the wear of the cutting tools can be detected during the mining process and therefore the
maintenance service improved. Acoustic emission signals are based on elastic waves which
are generated during the fracturing of material. After an initial crack, the elastic waves
propagate inside the material and subsequently spread along the surface. Because the
structure of different rock types is different, the elastic waves are different as well. While
cutting the raw material with cutting tools, fractures are generated, causing acoustic
emissions that can be measured by using piezo-electric sensors that are positioned directly
on the tool. These sensors convert the dynamic motion of the elastic waves into electrical
signals that are consequently used to analyse different cutting conditions.
This paper presents the results of the acoustic emission signals measured during
laboratory-scale linear cutting. By using AE technology it is possible to identify differences
in the measured signal according to the cutting conditions. AE is a low-cost, reliable, and
highly sensitive solution that presents the opportunity for obtaining cutting information right
at the cutting tools during the cutting process.
Keywords: acoustic emission; cutting; rock cutting, hard-rock cutting.

22

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M. Bajda, R. Baej, H.M. Hardygra, and L. Jurdziak

A review of diagnosis of steel cord conveyor belt


cores condition, with applicability to puncture
resistance and operations in Poland
M. Bajda*, R. Baej*, H.M. Hardygra*, and L. Jurdziak*
*Wroclaw University of Technology, Machinery System Department, Wrocaw, Poland

KGHM Cuprum Research & Development Centre, Wroclaw, Poland


In the Belt Conveying Laboratory (LTT) at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and
Geology at Wroclaw University of Technology, research into conveyor belt resistance to
punctures has been carried out for many years. The laboratory has developed its own
methodology of research, because there are no standards governing the manner in which it
should be conducted. Consequently, the results from different research centres are not
comparable with each other. Despite this, the results of investigations of belts from different
manufacturers and having different construction are valuable for producers and users, as they
allow for better selection of belts for particularly harsh working conditions and to provide
the longest trouble-free operation in such environment. Unfortunately, despite previous
attempts at belt life prediction based on the designated boundary energy destroying belt
covers and cords, a revised method for determining how differences in belt puncture
resistance translate into differences in their durability have not been developed to date.
Currently, for several years, the faculty has undertaken advanced research to develop an
integrated diagnostic device allowing for assessment of conveyor belt condition during
operation. This creates an excellent opportunity to compare different belts not only during
static laboratory tests, but also in the course of damage formation on conveyors working in
different conditions (with different length, belt speed, the type of ore, etc). Investigations of
belt condition changes in different periods should allow for linking the results of belt
resistance to puncture with their service life, and it is possible to assess whether belt design
modifications as well as changes to the construction of transfer points entailing an increase
in the cost will be recouped by reducing emergency stops due to belt failures and extending
belt durability, thus reducing replacement costs. It should also lead to reliable prediction
methods that take into account the influence of differences in belt resistance to punctures
during their service life based on the observations of the actual process of their degradation
during operation as determined by means of an integrated belt diagnostic system.

23

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
D. Vogt and T. Hattingh

The importance of people in the process of converting


a narrow-tabular, hard-rock mine to mechanization
D. Vogt and T. Hattingh
Centre for Mechanised Mining Systems,
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
This paper argues that the technology change to mechanization is also going to require a
change in people. It presents a model for technological progress and adapts it to the mining
industry. It then goes on to motivate the need for mines to become learning organizations in
order to achieve maximum value from their people as they become less labour-intensive. In
an important sense, mechanization is as much about knowledge as it is about technology.
The change when a mine introduces mechanization or a level of automation is not simply
one of technology but is also a stage in the development of mining from art to science.
Art describes a state of technology characterized by tacit knowledge, an understanding that
only comes from experience, and has no formal procedures and little structure. By contrast
science represents a state of technology where all the component processes are understood
in detail, all knowledge is explicit, and processes and structures are formal.
Studies of other industries including metal part manufacture and aviation show that each
stage in the progression from art to science changes the nature of the organisation and
requires a different mix of skills from the workforce. Perhaps the most important change is
the increase in knowledge and decision-making required as the technology gets closer to
science.
There is anecdotal evidence that South African underground hard-rock mines are not
learning organizations. Mines by their nature are capital-intensive with long lead times from
investment to returns, so there is reluctance to change from the original plans or to encourage
staff to think independently. Particularly as mines move from art to science, this reluctance
must be overcome.
The important lesson for engineers involved in introducing mechanization is to
understand that success or failure will be determined by the people involved, and not solely
by the technology. The process will almost certainly require a culture change on the mine.
We recommend that the mechanization team includes an expert in human and organizational
behaviour to ensure that there is a receptive workforce and management in place to accept
the new technology when it arrives.

24

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
J.P. Germiquet and R.C.A. Minnitt

Rock strength domaining at Mogalakwena Mine,


South Africa
J.P. Germiquet* and R.C.A. Minnitt
*Geology Department, Mogalakwena Mine, South Africa

University of the Witwatersrand


Rock properties have a material impact on mining processes, including drilling performance.
An investigation using point-loaded index (PLI) data converted to UCS has revealed a direct
relationship between grain size and UCS at Mogalakwena. This correlation is best seen in
unaltered rock with lower correlations for altered rock types. Drilling data from the new
RockMa system installed on drilling rigs can be used to gather rock strength data to validate
the current rock strength domain and create additional data for the next benches below. An
investigation into penetration rates in different lithologies shows that rock composition plays
an important role in determining drill performance. Additionally, studies show that there is
an inverse relationship between rock strength and drilling penetration. Uniaxial compressive
strength (UCS) is used widely in the mining industry to quantify rock strength.
The domaining of grainsize-adjusted UCS at Mogalakwena Mine will allow more
accurate scheduling of drilling rigs due to the increased knowledge of rock strength in various
areas. Successful rock strength domaining has the potential to be incorporated into blast
indexing and predicting crushing/milling performance.

25

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
T. Le Xuan

Impact of electric excavators on voltage quality of a


Vietnam open pit coalmines 6 kV electrical system
T. Le Xuan
HaNoi University of Mining and Geology, VietNam
Static load flow is widely used to calculate and analyse voltage quality. In calculations, many
factors, such as dynamic situation of large power loads, have to be taken into acount. In the
6 kV power system of open pit coal mines, electric excavators are important loads that
strongly influence the calculation. They are basically synchronous motors, when working in
an over-excitation situation, they emit power as well as reactive power into the grid.
Therefore they will significantly influence voltage quality analysis. This paper presents the
transformations of Jacobian matrix. Based on the transformation a software program will be
developed that involves the vice-versa power flow of such excavators. From real-time
measurements, a formula will also be extablished to express a modifying factor. The factor
is incorporated in the software to inprove the voltage qualityanalysis .
Keywords: Voltage quality, voltage analyzing, Jacobian transformation, electric
excavator.

26

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
Z.A. Adilkhanova and A.A. Boyandinova

Methodical support of modelling and scheduling of


mining and transport operations using trucks and
conveyors
Z.A. Adilkhanova and A.A. Boyandinova
Mining Institute after D.A. Kunayev, Almaty, Kazakhstan
In this paper the methodical support of simulation modelling and scheduling of mining and
transport operations using trucks and conveyer is presented.
During the process of simulation modelling of complex mining and transport systems, it
is possible to account for the order and sequence of all operations of the simulated process
being carried out. A step-by-step fixing of mining and transport system elements condition
is conducted such as excavators at loading and unloading points, trucks, road sections,
unloading points at storage bins, crushers, and conveyors. The time in operating status and
idle states of system elements is taken into consideration. Also during the modelling process
the information characterizing the systems functioning as a whole is collected. It allows
establishing the qualitative and quantitative influence of each system element on the final
results of its functioning and makes it possible to estimate the rationality of a particular
organization variant of mining and transport equipment interaction from technological
positions.
The system will allow effective planning of mining and transportation within the
framework of technologically stable periods with maximum use of productive capacities of
mining and transport systems of open pits, taking into account an organization of mining and
transport equipment interaction and their technical characteristics in various mining,
geological, and technical operation conditions.
Keywords: Transportation, trucks and conveyors, modelling and scheduling.

27

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
D.G. Bukeikhanov, S.Zh. Galiyev, G.K, Samenov, and M.M. Turdakhunov

Concept of analysis of operational efficiency of


mining and transport complexes in opencast mining
D.G. Bukeikhanov*, S.Zh. Galiyev, G.K, Samenov, and M.M. Turdakhunov
*Mining Institute named after Kunayev D., Kazakhstan

Research Engineering Center ERG, Kazakhstan

JSC Sokolov-Sarbay mining and processing company (SSGPO), Kazakhstan


Keywords: geo-technological complexes, open-pit, system, optimization, technological
equipment, analysis, efficiency, management, designing.

28

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
N.S. Magagula, C. Musingwini, and M.M. Ali

Multinomial logistic regression analysis of a


stochastic mine production system
N.S. Magagula*, C. Musingwini*, and M.M. Ali

*School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand


School of Computation and Applied Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand
There are discrepancies between deterministic mine planning and the actual mining process
due to geological uncertainties associated with mineral deposits and inherent production
system variabilities. The misalignment between the planning process and the actual mine
production often leads to production targets not being achieved. A stochastically-based mine
planning approach has been developed to minimize these misalignments, but this planning
measure is computationally intense and requires constraint functions to operate effectively.
However, the current developed stochastic mine planning approaches in the literature do not
have an embedded process analysing the interactions between the key performance indicators
(KPIs) and the mine production activities. This paper proposes an approach to study the
interactions/correlations between KPIs used to measure the progress of a mining operation
and the mining activities. The multinomial logistic regression (MLR) approach is a nonlinear
and non-normal measurement that can assist in understanding the behaviour of mine
production activities when compared to assessed KPIs. The MLR model can also assist in
establishing which production activities require maximization or minimization in attaining
the desired KPIs. The information from the MLR model can assist in establishing whether to
maximize or minimize a particular KPI in the optimization algorithm employed in the
stochastic mine planning approach.
Keywords: Deterministic mine planning, stochastic mine planning, key performance
indicators (KPIs), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), minimization, maximization.

29

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
Z. Song

A real-options technique to determine safety stock for


mining production
Z. Song
School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
Safety stock of mining production is kept to prevent stockout, due to the high uncertainty in
mining operations and various unforeseen geological conditions. However, mineral
processing is usually a continuous process, which is designed at a specific capacity. Any
shortage of ore supply from the mine would cause under-utilization of the plant, or even a
shutdown. An unreliable supply of feed could lead to considerable financial loss. Since the
rise of inventory management in the 1980s, there have been many studies on how enterprises
can optimize their inventory and meet their clients demands. However, those studies deal
mainly with the retail industry, and focus on the variability of demand and lead time, and the
modelling of a multi-echelon chain, which are not often applicable to mining production.
Mining production has its own features, which require a tailor-made strategy to determine
safety stock. A real-options technique is one suitable method. This paper first analyses the
flaws in the existing techniques for determining safety stock in mining production. The
development of a new safety stock strategy, based on a real-options technique, is outlined,
and the new method is illustrated by a case study using production data from an actual mine.
The case study demonstrates that the real-options approach can provide miners with a more
accurate and reasonable result, and also provides a useful indicator for a mines future
production planning.
Keywords: safety stock, real options, mining production.

30

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M. Minaei Mobtaker and M. Osanloo

Chaos in iron ore price prediction


M. Minaei Mobtaker* and M. Osanloo
*Shahrood University, Department of Mining Engineering,
Petroleum and Geophysics, Iran

Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran polytechnic),


Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran
The metal price is one of the important parameters in open pit mine design and planning. Due
to a variety of uncertain parameters which affect the metal price, it is difficult to predict the
future price. The historical analysis of metal price procedure is one of the powerful tools to
predict the future price. Looking back on the iron ore price from 1900 up to 2014, the trends
shows that there are 10 periods of increment and decrease in the iron ore price. Each period
was affected by different incidents. The investigation showed that even though the reasons
of price fluctuation were different, the procedure followed a pattern. In this paper, using the
historical survey of iron ore price behavior, the effective parameters on the price fluctuation
were recognized. The parameters were weighted using the entropy method and the future
behaviors of the iron ore price were predicted. The results showed that the economic, mining
engineering and industrial parameters are the most important parameters to predict future
pricing. The prediction showed that the iron ore price continues to decrease for 5 years from
the second half of 2015 up to 2020 then it is going to increase after 2020. The result of this
study can be used in strategic planning, mine design, price modeling and it helps decision
makers to choose flexible mine plans and scenarios according to the iron ore price.
Keywords: Iron ore price, historical analysis, prediction

31

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
G.O. Oniyide and H. Yilmaz

Microscopic analyses of Bushveld Complex rocks


under the influence of high temperatures
G.O. Oniyide and H. Yilmaz
School of Mining Engineering, The University of the Witwatersrand,
Johannesburg, South Africa.
The South African platinum mines in the Bushveld Complex (BC) have unique features that
distinguish them from the gold mines. They have higher horizontal stress closer to the
surface, lower occurrence of seismic activity (mainly caused by pillar failure), and are sited
in an area of high geothermal gradient. One of the future challenges of platinum mining is
the increasing temperatures as the mining depth increases. High temperatures invariably
bring about higher ventilation costs and different approaches to human factors and
ergonomics. The excavation wall stability would also be another area of concern due to
increasing stresses. In this investigation, the effect of temperature on the physical and
chemical properties of selected Bushveld rocks (chromitite, pyroxenite, norite, leuconorite,
gabbronorite, mottled anorthosite, varitextured anorthosite, granite and granofels) subjected
to heat treatment was studied by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron
microscopy using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). The rock specimens
were heated in a temperature-controlled oven a rate of 2C /min to 50C, 100C, and 140C
and kept at temperature for five consecutive days. Samples were allowed to cool to ambient
temperature (approximately 20C) before image capturing. Micrographs of the specimens
were taken before and after heat treatment. All the SEM samples were also subjected to
heating and cooling on alternate days for ten days in order to observe the effect of repeated
heating and cooling on the rocks. The results of the optical microscopy analyses showed
minor physical changes in the rocks. The SEM images revealed that the cracks initiating at
lower temperatures extend with increasing temperature. The chemical analyses showed that
the temperature range considered in this research is not high enough to induce changes in the
chemical composition of rock samples.
Keywords: Bushveld Complex, microscopic analyses, heat treatment of the rock.

32

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
T. Muzondo and A. Willemse

Mogalakwena Mine: mutual coexistence of mining


selectivity with the effectiveness and efficiency of
high-volume mechanized mining and processing
T. Muzondo and A. Willemse
Anglo American Platinum Limited
Mogalakwena is Anglo American Platinums and the worlds biggest platinum group
elements (PGEs) producer. The production regime at this low-grade high-tonnage surface
producer is anchored in the well-planned mechanized mining methods as well as highthroughput processing methods employed. The first generation of mining at Mogalakwena
as an underground operation was futile. The mine has since seen phenomenal growth in its
two decades of operation as a surface mine.
The surface mine started as a contractor-mined 300 kt/ month operation on a small hill in
1992. Today, over two decades later, mining operations extend over a further 14 km
northwards with potential to grow southwards a further 6 km, too. The operation today mines
9 Mt per month almost entirely with the mines own equipment.
The orebody at Mogalakwena is a large westerly dipping tabular pyroxenite-dominated
orebody which lends itself to high-tonnage mining. The ore in this exceptional world-class
orebody is inherently variable, highlighting the need for stringent ore control methods as
mining progresses. The strategists and mine planners at Mogalakwena are well aware of the
mutual coexistence of mining selectivity with the effectiveness and efficiency of highvolume mechanized mining.
The paper showcases the ever-evolving striving for optimized ore control and
reconciliation methods, while allowing large drilling, loading, and hauling machines to
maximize throughput as planned. Considering a processing bottleneck, the challenge arises
to manage and optimise feed quality and PGE grades with due consideration for the
remaining low-grade deposit and mined low-grade tons.

33

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
G. Nyawo and P. Leeuw

Fundamentals of traffic control and dispatching in


surface mining
G. Nyawo* and P. Leeuw

*Modular Mining Systems Africa


The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

The design, implementation, and operation of large open pit mines are to a large extent reliant
and dependent on material management and movement systems. In the majority of cases,
these systems are comprised of haulage trucks and loaders. To achieve optimal throughput at
minimal costs, good truck-shovel sizing selection and production scheduling/dispatching are
imperative. As the mine expands in terms of the truck-shovel fleet size and increasing truck
haul distances, there is a need to be able to manage and control the allocation and dispatching
performance, and utilization of truck-shovel systems. Load and haul practices represent a
large portion of open pit mining costs, needing a large initial capital investment and running
costs (e.g. machine idle time, labour, fuel, and engine consumables), hence the need to
operate them optimally.
This has led to the development of computer-aided dispatching systems that are based on
different mathematical models to assist in the optimization of truck-shovel systems. The
optimal use of the computerized truck-shovel dispatching systems has led to the realization
of capacity through increases in productivity; reduced fuel costs, better blending techniques,
optimizing shift-change, and ultimately mining at the lowest cost per ton while at the same
time meeting production targets.
The most common truck-shovel dispatching systems apply the fundamentals of best path
(BP), linear programming (LP), and the (DP) models e.g. the Modular Mining Systems
DISPACTH.
The maturity and use of computerized dispatching systems is governed by how
effectively all processes and activities affecting their functionality are integrated and
objectively reviewed for continuous improvement. Furthermore, it is crucial that a welldefined and structured change management strategy be adopted for quick and successful
adoption of the system into the business process and for streamlined continuous improvement
objectives.

34

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
L.D. Meyer, E.P. Preis, J. Jacob*, and P. Moller

Immersive mine design


L.D. Meyer*, E.P. Preis*, J. Jacobs*, and P. Moller
*University of Pretoria, Mining Engineering Department

Maptek South Africa


Designing a mine is an integral part of mine planning and has a significant impact on cost
estimation and project timing. Visualization in the form of virtual reality adds a different
dimension of detail and accuracy. Mine designs were never displayed so close to reality
before. The benefits of displaying mine designs in a stereoscopic view were evaluated.
These benefits stemmed from the visual and immersive nature of virtual reality (VR).
Applying these characteristics also led to better communication between the members of
the design team and also the various other stakeholders involved in a mine design. VR is
able to enhance understanding and reduce the risk of inaccurate or incorrect perceptions, as
much less needs to be left to the imagination and much more can be visualized directly. A
mine design and scheduling exercise was carried out using the Vulcan mine design package
and uploaded onto a file server. The file server interface projected the scanned data from
the file server into an immersive environment. Clients are able to view the mine design in
an immersive environment and if they are not satisfied with the results, changes can be
made and the new results can be viewed directly. One of the main benefits identified was
that the presentation of a virtual mine design provided more confidence to investors. This
was mainly due to the fact that the mine design is able to come to life. The immersion
also allowed the designer to observe and review the design. The main purpose of the
project was to transform mine design from drawings to immersion by combining panoramic
and perspective viewing with mine planning software. The project is a first-of-its-kind and
will likely provide revolutionary results not yet seen in the South African mining industry.
It can, furthermore, be applied to any other mining environment.
Keywords: Mine design, virtual reality, Maptek Vulcan, unity, integration.

35

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
E. Wang, X. Liu, Z. Li, X. He, and L. Qiu

Study on the characteristics of EMR signals induced


from fracture of rock samples and their application
in rockburst prediction in a copper mine
E. Wang*, X. Liu*, Z. Li*, X. He, and L. Qiu*
*School of Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology,China

Key Laboratory of Gas and Fire Control for Coal Mines, China;

North China Institute of Science and Technology, China


Rockbursts pose a serious threat to safety during underground excavating or engineering, and
can result in structural damage and personnel casualties. The frequency and severity of
rockbursts increase with increasing mining depth. Several rockburst disasters have occurred
in Hongtoushan copper mine, the depth of which exceeds 1000 m, and rockburst prediction
and control is therefore an important underground engineering function. In this investigation,
rock samples from the mine were deformed and fractured under uniaxial compression,
tension, and cyclic loading and the characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR)
signals generated were studied. A high correlation was found between EMR intensity, pulse,
and frequency and the loading or stress. Based on the experimental results, EMR monitoring
equipment of KBD5 type was developed and used to monitor EMR signals generated by the
rock mass in the mining area in Hongtoushan copper mine. From the test results, we derived
a generic model of how EMR characteristics respond to changes in mining-induced stress
and stress concentration, and propose an EMR-based for providing early warning of
rockbursts.
Keywords: rockburst; rock fracture; electromagnetic radiation; frequency analysis;
stress.

