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RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN GREENHOUSES

The energies renewable in greenhouses is derived from resources that are related with them
cycles natural of our planet, making possible that have of the resource of way permanent. In its
several forms is derive direct or indirectly of the Sun or is power generated inside the Earth
(IEA 2003).
Renewable energy sources are wind power (wind), energy Solar, Ocean (wave, tidal, thermal)
energy, hydropower, geothermal energy, biomass energy.
The use of renewable energy in greenhouses carries many advantages which are friendly to the
environment, are endless, do not produce greenhouse gases, provide energy security, help a
country to reduce dependence on energy imports, contributes to the economic development, are
a source of employment.
In short the employment of energy renewable is a motor of development economic and social
for those countries.
Each an of them energy involves different types of technologies with which is gets energy in
form of electricity, force drive, heat or fuel.
Figure 1 shows an overview of how renewable energy can help each country that has them to
meet their energy needs.

To easily understand the impact of renewable energy in greenhouses, they take into
account that the daily production in the world was 91.6 million per calendar day; the
daily output of the United States, Russia and Saudi Arabia exceeded 10 million. United
States, the biggest consumer of land, consumed nearly 19.4 million.
It presents the table 1. that shows the consumption set of these energies renewable in
greenhouses in the world. This table data to wind, solar, geothermal, biomass and waste
(waste). The conversions are made whereas an efficiency of conversion power of the
38%.
Table 1. -Consumption of energy renewable in greenhouses; Solar wind,
geothermal and biomass (expressed in %)

Sand notes that the largest consumers of renewable energy in greenhouses are developed
countries being the United States of America with 1.4% and China with 1.25% the
biggest consumers of these renewable energy in greenhouses.

The Peru with a consumption of 7.7% was located in the post 42. The effect of
renewable energy in greenhouses in the Peru is clearly observed.
Solar energy
Solar energy is obtained directly from the Sun is a clean and renewable energy that can
be captured by means of optical devices into heat or electricity. The devices are called
photovoltaic equipment.
Photovoltaic devices make the sunlight into electric energy so the radiant energy is
received in cell made of a semiconductor material that allows the passage of electrons
which are converted into electrical energy. The cells are arranged in modules and the
modules are arranged in photovoltaic arrays. These arrangements allow produce current
electric continuous (DC) in quantities measurable. This current DC then becomes an
investor in which is converted into direct current (AC). This DC can be used directly in a
home and in some countries it is possible to export the surplus of this stream to the
public network, as shown in Figure 2.

This type of generation electric is neutral to the coal since not used fuels fossil and the
energy solar is an energy very clean and -very abundant since the Earth receives
approximately 120 quadrillon watts of power of the sun while the man employs only 13
trillion watts. As others energies clean has the disadvantage of being intermittent since
only is can generate when there is radiation solar. Is a power relatively expensive with
regard to the cost of conversion of energy, its costs still are superior to $0.20 / kWh.
He use of the energy solar is can be classified in:
Solar energy (Solar PV) Fotovoltatica.
Hub CSP (Concentrating Solar Thermal Power CSP)
Warming heat and cooling Solar (Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling).
The year 2015 the market of energy solar photovoltaic came to 50 GW, for a total
estimated of 227 GW. China, Japan and United States are the largest market. Germany

produces the 6.4% of its electricity using these solar technologies.


Shown in the table 2. energy consumption renewable plague in greenhouses throughout
the world
To the year 2015 solar concentrators include a capacity of 160 MW in Morocco, 150
MW in Sud Africa and 110 MW in United States. In America the southern Chile was
developing a project of 110 MW, Saudi Arabia one 100 MW, 50 MW China and the
India one of 25 MW.
The warming Solar is continue developing in China followed by Turkey, Brazil, India
and United States: is estimated that the capacity accumulated of collectors solar of water
came to 435 growth to the year 2015; This allows to provide approximately 357 TWh of
heat per year.
Table 2.-consumption of energy Solar renewable in greenhouses in the world
(express in %)