36

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
P. Stasa, O. Kodym, and V. Kebo

CFD code Fluent as a tool for gas flow study in


underground coal mines
P. Stasa*, O. Kodym*, and V. Kebo*
*VSB Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mining and Geology,
Poruba, Czech Republic

College of Logistics, Prerov, Czech Republic


CFD codes are very powerful tool for solving problems related to fluid flow. With the
growing importance and power of computers, these codes are being utilized in areas where
their application was formerly quite complicated.
With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Thanks to new
supercomputing infrastructure at the VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, IT 4
Innovation, it is possible to create large 3D models of mine environments. We can
implement the supercomputing tools to study of complex problems connected to gas flows
in underground mines.
This paper deals with the use of CFD code Fluent (Ansys, Inc.) in mining. Because
CFD codes are a tool for prediction of related phenomena under given set of conditions, we
can easily and quickly answer many What if? questions. In a short time we can predict
how the created model will behave, and based on obtained results we can easily change and
test various solutions, which enables optimal results to be obtained. All this can be
achieved without the implementation of rigorous tests and the associated risks.
Keywords: CFD, Fluent, modelling, mine gas, underground mine.

37

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
B. Bevzenko, P. Pilov, L. Gorobets, and N. Pryadko

Acoustic monitoring for optimization of grinding


equipment
B. Bevzenko, P. Pilov, L. Gorobets, and N. Pryadko
Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine
New advances in the physics of durability and destruction promoted a new approach to the
dispersion theory of development with application of destruction acoustic emission effects.
Destruction is a non-equilibrium process initiated by acoustic waves at energy-critical
density in active local zones of a deformable rigid body. The material dispersion effects are
s consequence of a structure resolution of the loaded environment and discrete wave displays
of the self-destruction mechanism through autoexcitation of substance activity (Gorobets,
2004).
The substance dispersion ability is limited to the transformation factor of a crystal grate
energy in acoustic energy. Intensive dispersion zone development of heterogeneous materials
and volumetric compression of loaded samples are accompanied by an increase of acoustic
emission activity in the order of 24 with primary accumulation of low-amplitude acoustic
signals (Pilov et al., 2008).
For development of the optimization programme of fine grinding technology, acoustic
monitoring of a jet mill operation is carried out (Pryadko, 2012). Jet grinding installations
allow for the acquisition of high-level (up to ten and units of a micrometre) crushed product
dispersion, with a specific surface area of about 0.5-2 m2/g at productivities up to 2000 kg/h.

38

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
T. Zvarivadza and C.K. Chabedi

Determination of fleet size and cost per tonne for a


circular open pit mine
an illustrative comparative study
T. Zvarivadza and C.K. Chabedi
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
It is of utmost importance to strike a balance between loaders and trucks in any earthmoving
project in order to optimize fleet size and project cost per tonne. Too many trucks lead to
under-utilization of the trucks, while too many loaders lead to under-utilization of the loaders,
and both conditions lead to a surge in project cost per tonne. The use of queuing theory (a
theory which states that real production (Q-real) of an earthmoving project fleet is a product
of maximum fleet production per hour (Q-max) and the probability that one or more trucks
are available for loading at the loading site) is one of the means to achieve required
production at the minimum possible cost per tonne.
This paper presents an illustrative comparative study on the determination of the
necessary fleet size and cost per tonne for mining a circular open pit mine. The costing data
and performance of equipment from four suppliers was compared as preliminary work to this
paper. For the detailed comparative analysis presented in this paper, equipment from two of
these companies was chosen as they both closely satisfied the project requirements. The
detailed presentation of only two families of equipment also enhances brevity and clarity of
this paper. To avoid making decision errors due to basing decisions on the face value of
costing data sourced from equipment suppliers, a detailed comparison between the two
companies was done from the start to end of the project. Perfect matches of equipment were
chosen from both suppliers to facilitate a fair and impartial comparison of the two families
of equipment.
The research demonstrated that it is absolutely essential to consider all the project cost
drivers (capital/owning and operating costs) in order to come up with a realistic and
representative cost per tonne expected for each fleet of equipment before choosing the
equipment to use. After the detailed comparison analysis, it was decided to use the Company
C family of equipment for the mining project. The final project solution for the chosen
Company C option is presented. This covers the fleet size and cost per tonne for the different
mining depth ranges of the circular open pit mine. The paper also presents the optimum
loader and truck replacement frequencies during the life of the project.
Keywords: Open pit mine; earthmoving; fleet size; queuing theory; cost per tonne;
equipment suppliers.

39

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
D. Janicijevic and P. Valicek

A review of hard-rock cutting equipment technology


development at Anglo American and Anglo Platinum
D. Janicijevic* and P. Valicek

*Anglo American
Anglo American Platinum Limited

This paper reviews the progress of several technology development projects in the area of
hard-rock cutting currently under way at Anglo American and Anglo American Platinum.
A historical and current overview of hard-rock cutting technology worldwide are
presented, followed by a discussion of the areas of application in hard rock, the limitations
of cutting technology, and operating requirements of the equipment. Some success and
failures and their main causes are mentioned. A brief review of hard-rock cutting
technology piloted at Anglo American is presented, together with the main areas of
application and reasons for selection.
The reasons for difficulties in implementing the innovative technology in the mining
industry, as well as the importance of designing a dedicated mining layout for the selected
cutting technology, are also covered. Finally, how the equipment selection fits into the
creation of a new, hard-rock cutting mining system is discussed.

40

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
C. Birch

Impact of the South African mineral resource royalty


on cut-off grades for narrow tabular Witwatersrand
gold deposits
C. Birch
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand
Taxation of mining companies has become a very topical subject in the context of the post-apartheid
South African economy. There have been increasing calls for equitable re-distribution of mineral
asset wealth for the benefit of all South African citizens and not just an elite few. As part of the
Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (MRDPA) of 2002, the Mineral and Petroleum
Resources Royalty Act of 2008 was introduced and came into effect in 2010. A mineral royalty is
payment to the holder of mineral rights for the utilization of the mineral resource. In the case where
the holder of the mineral right is the State, then this payment is made to the State. This is the case in
South Africa since the introduction of the MRDPA, as this Act transferred all mineral rights to the
State.
The royalty rate is applied to total mineral sales income. Even if an operation makes a loss,
mineral resource royalty tax is still paid. Due to this, companies need to consider royalty tax as a cost
in their cut-off grade calculations. The current formula calculates different rates determined by the
profitability of the operation and whether the final product is refined or unrefined. Due to the sliding
scale, these costs can be difficult to estimate. The purpose of this study is to establish the impact of
mineral resource royalty taxes on cut-off grades for narrow tabular gold deposits as exemplified by
the Witwatersrand gold deposits of South Africa.
Mining companies are approaching the question of mineral resource royalty costs and its impact
on the cut-off grade in six possible ways. These are:
 Ignore the implications and continue calculating the cut-off grade in the way it was done prior
to the introduction of the tax
 Use the minimum rate (0.5%)
 Estimate the expected rate that will be applied by looking at the historic rate
 Estimate the expected rate by modelling the optimized cash flow based on the break-even
grade, and then determine the expected rate and use that as an additional cost for break-even
grade calculations
 Assume that the highest rate will be applied, depending on whether the mine is applying the
refined (5%) or unrefined (7%) rate
 Use some sort of profitability optimization equation which applies a variable rate depending on
the profitability, and determine if there is a higher profit to be made even if the profitability rate
is lower.
There are various methods available for determining the cut-off grade, from simple break-even
calculations to sophisticated software packages that consider a variety of inputs to optimize the cutoff grade. Discounted cash flow (DCF) and the resultant net present value (NPV) are considered the
primary valuation method for production properties according to the South African Code for the
Reporting of Mineral Asset Valuation (SAMVAL Code). For this study, a simple financial optimizer
model was created in Microsoft Excel that links the ore flow, block listing and the cash flow
(excluding or including the cost of the mineral resource royalty formula). Mixed integer linear
programming (the Excel Solver function) is utilized to optimize profit and NPV.
This model was applied to a range of currently mined orebody block listings. This study
investigates the impact of the mineral resource royalty on minable reserves and the resultant life-ofmine and total income for various gold mines, as well as on a single gold mine at various profitability
ratios. The study shows that each individual mine is affected by the additional cost differently, due
primarily to differences in grade-tonnage curves and profitability ratios. It is shown that the mineral
resource royalty is impacting some mines significantly to the detriment of total income into the
country, other tax sources, and leading to job losses.

41

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
S. Opoku

Planning for uncertainties in open pit to


underground transition for gold mines
S. Opoku
AngloGold Ashanti
Planning for uncertainties in the open pit to underground (OP-UG) transition for gold mines
is central in reducing risks that mining companies face. Deterministic approaches fail to
recognize the uncertain nature of the transition parameters, in particular the geological
uncertainty, which can be handled through the use of simulated geological models. In
addition, transition indicators such as net present value, stripping ratio, and commodity price
are dynamic over time.
This paper therefore reviews planning for uncertainties in the OP-UG transition from a
stochastic perspective. A set of transition indicators was identified and used to develop a
generic OP-UG transition model for gold mines based on four case studies. The model uses
a set of transition indicators that trigger the decision while recognizing the uncertainties in
the geological models, volatile mineral price, as well as variable cost and processing
parameters. The model indicates that depending on the type of deposit, gold mines can plan
the transition when the gold price to cost per ounce ratio is just greater than 2.0, grade is
between 4 and 9 g/t, stripping ratio is between 3 and 15 m3/t, and NPV is positive for the
underground mining option. This model can help mining companies in their annual reviews
to plan the OP-UG transition.
Keywords: open pit; underground; OP-UG transition; deterministic approaches;
stochastic approach; transition indicators; gold mines.

42

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
B. Genc and C. Musingwini

Estimating mine planning software utilization for


decision-making strategies in the South African coal
mining sector
B. Genc and C. Musingwini
School of Mining Engineering, University of Witwatersrand
Mine planning software continues to be an important factor when it comes to the
development of the South African mining industry. To contribute to this development, a new
methodology to define and measure mine planning software utilization in the South African
coal mining sector within an evolving data-set framework was developed. An initial data-set
showing the mine planning software providers, their corresponding software solutions, as
well as the software capabilities and information on the number of licences was collected and
compiled in 2012 in an online database for software utilized in the South African mining
industry. The database development and implementation was published in the Journal of the
Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy in 2013. In 2014 the data-set was
updated with additional and new information.
In this paper, using the 2012 and 2014 timestamps, a methodology for estimating the
software utilization was developed. In this methodology, three variables, namely commodity,
functionality, and time factor were used to define and measure the software utilization in
order to ultimately inform decision-making strategies for software utilization. Using six
different functionalities, namely Geological Data Management, Geological Modelling and
Resource Estimation, Design and Layout, Scheduling, Financial Valuation, and
Optimization, utilization for coal was measured. The methodology is useful for stakeholders
reviewing existing software combinations or intending to purchase new software in the near
future and who want to estimate the comparative attractiveness of a certain software package.
These stakeholders include mining companies, consulting companies, educational
institutions, and software providers. The work presented in this paper is part of a PhD
research study in the School of Mining Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand.
Keywords: Coal mining, coal sector software utilisation, database, South African mining
industry.

43

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M. Rahmanpour and M. Osanloo

Determination of value-at-risk for long-term


production planning in open pit mines in an
environment of price uncertainty
M. Rahmanpour* and M. Osanloo
*Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering,

Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Mine planning is a multidisciplinary procedure upon which is based the profitability of the
mining operation in changing and uncertain conditions. Mine plans are normally classified
as long-term, intermediate-term, and short-term plans, and many factors affect the
preciseness of these plans and cause deviations in reaching the predetermined objectives.
Commodity price is the heart of mine planning, but it has a changing and uncertain nature.
Therefore, the determination of mine plans in an environment of mineral price uncertainty is
a challenge. A procedure is presented to determine the value-at-risk (VaR) for any possible
mine planning alternative. VaR is accompanied by downside risk and upside potential, which
must be considered in selecting the most profitable and least risky plan. The model is tested
on a small iron ore deposit.

44

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M. Rahmanpour and M. Osanloo

Determining a reliable ultimate pit design under


conditions of grade, price, and slope uncertainty
M. Rahmanpour and M. Osanloo
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran
Ultimate pit limit (UPL) defines the amount of mineable reserve, mine size, and the value of
a mining project. UPL of large ore deposits is affected by pit slope, grade uncertainty, longterm mineral price, mining costs, and the corresponding break-even cut-off grade.
Considering the fact that UPLs are determined based on a very limited and somehow
forecasted data, uncertainty is inherited in life-of-mine planning. These uncertainties affect
the quantity and quality of the mineable reserve and the economic value of mining projects.
In that regard, a stepwise procedure based on a chance constraint linear programming model
is developed to determine the UPL in case of ore grade, price, and the pit slope uncertainties.
In each step, a proper criterion has been introduced to aid decision-making. This procedure
is applied to a gold deposit and the resulting pit contains 6267 blocks.

45

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
P. Doig

A holistic approach to mine planning


P. Doig
Deswik, Brisbane Australia
Understanding and implementing complex material placement for stable and sustainable
rehabilitation has historically been very difficult. Often, final waste rock dump designs
require significant amounts of detail, time and effort. Determining the practicality of
implementing and staging these complex designs is however, often forgone. This can result
in operations failing to adhere to plans, which results in significant environmental
consequence and breach of mining consent conditions. Additionally, substantial unforeseen
costs arise from poor planning, failure to adhere to plans and the cost of rehandle,
environmental reparations, and in extreme cases, forced closure or restriction of operations.
A study was conducted to demonstrate the advantages of the incorporation of selective
material placement within waste rock dumps in a mine plan, and ultimately ensure the mines
ongoing licence to operate. The focus was to minimise Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and the
harmful effects of contaminated material, thus, reducing the overall rehabilitation liability
and cost of the operation and increasing profits and the NPV of the operation. The overall
outcome of the study showed that it is possible to create a dynamic and flexible mine plan
using advanced software to generate a detailed destination schedule with selective material
placement. The final aim being threefold: firstly, to reduce AMD within the waste rock dump;
secondly, enabling a smoother transition from operation to progressive rehabilitation and
closure due to removing the retrospective aspect of rehabilitation; and finally, reducing costs
both during and post mining activities.
In order to minimise costs and reduce rehabilitation liability, it is critical to conduct
operational mine planning that fits within the context of closure. Without a holistic approach
to mine planning, closure costs can substantially increase and mining companies run the risk
of needing to perform maintenance in perpetuity with the real possibility of never
relinquishing the mining lease, post mining activities. Figure 1 depicts the risk and the ability
or options to change and mitigate risks throughout a projects life. If all aspects of mine
planning, from feasibility to operations, incorporate detailed plans that fit within the context
of closure, earlier identification of risks is possible so that strategic decisions can be made
allowing greater ability to change and mitigate risk.

Figure 1 Risk mitigation

46

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A. Turanboy

A new approach for rock mass characterization using


density of intersection points on free surfaces
A. Turanboy
NE University, Konya, Turkey
A failure structure is composed of bounded intersection lines (edges), points (corners), and
surfaces which are basic geometry components. Current methodologies to characterize rock
mass discontinuities have been based on analysing the spatial position of these structures and
have possibilities of any failure analyses. However, they do not offer any information about
the geometry and location of failure structures. In this study, basic wedge geometry was
primarily categorized in order to create all possible forms. In addition, the intersection points
of failure geometry and their spatial distribution on free surfaces of a slope were investigated
using scatter and densities of intersection points on free surfaces of a rock slope. Bivariate
kernel densities and contouring methods were used for the general visualization aim.
Geometrical classification systems were established, and three visual models were obtained
and associated. The rock exposures are surveyed with conventional scan-line techniques
without considering joint sets. The results were sampled on an experimental limestone rock
slope, which showed the effectiveness of the proposed model method.
Keywords: wedge geometry, bivariate kernel density, scanline survey, characterization
of rock mass.

47

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
L. Xuan

Selection of a suitable schematic diagram for 35/6kV


coal mine transformer substations to protect
correction capacitor banks from series resonance
caused by power harmonics
L. Xuan
HaNoi University of Mining and Geology, Vietnam
Advanced electronic devices in open pit mining present a lot of advantages such as energy
saving. However, these devices also cause voltage and current waveform distortion. Power
harmonics emitted by inverters and soft-starters may lead to series resonance that can damage
6 kV correction capacitor banks. By modelling the power electronic devices as well as their
harmonics, this paper presents the resonant curves of the banks as well as all proper operating
diagrams of 35/6 kV coal mine transformer substations. The results compared with real-time
measurements show the root mean square (rms) of phasor voltages and whether there is series
resonance. Based on these results, a suitable schematic diagram is presented to protect
capacitor banks from series resonance. The results constitute useful guidance for transformer
substation operators.
Keywords: Power harmonic, series resonance, 35/6 kV transformer substation, capacitor
bank.

48

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
T. Zvarivadza

Rock slope design at great depth as open pit mining


progresses beyond the available experience base:
expected behaviour and potentially robust design
approaches
T. Zvarivadza
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
Open-pit mines are progressively exploiting minerals at great depth and beyond the available
experience base. In-depth and well-considered research is crucial if mine planners and
designers are to understand the behaviour expected at these new depths. Approaches that
appear to offer the potential for robust design and analysis of rock slopes in the future under
such conditions need to be thoroughly investigated. This paper discusses several aspects that
need to be considered in order to come up with a robust slope design methodology at great
depths as open-pit mining go beyond available experience base.
An open-pit mine thrives on an appropriate slope design and slope stability analysis
methodology. A balanced trade-off between risk and economic benefits has to be struck if a
successful operation is to be achieved. A slope has to be steep enough to allow a minimum
stripping ratio, while at the same time it has to be gentle enough in order to minimize risk of
failure.
The critical review in this study establishes that there are behaviours unique to deep openpit mining. As depth increases, the rock mass suffers severe strain extension effects, multiple
failure mechanisms are possible, complex geological and groundwater conditions are
encountered, and the risk of slope instability increases. In consideration of different state-ofthe-art approaches to rock slope design, the author proposes several different approaches to
rock slope design that can be used to tackle these challenges. The most promising approaches
have applied the concepts of discrete fracture network (DFN), synthetic rock mass (SRM),
simulation of mining process, modelling of progressive failure, and 3D and probabilistic
analysis. Powerful numerical modelling tools for slope design and analyses such as ELFEN
and Slope Model have also been developed for use at great depth.
For the successful implementation of these approaches the author strongly advocates that
they need to be reinforced with sound slope management strategies such as monitoring,
groundwater control, and smooth blasting. Slope design and analysis at great depth also
requires in-depth consideration of Bieniawskis design process and principles, a dependable
code of practice (COP), and sound geotechnical data collection and database management.
In addition, the numerical models built for the slope design need to take Starfield and
Cundalls guidelines for numerical modelling into consideration.
Keywords: Open-pit mining; rock slope; robust design; great depth; slope management;
risk.

49

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
H. Fourie

Mining equipment overall efficiency improvement


initiative instrumental in turning around the overall
performance of a mine a case study
H. Fourie
Anglo American Platinum
In mechanized mining, poor equipment efficiency (availability, utilization, productivity, and
quality) can delay the success of the operation. This case study will show how an initiative
to improve equipment performance developed into a comprehensive turn-around plan for the
mine and put it at the forefront of performance achievement and exceeding its targets.
As part of a company-wide review process, poor overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)
was identified as a major cause for the mine not achieving its targets. A project to improve
the OEE identified eight improvement areas (elements) that contributed significantly to the
poor performance. Measurement metrics (KPIs) were determined for these elements,
followed by determination of baseline KPIs and target (improved) KPIs. Cost savings
associated with the improved efficiencies were calculated and tracked throughout the project.
The mine team determined the specific actions required to achieve the target KPIs in each
element. These were each developed and managed like mini-projects with allocated
responsibilities for delivery.
The paper will indicate how this OEE improvement initiative triggered the improvement
in almost all sections of the mine. Soon after launch, the initiative gathered momentum as
the KPIs starting to improve. A visible tracking system exists at the mine and each employee
can see the improvements and feel the success in his/her pocket. The original eight elements
were extended by five more and the mini-projects grew as participants saw the success of the
initiative.
This paper illustrates how, through both management and worker involvement, visible
measurement and controls, and carefully chosen improvement elements, the mine was turned
around. It is now achieving and exceeding its targets. Employee relations and motivation, as
well as safety, improved considerably. All these results can be seen on the bottom line.

50

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
G. Krafft, S. Strydom, F. Fourie, P. Valicek, and J. Sevenoaks

Management operating systems to optimize


mechanization within Anglo American Platinum
G. Krafft, S. Strydom, F. Fourie, P. Valicek, and J. Sevenoaks
Anglo American, South Africa
The Anglo American Platinum Group is the worlds largest producer of platinum group metals. The Group
operates a number of underground and opencast mines and is involved in various joint ventures in South
Africa. It also operates several concentrators, smelters, and refineries. The Group has a pipeline of new
brownfield and greenfield projects. There is a growing emphasis on mechanization, both for new projects
and for current conventional mines. The business has embarked on a number of improvement initiatives,
including value-based management, of which asset optimization is one of the pillars.
Anglo American Platinum is constantly striving to improve safety and productivity, and mechanization
has been identified as one of the options for the future.
Due to the high capital nature of mechanization, the high cost of labour, and the complex scheduling
systems required, a sophisticated system of managing the resource is required to best safely and optimally
utilize the assets.
This management operating system will:
 Track each asset and person in real time:
 Position (xyz)
 Status:
 Availability of assets
 Actual operating hours of equipment
 No. of holes drilled
 No. of roofbolts installed
 Penetration rate / work rate etc.
 Speed and duration of tramming
 Tons per hour conveyed
 Machine health:
 Pressures
 Vibrations
 Temperatures etc.
 Engine on / off with timestamp
 Evaluate each asset:
 Work rate to normal standard work rate ( flag when out of specification)
 Identify any sub-standard measurement
 2-Way communication:
 Continuous communication to operator, engineering staff and machines:
 Plan
 Problem reporting
 Safety aspects
 Up-to-date production reports
 Run a sophisticated algorithm to optimize to an object function e.g. M2 or R/oz. of a
rolling plan of at least 2 weeks into the future
 This management operating system is in POC stage at Bathopele Mine, 11E and 13E
ULP and XLP sections.
This paper will demonstrate the systems behind the management operating system, the detail behind
the mining cycles and associated standard times, and the implementation strategy at Anglo American
Platinum. Results of the POC will also be presented.
Keywords: mechanisation, optimisation, asset tracking.
1
51

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A.W. Dougall

Identification of key performance areas and


indicators in the southern African underground
coal mining delivery environment
A.W. Dougall
University of Johannesburg
The global resources and commodities market has become highly competitive. While
southern Africas abundance of minerals resources is still unrivalled, the region has lost its
dominance in terms of production. The sustainability of southern Africas mining industry
is increasingly becoming dependent on its ability to manage the performance of its
operations well. A valuable tool for monitoring and managing performance is the use of
key performance areas (KPAs) which are those areas of performance that are reflected
explicitly or implicitly in the vision and strategies of an organization and reflect its critical
success factors and are areas that need to be managed (Dougall, 2010). This paper reviews
the KPAs in the southern African mining delivery environment for underground coal and
focuses on using continuous miners. Delivery is the production the units are expected to
produce. The KPAs discussed in this paper have been identified by comparing KPAs of
several mining houses engaged in mining operations in southern Africa and extracting
those that are common to most of them. Although the authors support the view that each
organization should develop KPAs to specifically fit its needs, the study reveals that five
KPAs safety and health, costs, product quality, morale, and delivery should form a
default list that covers the key areas that any organization should consider when choosing
KPAs. KPAs exist for performance management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) exist
for performance measurement, and are those controllable areas of KPAs that can be
measured. Various KPIs require control namely: cutting time, away time, downtime of
various categories, travelling time, and others that have been identified internationally.
Keywords: key performance areas, delivery, performance measurement, key performance
indicators, safety, morale, leadership, fleet management.

52

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A.I. Yedilbayev, K.Sh. Chokin, V.D. Yugay, V.F. Zyabkin, and V.S. Muzgina

Experience of developing new iron ore deposits in


Kazakhstan
A.I. Yedilbayev, K.Sh. Chokin, V.D. Yugay, V.F. Zyabkin, and V.S. Muzgina
Gornoe Buro LLP, Almaty, Kazakhstan
The paper presents the experience of Gornoe Buro LLP in exploration, evaluation, and
development of medium and small iron ore deposits in Kazakhstan. The mining and
metallurgy sectors of Kazakhstan are the countys most developed sectors. The analysis of
development strategies has shown that one of the opportunities for ferrous metallurgy to
extend the mineral resources base in the country is exploitation of medium and small iron ore
deposits. A concept was developed for sustainable operation of mining and metallurgical
enterprises. The environmental aspects of development of the iron deposits need to be
addressed.

53

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
C.K. Chabedi and T. Zvarivadza

Multi-seam mining of the deep Waterberg resources


C.K. Chabedi and T. Zvarivadza
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand
This paper discusses the difficulties associated with the potential application of bord and
pillar and longwall mining methods of the multi-seam deep resources east of the Daarby fault
in the Waterberg coalfield. The Waterberg coalfield is a strategic coalfield that is expected
to meet the future energy requirements of South Africa. The exploitation of this coalfield
requires well-thought-out mining approaches to enhance productivity. The resources occur
at a depth greater than 250 m and the thickness of the coal is roughly 110 m, but the top 50
m is coal intercalated with shale and the bottom 60 m consists of five seams with sandstone
and shale parting. Multi-seam mining at these depths has never been attempted in South
Africa before. This paper discusses various factors affecting multiple seam mining at these
great depths.
The paper further presents lessons learnt from local and international experience on
multi-seam mining. Field geological and geotechnical data was utilized to assess the stability
of the roof of the seams (referred to as zones in this paper) to be exploited using the Coal
Mine Roof Rating (CMRR). Not much research has been done to date on the exploitation of
the Waterberg underground coal seams and therefore there is no specific rock mass rating for
the Waterberg area. Therefore the CMRR was used to propose the appropriate support
strategies for the roof. Also, Analysis of Multiple Seam Stability (AMSS) was used to
analyse the strength of the parting or interburden between the various seams, and the
sequencing and interaction of the various seams to be mined.
Several key findings were identified in this research. First, the research indicated that it
is possible to mine seams with low CMRR at high mining rates using longwall mining.
However, support requirements for low CMRR gateroads are expected to be onerous, timeconsuming to install, expensive, and will impact gateroad development rates, which will
impact the mining schedule. However, when the interburden thickness is taken into account,
the research has indicated that it will not be possible to simultaneously mine zones in close
proximity and failure of the interburden is predicted, thus dangerous mining conditions are
anticipated as indicated by the AMSS model. This paper is not proposing a new mining
method, but rather that it is possible to mine two of the eleven zones at the Waterberg
underground deep resources using longwall mining as it affords high output at low cost.
Keywords: Multi-seam mining, Waterberg, coal mining, longwall, coal mine roof rating

54

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
J. Butra, R. Dbkowski, and M. Szpak

Room and pillar mining systems for


Polish copper orebodies
J. Butra, R. Dbkowski, and M. Szpak
KHHM CUPRUM Research and Development Centre, Poland
The copper orebody of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline was discovered by Jan Wyykowski in
March 1957. One will not find an equivalent orebody anywhere in the world. The resources
it contains are vast, and at the same time, its deposition is particularly specific in terms of
geological conditions. The orebody characteristics in areas subject to concessions are as
follows:
 Considerable depth extent, i.e. from 600 to 1400 m
 Low dip angle, i.e. from 4 to 6
 Considerable variability in terms of the deposit thickness and mineralization
 Variable lithological profile
 Hangingwall characterized by strength 7 to 10 times higher than floor rock
 Complex tectonics
 Capability of the orebody and the host rock to accumulate elastic strain energy and
propensity for its abrupt release.
The very beginning of copper ore mining in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline was inextricably
linked with the local broad-scale investments initiated in 1961. The orebody is currently
mined by three large mines: Lubin, Rudna, and Polkowice-Sieroszowice. The technological
infrastructure constructed in the area comprises ore concentration plants, three smelters, and
the elazny Most (Iron Bridge) flotation tailings repository. The mean annual copper ore
output from all the mining plants currently exceeds 32 Mt. The local geological conditions
and natural hazards as well as the expected output volume required that new and innovative
solutions were to be applied and that the entire orebody management should be perceived
from a holistic perspective. The main challenges tackled in the initial period of extraction
were the hazards of collapse and rockbursts. What also proves important at present is the
temperature hazard, as well as the threat of gas and rock breakout.
In the article different types of room and pillar mining methods are presented and applied
in the copper mines in the Legnica-Glogow mining region in southwestern Poland. The
experience of copper ore extraction by the room and pillar method under diversified
geological and mining conditions provided sufficient grounds to develop a series of
principles of the orebody extraction. The main aim of the article is to present the evolution
of Polish room and pillar mining methods in terms of seismic activity and rockburst hazard
as well as major principles for mining method established throughout history. The adaptation
of room and pillar system was connected with the state of knowledge in identifying,
forecasting, and controlling rock mass hazards.
Keywords: underground copper ore mining, room and pillar systems, rock burst hazard.

55

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
S.I. Petrovich, M.A. Faizulin, N.G. Stukalova, and V.S. Muzgina

Optimization of mining operations with intermediate


storage based on operational scheduling
S.I. Petrovich*, M.A. Faizulin, N.G. Stukalova, and V.S. Muzgina

*Sankt-Peterburg, Russia
Almaty, Kazakhstan, D.A.Kunayev Mining Institute

Almaty, Kazakhstan, RSE "NC CPMRM RK"

Almaty, Kazakhstan, Gornoe buro LLP

In the paper a method for optimal planning of ore mining and shipment to the processing
plant is presented. This method may be used for operational control of mining and processing
equipment and vehicles for short-term periods, when ore from different blocks has different
quality composition and processing properties.
In many cases in mining and processing practice, specific technological conditions do
not allow shipment of various grades of ores to the processing plant in separate time intervals.
These conditions include narrow benches in mining operations, and limited capacity of
available mining equipment and vehicles.
To eliminate the abovementioned disadvantages in such conditions, a method may be
recommended. It allows intermediate ore stockpiling and blending followed by shipment of
the blended ore to the processing plant by optimal scheduling. The Sokolovskiy open pit
mine is presented as a case study for the application of this methodology.
Keywords: optimization of mining operation, operational scheduling.

56

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
B. Abelleira

Introducing geological risk assessment into strategic


LOM planning using conditional simulation
B. Abelleira
Datamine
It is common practice for mining engineers to base their life of mine (LOM) planning studies
on geological models with grade estimations calculated through various geostatistical
techniques such as inverse power of distance, nearest neighbour, kriging and its variants.
Although powerful, those techniques fail to introduce or present the level of uncertainty
associated with grade for a given block in the model itself. Engineers use the single
estimation values as absolute truth and create optimization and economic calculations
scenarios based on that, oftentimes completely oblivious to the uncertainty, and therefore risk
they are exposed to in terms of actually mining the expected grade as predicted in their
production schedules.
A lot of work has been done in the field of conditional simulation over the past 30 years,
but still the subject seems to have not permeated through the industrys mine planning cycles.
This presentation intends to discuss the application of conditional simulation as a valuable
step in the process of crafting strategic LOM plans.

57

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
C. Musa, O. Mandingaisa, C. Mwatahwa, and S. Malenga

Impact of footwall fault on mine planning, grade


dilution, and plant recoveries: risks and amelioration
strategies adopted to ensure business continuity and
long-term viability of MSZ mining at Unki Mine,
Zimbabwe
C. Musa, O. Mandingaisa, C. Mwatahwa, and S. Malenga
Anglo American Platinum
A layer-parallel fault zone, with an average thickness of 0.30 m, occurs expansively in the
footwall of the Main Sulphide Zone (MSZ) reef at Unki Mine. This geological structure
presents challenges in planning and mining. It causes stope overbreaks, grade dilution, and
contains talcose material, which impairs plant recoveries. Fears of a possible underground
mine collapse at Unki Mine as a result of weaknesses induced by the Footwall Fault (FwF),
were revived following the widely reported collapse of Zimplats Bimha Mine during
August, 2014. A structure similar to the FwF, described locally as a shear, was cited as the
major trigger to the Bimha Mine collapse. Bimha Mine is located on a similar geological
province of the Great Dyke as Unki Mine. The FwF at Unki Mine is a planar fault located in
the footwall of the platinum group element (PGE)-bearing MSZ reef. The FwF is composed
of variably deformed rocks ranging from friable fault gouge to breccias and sometimes
mylonites. These properties of the FwF are the source of the numerous problems associated
with mining the MSZ at Unki. FwF mineralogy consists of talc, chrysotile, serpentine, and
various clay minerals. These alteration products have all been proved to have negative impact
on PGE and base metal (BM) recoveries. The reef optimum mining cut straddles the FwF,
and when the structure falls within or just beneath the mining cut, it results in unavoidable
grade dilution. Delineation of the FwF position relative to the mining cut and its thickness
are critical inputs to mine planning. Achievement of planned pillar sizes is dependent on the
depth and occurrence of the FwF relative to the reef, and it can influence both extraction and
pillar stability. Where the FwF is too close to the mining cut, it results in uncontrolled stope
overbreaks which require additional support and reduction in bord sizes. Due to unplanned
mining overbreaks, factors for dilution, extraction, and recovery have to be applied as a
function of reef proximity to the FwF. Wet conditions underground result in ingress of water
into the FwF zone, which can accelerate pillar deterioration and failure. Water management
is therefore, very critical in maintaining pillar integrity underground. Underground water
management involves careful selection of drilling and support equipment as well as provision
for adequate pumping arrangements. FwF material forms undesirable muddy conditions
which render traction and movement of trackless mobile machinery (TMM) difficult. The
sludge formed as a result of FwF material in water causes problems and excessive siltation
of sumps and underground dams.
Keywords: mine planning, footwall fault, risk and omelioration.

58

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
G. Njowa, C. Musingwini, and A.N. Clay

Implications of IFRIC 20 in mine planning and


financial reporting for surface mining operations
G. Njowa*, C. Musingwini, and A.N. Clay*

*Venmyn Deloitte (Pty) Limited


School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand

Prior to the implementation of the International Financial Reporting Standard Interpretations


Committee (IFRIC) 20, effective in January 2013, there was no International Financial
Reporting Standard (IFRS) that specifically addressed deferred stripping activities by mining
companies. Therefore, an entity conducting surface mining operations would develop a
company-specific accounting policy for the treatment of these costs in the financial
statements under the IFRSs. This led to a global diversity of practice in the treatment of these
costs. The main challenge in accounting for stripping costs in the production phase is that the
costs incurred may benefit both current and future periods. This made comparability of
financial statements of mining companies involved in surface operations difficult due to the
diverse accounting policies applied by different companies.
The adoption of the IFRIC 20 required the entity or company to componentize each of
its mines into geographically distinct orebodies to which the stripping activities being
undertaken within that component could be allocated. This requirement has resulted in a
direct link between the mine planning function, mining reconciliation, and financial
reporting. This is a change from the accounting policy previously applied, which required
each mine to be accounted for as a single component when calculating the value of waste
stripping costs to be deferred. This change has resulted in additional stripping costs being
deferred.
This interpretation considers when and how to account separately for these two benefits
arising from the stripping activity, as well as how to measure these benefits both initially and
in subsequent periods. In this paper, the authors further discuss how the mine planning and
reconciliation can be adapted to ensure compliance with IFRIC 20 from a mining engineering
perspective and taking cognisance of the different surface mining methods applied in the
minerals industry.
Keywords: IFRIC 20, deferred stripping activities; surface mining operations, mine
planning for surface mining operations.

59

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
S. Kahraman and B. Aykan

Predicting average block size of blasted rock in


calcite quarries using regression and artificial neural
networks analysis
S. Kahraman* and B. Aykan
*Mining Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nigde University, Nigde, Turkey
The desired block size after blasting changes depending on the usage area. The prediction of
the block size of blasted rock is important for the planning of plants and cost estimation. In
this study, the predictability of mean fragment size after blasting in calcite mines in the Nigde
area of Turkey was investigated by using regression and artificial neural networks analysis.
Forty-eight blasts were observed in six quarries in the area and spacing, burden, hole
diameter, bench height, stemming, and the explosive amount were recorded for each hole.
The benches to be blasted were also photographed and the average joint spacing was
determined using these images. The mean fragment sizes of blasted rocks were estimated
from the photographs of muckpiles by digital image processing software. The mean fragment
size and field observation data were evaluated by using first regression analysis, and then
artificial neural networks analysis. It was seen that multiple regression model had a weak
correlation coefficient. However, a model with a good correlation coefficient was obtained
using artificial neural networks for the estimation of mean fragment size.
Keywords: Blasting, mean fragment size, regression analysis, artificial neural networks
analysis.

60

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
S. Grehl, M. Sastuba, M. Donner, M. Ferber, F. Schreiter, H. Mischo, and B. Jung

Towards virtualization of underground mines using


mobile robots from 3D scans to virtual mines
S. Grehl*, M. Sastuba*, M. Donner*, M. Ferber*, F. Schreiter,
H. Mischo, and B. Jung*
*Institute of Computer Science, Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany

Institute of Mining, Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany


Virtual reality (VR) simulations involving highly detailed, realistic 3D models of
underground mines offer significant cost and safety benefits in many application areas,
including equipment prototyping, operator training, rescue simulations, and education.
However, the generation of high-detail models of real mines is a time-consuming task.
Conventional approaches involving total stations and/or laser scanners require extensive
manual post-processing while offering only limited texture detail. In contrast, an approach
for mine virtualization based on video data is proposed. A mobile robot carries a sensor bar,
composed of a stereo camera system and lighting unit. While traveling the mine, the robot
captures stereo images several times per second. During post-processing, algorithms from
the field of computer vision are used to extract a photorealistic 3D model of the mine.
Experiments have been conducted at the local Research and Educational Mine Reiche
Zeche in Freiberg, Germany. The virtual mine model can be easily imported into common
3D software tools, such as CAD systems, air flow simulations, games engines, and immersive
VR applications.

61

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
W.P. Nel

The power of the worked-out mine: Conceptual


designs for mine-based pumped-storage
hydroelectricity
W.P. Nel
Department of Electrical and Mining Engineering, School of Engineering,
University of South Africa
This paper focuses on the possibility of converting worked-out mines to pumped-storage hydroelectric
(PSH) stations, the type of mine infrastructure that may be suitable for such conversions, and a number
of conceptual designs.
The infrastructure that exists at many mines resembles that required for PSH schemes. Worked-out
levels in mines could be plugged at relatively low cost to form reservoirs. Shafts and orepasses connect
these levels and if the levels are at significant vertical distances from one another, then very high
hydraulic heads can be generated. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity is a mature technology that is used
by many utilities. The basic characteristics of a PSH scheme are as follows:
 Two reservoirs at different elevations. One may be on top of a mountain, while the other may be
at its base
 A shaft, penstock, or pipe that connects the two reservoirs
 A turbine pump connected to a generator motor that can be used to generate electricity or to pump
water.
The water in the upper reservoir has potential energy relative to that of the lower one and can
therefore be used to drive the turbine generator before the water is collected in the lower reservoir. The
main function of such a PSH station is to store energy and release it at short notice, often during peak
load periods when electricity is expensive. Pumping of water from the lower to the upper reservoir is
usually undertaken during off-peak demand periods when baseload power stations generate cheap
power and/or when excess wind and solar energy is available.
PSH schemes are often developed at high cost and in special locations only. An attempt is made in
this paper to illustrate that it should be possible to convert the infrastructures that exist at many workedout mines into PSH stations with less environmental impact than is the case for surface-based ones. A
number of conceptual designs are proposed. These can be changed into more detailed designs to suit
the infrastructure of a specific mine. A detailed pre-feasibility study can be done to investigate the
technical and economic feasibility of these conceptual ideas once a specific mining company has
committed to such an exercise. Without doing such a pre-feasibility study, it can be safely assumed that
the construction of two underground dams in a typical deep-level South African gold mine would be
much cheaper and quicker than constructing them at the top and foot of a mountain. This claim can be
defended by referring to the speed at which plugs were constructed at the Driefontein mine in October
1968 after water started to enter the mine and flooding the entire East Driefontein development area.
The plugs prevented the water from flooding West Driefontein. In effect a big underground dam was
formed within days (Cartwright, 1969; Cousens and Garrett, 1969).
A recent World Bank study entitled The power of the mine (Banerjee et al., 2015) found that many
mines in Africa are located in areas with inadequate electricity generation and/or distribution
infrastructure, and that mines could collaborate with governments to generate enough power not only
for themselves, but also for the surrounding communities. The energy-storing ability of PSH schemes
plays an important role in electricity networks by balancing electricity supply and demand. This is even
more relevant in an era when many electricity distribution networks increasingly receive some power
from intermittent and variable renewable sources of electricity.
A number of mining jurisdictions require or promote sustainable, integrated mine closure planning.
It is therefore important to ask how the planning of a new mine may be impacted if its layout favours
conversion to a PSH station once its mineral resource has been exhausted.
Keywords: mine closure, worked-out mine utilisation, mine-based pumped-storage
hydroelectricity (MBPSH), conceptual design.

62

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
D. Galar, A. Thaduri, U. Kumar, and R. Pascual

SMART maintenance and prescriptive asset


management for mining
D. Galar*, A. Thaduri*, U. Kumar*, and R. Pascual
*Division of Operation and Maintenance, Lule University of Technology, Sweden

Department of Mining Engineering Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile


Operation and maintenance (O&M) activities are commonly organized into scheduled and
unscheduled actions. Scheduled maintenance is undertaken during pre-programmed
inspections. Such maintenance operations try to minimize the risk of deterioration based on
a priori knowledge of failure mechanisms and their timing. However, in complex systems it
is not always possible to schedule maintenance actions to mitigate all undesired effects, and
SMART systems, which monitor selected parameters, propose actions to correct any
deviation in normal behaviour. Indeed, SMARTness is one step beyond the prediction of
failure time but also a proposition of operation and maintenance profiles in order to fulfill
the company goals. Therefore prognosis and RUL estimation become a part of the process in
order to achieve prescriptive actions and control the degradation and operational aspects of
the asset as per expected demand and customer request.
These O&M decisions must be made on the basis of accepted risk. Performed or
unperformed scheduled tasks as well as deferred corrective actions can have positive or
negative consequences for the company, technicians, and machines. These three risks should
be properly assessed and prioritized as a function of the goals to be achieved. This paper
focuses on the SMARTness of assets in order to go one step forwards and propose
prescriptive O&M decisions based on a self-risk assessment as a trade-off for asset integrity
and company goals.
Keywords: SMART maintenance, prescriptive asset management, mining machinery,
prognostics.

63

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
F. Fourie, P. Valicek, G. Krafft, and J. Sevenoaks

Narrow reef mechanized mining layout at


Anglo American Platinum
F. Fourie*, P. Valicek*, G. Krafft, and J. Sevenoaks
*Anglo American Platinum
Cyest Analytics
Anglo American Platinum (AAP) is constantly striving towards safe, sustainable, productive
and cost-effective operations. There are many different initiatives, one of which is
mechanization and, in particular, mining with extra-low profile (XLP) or ultra-low profile
(ULP) equipment in pre-developed stoping areas has been identified.
This paper considers the best practices that have already been implemented within AAPs
mechanized mining operations and details new-generation XLP and ULP equipment which
is anticipated to be able to achieve a monthly production rates >4000 m2 (inclusive of the
panel and ASD areas). The new-generation XLP equipment has completed its production
trial and the ULP equipment is entering its proof-of-concept phase.
This paper will discuss the results obtained during the XLP production trial and will also
discuss the progress that has been made on the ULP equipment. Emphasis is placed on the
higher production levels and greater efficiencies that can be achieved using this equipment.
The paper will highlight the importance of the mining cycle as well as the availability of the
equipment. It will also examine the new skills sets that will be required within the industry.
The paper builds on initial analysis and modelling work that was conducted to understand
and optimize AAPs existing XLP sections. The learning outcomes were then applied in the
development of the ULP equipment. The introduction of the latest generation ULP and XLP
equipment is expected to present the following opportunities.
1. Safe operations through the reduction of personnel in the high-risk zone of the stopes
2. Separation of machines and personnel through the use of remotely operated machines
3. Creation of focused mining on primary development from the production stoping,
thus having dedicated teams on development and stoping
4. Development of primary development ahead of the stoping activity. This enables:
a. Better understanding of the geology in advance
b. Ability to install tipping points ahead of stoping, creating immediate stoping
reserves, thereby enhancing flexibility and reducing production risk
c. Improved productivity by having adequate faces available and reduction in redevelopment to establish faces, which is achieved through the adoption of a
scattered breast mining system
5. Low capital requirement due to recovering revenue from on-reef development
6. Layout allows flexibility between stope sections, thereby enabling better resource
sharing and scheduling
7. Optimizing of the long-term ratio of machine makeup of the fleet in relation to the
production outputs
8. Creation of a flexible mining layout, allowing rapid response to market pressures
9. Low stoping widths, resulting in higher head feed grades
10. High-productivity stopes, resulting in high square metres mined per employee.
The extensive modelling exercises demonstrated that improved safety and value can be
achieved. The layout and technology discussed in this paper are currently being implemented
in test sections at AAP. This paper is an extension of the paper that was submitted at the 2014
SAIMM Platinum Conference; for completeness the original paper has been expanded upon
and includes the results achieved during the XLP production trial.

64

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
L. Zindi and J. Guy-Taylor

The use of a smart communication technology


platform to bring convergence to smart mining
technologies
L. Zindi* and J. Guy-Taylor
*Director, MineQuest Consult, Johannesburg

Honorary Lecturer, School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg


The underground mining environment has lagged mineral processing in adoption of
technological advancements. Technological advances in mineral processing have been
adopted to the level of integrated process control in most, if not all, the unit operations in
mineral processing. The underground mining factory lacks similar levels of integration in
process control and monitoring as are found in the downstream mineral processing
activities. The solution might lie in the use of smart communication technology platforms
to bring about convergence of the smart mining technologies that are currently operated in
silos. The key smart technologies include advanced geological modelling, survey scanning
technology, ventilation simulation and control, geotechnical sensors, and improved mine
planning systems. The integrated application of these technologies will assist with
improving productivity, drive costs down, and increase productivity of underground
operations. This in turn will make it possible to optimize the entire mining value chain.
True mining enterprise optimization will then be possible once integrated process control
and monitoring in the underground mining environment reaches levels similar to those in
downstream processes.
Keywords: Long Term Evolution (LTE) communication system, wireless technology,
leaky feeder system, through-the-earth (TTE) magnetic communication system (MCS),
trunking, latency, frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS).

65

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
V. Dirner, A. Kirly, and A. Wlochov

Utilization of underground spaces


V. Dirner, A. Kirly, and A. Wlochov
V B Technical University Ostrava

As a result of the downturn and restructuring of the mining industry, owing to the
unprofitability of extraction of certain raw materials, mining activities at all locations in the
Czech Republic have been downscaled or terminated. Although alternative utilization of
underground spaces has often been considered, economic realities and the negative attitude
of society have posed obstacles for the plans. This paper describes the use of underground
structures. It includes an overview of the assumptions and the concept of storing waste
underground and utilization of underground spaces for speleotherapy, as well as for
museum management purposes and preserving mining traditions.

66

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M.R. Makgato and S. Malenga

3D geotechnical input to optimize 5 shaft at


Tumela Mine
M.R. Makgato and S. Malenga
Anglo American Platinum Ltd
Geological risk assessment is a critical requirement before the development and construction
of a multi-billion rand mine infrastructure such as a shaft. The placement of major mine
infrastructure such as shafts within a geological setting is critical as they are long-term
investments and any wrong decision on the placement of the infrastructure could destroy a
multi-billion rand project. Therefore, the initial technical input into the final site location or
position is of uttermost importance. Anglo American Platinum (AAP) is currently planning
to develop a new shaft at its Tumela Mine, Amandelbult mining area.
Tumela Mine is in need of replacing the reserves in the upper section of the mine, which
is accessed through several declines. The section has almost depleted both the Merensky and
UG2 reefs. Thus it is important for the 5 Shaft replacement project to succeed in order to
maintain production output of the mine.
This paper deals with geological input into the optimization of the shaft. The geological
work that was carried out for the placement of the new shaft was multi-faceted. Geological
data analysed included geological mapping information, aeromagnetic surveys, geotechnical
drilling, and 3D seismic, and wireline geophysical surveys.
The paper will highlight the detailed technical inputs that were critical in finalising the
optimum position of a multi-billion rand shaft; and there securing production stability at
Tumela Mine

67

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
I. Ocak

Performance of two EPBMs in twin metro tunnel


construction in soft ground
I. Ocak
Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Mining Engineering Department, Turkey
The prediction of machine utilization and determination of machine performance play an
important role in scheduling and planning of tunnel excavations, and the database created
serves a major role in further applications.
In this study, the construction methods of twin ( .,*./)) '- .1 )$,4'5-..$*)
and Mahmutbey station in Istanbul are summarized. The strata in the study area comprise
(from surface) fill, stiff clay, dense sand, very dense sand, and hard clay. The tunnels, 2.5 km
in length, were excavated with two different earth pressure balance machines (EPBMs). The
excavation diameters of the Herrenknecht EPBM and Lovat 1 EPBM were 6.50 m and 6.564
m respectively. The performances of the machines are analysed and compared in order to
accumulate data for further applications in similar ground conditions in Istanbul.
The distance between twin tunnels is 14 m from centre to centre, and the EPBM in the
one tube was almost about 100 m behind the other. Segmental lining 1.4 m in length and 30
cm thickness was used as final support.
For the Herrenknecht EPBM and Lovat 1 EPBM, the best daily advance rates were 26.6
m and 29.4 m respectively, the best weekly advance were 102.2 m and 92.4 m, and the best
monthly advance rates 417.2 m and 410.2 m respectively. Standby times due to maintenance
were 17.3% and 17.4% respectively.
Keywords: Excavation performance, machine utilization time, EPBM, tunnel
excavation.

68

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
P.N. Neingo and T. Tholana

Trends in productivity in the South African


gold mining industry
P.N. Neingo and T. Tholana
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand
Mining companies globally are currently facing severe economic and financial challenges.
In addition to global challenges, the South African mining industry has to face other
operational challenges unique to the country that threaten the survival and competitiveness
of the industry. Profit margins are squeezed by rising costs and decreasing commodity prices,
while labour productivity is highly impacted by intermittent labour unrest. This paper
analyses how the South African gold mining industry has performed pre-, during, and post
the global financial crisis of 2008. The competitiveness of the industry in terms of labour
productivity and the industry cost curve position are analysed for the period 20062013 to
assess the impacts of both the global financial crisis and the labour unrest. An analysis of the
South African gold mining industry is presented at company as well as mine level.
Productivity measure in this paper is limited to labour productivity, in line with limited
reporting on productivity. All the data analysed was obtained from the public domain.
Keywords: Gold mining sector, competitiveness, productivity, industry cost curve,
labour availability, labour utilization.

69

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
T. Zvarivadza and T. Tholana

The tribute system as a funding model for artisanal


and small-scale mining: a Zimbabwean case study
T. Zvarivadza and T. Tholana
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand,
Johannesburg, South Africa
Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is an important and indispensable activity especially
in the developing world. Appropriately funded, it can be a key means of livelihood for many
people, it can be one of the mainstays of the economy, providing revenue to government
through taxes and mineral sales. It is also useful in exploiting mineral deposits that would be
otherwise uneconomical to mine through large-scale mining (LSM). However, the activity
needs to be properly managed to avert environmental disasters and promote sustainable
development (SD). ASM is mainly a poverty-driven activity, hence the miners do not have
the appropriate financing to be able to mine sustainably. At the same time, governments that
promulgate regulations unconducive for ASM need to be more practical, since governments
do not have sufficient alternative means of livelihood for the miners. This calls for wellplanned and organized capacity-building in the sector by governments and large-scale miners
to address challenges to sustainable mining in ASM. Funding is currently one of the
constraints to mineral development for both LSM and ASM. The funding constraint is
compounded for ASM because of the unorganized nature of the activity. This paper illustrates
the use of the tribute system as one of the plausible funding mechanisms governments can
employ in a bid to foster SD in ASM. Funding goes a long way in addressing several ASM
challenges, as detailed in this paper. A compelling case study of Zimbabwes chrome mining
industry is used to illustrate the success of the tribute system as a funding model.
Keywords: Artisanal and small-scale mining; sustainable development; tribute system;
funding model.

70

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
S.M. Rupprecht

Mine planning and safety issues for artisanal mining


in underground operations
S.M. Rupprecht
University of Johannesburg
This paper investigates artisanal mining in underground workings as currently conducted in
Central Africa and proposes best-practice guidelines to uplift artisanal mining to small-scale
mining. Areas under investigation are mine access, pillar support, improved rock-breaking,
material handling and ventilation, and mining methods. This paper investigates practical
methods to improve underground mining safety in the artisanal mining environment and
promotes ways to improve miners knowledge so as to promote mining operations to migrate
from labour- and manual-intensive methods to semi-mechanized methods. Along with
improving productivity, basic mine planning principles are described promoting safer and
more efficient mining methods than those currently applied.
Keywords: Artisanal mining, small-scale mining, mine planning, mine design.

71

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
L.L. Kekana and B. Manyike

The Dednam Fault at 5W, Bathopele Mine


its impact on mining, planning, and risk management
strategies
L.L. Kekana and B. Manyike
Anglo American Platinum Limited
The Dednam Fault occurs as a persistent sheared, altered, weathered, and highly
serpentinized zone which is associated with water ingress. Upon intersection of the fault,
ground deterioration is accelerated, creating unstable hangingwall conditions and resulting
in unplanned work stoppages and damage to infrastructure, which affects production.
Detailed analysis of the available data-sets has been carried out to characterize the
Dednam Fault. The data-sets integrated include hydrogeological investigations, underground
cover drilling, underground mapping, and camera surveys.
This paper focuses on the Dednam Faults impact on short- and long-term planning and
risk management strategies to be incorporated into the business planning process. The risk
management strategies are underground cover drilling, mapping, support, bracket pillar, blast
design, and rock monitoring systems. The risk management strategy will be an
interdepartmental collaboration between the geoscience, rock engineering, and ventilation
departments.

72

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
S.E. Ngubane, R. Maakamedi, C. Mademutsa, and S. Malenga

Impacts of groundwater in business planning at


Dishaba Mine
S.E. Ngubane, R. Maakamedi, C. Mademutsa, and S. Malenga
Anglo American Platinum Limited: Dishaba Mine
Groundwater at Dishaba Mine has historically proven to be a constant challenge to the level
of production as well as a significant risk to the continued success of the business. This paper
attempts to define the short-term operational requirements as well as a longer term view of
the pumping and water control requirements for a sustainable production environment. A
database consisting of the location, yield, temperature, and the lithology has been used to
assess the effect of the Dishaba water management strategy, the effects on mine scheduling
and to quantify the amount of production lost due to groundwater.
The defining of levels of water ingress, the various sources of such water through to the
operational area or tactical methods employed to control this water have been documented.
Finally the risk reduction (in terms of operational risk, legal risk, and reputational risk),
emergency water handling, and the pumping of water from the present to long-term future
have been considered. A number of potential savings and improvements were identified;
these have been documented as future business improvements.

73

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A. Zharmenov, S. Yefremova, Yu. Sukharnikov, A. Kablanbekov, K. Anarbekov, and Y.E. Yesengarayev

Synthesis and determination of heavy and rare


metals adsorption capacity of carbon materials from
rice hulls, cellulose, and lignin
A. Zharmenov, S. Yefremova, Yu. Sukharnikov, A. Kablanbekov,
K. Anarbekov, and Y.E. Yesengarayev
National Centre on Complex Processing of Raw Materials of the Republic of Kazakhstan,
Almaty, Kasakhstan
The focus of the current study is the production of carbon materials from rice hulls, cellulose,
and lignin by different processing methods. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, physical
and chemical activation on the specific surface area, average pore radius, and pore volume
was investigated. When produced under the same conditions, carbon materials from cellulose
showed the greatest specific surface area (10001200 m2/g) in comparison to carbon
materials from lignin and rice hulls, for which the specific surface areas were (800900 m2/g
and 600700 m2/g, respectively). Although all the prepared sorbent samples differ, according
to the average pore radius they are mesoporous materials. The pore volumes of carbon
materials from rice hulls, lignin, and cellulose reach 0.6, 0.8, and 1.2 cm3/g respectively.
The acid and base properties of the synthesized carbon materials surfaces were
characterized by NaOH and HCl adsorption. All the samples had almost the same sorption
capacity towards NaOH (approx. 1 to 2 meq/g) and HCl (approx. 0.1 to 0.3 meq/g). The
heavy and rare metals adsorption capacities of the prepared carbon materials were
investigated. Samples prepared from rice hulls, which possess lower specific surface area
and pore volume, had higher adsorption capacity towards metal ions than those prepared
from lignin and cellulose, which have relatively higher specific surface area and pore volume.
On the basis of our results, we conclude that carbon materials based on rice hulls are
prospective adsorbents that can be used to remove different metal ions from aqueous media.
Keywords: Rice hulls, lignin, cellulose, carbon materials, sorbent, heavy metals, rare
metals.

74

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M.M. Turdakhunov, A.A. Lisenkov, S.B. Lysenko, S.S. Bukeikhanova, and A.T. Imankulova

Computer-aided design models of technologies and


processes in open pit mining
M.M. Turdakhunov*, A.A. Lisenkov, S.B. Lysenko, S.S. Bukeikhanova,
and A.T. Imankulova
*JSC SSGPO, Kazakhstan
Mining Institute named after Kunayev D., Kazakhstan

75

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
D.G. Bukeikhanov, M.M. Turdakhunov, S.Zh. Galiyev, and S.S. Bukeikhanova

Modelling of technological processes for creating


computer-aided design systems of deep ore quarries
D.G. Bukeikhanov*, M.M. Turdakhunov, S.Zh. Galiyev, and S.S. Bukeikhanova*
*Mining Institute named after Kunayev D., Kazakhstan

JSC SSGPO, Kazakhstan

Research Engineering Center ERG, Kazakhstan

76

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A.A. Boyandinova and ZA. Adilkhanova

Automated operative expert system for subsoil use


A.A. Boyandinova and Z.A. Adilkhanova
Mining Institute after D.A. Kunayev, Almaty, Kazakhsnan
Subsoil use is a complex area of an enterprises activity. Legislation in Kazakhstan on subsoil
use, in addition to the law, includes more than a thousand legal and technical regulations.
This causes great difficulty in conducting mining operations, requiring operative expertise,
analysis, adjustment projects, and reports. Currently, there is no single approach in this
regard, which reduces the efficiency of production enterprises and government agencies in
monitoring the effective and comprehensive utilization of mineral resources. All these factors
above necessitated the creation of an automated operative expert system for subsoil use.
The developed system is aimed at the enterprises subsoil users and government
agencies responsible for state control, as well as consulting firms for audit activities in the
field of subsoil use. It will allow the creation of a unified system of subsoil use and a unified
approach for managing, monitoring, and control of mineral resources, which is the basis for
the development of industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The results obtained provide the
ability to automate the operative expertise and project analysis and reporting with regard to
the existing regulations and acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on subsoil use, as well as
license and contract conditions.

77

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
P. Zapletal and P. Prokop

The amendment of the Mine Ventilation Instruction


P. Zapletal and P. Prokop
Institute of Mining Engineering and Safety, Faculty of Mining and Geology,
VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
Subsurface ventilation is an inseparabe part of mining. It is necessary at this time to deal with
the topic of subsurface ventilation due to several reasons like increasing depths of mines,
non-excavation of the shafts, increasing underlevel mining, increasing rock temperature,
more heating technologies etc. For the safety in the mines good ventilation is one of the main
requirements. The subsurface ventilation creates for the mine work good healthy and
hygienic conditions for the miners performance and their safety during work is influenced
by this ventilation. For the subsurface ventilation projecting and ventilation networks we
have the Mine Ventilation Instruction. In this one can find aerodynamic resistance of the
road, of the powered coal face supports or of dam and wind structures. For good ventilation
is necessary to have the method of measurement and evaluation of ventilation balance. For
health and safety it is beneficial to evaluate the microclimate conditions in the workplace.
The article describes the news in Mine Ventilation Instruction.
Keywords: Subsurface ventilation, aerodynamic resistance, ventilation balance, main
fan, cooling performance.

78

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A. Hamanaka, H. Shimada, T. Sasoaka, Y. Yoshida, and S. Fujita

Material for construction of seabed structures using


fly ash-surfactant mixtures
A. Hamanaka, H. Shimada, T. Sasoaka, Y. Yoshida, and S. Fujita
Kyushu University, Japan
In recent years, many seabed structure materials are needed for the extraction of methane
hydrate and submarine hydrothermal polymetallic ore in Japan. This study discusses the
application of ground improvement techniques for the construction of seabed structures to
prevent environmental disturbance during deep seabed mining. The characteristics of four
types of cement materials were assessed by means of multiple laboratory tests (measurement
of viscosity, pumping, diffusion, levelling, mechanical strength, and characteristic of
landform following) and by pilot testing in the Kagoshima Bay area. These tests revealed
that the each cement material had different characteristics. Furthermore, due to the effect of
water pressure the behaviour of cement materials in the seabed was different from that in the
laboratory. The selection of a suitable cement material therefore has to be considered with
regard to the conditions at the application site.
Keywords: fly ash; surfactant; injection material; seabed structure.

79

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
T. Zvarivadza and A.S. Nhleko

Resolving artisanal and small-scale mining


challenges: moving from conflict to cooperation for
sustainability in mine planning
T. Zvarivadza and A.S. Nhleko
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand,
Johannesburg, South Africa.
Despite the considerable challenges posed by artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), it
remains part of our lives. Conflict between ASM miners as well with large-scale mining
companies, civil strife, social unrest, and corruption to mention a few problems are the order
of the day in ASM. Environmental damage and possible contribution to economic meltdown
are a cause for concern. The main thrust of this paper is to discuss the challenges posed by
ASM across the whole spectrum of political, social, economic, and environmental and health
and safety issues. The paper also proposes some proactive and realistic approaches to resolve
the challenges discussed in order to move from conflict to sustainability in mine planning.
ASM is characterized by relatively uneducated and unregistered miners, and policies
targeting ASM miners should be disseminated in a comprehensible manner lest such policies
remain in our dreams and the policy books. Since it is the government that funds clean-up of
the mess from ASM, one of the best ways to avoid this expenditure is developing cooperative
approaches through different governmental instruments, persuading the ASM miners to mine
responsibly. The contribution of ASM to unemployment reduction cannot be ignored, but
being mainly an informal sector, it is very difficult to quantify its contribution to economic
development. Capturing meaningful rent from these miners may also remain a dream if nonconsultative policies are imposed on this sector. Tracing the miners can be a nightmare when
reactive approaches are implemented. Large-scale mining companies, government, and civil
society at large have to adopt a cooperative approach to devise sustainable, workable, and
realistic ways to convert ASM miners into contributors to sustainable development.
Keywords: ASM; challenges; sustainable development; rent; economic development;
mine planning.

80

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
S.M. Rupprecht

Compliance and the SAMREC Code


S.M. Rupprecht
Univesity of Johannesburg, South Africa
The SAMREC Code sets out the minimum standard for the Public Reporting of Exploration
Results, Mineral Resources, and Mineral Reserves. When making a declaration the
Competent Person must disclose relevant information concerning the status and
characteristics of a mineral deposit that could materially influence the economic value of the
deposit and promptly report any material changes. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE)
Listing enlists Panel Readers to review selected Competent Person Reports and Annual
Reports for compliance with the SAMREC Code and Section 12 of the JSE Listing
Requirements.
The JSE Readers Panel assists in achieving reporting compliance, but there are still many
public reports that are not formerly reviewed. Thus the SAMREC Code is largely reliant on
self-regulation. Although Clause 11 of the SAMREC Code makes provision for complaints
made in respect of Public Reporting, complaints are rarely made and as a result of the
inactivity of making complaints action toward noncompliant reporting has been an issue and
debate since the inception of the SAMREC Code.
This paper investigates compliance of Public Reports and some of the common
compliance issues currently being experienced. The paper also discusses methodologies to
improve compliance and public reporting, such as self-regulation, coaching and training and
other means to promote good reporting compliance.

81

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
R. Khojayev, R. Gabaidullin, and S. Assainov

Assessment of possibility for safe mining of resources


at Arcelor Mittal Temirtaus Zapadniy Karazhal
mine by the numerical simulation methods
R. Khojayev, R. Gabaidullin, and S. Assainov
Research Centre GeoMark LLP, Karaganda, Kazakhstan
The Zapadniy Karazhal iron and manganese deposit is located in the Zhana-Arka
administrative district of Karaganda region of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 270 km
southwest of Karaganda. The deposit has a sub-latitudinal strike and is hosted within a
tectonically complex zone. The main iron ore minerals are haematite, magnetite-haematite,
and magnetite.
The total length of the iron ore horizon is 5.5 km along strike and 1.7 km down dip. The
orebody dips at over 40 towards the south, but the dip is flatter in some zones, almost
approaching zero.
The total thickness of the rock massif overlying the orebody is 386 m. The hangingwall
and footwall if the orebody are composed mainly of limestone and other sedimentary rocks.
The ore bedding is represented by alternating strata of iron and manganese ores,
separated by limestone bands. The ore sequence includes from one to four iron ore units
and from two to five manganese ore units. The main Fe3 unit comprises 65% of the volume
of the bedding. Iron grades vary from 25 to 66%, and manganese grades are from 5 to 45%.
Most of the mining activity is conducted on the steeply dipping flank of the bedding
(across strike). Recently, mining activities have been conducted in the flatter zones of the
orebody. These zones are complicated by folding (both along and across strike).
The hydrogeological conditions of the deposit are characterized by the structural
complexity, and three aquifers are present. Mine working development is therefore
preceded by advance drilling to avoid any possible water inrush into active mine workings.
The Zapadniy Karazhal mine utilizes the horizon-room-and-pillar mining method for
mining of the iron ore resources. Each mining horizon is divided into blocks that consist of
compensation (primary) stopes with horizontal dimensions of 20 m x 40 m and 45 m
height, separated by 1517 m long safety pillars (SPs).
The blocks are separated by inter-block gaps. The haulage level is prepared at the
bottom of a pillar. This horizon consists of a network of scraper crosscuts 2 m in width,
which receive the ore via ramps approximately 6 m in length. These ramps are connected
(with the exit) to the conditional bottomof the stope. The sill pillars, approximately 12.5 m
in height, separate the mining horizon from the overlying horizon. The sill and interchamber pillars completely surround and isolate the stope from any waste rock failure.

82

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
T. Gupta, M. Yellishetty, and T.N. Singh

Optimization of ash content in overburden dumps:


a numerical approach
T. Gupta*, M. Yellishetty, and T.N. Singh

*IIT B Monash Research Academy, Mumbai, India


Division of Mining & Resources Engineering, Civil Engineering, Monash University

Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, India


Coal mines and associated power stations generate significant waste volumes, including mine
overburden (OB) and ash (both fly and bottom ash).The current practice of waste
management (OB and ash) in these industries around the world consists of disposal to either
dumps or landfills. The safe and successful management of huge volumes of ash represents
a major challenge especially with the scarcity of land space available. An important step
forward in the coal miningpower generation complex is to increase the utilization of ash.
The conventional utilization techniques (ash in backfilling operations, construction bricks,
etc.) have certainly helped these industries, but still they are far from complete.
This paper examines the utilization of ash in stabilization of overburden dumps in
opencast mines. The safety of waste dumps is of key economic importance in mine planning
and has been among the important challenges for surface mines. Using ash as stabilizer
reduces the disposable ash volumes and also helps to increase the effective slope angle and
dump height due to the strengthening properties of ash when mixed with appropriate
constituents. The geotechnical properties of such mixtures capable of strengthening
overburden material were identified in laboratory experiments and mine dump slopes were
numerically simulated on software based on the finite element method. Variations in dump;
bench height, slope angle, and thickness were carried out in numerical simulator for judging
their factor of safety (FoS) by finite element analysis. It was observed that the FOS increased
with use of ash layer to a certain optimum value beyond, which it plateaued. The optimum
heights, thickness and angle of slopes in the use were found for each case. This implies
possible improved design of overburden dumps capable of holding larger quantities of OB
in same volume with higher degree of safety. This further improves the economics of the
mine as well as helps increase the utilization of fly ash, hence creating a multidimensional
advantageous scenario.
Keywords: Waste dump, stability, factor of safety, finite element analysis, ash.

83

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A.S. Nhleko and C. Musingwini

Estimating cost of equity in project discount rates


using the Capital Asset Pricing Model and
Gordons Wealth Growth Model
A.S. Nhleko and C. Musingwini
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
Since the global financial crisis (GFC) in 2008, capital has been more difficult to access.
Mining projects must compete with projects from other sectors for scarce capital. A decision
to invest available capital in mineral projects requires that valuation be conducted to assess
the expected return. Discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis is commonly used for the valuation
of mining projects, whereby future cash flows are discounted to present value using an
appropriate discount rate. The discount rate significantly impacts the outcome of a valuation.
Economic and finance theory provides tools to calculate discount rates. However, an
appropriate discount rate to apply to a project is often contested, as the discount rate must
account for such factors as risk and stage of development of the mineral project.
The discount rate is the weighted sum of the cost of debt and equity. There are several
methods for determining the cost of equity. This study considers the commonly applied
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and Gordons Wealth Growth Model because of their
simplicity and availability of parameters required to estimate the cost of equity. This study
explores how differences in the cost of equity obtained by these two methods can be
explained for a mining environment. Data for empirical analysis was collected from I-Net
Bridge, McGregor BFA, and Bloomberg databases. It was observed that Gordons Wealth
Growth Model provided better estimates of the cost of equity compared to the CAPM under
depressed market conditions. Therefore, this research recommends that Gordons Wealth
Growth Model be used to estimate the discount rates for mining projects during periods of
depressed market conditions.
Keywords: Capital Asset Pricing Model, Gordons Wealth Growth Model; discount rate;
cost of equity; mining projects.

84

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A.B. Jalloh, K. Sasaki and Y. Jalloh

Risk assessment in open pit mining and economic


uncertainty modelling for optimal decision-making
using stochastic simulation a case study of an iron
ore deposit
A.B. Jalloh*, K. Sasaki* and Y. Jalloh

*Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan


Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone

The key economic parameters used to model risks and uncertainties for optimal decisionmaking in the planning of a mining project include commodity price, discount, and monetary
exchange rate. The current status of these key parameters is known, but the risk associated
with their unknown values is of importance for decision-making. In this research, economic
variables such as, commodity price, mining costs, annual change in price and costs, and
discount rate were modelled stochastically using predefined probability distribution
functions. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the uncertainty and risk assuming
changes in the input parameters and quantify them for optimal decision-making. From
economic risk analysis, metal price was observed to be the variable affecting net present
value (NPV) the most. This modelling method was applied to an iron ore mine in Sierra
Leone. In the analysis, it was shown that even at a price of just less than $42 per ton, the
project could still be profitable.
Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, mine planning, probability distribution function,
NPV, risk assessment and decision-making.

85

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
O. Ozdemir, A. Bascetin, D. Adiguzel, and S. Tuylu

Flow behaviour of tailing paste in surface paste


disposal technology
O. Ozdemir, A. Bascetin, D. Adiguzel, and S. Tuylu
Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Mining Engineering Department, Turkey
Waste materials generated by mining activities are always a serious environmental
problem. Proper disposing large amounts of waste material from mining is of great
importance, especially from an environmental point of view. Numerous methods have been
developed to solve this problem. Among these methods, high-density tailings disposal, such
as surface paste technology, is nowadays becoming widely used because of its many
potential benefits. One important challenge in paste management is to predict the evolving
geometry and flow behaviour of the tailings stack during deposition. It is therefore
necessary to characterize the flow properties of the paste. This study investigated the flow
behaviour of paste materials composed of different ratios of water, waste materials, and
cement. Rheology was measured to characterize the yield behaviour of the pastes. The
measurements showed that 75% solid concentration, where the yield stress of the paste was
approximately 46 Pa, was the criticalpulp solid ratio (PSR). At higher solids concentrations,
the yield stress increased sharply and reached approximately 250 Pa, which is considered
the limit yield stress for surface paste disposal applications.
Keywords: Paste, Tailings, Rheology, Mining.

86

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
S. Sabanov and M. Beare

Open pit scheduling features to improve project


economy
S. Sabanov* and M. Beare
*SRK Consulting (Kazakhstan) Ltd

SRK Consulting (UK) Ltd


The standard approach to open pit mine design typically applies a pit optimization process
followed by basic scheduling within the defined final pit limit. Often, as a result of this
process, the mine operates at a higher strip ratio during the initial period and moves towards
a lower strip ratio to the end of the mine life. The impact of this is an annual production
schedule that does not follow a sequence that maximizes the net present value (NPV). The
objective of this paper is to compare and contrast the standard and pushback approaches for
open pit mining, with the aim of demonstrating that a pushback approach is practical and can
increase the NPV of a project. The pushback method minimizes the stripping ratio in the
early years and defers some of the equipment purchasing until later in the mine life. The
results of the study show that the project NPV can be increased by the application of
pushbacks by delaying and smoothing capital expenditure on equipment and waste stripping
while maximizing the grade to the process plant.
Keywords: pushback, optimization, cash flow, NPV.

87

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
D. Guner and H. Ozturk

Effect of curing time on elastic material behaviour of


thin spray-on liners
D. Guner and H. Ozturk
Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey
Thin spray-on liners (TSLs) are areal underground support products having an increasing
popularity in the 21st century due to its diverse benefits. All around the world, various liners
are currently being developed or modified to enhance their support behaviour. Although
TSLs are known as a new form of shotcrete, they have numerous other application areas. In
addition to TSLs being a structural support element, they have been used to prevent methane
ingress in coal mines, and for the past couple of years they have been used for weak rock and
soft ground in the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) to prevent water ingress, and
even as a primary support. Although TSLs are widely used as a support element, the support
mechanisms and the effect of curing time on their elastic material properties have not been
investigated properly yet. In order to understand these behaviours, researchers have been
carrying out different laboratory and in-situ tests. Tensile and compression tests are two
common ones to determine the elastic material properties. Since each TSL has a different
setting time, the effect of curing time on mechanical properties has a significant importance.
In this study, two different widely used TSL products with expected different mechanical
behaviour were tested under laboratory conditions. Samples were prepared and tested for
deformability and tensile properties based on modified American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) standards D-638 and D-695-10 for curing times from 1 to 28 days. The
effect of curing time on tensile and compressive strength, tensile and compressive modulus,
and Poissons ratios were determined for two liners. For the first time in the literature, the
effect of curing time on compressive strength, tensile and compressive modulus, and
Poissons ratios were investigated.
Keywords: Thin spray-on liner, curing time, elastic material property, TSL, tensile
strength, compressive strength, Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio.

88

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
T. Zvarivadza and P.N. Neingo

Sanity through associations in the artisanal and


small-scale mining sector
T. Zvarivadza and P.N. Neingo
School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is a major source of livelihood for many in the
developing world, and it can be a major source of revenue for governments. ASM makes a
major contribution to the total mineral output for some countries, for example, 80% in the
DRC, 80% in Indonesia, and 30% in Rwanda. Considering the multiplier effect, millions of
people depend on ASM for daily survival. However, individualistic mining approaches in
the sector pose severe administrative challenges that hamper initiatives to foster efficiency.
These challenges have led some countries to enact policies aimed at stifling ASM, even
with the knowledge of its potential. The authorities argue that it would be better to deal
with a few large-scale miners than a large number of individual ASM practitioners. This
paper explores the use of ASM associations as a means to alleviate administration
challenges. Associations present several advantages in the running of the sector, since welldefined leadership structures are established and representatives of each association interact
with the government, donor community, and law enforcement agencies, among other
proponents of sanity in this sector. A sense of ownership is instilled when the associations
are allocated mining claims that they are responsible for mining in an orderly fashion.
Anticipated environmental, health and safety, social, and political challenges are smoothly
addressed as the associations serve as vehicles for easy capacity-building in the sector. The
role of the government in terms of policy formulation and legal perspectives to support the
sustainability of the associations are also presented, and the role of large-scale miners in
terms of ensuring sustainability of ASM associations is explored. The Shamva Mining
Centre (SMC) in Zimbabwe is used as a case study to illustrate how value can be realized
in the ASM sector through associations. SMC is one of the ASM associations success
stories, and its model has been replicated in various parts of the world.
Keywords: Artisanal and small-scale mining; sustainability; associations; policy;
capacity building; productivity.

89

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A. Curi and A. C.P. da Rocha

Selective disposal of mine wastes in an iron ore


operation
A. Curi and A. C.P. da Rocha
*Ouro Preto Mining School, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Brazil
Iron ores constitute a very important resource for the Brazilian economy. In the Iron
Quadrangle of Minas Gerais, a traditional iron ore mining district, the high-grade iron
reserves are becoming exhausted and the immediate or future use of low-grade iron reserves
is becoming anecessity. For future recovery of low-grade iron ores a methodology of rational
dumping of these marginal iron ores in temporary waste piles must be established considering
the possibilities of future use of this mineral resource. To investigate this subject, the minie
planning methodology of block models was be applied to a typical iron ore property located
in the Iron Quadrangle of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The drill-hole information
and the topography map were provided by a Brazilian iron ore company. The exact location
of this prospect is not relevant for this type of study and the authors have moved it to the
vicinity of the old iron ore cities mine in order to provide realistic geological information
from published data. The company provided a report that describes this property in detail,
including topographic maps, drill-hole information, and the main economic parameters. A
commercial mining software package was applied to project the exploitation and the mine
wastes dumps using a methodology of selective disposal of the mine wastes, which is
described in details in this paper.
Keywords: mine, planning, design, methodology, waste, dump, iron ore

90

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A. Curi and A. C.P. da Rocha

Selective disposal of mine wastes in an iron ore


operation
A. Curi and A. C.P. da Rocha
*Ouro Preto Mining School, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Brazil
Iron ores constitute a very important resource for the Brazilian economy. In the Iron
Quadrangle of Minas Gerais, a traditional iron ore mining district, the high-grade iron
reserves are becoming exhausted and the immediate or future use of low-grade iron reserves
is becoming anecessity. For future recovery of low-grade iron ores a methodology of rational
dumping of these marginal iron ores in temporary waste piles must be established considering
the possibilities of future use of this mineral resource. To investigate this subject, the minie
planning methodology of block models was be applied to a typical iron ore property located
in the Iron Quadrangle of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The drill-hole information
and the topography map were provided by a Brazilian iron ore company. The exact location
of this prospect is not relevant for this type of study and the authors have moved it to the
vicinity of the old iron ore cities mine in order to provide realistic geological information
from published data. The company provided a report that describes this property in detail,
including topographic maps, drill-hole information, and the main economic parameters. A
commercial mining software package was applied to project the exploitation and the mine
wastes dumps using a methodology of selective disposal of the mine wastes, which is
described in details in this paper.
Keywords: mine, planning, design, methodology, waste, dump, iron ore

91

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
J. Zavada, P. Stasa, and K. Matejckova

Analysis of CO2 storage possibilities in


underground mines
J. Zavada, P. Stasa, and K. Matejckova
VSB Technical University of Ostrava
The question of how to store or sequester carbon dioxide in a way that does not endanger the
atmosphere is a topic of great interest for many international organizations and experts. Due
to the obvious increase of temperature on Earth and emissions of greenhouse gases, the
problem of global warming needs to be tackled by both political and the professional
communities. One possibility is the storage of CO2 in suitable geological layers underground.
This paper deals with the evaluation and possibilities of carbon dioxide storage in closed
underground mines in the Ostrava district in the Czech Republic. To verify the possibilities
of CO2 storage underground, the CFD code Fluent is be used.
There are only two examples of CO2 storage in underground mines worldwide. From an
analysis of the situation in the Ostrava district, it was found that the only one possible
repository is suitable for this purpose the closed Paskov mine. The results of the study
showed there should be a slight leakage of CO2 from underground. However, due to the fact
that up to 196 million m3 of CO2 could be stored in this abandoned mine, the ratio between
the escaping gas and stored gas is very favourable.
Keywords: CO2, greenhouse gases, closed underground mine, CFD code, Fluent.

92

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
A.W. Dougall and S.R. Rupprecht

The mining engineering PQM strategy at a South


African comprehensive university
A.W. Dougall and S.R. Rupprecht
University of Johannesburg (UJ)
The higher education offerings dealing with the development of technicians and
technologists are in a state of flux. Change is immanent and by 2017 the current
Technician/Technologist qualification dispensation will evolve to the Bachelor of
Engineering Technology and Bachelor of Engineering Technology Honours programmes.
Professional Engineering development will be undertaken at science programme-based
institutions such as the traditional universities, and also at institutions deemed to be
comprehensive universities in the South African higher education arena. A comprehensive
university may be seen as a mix between a University of Technology and the academic
programmes offered by traditional universities. The envisaged change in the Engineering
Faculty of the University of Johannesburg could possibly see a narrowing of focus; from
the development of professional registerable candidates of the Technicians, Technologists,
and Engineers groups to only Technologists and Engineers. This is a significant departure
from the strategy of the previous Technikon and the University of Technology.
The Mining Department at the University of Johannesburg (UJ) has the mission to instil
competence and confidence in young mining technicians, technologists, engineers, and
managers. The programmes consisted of the three-year National Diploma in Mining
Engineering (339-1) and the post-diploma one-year Bachelor of Technology in Mining
Engineering (619-1). In reality the focus is (and should be) on developing Technologists.
Consideration has been given to the need to compete at the level of professional engineer
provision; however, the strategy has been adopted of focusing on the specific niche of
Technologist development in the new PQM mix for the Mining Department.
The challenge presented by offering experiential or workplace learning is one of the
major drivers affecting the old programme qualifications at UJ.
This paper looks at the qualifications mix of the UJ Mining Department and its required
niche in the southern African mining environment, and educational pathways in the next
era commencing 2017. UJ takes a different route to the other three mining offerings in
South Africa and focuses largely on attaining professional registration of the Technologist
with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) and, if it continues, the Government
Certificate of Competency.
Research and coursework combination offerings or purely research offerings are
becoming more important to UJ Mining, and these will be accommodated in the new
dispensation through Bachelors, MPhil, and DPhil postgraduate offerings in mining and its
sub-disciplines of rock engineering, ventilation, risk management, and mine planning in the
areas of metalliferous, coal, and surface mining, including quarrying specializations.
Change could then deliver the desired effectiveness and efficiency and not be just a
function of political objectives.
Keywords: educational pathways, Engineering Council of SA (ECSA) standards,
Higher Education Qualifications Sub Framework (HEQSF), mining education, path
dependency, product offering, professional registration, programme and qualification mix
(PQM), strategic choices, strategic planning, research, product offering, and technologist,
specialist technologist.

93

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
V. Dentoni, B. Grosso, C. Levanti, and G. Massacci

Particulate matter emissions from a bauxite residue


basin and impact assessment on air quality
V. Dentoni, B. Grosso, C. Levanti, and G. Massacci
DICAAR - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture University of Cagliari, Italy
The article deals with the emission of fugitive dust from a major bauxite residue basin located
in the southwest of Sardinia, where the prospect of a change in the storage practices is likely
to increase particulate matter pollution in the surrounding region. Other natural and
anthropogenic sources already contribute variable amounts of airborne dust in the area. In
accordance with the procedures established by the Directive 2011/92 of the European
Parliament (EIA Directive - Environmental Impact Assessment), the data recorded by a
monitoring network located in the Sulcis-Iglesiente sub-region has been taken into
consideration in order to define the ante-operam condition of the potential impact area. The
additional contribution of the red mud basin has been simulated with the atmospheric
dispersion model proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The expected total
concentration of PM10, which includes both the pre-existing sources and the additional
contribution from the red mud basin, has been estimated and compared with the limit values
established by the Directive 2008/50/EC (Ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe).
Keywords: Tailing basins, red mud, bauxite residue, fugitive dust emission, air quality,
PM10.

94

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015 Smart Innovation in Mining
M. Cigagna, V. Dentoni, and B. Grosso

Evaluation of the pollution potential of tailings basins


M. Cigagna, V. Dentoni, and B. Grosso
DICAAR, Italy
Tailings basins within mining areas may represent potential sources of environmental
contamination of soil and underground water. The disposed muds are typically characterized
by high concentrations of heavy metals and other possibly dangerous compounds. The
tailings basins built in Europe before the legal implementation of the EU Directive on the
landfill of waste (Directive 99/31) were not provided with impermeable barriers. In such
conditions, during the initial period of the basin life the liquid phase in the disposed residue
percolates throughout the solid phase under a vertical hydraulic gradient, reaching the soil
underneath, where it accumulates and forms an impermeable layer at the bottom of the basin.
This layer then consolidates under the load of the superimposed new strata, ejecting liquids
through the bottom of the basin. This article evaluates the conformity of old tailing basins to
the new regulation on landfill of waste, and presents a method for calculating the rate of
release of polluted liquids through the bottom of a tailing basin during its operative life and
after closure.
Keywords: Tailing basin, EU Directive 1999/31, criterion for conformity

95

96

The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy


MPES 2015
CVs

MPES 2015
Smart Innovation in Mining

97

CVs

Conference Chairman

Cuthbert Musingwini, Professor & Head of School, University of Witwatersrand


Cuthbert is a Professor and Head of School of Mining Engineering at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg,
South Africa. He lectures at both undergraduate and post-graduate levels in Mine Planning and Optimisation and Mine
Financial Valuation. He has over 20 years of mining engineering experience spread across mine production management
and planning, consulting and academia. He is also an associate consultant at MineQuest, a South African consultancy
company specialising in mining business optimisation. Cuthbert is a registered professional mining engineer with the
Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) and is a Fellow of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
(SAIMM). He is also the SAIMM President-Elect and Honorary Treasurer for the 2015/2016 year. He holds a PhD in
Mining Engineering and has published and presented papers both locally and internationally.

98

CVs

Ketnote Presenters

Samuel Frimpong, Professor and Robert H. Quenon Endowed Chair, Missouri University of Science and Technology
Samuel Frimpong is Professor and the Robert H. Quenon Endowed Chair at Missouri S&T, with PhD from University of
Alberta. His professional experience includes over 30 years of research and teaching, and several years of industry
practice. His research areas include surface mining, formation excavation, heavy machinery imaging and integration,
intelligent mining systems, stochastic processes and risks simulation, extra heavy oil extraction, and mine safety, health
and hazards engineering. He has and continues to lead research initiatives in these areas with over $32M from funding
agencies. The results of his research initiatives include over 200 refereed journal and conference publications and over
200 technical presentations. Dr. Frimpong has been recognized with several awards including Missouri S&T Chancellors
Leadership Award, Robert H. Quenon Endowed Chair, Canadian Petroleum Institutes Distinguished Lecturer Award,
Award of Distinction by World Mining Congress, University of Alberta/CIDA PhD Scholar, Life Patron of the University
of Mines and Technology Alumni Association, Grand Award by the Northwest Mining Association and UNESCO
Research Fellow. Dr. Frimpong is a member of the CDC-NIOSH MSHRAC, APLU Board on Natural Resources, Vice
Chair of the Minerals and Energy Resources Division of the NASULGC, Editor-In-Chief of the Journal of Powder
Metallurgy and Mining, College of Reviewers for Canada Foundation for Innovation, and a Member of the Editorial
Board for the International Journal of Mining. He served four years as co-chair of the ASCE-UNESCO Scientific
Committee on Emerging Energy Technologies, five years as Associate Editor for ASCE Journal of Energy Engineering
and the International Journal of Mining and Minerals Engineering, and three years as a Member of the Japans Research
Council on CO2 Sequestration. Dr. Frimpong is a Registered Professional Engineer in Canada, a member CIM, SME,
ASCE, and the Society for Modeling and Simulation International.

Neal John Froneman, CEO, Sibanye Gold Limited


Neal Froneman was appointed an executive director and CEO of Sibanye on 1 January 2013. He has over 30 years of
relevant operational, corporate development and mining industry experience. He was appointed CEO of Aflease Gold
Limited (Aflease Gold) in April 2003. Aflease Gold, through a series of reverse take-overs, became Gold One in May
2009. Neal was primarily responsible for the creation of Uranium One Incorporated (Uranium One) from the Aflease
Gold uranium assets. During this period, he was CEO of Aflease Gold and Uranium One until his resignation from
Uranium One in February 2008. Prior to joining Aflease Gold, Neal held executive and senior management positions at
Gold Fields of South Africa Limited, Harmony Gold and JCI Limited.

99

CVs

Uday Kumar, PhD, Professor and Head, Division of Operation and Maintenance Engineering, Lule University of
Technology
Dr. Kumar obtained his B. Tech (Mining) from India during the year 1979. After working for about 7 years in Indian
mining industries (NMDC) , he joined the postgraduate program of Lule University of Technology, Lule, Sweden and
obtained a PhD degree in field of Reliability and Maintenance of mining equipment during 1990. He joined Lule Univ.
as faculty and since 2001, he is Professor and Head of Division of Operation and Maintenance Engineering at Lule
University of Technology, Lule, Sweden.
He is also a Visiting Guest Professor and Advisor at National Science Foundation sponsored Center of Excellence for
Intelligent Maintenance Systems at University of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA since April 2011. Earlier he has been a visiting
faculty at Imperial College London, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki and Stavanger University in Norway,
Troms Univ. and External Examiner for Graduate Program in the area of Asset and Reliability Engineering at
Manchester University , UK
Dr. Kumar has more than 25 years of experience in consulting and finding solutions to industrial problems directly or
indirectly related to maintenance. His research and consulting efforts are mainly focused on enhancing the effectiveness
and efficiency of maintenance process at both operational and strategic levels and visualizing the contribution of
maintenance in an industrial organisation.
His research & consulting interests are equipment maintenance, reliability and maintainability analysis, Product
support, Life Cycle Costing, Risk analysis, System analysis, etc.
He is also member of the editorial boards and reviewer for many international journals. He has published more than
250 papers in International Journals and Conference Proceedings. He is also Strategic Research Program reviewer for
Canada, Belgium, The Netherlands, etc

100

CVs

Gary Lane, CEO, NxGN


Gary graduated with a Bsc Civil Engineering degree in 1990 from WITS University on an Anglo American Scholarship.
Gary then spent 10 years working in various project engineering and project management positions within the Anglo
group companies for New Mining Business, Anglo Technical Department, Debswana Diamond Mining Company and
De Beers.
Gary completed an MBA in 2000 through Bond University in Australia and left Anglo American to found Cyest
Corporation in 2001 with two colleagues. Gary was an executive director of Cyest for almost 14 years and built up Cyest
Analytics that focuses on mining optimisation solutions. His team being responsible for some of the ground breaking
work in mechanised mining optimisation.
During this Gary also played an important role in the vision and overall leadership of the Syndicated Driven
Development Program (SDDP) with Bentley Systems for the New Mining Planning Solution that was jointly being
development by Cyest and Bentley and which brings a new paradigm to effective mine planning.
Gary left Cyest in June 2015 to co-found NxGN a technology start up that will focus on smart software solutions that
will leverage the latest thinking and technologies to empower people too make better decisions.
Garys personal vision is to drive a quantum change in the mining industry by getting them to embrace technology to
enhance decision making in mine planning and execution by understand their key value drivers that impacts performance.
Gary is a registered professional engineer with Engineering Council of South African and is on the Southern African
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Council.

Professor RCW Webber-Youngman, Head of Department, Department of Mining Engineering, University of Pretoria
Graduated as Mining Engineering student from the University of Pretoria in 1984 and subsequently worked as manager
for Anglo Vaal and JCI. Joined the Department of Mining Engineering at the University of Pretoria as Senior Lecturer
in 1997 and completed his Masters in Mining Engineering at the University of Pretoria and his PhD in Mechanical
Engineering at the North West University in 2005. Appointed as Head of the Department of Mining Engineering at the
University of Pretoria in 2007. Is a Fellow of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa (MVSSA) and also serves as
executive member for Africa on the International Society of Mining Professors (SOMP) committee and President of
SOMP 2014. Member of the Professional Advisory Committee (PAC) for Mining, Engineering Council of South Africa
(ECSA). Married to Jerina and they have a 7 year old son called Liam.

101

CVs

Authors CVs

Bruno Abilleira, Team Lead Mining Engineer, Datamine


Bruno has being working at Datamine Africa as a mining consultant since 2008.
He has imparted training and has participated in projects as mining engineer and project manager throughout Africa,
visiting clients all accros the continent.
During these projects Bruno has been exposed to different commodities and environments covering gold, platinum,
diamonds, uranium, zinc, nickel, chrome, iron ore and copper in open pit and underground operations.
Over the past 7 years Bruno has dedicated most of his time to open pit projects from short term mine planning to LOM
optimizations including conceptual studies, pre-feasability and feasibilty studies. He delivered projects to major open pit
operations such as Jwaneng, Konkola Copper Mines, Geita Gold Mine and Nkomati Nickel.
Bruno has been appointed as Team Lead Mining Engineer in 2014, being assigned to run the engineering consultancy
department under technical services at Datamine.

Zhanna A. Adilkhanova
Zhanna A. Adilkhanova has graduated from Mining Institute of Kazakh National Technical University after K.I.
Satpayev, Candidate of technical sciences. She is head of the laboratory of automated management systems of
technological processes of Mining Institute after D.A. Kunayev. She is engaged in questions of the automated planning
of mining and transport works and the automated dispatching systems of mining and transport works in a framework of
the automated corporate management system of geotechnological complex on surface mining, simulation modeling of
technological processes of excavator-truck-conveyor and conveyor-railway complexes, and also questions of ore
averaging in intracareer space. She has 47 proceedings, including 1 monography.

102

CVs

Oleg Anisimov, Associate Professor of open-pit mining State Higher Education, Higher Education Institution National
Mining University, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine
Oleg Anisimov graduated with honours degree from National Mining Academy of Ukraine (Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine)
in 1994. He received the Candidate of Technical Sciences degree in 2007. Since 2007 he is a Senior Researcher and
Associate Professor. He is the author of more than 38 scientific articles. His scientific interests are the technology of
exploitation the deep open pits.

Ernest Baafi, University of Wollongong


Ernest holds
 PhD (Mining Engineering) from University of Arizona, USA
 MS (Mining Engineering) from Pennsylvania State University, USA, and
 ACSM Associate of Camborne School of Mines, England.
He is currently Mining Engineering Program Director at University of Wollongong, Australia; he is also the current
Chairman of International APCOM Council.

103

CVs

Atac Bascetin, Istanbul University


Dr. Atac Bascetin graduated from Istanbul Technical University in 1992. He got his MSc degree from the same University
in 1995. His PhD from Istanbul University and got it in 1999. He attended to research team of Virginia Tech in 2005. He
was a Visiting Prof. during this research time. He has been working as Prof since 2010 in Istanbul University. His research
area are: Open Pit Mine Planing and Design, Environmental Issues in Mining Operations, Waste Management, Decision
Making, Backfill and Surface Paste Disposal.

Clinton Birch, Senior Lecturer, University Witwatersrand


Clinton Birch holds a National Higher Diploma (Economic Geology) from Technikon Witwatersrand, a BSc Honours
(Geology) from University of Cape Town and an MSc (Mineral Resource Management) from the University of the Free
State, South Africa. He has 15 years of mining industry experience in gold, platinum and other commodities in both
mining and exploration. He is currently a senior lecturer at the University of Witwatersrand in the School of Mining
Engineering and his current research is in the impact of taxation on the gold and platinum ore bodies of South Africa.

104

CVs

Bevzenko Borys, Director, rivate Joint-Stock Company eramprom


Born in 1950. Graduated from Chemical-technology college in 1969 and Dnipropetrovsk Mining University (Mineral
dressing Department) in 1979
Was a master, a section manager and a chief engineer in Sulfur Factory (Lviv region).
Worked as a director of Refractory Plant (Donetsk region) up to 2011.
Became the PhD (Candidate of Technical Sciences of dressing minerals) in 2010.
From 2012 is a director of RIVATE JOINT-STOCK COMPANY ERAMPROM.
Married, has son and daughter.

Assiya Boyandinova
Assiya Boyandinova, Doctor of technical sciences and Associated Professor, graduated from Kazakh National Technical
University after K. Satpayev in 2000 as engineer-economist in mining. In 2004-2005 has passed training in the Center of
fundamental researches of mineral raw materials of Paris National High School of Mines.
She develops the methodology of sustainable functioning of geotechnological systems on surface mining, software and
methodical provision of the automated corporate management system of geotechnological complex, methods of planning
and optimization of mining and transport works, and also an economic estimation of innovative projects for surface
mining.
She has 110 scientific publications, including 3 monographies and innovation patent.

105

CVs

Dias Bukeikhanov, Mining engineer, Mining Institute named after D. Kunayev


Dias Bukeikhanov is the head of Geotechnology, mining systemology and subsoil department: Doctor of technical
sciences, professor, academician of the International Academy of Mineral Resources, International Informatization
Academy and the Academy of Mining Sciences of the Russian Federation. A prominent scientist in open-cast
development, creation of CAD systems of big quarries and GIS technologies. Scientific works and achievements of
Bukeikhanov Dias are known in technical community of the Republic of Kazakhstan, CIS and far abroad. The technology
of automated design of solid minerals open-cast and its fragments implemented the Malandzhhand (India), Aynak
(Afghanistan), Asarel (Bulgaria), Castellanos (Cuba), Ozyornoe (Russia ), Kok-Su (PO Tau), Kurzhunkul and
Kacharsky (JSC SSGPO) Varvarinskoye (JSC Varvarinsky GOK) Akzhal (NOVA-zinc), etc. Bukeikhanov Dias has
more than 265 published scientific papers, including more than 70 works in foreign countries such as Australia, England,
Greece, Italy, India, Canada, Turkey, Czech Republic, Chile, Germany. He has trained 6 doctors of technical sciences, 15
candidates of technical sciences, 3 master's degree.

Christoph Bschgens, RWTH Aachen University


Prior to his current position, he worked on construction of processing plants and the analysis of physical properties during
briquetting and pelletizing for an engineering company in Germany. Since 2012 he is a Ph.D. candidate at the Institute
for Mining and Metallurgical Machinery (IMR) at RWTH Aachen University.

106

CVs

Thalla Bahia Castro, Undergraduate Student, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto


Student of Mining Engineering at the Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During her academic
journey, participated in two scientific projects, and has been part of Junior Enterprise of Mining Engineering. Made her
first internship at CBB mining, and then continued her studies in Germany at the Technische Universitat Clausthal, for
six months. Returning from this academic mobility, held a second internship, this time at Vale SA, which could improve
her knowledge specifically in the area of Mine Operation.

Kelello Chabedi, Lecturer, University of the Witwatersrand


Mr Chabedi has over 20 years experience having worked for Anglo American Coal Division Coal in both their
underground and surface mining operations; as a miner, shift boss, faceboss, foreman, pit superintendent and project
engineer. He currently lectures in the School of Mining

Osvaldo Esteban Fredes Contreras, MSc Student, Universidad de Chile


I studied Mining Engineering at the Faculty of Physical and Mathematic Sciences at University of Chile and was awarded
the Mining Engineer qualifications in 2014. That same year, I was awarded an MSc scholarship under the CSIRO ChileUniversity of Chile Collaboration as part of the Open Pit Slope Deformation Management Project. I plan to complete my
MSc studies in December this year (2015).

107

CVs

Adilson Curi, Professor Titular, UFOP - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto /Departamento de Engenharia de Minas
Brazil
 2004 - 2015 - Researcher of the Brazilian Council of Research (CNPq)
 1989 - 2015 - Titular Professor of the Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP) / Brazil
 1995 - Doctor in Mining Engineer - Superior Institute of Technology - Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal)
 1989 - Graduation in Mining Engineer - Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil)
 1983 - Undergraduation in Mining Engineer - Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil)
 2011 - Sabbatical leave - Laval University - Qubec
 Research on the subject "selective disposal of mine wastes".
2007-2009 and 1998-2002 - Coordinator of the Graduate course of Mineral Engineering in the Federal University of
Ouro Preto (Brazil).
He has professional experience, having worked for several years as a mining engineer in the areas of mining and
mineral processing and academic experience as a university professor since 1988. Lately he has been working in
researches related to mining, mine planning and mining and the environment, and recently he has participated in two
research projects of the scientific Brazilian Agency FAPEMIG acting as coordinator. He was responsible for the research
group in Brazil of the Project MASYS - Underground Environment and Sustainability supported by the scientific Spanish
Agency CYTED. He has been awarded with a scholarship of research and productivity since 2004 by the Brazilian
Council of Research CNPQ . Adilson Curi was scientific advisor of 36 students. He has 18 articles published in journals
of Mining Engineering, 9 chapters of book, one book in Mine Planning and 90 publications in conferences or proceedings
all related to Mining Engineering.

Prof. Ing. Vojtech Dirner, CSc., Dean of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, VB Technical University of Ostrava
February 2014 Dean of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, VB Technical University of Ostrava. He comes from an
old miner family that was influencing mining activities in Spi sko-gemersk area in Rudoho. He is a native of Spi sk
Nov Ves, where he completed Secondary school, and graduated from VT Ko ice (The Technical University of Ko ice),
field of study: deposit mining. From 1976 to 1983 he worked at the Lazy Mine in the Ostrava-Karvina District, among
other professions, as an operation engineer. He has been working at VB - TUO for 32 years, he worked at the Department
of Underground Deposit Mining (as an senior lecturer, associate professor), at the Department of Ecotechnics (as an
associate professor and a deputy of the head of the Department), at the Institute of Environmental Engineering (as an
associate professor, head and professor). He was a chairman of the Academic senate of the Faculty of Mining and Geology
for 12 years and a chairman of the Academic Senate of VB Technical University of Ostrava in 2009 - 2011. He
concentrates on mining, environment in the field of raw materials and mining history. He is a member of many important
Czech and Slovak academic organizations, such as Advisory Board of the Government of the Slovak Republic an
a
108

CVs

Marc Donner, Research Scientist, Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg


Marc Donner is a research scientist at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany. In 2011 he received
his Diplom degree in computer science at the University of Applied Sciences Dresden.
His research interests lie in computer vision and object recognition. He is now employed as a research scientist in the
Mining RoX project.

Dr Andr Dougall, Head of Department Mining Engineering, University of Johannesburg


Andre William Dougall has been involved in the field of productivity optimisation, mine planning and mine design and
project management for more than 30 years. His expertise includes:
 Educator in mining, services, engineering management and project management.
 Underground and surface mining feasibility studies;
 Technical reviews of underground and surface mines;
 Due diligence studies and input into independent engineers reports and competent persons reports.
 UJ and CoalTech researcher.

109

CVs

Muhammad Zaka Emad, Assistant Professor, UET Lahore Pakistan


Muhammad Zaka Emad joined the Department of Mining Engineering in 2007. His research and teaching focus on rock
mechanics, mine safety with applications to ore dilution, backfill, rockburst problems, destress blasting, rock supports,
and slope stability. During his career, he supervised 4 undergraduate students, and published more than 14 papers in
refereed journals and conference proceedings. He has been a registered professional engineer in Pakistan Engineering
Council since 2007.

Frik Fourie (National Higher Diploma, MOC and MMC), Head of Mining Services, Anglo American Platinum
During Friks tenure at AngloGold Ashanti Frik twice achieved 2 Million FFS and was twice the Runner-up for Mining
Engineer of the year award. During this time Frik also won the Dick Fisher Global Safety Award and was named president
of AMMSA in 2009.
Following the restructuring of AngloGold Ashanti in 2010 Frik was given the opportunity to take up the Head of Mining
Position at Anglo American Platinum. Friks current areas of responsibility includes: New Mining Technology; Best
Practice (Procedures, Std, Training) Standardisation; Technical Mining Consulting to Production Units and Projects;
Rock Engineering; Environmental; MRM/Business Planning; Long/Short Term; Survey; Systems and electronic
integration.

110

CVs

Henk Fourie, Senior Principal Mining Engineer, Anglo American Platinum


After graduating from Pretoria University in 1980 as mining engineer (BEng mining), he joined Anglovaal at
Hartebeestfontein Gold Mine. From 1985 he worked at Anglovaal head office in various projects, before being involved
with the building and start-up of Klipspruit Colliery in Natal in 1987. In 1989 he joined Anglo American Coal as planning
manager at Springfield Colliery. After a turn at Goedehoop Colliery, he moved to open cast mining at Anglos New Vaal
Colliery. In early 1994 he joined Anglo Gold (now AngloGold Ashanti - AGA) at Navachab Gold mine in Namibia as
Assistant Manager. He was transferred to AGA head office in 2000 and became the technical Head of Mining for AGAs
seven open pit gold mines in Africa. In 2010 he joined Anglo American Platinum as Senior Principal Mining Engineer.
He is a registered Professional Engineer with ECSA and hold both Metalliferous and Coal Mine Managers Certificates.

Seitgali Galiyev, Director of Mining Department, JSC "Research engineering center ERG", Astana, Kazakhstan
Seitgali Galiyev graduated with honours degree at Magnitogorsk Mining Metallurgical Institute in 1985. He received the
Ph.D. degree in 1991 and D.Sc. degree in 1997. Since 1998 he is a Professor and since 2013 he is an Correspondentmember of the Kazakh National Academy of Sciences. From 2014 till the present he is the Direktor of Mining Department.
He is the author of more than 275 scientific papers. His current research interests include: Mineral Resources Estimation,
Analysis, Monitoring, Controlling and Optimal Development of Surface Mining Operations.
The main scientific and practical direction associated with the development of automated corporate management
systems of geotechnological complexes, including program and methodical and technical support for analysis, evaluation,
planning and management of mining and transport complex, simulation and optimization of mining and transport
operations.

111

CVs

Jason Paul Germiquet, Section Geologist, Anglo American Platinum Ltd


Jason Germiquet has worked as a geologist in exploration, underground and opencast platinum mining with special
interest in sampling, ore control processes and exploring multiple data sources for geometallurgical modelling. He is a
member of the GSSA.

Steve Grehl, Research Scientist, Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg


Steve Grehl is a research scientist and PhD student at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany.

Dogukan Guner, Middle East Technical University


He was born in Konya, Turkey in 1988. He graduated from the Mining Engineering Department at METU in 2011,
completed the MSc. Graduate program in 2014. He is also working as a research assistant since 2011. His research
interests are related to rock mechanics, strata control engineering, mine design and operations. He is currently a PhD.
student at the same department, and the research topic is entitled as Determination of Creep Behaviour of Different Thin
Spray-on Liners and Numerical Modelling.

112

CVs

Tushar Gupta, Research Scholar, Monash University


Tushar Gupta completed his Bachelors in Technology in Mining Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology
(Banaras Hindu University-Varanasi). After graduation, he worked in underground coal mines of Coal India Limited for
2.5 years. There he gained practical experience of various types of coal extraction technologies, ultimately reaching the
post of Assistant Manager in mining. During course of his work, he also published few international journal papers on
Geophysical modelling for stability analysis of dump slopes in open cast mines. Due to his interest in research and mining
related experience, he joined the PhD programme of IITB-Monash academy and is presently working on topic "Fly ash
utilisation in haul road design in open cast mines, a geo-environmental and hydro-geological investigation", under
guidance of Prof. T. N. Singh from IIT Bombay and Dr. Mohan Yellishetty from Monash University. He has completed
the IIT Bombay research component and is aiming for a year of research work in Monash University.

Akihiro Hamanaka, Research Associate, Muroran Institute of Technology


Akihiro Hamanaka is a Research Associate in the in the Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido, Japan. He was
graduated from Kyushu University, Fukuoka with a Dr. of Eng. in 2015. At that time, he studied about environmental
issues in open-cut coal mines such as soil erosion, acid mine drainage, and revegetation. Now, he works under the projects
on underground coal gasification in Japan.

113

CVs

Dragan Janicijevic, Principal Technology Open Forum Mining, Anglo American


Dragan is currently managing the mining technology development projects in the Anglo Americans Technology and
Sustainability department. Within the Anglo Americans FutureSmartTM innovation initiative and in conjunction with its
industrial partners, Dragan had a leadership role in developing and delivering several continuous hard rock cutting
systems, currently in various stages of implementation. Prior to that he was managing technology development at Anglo
American Base Metals with focus point on the sea floor mining. At Anglo American Platinum he had successfully
initiated, developed, implemented and rolled out several mining technology projects, as well as Total Cost of Ownership
and Life Cycle Cost reduction initiatives. He has over 25 years of R&D, operations, supply chain, business development
and management consulting experience in different industries, countries and continents.

Abu Bakarr Jalloh, Student, Kyushu University


Abu Bakarr Jalloh was born and raised in Sierra Leone, started and finished his secondary school education with a Science
major at the Ahmadiyya Muslim Secondary School in Bo City. He did his Bachelors degree at Fourah Bay College,
University of Sierra Leone, majoring in Geology and graduated with a Bachelor of Science with Honours degree in 2009
graduating with the best student Award for Geology. He later proceeded to Japan in 2012 to do his Masters Degree in
Mining and Metallurgy Engineering at Kyushu University in Fukuoka.
After graduation in 2009, he started working first as a junior surveyor, later Geologist and then promoted to Resource
Geologist at London Mining Company in Sierra Leone until March 2012 when he left to pursue his Masters degree.
During his time at the company, his dedication and hard work lauded him with several certificates and outstanding
Technical trainings.
During his Masters degree study, he was also awarded for best presented paper at an international conference in
Bandung, Indonesia in 2013.

114

CVs

Sair Kahraman, Professor, Hacettepe University


Dr. Sair Kahraman received his Ph.D. degree in mining engineering from Istanbul Technical University in 1997. He is
involved in rock excavation, rock drilling, rock mechanics, and marble technology. He works as a Professor at the
Department of Mining Engineering of Hacettepe University (Turkey).

Dr Rustam R. Khojayev, Director, Research Centre GeoMark, LLC


Founder and director of "Research Center "GeoMark" LLC". In 1992 he received his degree of Candidate of Engineering
Sciences in Skochinsky IGD (Moscow), in 2009 he received the degree of Doctor of Engineering Sciences in Karaganda
State Technical University. Since 2008 Member of the Academy of Mining Sciences of Russia. For 31 years he worked
in businesses related to the coal industry in Kazakhstan, including 19 years in leadership positions in scientific
organizations of Ministry of Emergency RK. Research interests mining safety, forecasting and preventing gas dynamic
phenomena in the coal mines.

115

CVs

Judr. Alexander Kirly, Ph.D., Vice Dean for Legislation and Informatics, the Faculty of Mining and Geology, VB
Technical University of Ostrava
February 2014 present: Vice Dean for Legislation and Informatics of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, VB
Technical University of Ostrava
February 2014 present: Member of the Scientific Board of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, VB-TUO
2014 present: Senior lecturer at the Institute of Environmental Engineering
2010 Ph.D. degree the Institute of Environmental Engineering, the Faculty of Mining and Geology, VB TUO
2004 Charles University, Faculty of Law LL.D. (Doctor of Laws)
2000 - 2003 University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Law- Masters degree
1997 2000 University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Law Bachelors degree

George Krafft, Associate Director, Cyest Analytics


George graduated from Wits mining school in 1985 and was a graduate mining engineer with Anglo Gold in
Welkom. He transferred to De Beers, worked at Cullinan and Namdeb mines till 1997, progressing from mining
graduate through to mine overseer, pit superintendent, and finally head of mine projects and planning at Namdeb. He
spent 8 years as a management consultant locally and internationally before joining Cyest in 2005, where he has
successfully developed a leading consulting practice specializing in new mining technologies.

116

CVs

Paseka Leeuw, Senior Lecturer, The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg


Paseka Leeuw is a Mining Engineer with 20 years experience in mining. He is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Mining
Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (Wits) and lectures in Mine Transportation, Massive
Mining, and Surface Mining course at an undergraduate and postgraduate level. His research interest is in is mining
technology and its economic impact in mining and related industries.

Thanh Le Xuan, HaNoi University of Mining and Geology-VietNam


Le Xuan Thanh graduated from Hanoi University of Technology in 2002, he received his M.S degree in Electrical
Engineering from Hanoi University of Mining and Geology (HUMG) in 1906. He started his PhD research in Power
Quality problems in 2010. He received his Doctoral degree in 2015. He has been teaching in HUMG since 2002. Now he
is the Vice Dean of Electro-Mechanics Faculty. His research interests include Power quality, High voltage engineering,
Power system stability, Advance engineering in Power supply.

117

CVs

Nancy Selemagae Magagula, MSc Student, University Of Witwatersrand


Nancy Selemagae Magagula is an MSc research student in the School of Mining Engineering at the University of
Witwatersrand. Nancy holds a BSc degree in Physical and Chemical Science and BSc Honours in Applied Mathematics
from North-West University (Potchefstroom). She was Awarded Best Prestige Award in Mathematics and Applied
Mathematics for the honours level at North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). Nancy was a tutor, facilitator and
invigilator in the Mathematics Department at North-West University.

Mokwebela Raymond Makgato, Chief Geologist, Anglo American Platinum


I completed National Diploma: Geology at Technikon Witwatersrand in 2003, BSc Honours: Geology at University of
Johannesburg in 2005 and Graduate Diploma in Engineering: MRM at University of the Witwatersrand in 2014. I joined
Anglo American Platinum (Rustenburg Section) in 2002 as a trainee, and was appointed to a Section Geologist in 2006
at Khuseleka Mine. In 2008 I was promoted to a Shaft Geologist at Bathopele Mine. January 2011, I went back to
Khuseleka Mine on a promotion as a Chief Geologist and remained there until September 2013. I was then transferred to
Amandelbult section at Tumela Mine. I have recently taken over the responsibility of Chief Geologist for the entire
Amandelbult Section (looking after both Tumela and Dishaba Mines).

118

CVs

Richard (Dick) Minnitt, JCI Professor of Mineral Resources and Reserves, School of Mining Engineering, University
of the Witwatersrand
Dick Minnitt graduated from Wits University in 1972 (Geology Hons), and in 1974 completed, and was awarded the
Corstiphine Medal for a Masters Degree. In 1979 he completed a PhD degree that dealt with the aspects of the Hiab
porphyry copper system in Southern Namibia. For a brief period he worked for Anglo American Corporation at Western
Deep Levels and later joined a subsidiary of JCI. From 1981 until 1995 he ran a Consultancy. Having completed a Masters
in Mining Engineering in 1993, he joined the School of Mining Engineering at Wits University in 1995. He currently
holds the JCI Chair of Mineral Resources and Reserves.

Mousa Mohammadi, Faculty member, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan Branch, Iran
Dr. Mousa Mohammadi is currently working as Assistant professor of mining engineering, Islamic Azad University,
Sirjan Branch, Iran. He specialized in the area of production and productivity improvement in mining machineries,
economic and feasibility studies etc. he also published research papers in various international/national journals,
seminars, conferences etc.

119

CVs

Serik Moldabayev, Professor of the Department of Surface Mining, K.I.Satpaev Kazakh National Technical University,
Almaty, Kazakhstan
Serik Moldabaev graduated with honours degree from Dnepropetrovsk college of mines (Ukraine) in 1982. He received
the D.Sc. degree in 2010. Since 2010 he is a Professor. From 2011 till the present he is the Professor of the Department
of Surface Mining. He is the author of more than 200 scientific articles. His current research interests include: open-pit
mining technologies, resource-saving technologies on coal deposits, controlling and optimal development of surface
mining operations.

Caston Musa, Mineral Resources Manager, Anglo America Platinum- Unki Mine
On completion of a BSc degree in Geology at the University of Zimbabwe, I entered the commercial field as a graduate
trainee with Anglo American Corporation, Zimbabwe, in 1989. I was subsequently appointed geologist and worked for
several Anglo American Corporation subsidiary companies in Zimbabwe. In 1999, I was assigned to Zimbabwe Alloys
limited, a company that was actively mining on the Great Dyke and worked as that companys Mineral Resources
Manager and later in 2006 as the Mines Manager. Zimbabwe Alloys Limited change shareholders in 2006 and I remained
with the company as their Mines Manager until 2008. I joined Unki Mine, Zimbabwe, in 2009, as Mineral Resources
Manager, I position I still hold.

120

CVs

Vera Muzgina, Development manager, Gornoe Buro LLP


Vera Muzgina has graduated the Kazakh Polytechnic Institute. During many years she worked at the Laboratory of Filling
Operations Problems at Ore Mines of the D.A. Kunayevs Institute of Mining and after that she was Chief scientific
worker of the National Centre on Complex Processing of Mineral Raw Materials of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Now
she is development manager of Gornoe Buro LLP.
She is a good specialist in technology of filling operations and solid waste using for filling mixtures preparing and in
mining ecology, Higher Doctorate in technical sciences. She has about 200 scientific publications.

Paskalia Ndapandula Neingo, Lecturer, University of the Witwatersrand


Paskalia N. Neingo currently works at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, where she
lectures in Engineering Skills, Mine Transportation, Computerised Mine Design and Financial Valuation. She is a
member of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (SAIMM) and an honorary secretary of Wits
University Mining Engineers Association (WUMEA). Paskalia has also completed the National Certificate: Rock
Breaking Underground Hard Rock- Conventional Mining with Sibanye Gold Kloof operations. She has an MSc in
Mineral Resource Management. Her research interests lie in mining productivity and optimisation in mine planning.

121

CVs

Wilhelm (Willie) Pieter Nel, Senior Lecturer and Coordinator for Mining, University of South Africa (UNISA)
Wilhelm (Willie) Nel is a Senior Lecturer and the Coordinator for Mining at Unisas School of Engineering where he is
responsible for a number of Mining Engineering and Engineering Management modules.
His research and tuition interests are in the areas of Mining Engineering; Engineering Management and Mine
Management; Engineering Economics and Mineral Economics, and Engineering Education.
Willie has experience as external examiner at a number of South African Universities and is a member of various
professional associations and institutes. He is the editor and co-author of a textbook, Management for Engineers,
Technologists and Scientists.

Sbusiso Ngubane, Section Geologist, Anglo American Platinum


I am currently employed as a section geologist at Anglo American platinums Dishaba Mine. Started as a bursar and
completed the anglo platinum graduate programme, gaining experience across numerous operations in the western limb
including Rustenburg, Union and Amandelbult sections.

122

CVs

Sihesenkosi Nhleko, Lecturer, University of the Witwatersrand


Sihesenkosi Nhleko is currently a lecturer at the School of Mining Engineering (University of the Witwatersrand) and
has recently completed Master of Science in Engineering (Mining) and awaits graduation. He lectures Engineering
Graphics, Mine Transportation and Introduction to Narrow Reef Mining. His professional interests focus on mine
financial valuation and mine planning. He is an executive member of Witwatersrand University Mining Engineers
Association (WUMEA) and a member of the SAIMM- Young Professionals Council.

George Nyawo, Senior Mining Engineer, Modular Mining Systems Africa


George Nyawo commenced his mining engineering career in 2005 at Anglo American Zimbabwes Trojan Nickel Mine.
On completion of his BSc Hon Mining Engineering degree from the University of Zimbabwe in 2006, he joined Sandvik
Mining & Construction Zimbabwe as a Sales Engineer-Mining Equipment. After completing his Masters in Engineering
(Mineral Economics) at the University of the Witwatersrand in 2008, he joined Venmyn-Delloite. In 2010 he joined
Modular Mining Systems Africa (Modular) where is now Senior Mining Engineer in the Mining Engineering Consultancy
department.

123

CVs

Ibrahim Ocak, Assoc. Prof. Dr., Istanbul University


Dr. Ibrahim Ocak works at Istanbul University Mining Engineering department as academician. Before academician, he
studied at Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality as control engineer and railway construction manager in Kadikoy-Kartal
Metro Project, Otogar-Bagcilar Metro Project, Bagcilar-Ikitelli-4F4> #BAHG?4E]-Olimpiyatkoyu Metro Project and
Sultanciftligi-Edirnekapi-Topkapi Tram Project. He obtained his bachelor degree in Mining Engineering Department
from Anadolu University in 1991 and obtained his Ph.D in Mining Engineering Department from Osmangazi University
in 2003. He obtained his associate professor degree in 2010. His research interest is in the area of metro tunneling and
environmental interaction, rock mechanics, metro tunnel construction, researching of surface settlement and
environmental effects in metro tunnels and other excavations.

Larisa Oleynikova, Professor of Environmental engineering and water resources management department, Ural State
Mining University
Larisa Oleynikova graduated from the Ural State Mining University with a degree in mining engineering. Since 2012 she
is a professor of Environmental engineering and water resources management department

124

CVs

Gafar Omotayo Oniyide, Lecturer, Federal University of Technology Akure


Bachelor and Master of Engineering in Mining Engineering (Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria), PhD in
Rock Engineering (Wits University, Johannesburg, South Africa), Registered with the Council for Regulation of
Engineering in Nigeria (COREN),Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE), , the Council of Nigerian Mining Engineers and
Geoscientists (COMEG), Nigerian Mining and Geosciences Society (NMGS), Nigerian Society of Mining Engineers
(NSME). Has been lecturing since 10 years ago.

Dr Seth Opoku, Specialist Long Term Planning Engineer, AngloGold Ashanti Limited
Dr Opoku is a holder of PhD in Mining Engineering from University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa,
MSc in Mining Engineering and a Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Geodetic Engineering from Kwame Nkrumah
University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.
He has over 21 years mining engineering experience obtained in mine survey, short and long term mine planning and
mining projects in the mining industry.
Dr Opoku is a member of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, and a member of the Australian
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM). His research areas are open pit to underground transition, stochastic
modelling, use of simulated models in mine planning, uncertainties in mine planning and mine closure and rehabilitation.
Dr Opoku has published and presented technical papers internationally.

125

CVs

Carlos Enrique Arroyo Ortiz, Professor, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
He holds a degree in Mining Engineering - UFOP (2002) , Master in Mining Engineering - UFOP (2008 ) and PhD in
Geosciences - UFOP (2014). He is currently an adjunct professor at the Federal University of Minas Gerais . Has
experience in Mining Engineering with emphasis on geostatistics , Mining Planning, Operations Research , Modeling and
geometallurgical

Professor Morteza Osanloo, Faculty member of Mining and Metallurgy Department, Amirkabir University of
Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)
Currently, Dr. Osanloo is full professor of mining and metallurgical school of Amirkabir university of technology. Dr.
Osanloo published more than 200 papers in International Journals an conferences also published several mine books in
Persian language. Professor Osanloo is member of Scientific Committee of MPES and ERER/2014. He was selected as
distinguished professor by MPES-CAMI-SWEMP in Banff-Canada in 2009. Also professor Osanloo is the member of
editorial board of several international journals of mining engineering and Society of Mining Professor (SOMP). During
his academic career he taught several courses in undergraduate and graduate program such as: Surface Mining Method,
Drilling Engineering, Advanced Open Pit Mining Method, Advanced Drilling and Blasting Methods, Coal Engineering,
Surface mining and sustainable development, Mine reclamation.

126

CVs

Orhan Ozdemir, Istanbul University


He received BS (Mining Engineering) and MS degrees (Mineral and Coal Processing) from Istanbul Technical University,
Istanbul, Turkiye in 1998 and 2001, respectively, and received PhD degree (Metallurgical Engineering) from University
of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA in 2008. He then worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at Chemical Engineering
Department, University of Queensland, Australia from 2008 to 2010. He started working as an Assistant Professor at
Mining Engineering Department, Istanbul University, Turkey in 2010. Now, he works as an Associate Professor at the
same department.

Eugene Pieter Preis, Virtual Reality Centre Researcher, University of Pretoria


Eugene completed his BEng degree in 2013, and completed his BEng(Hons) degree in 2014. He is currently busy with
his Masters degree thesis Augmented Reality in Mining: A proposed product design methodology. Apart from the
academic work, Eugene is frequently involved in consulting projects through Business Enterprises at the University of
Pretoria. Eugene is a keen problem-solver & innovator, and enjoys challenging the status quo.

127

CVs

Piyush Rai, Faculty member, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU)


Dr. Piyush Rai is currently working as professor of mining engineering, Indian institute of technology, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi. He specialized in the area of mining method, rock fragmentation by blasting, production and
productivity improvement in mining machineries etc. he also published about 90 research papers in various
international/national journals, seminars, conferences etc. professor Rai, has travelled widely in various countries of world
and has been visiting professor in the USA, Sweden, South Korea.

Mahdi Rahmanpour, PhD student, Amirkabir Uni. Of Tech. (Tehran poly-technique)


I am a PhD student of mining engineering at Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic). I am working
on my PhD thesis under the supervision of Prof. Morteza Osanloo. My thesis is about long term and short term planning
in open pit mines within the context of grade and price uncertainties.

128

CVs

Dr. Steven Rupprecht, Senior Lecturer, University of Johannesburg


Steven has 29 years mining experience commencing his career in 1986 with Gold Fields of South Africa where he gained
underground production mining experience working at Venterspost Gold Mine, East and West Driefontein Gold Mines,
and Leeudoorn Gold Mine. In 1997 Steven was moved to Head Office as Group Mining Engineer and Senior Mining
Engineer Coal.
In 1999 He joined CSIR Mining Technology as Research Area Manager and worked extensively on the Deepmine and
Futuremine Research Programmes.
In 2003 Steven joined RSG Global as a Principal Mining Engineer until 2007 when joined Keaton Energy as a Technical
Director, a position he held until 2009.
In 2010 joined the University of Johannesburg as Senior Lecture and Director of Mining. He also does mining
consultancy work for Borrego Sun and Coffey Mining.
Steven is a Fellow of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (SAIMM), an co-opted member of the
SAIMM Council, vice chairman of the SAMREC working group and member of the SAIMM Technical Programme
Committee, and the SAIMM Career Guidance and Educational Committee.

Bolatbek Rysbaiuly, Professor of the Department of Information System and Mathematical Modelling, International
Information Technology University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Bolatbek Rysbaiuly gained degree in applied mathematics from Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi. Since
1986, he had been a Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, and since 2001, Doctor of Physical and
Mathematical Sciences. Since 2007 he is a professor of mathematics at the university. Author of over 145 scientific
papers. Research interests: direct and inverse problems of heat and mass transfer, modelling problems of open-pit mining,
mathematical models of oil and gas industry.

129

CVs

Sergei Sabanov, Head of Mining Department, SRK Consulting (Kazakhstan) Ltd


Dr Sergei Sabanov is a chartered engineer and a professional Member of Institute of Mining Materials & Metallurgy
(CEng MIMMM) with 23 years of experience in the energy, metals & mining, oil & gas industries. Dr Sabanov supported
a number of Business Improvement, Internal Investment Decision, Resource and Reserves Audit projects. For those he
completed technical due diligence work, including Competent Person Reports (CPR) for stock exchange listings, financial
analysis, risk assessment etc. His expertise lies in strategy planning, organisation, managing and working on technical
studies (International and CIS standards). Dr Sabanov is experienced in a wide range of commodities areas including oil
shale, coal, gold and silver, iron ore, diamonds, zinc, bauxite, potash and rare earth elements. Dr Sabanov has also
specialised on Mining Method/Design,

Galymzhan Samenov, Leading Researcher of Mining Department, JSC "Research engineering center ERG", Astana,
Kazakhstan
Galymzhan Samenov graduated with honours degree from Zhezkazgan University (Kazakhstan) in 2001. He received the
Ph.D. degree in 2010. From 2014 till the present he is the Leading Researcher of Mining Department. He is the author of
more than 50 scientific papers. His current research interests include: Analysis, Monitoring, Controlling and Optimal
Development of Surface Mining Operations.

130

CVs

Takashi Sasaoka, Assistant Professor, Kyushu University, Japan


 2001-2003 JSPS Research Fellow
 2003-2006 Post-Doctoral Fellow, West Virginia University, U.S.
 2006-present Assistant Professor Kyushu University, Japan
Research Topics: Control Blasting, Ground Control in Surface and Underground Mines, Grouting Technique


Nils Schwarz, Director, Schwarz Global Consulting
Nils Schwarz is the director of Schwarz Global Consulting who, among others, represent the Chilean companies GProcess, Idemin and Novamine, and the German centrifuge manufacturer Flottweg.
He started his career in 1984 with Mintek, while studying for his HND in Chemical Engineering. In 1993 he joined
Johnson Matthey and became production manager of the precious metal salts section for their catalyst plant in Germiston,
South Africa, until 1997. In 1997/1998 Nils designed and commissioned a new precious metal salts plant for Johnson
Matthey Argentina.
From 2000 to 2003 he held the position of Technical manager at Botswana Ash.
Having started his own company to market industrial equipment in 1998, he currently represents 5 German, 1 Finnish
and 3 Chilean companies in Southern Africa. He also does consulting work in the hydrometallurgical industry, such as
acting as commissioning manager for Ausenco in the Kinsevere Stage 2 project.

131

CVs

Jonathan Sevenoaks, Engagement Lead, Cyest Analytics


Jonathan graduated from Wits University in 2008 with an honours degree in Industrial Engineering. Prior to
joining Cyest, he specialized in the application and development of business intelligence tools as well as the
development and formulation of company strategies. He is currently involved in the modelling, optimization,
and implementation of new mining technologies and methods in the mining industry.

Alexander Shustov, Senior researcher of the Department of Open-Pit Mining, State higher educational establishment
National Mining University, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine
Alexander Shustov graduated National Mining University in 2008. Since 2011 till the present he is a senior researcher of
the Department of Open-Pit Mining. He had received the candidate of technical science degree in 2014. He is the author
of more than 20 scientific articles. The main research interests are include: open-pit mining technologies, new ways of
mining flooded lignite deposits, modelling the optimal placement of the dumping station in a deep iron ore pits.

Masoud Soleymani Shishvan, PhD Student, Delft University of Technology


I am a Mining Engineer. I have gained my B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in the field of Mining Engineering Mining
Exploitation. Currently I am a PhD student at Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands. I am interested in
Simulation-Optimization methods. I am doing research on the Simulation-Based optimization of continuous mining
systems.

132

CVs

Bartomiej Skawina, PhD student, Lule University of Technology


Bartomiej Skawina is a PhD student at Lule University of Technology in Sweden. He has master degree from the same
university in subject of Civil Engineering with specialization in mining and geotechnical engineering. Currently, he is
working for I2 Mine project, in which he is trying to develop innovative mining methods and automate mining cycles and
processes by implementing new technologies and by calibrating the mine activity sequencing and logistics in deeply
steeping underground mine via discrete event simulation.

Zhen Song, Senior Engineer, Aalto University


Zhen Song has a Doctor of Science in Geoengineering from Aalto University. He is a project manager and researcher of
a research task in the I2mine project, which is funded by the 7th European Commission Framework Program. Zhen Song
also acquired research funding respectively from Aalto University, Atlas Copco, KGHM, and PetroChina. His research
interests are mainly in operation research in mining engineering and natural gas engineering, supply chain, process
modelling and control.

Pavel Stasa, VSB Technical University of Ostrava


Pavel Stasa, Ph.D. finished his Ph.D. study at 2012 and he focuses his attention to modelling and simulation of flow using
by Fluent software, in his doctoral study. He spent one semester at Dongguk University in Seoul, South Korea, where his
studies was focused on RFID technology. His research area is modelling and simulation of flow using CFD program
Fluent and RFID and NFC technology.

133

CVs

Zhanat Sultanbekova, Head of the Department of Project Management, K.I.Satpaev Kazakh National Technical
University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Zhanat Sultanbekpva graduated with honours degree from Kazakh National Technical University (Almaty, Kazakhstan)
in 1994. She received the Candidate of Technical Sciences degree in 2009. Since 2009 she is an Associate Professor.
From 2013 till the present she is the Head of the Department of Project Management. She is the author of more than 40
scientific articles. Her current research interests are informational technologies in mining.

Fidelis Tawiah Suorineni, Professor and Chair of Mine Geotechnical Engineering, UNSW Australia
Dr. Suorineni is Professor and Chair of Mine geotechnical Engineering at the UNSW Australia School of Mining
Engineering. He obtained his education in Ghana, Britain and Canada where he got his first degree, Masters and Ph.D
respectively. He was a senior lecturer in the University of Mines and Technology in Ghana._Following his Ph.D in Canada
he was appointed Post-Doctoral fellow in the Geomechanics Research Centre (GRC) in Laurentian University and later
Senior Research Engineer (GRC) and Adjunct Professor in the Bharti School of Engineering. Professor Suorineni is a
two time recipient (2012 and 2015) of the Douglas Hay Medal awarded by the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining
(IMMM) in Britain for best paper in Mining Technology.

134

CVs

Marcin Szpak, KGHM CUPRUM Research and Development Centre Ltd.


Mr Marcin Szpak is currently PhD student and Research Specialist in Mining Department in KGHM CUPRUM R&D
Centre, Poland. In 2015 he has finished Postgraduate Studies in the field of Project Management in Wroclaw University
of Technology. Since 2007 he is particularly involved in many research projects focused on different type of mining
methods, rock support and natural hazards assessment in underground mining. He is author or co-author of many
publications in field of copper underground mining in Poland.

Alparslan Turanboy, NE. University Turkey


Education:
1987BSc Hacettepe University, Mining Engineering
1992 MSc Hacettepe University Mining Engineering
1998 Phd Seluk University Mining Engineering
Experiences:
1991-98 Asistant
1998-2010 Assistant Prof Dr.
2010- Associate Professor
Interest: Rock mass modelling, rock slope stability, open pit mining

135

CVs

Mukhamedzhan Turdakhunov, Member of the Board of Directors, JSC Sokolov-Sarbay mining and processing
company (SSGPO), Rudny, Kazakhstan
Mukhamedzhan Turdakhunov graduated with honours degree from Kyrgyz State University in 1990 and Rudny Industrial
Institute in 2002. He received the Ph.D. degree in 2007. From 2008 till the present he is the Chairman of the Board of
Directors JSC Sokolov-Sarbay mining and processing company (SSGPO), since 2015 a member of the Board of
Directors.
He is the author of more than 30 scientific papers.
The main scientific and practical direction associated with the development of automated systems of designing rational
boundaries of career fields, the main performance parameters and quarrying.

Petr Valicek PhD (Mech Eng), New Mining Technology Manager, Anglo American Platinum
Petr commenced his mining career at the Odra Mine in the Czech Republic in 1986 after completing his
Mechanical Engineering degree at the Ostrava University of Mining and Metallurgy. Petr joined Anglo Platinum
in 1991 following the completion of his doctorate on the design of cutter heads for hard-rock mining conditions. He is
currently responsible for managing all of the New Mining Technology (NMT) projects within Anglo American
Platinum, including the development of new technologies and layouts for the hard-rock mining industry. His scope of
work includes the financial evaluation, implementation, and roll-out of new mining technology projects within the
Group.

136

CVs

Declan Vogt, Director, Centre for Mechanised Mining Systems, University of the Witwatersrand
Declan has degrees in electrical engineering from Wits and a PhD in electronics from the University of York. He spent
22 years at the CSIR working in mining research, initially developing geophysical instrumentation and later in research
management. He was responsible for introducing borehole radar to South African mines, and developed a system that is
in routine commercial use today. He is currently the director of the Centre for Mechanised Mining Systems at Wits.

Enyuan Wang, Vice Dean of Key Laboratory of Gas and Fire Control for Coal Mines, China University of Mining and
Technology
WANG Enyuan received Ph.D. degree in mining safety in July 1995 in China University of Mining and Technology
(CUMT). He did his postdoctoral research at the school of information and electrical engineering of CUMT. He is a
member of China Coal Society, and a member of China national production safety expert group. Since 2003 he served as
a Professor at the School of Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology for scientific research and
teaching in mining safety. He is also Vice Director of the Key Laboratory of Gas and Fire Control for Coal Mines, Deputy
Director of the professor committee of School of Safety Engineering.
His research interests include Coal and rock dynamic disasters and its evolution mechanism, geophysical response coal
and rock, coal or rock dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning. He has published about one hundred thirty fulllength papers. He invented electromagnetic radiation monitoring and early warning technology and equipment for coal
and rock dynamic disaster, strata stress real-time monitoring equipment and has been widely applied in mining area of
China.

137

CVs

Dr. Eleonora Widzyk-Capehart, Associate Researcher, University of Chile


Mining Engineer with BSc degree in Electrification and Automation of Mines from University of Science and
Technology, AGH in Cracow, Poland; MSc and PhD in Mining Engineering from Mackay School of Mines, University
of Nevada-Reno and Michigan Technological University, USA, respectively, and MSc Human Factors from the
Queensland University in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Eleonora has over 20 years in mining related R&D, having been associated with the Western Australian School of
Mines, Curtin University, the University of Queensland, CRC Mining Centre, and CSIRO, in Australia.
Her research interests focus on the application of new technologies in the mining industry for production improvements
and cost reduction, evaluation of mining equipment performance, application of sensing technologies in the mining
environment, and human factors engineering and technology risk evaluations.
Currently, she is an Associate Researcher at the University of Chile, Advanced Mining Technology Centre in Santiago,
Chile, leading the R&D in the Open Pit Slope Deformation Management, among other R&D and management
responsibilities at the Centre.

Mgr. Andrea Wlochova, Ph.D., Head of the Department of Foreign Languages, VB - Technical University of Ostrava
February 2014 present: Member of the Scientific Board of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, VB-TUO
2012 present: Head of the Department of Foreign Languages, VB Technical Universityof Ostrava
2011 present: Senior lecturer - the Department of Foreign Languages, VB Technical University of Ostrava
2011 - Ph.D. degree - the Philosophical faculty Palack University Olomouc
2003 2011: Lecturer - the Department of Foreign Languages, VB Technical
University of Ostrava

138

CVs

Michael Woodhall, Mining Enterprise Executive, MineRP


English born, Australian bred, South African resident Mining Engineer
After graduating from University of Sydney in 1973, worked around Australia for a year and came to South Africa in
April 1975 (for two years to take a look)
Worked on production and projects for Gold Fields, JCI and AngloGold Ashanti until 1998 when he joined GMSI now
known as MineRP
Mine Planning was always a passion, keeping pace with the IT tools of the day and now works in the world of 3D
graphics, helping miners and IT personnel alike to understand and visualise the realities of mining.

Mahmut Yavuz, Eskisehir Osmangazi University


Dr. Yavuz is a Professor of Mining Engineering at the Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey. He received his bachelor's
degree in 1994 from Anadolu University, Turkey. He received his Master of Science in 1996 and Doctor of Philosophy
degree in 2002 from Eskisehir Osmangazi University. He is working on Decision Making and Operation Research
applications in mining, mine planning and mine design. Dr. Yavuz is a member of Chambers of Mining Engineers of
Turkey. He currently resides in Eskisehir with his wife and two daughters.

139

CVs

Pavel Zapletal, Ph.D., Registrar of the Institute of Mining engineering and safety, Institute of Mining engineering and
safety, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
2001 2006 Engineer, Master (Ing) of Engineering Geodesy, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
2006 2009 PhD - Thesis Title: The Proposal for the Optimal Control of the Network Mine Ventilation Principles
Concerning the Fire Affected Area, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
2010 2014 Assoc. Prof. - Thesis Title: The new Knowledge in Subsurface Ventilation, VSB-Technical University
of Ostrava, Czech Republic
WORK EXPERIENCE
2009 2010 - Research worker, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Mining Engineering and Safety
2010 2014 - Assistant professor, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Mining Engineering and Safety
2014 present - Assoc. Prof. and Registrar of the Institute, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Mining Engineering
and Safety

Luke Zindi, Principal Consultant, MineQuest Consult


Luke has a Masters in Business Leadership from UNISA School of Business Leadership, South Africa (1999) and B Sc.
(Hon) in Mining Engineering from Camborne School of Mines, Cornwall, UK (1984).
Luke has more than 28 years mining experience in both underground and open pit operations. He has held senior
positions in Anglo Platinum in mineral resource management and strategic mine planning. He was a general manager for
projects in Impala Platinum Mines.
Luke is a co-director and principal consultant of MineQuest Consult. MineQuest Consult is a mining engineering
consulting company involved in mining business optimization, due diligences and feasibility studies that involve techno
economic evaluation of mining projects. Luke has extensive experience in the role of a mining engineering competent
person in copper, manganese, coal, gold and platinum mining projects in Congo, Zimbabwe and South Africa. He is a
visiting lecturer at Witwatersrand Mining School, for MSC in Mine Planning and Optimization.

140

CVs

Tawanda Zvarivadza, Lecturer and Senator, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg


Tawanda has several years of mining industry experience spanning several mining companies and organisations at an
international level. This include: large scale exploration, several environments for both underground and surface mining,
International Rock Engineering Consulting, Numerical Modelling using a number of codes, International Geotechnical
Research with several countries, Mining Machinery Service Industry, Academia among others. Tawanda has worked for
companies including African Associated Mines, Todal Mining, Buchwa Iron Ore Mining Company, Atlas Copco
Zimbabwe, SRK Consulting South Africa as well as research work with the Japanese National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science and Technology. Tawanda serves Wits Mining and Wits University with distinction. He chairs the Wits
Mining Transformation committee and is a member of other committees including Senate subcommittee on Performance
Management, Student-Staff Liaison, MSc Proposals approval and Wits Readmissions. He previously served on
committees including Council Readmissions, Council Readmissions Review Task Team, Workload, Shortlisting and
Interview Committees. In 2014, Tawanda represented Wits Mining at the National Science Week. Tawanda Judges at the
Eskom Expo International Science Fair and serves as a reviewer for a number of international publication platforms. He
is a member of Wits University Senate, the Universitys highest academic decision making body. Tawanda is a Lecturer
and a PhD candidate at the University of the Witwatersrand School of Mining Engineering. He holds two Masters Degrees
from Wits University, that is MSc Eng Mining (Rock Engineering) and MEng Mining (Mineral Economics, Mineral
Resource Evaluation and Environment and Sustainable Development). Officially rated by peers and students to be in the
top 5 % of academics at Wits University for his teaching, Tawanda graduated as a top student for BSc Eng (Hons) Mining
at the University of Zimbabwe. He is a member of several International Professional Organisations including Southern
African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (SAIMM), South African National Institute of Rock Engineering (SANIRE),
International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM), American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA), Golden Key
International Honour Society (GKIHS) and Wits University Mining Engineers Association (WUMEA). Tawanda has
authored and co-authored several international peer reviewed papers published in Africa, Asia, Europe and America. His
countries of work experience include: Japan, Turkey, Germany, Canada, USA, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Lesotho.

141

142