In Peru, renewable solar energy in greenhouses is the energy resource with increased
availability in almost all the territory, in the vast majority of locations the availability of
solar energy is quite large and uniform throughout the year, making more attractive their
use in comparison to other countries.
Solar radiation, varies according to the latitude (at greater distance from the Equator less
radiation), the height above the sea level (higher more radiation), the orography (deep
valleys have less hours of sunlight) and cloudiness (to greater cloudiness less radiation).
For evaluate the potential solar of the Peru, is has that in the great majority of locations
of the Peru, the availability of it energy solar is quite uniform during all the year. The
radiation solar in the Peru, almost always is located within a margin of +/-20% of the
average annual and is it sufficiently high and uniform (compared with others countries)
to be considered as a source energy usable for foster the development of them
communities.
In general terms, this annual average solar radiation in the Peru is in the range 5-6
kWh/m2 day, increasing from North to South and 4-5 kWh/m2 day on the coast and
jungle. Is considered that for the Peru this is a source of energy appropriate to places
isolated from sierra and jungle.
Wind energy.
Wind energy is obtained through the wind, through the use of the kinetic energy
generated by the effect of air currents that are converted into mechanical or electrical
energy in windfarms.
Wind energy is freely available and is widely distributed around the world. Has a huge
potential, having is estimated that if is could use it half of the energy wind available
could contribute with up to 5 times the consumption current of energy of the world.
This energy depends on the power of the wind, the density of the air, of the area of
generated by the sweep of the propellers and the speed of the wind. Them Central wind
can go from small central that produce of 250 KW of power and that can be installed in
house, farms, schools, etc., to large central wind with capacity of generation of 50 MW
that can produce by year to 150 million kW-hr. The costs of installation of these Central
are in free fall. The implementation of these central required of studies of measurement
of wind multiannual.
Table 3. shows the consumption of energy wind renewable in greenhouses in the world.
Consumption means the production of electricity. Global consumption increased from
474 million per day in the year 2005 to nearly 4 million per day by 2015. Wind power is
the largest source of new renewable energy capacity.

The 2015 the generation wind of electricity was the main source of new capacity of
generation in Europe and United States. Around the world, added 63 GW for a total
close to 433 GW. The world is developing rapidly the power wind to produce energy
electric.

Table 3.-consumption of renewable wind energy in greenhouses in the world


(expressed in %)

The year 2015 is United States the largest producer and consumer of renewable wind
energy in greenhouses in the world consumption is equivalent to 876.4 million barrels of
oil equivalent per day, followed by China with 841.1 billion per day.
The potential wind farm in the Peru recently is being exploited. The year 2015 is
consumed the equivalent of 2.7 thousands by day calendar.

Geothermal energy
This energy comes from the differences of temperature that is present in the basement; to
take advantage of this energy are placed deep wells that extract also very hot water at
high pressure or steam at very high pressure. Cycles of steam or hot water that comprise
electricity generating turbines to take advantage of this geothermal energy are designed.
In the year 2015 is put in operation Central geothermal with a capacity estimated at 315
MW and is estimated that the capacity total is of 13.2 GW. Geothermal power requires
high prices of fossil fuels to be competitive.
Estimated that the capacity of use direct from the geothermal energy is of 21.7 growth.
In Peru, this energy source is presented in the uprising of hot water and is mainly located
in the Peruvian South volcanic zone (Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna).
According to the Ministry of energy and mines, the estimated potential of geothermal
energy in the Peru reaches 3 GW.

Energy of the biomass.


The use of this energy as primary energy, is based on the combustion of organic
materials: wood, wood or agricultural materials to produce heat and power.
Under the category of biomass also is considered the employment of gas methane
retrieved from it decomposition anaerobic of materials organic.
Geothermal energy consumption is presented together with the consumption of biomass
and others, what is shown in table 4.

Table 4-geothermal energy, biomass and others (expressed in %)

Biofuel energy.
The biofuels are fuels that are derived from any resource biological or biomass. Biomass
is defined as any organism with recent life (eg. (Algae sea, chips of wood) or their
derivatives metabolic (eg.) (Manure). The term recent life the difference of traditional or
fossil fuels such as petroleum and its derivatives. The biofuels is considered as
renewable because the matter prima used to produce any biofuel can be answer. The
biofuels, basically are composed by the bioethanol and the biodiesel.
He biodiesel is a biofuel that is produced from any fat animal or oils plant, that can be
already used or without use.
Is usually use oils derived of the palm oil, the higuerilla, the pinion white, the canola or
rapeseed, the soy and / or the sunflower, which, in can be cultivated exclusively for
produce it. Also possible to obtain biodiesel taking as matter prima oils used and fat
animals

Biodiesel can be used pure or mixed with diesel (diesel oil) in any proportion in dies el
engines. The main producer of biodiesel in the world is Germany, you still United
States, France, Brazil and Italy.

He system more usual of production is the transformation of oils through a process of


Transesterification, through which is Gets an ester that is can use directly in a motor
diesel without modify, obtaining is glycerine as by-product. Glycerin can be used for
other applications.
He bioethanol, also called ethanol from biomass, is an alcohol that is obtained from
corn, sorghum, cane of sugar or beet. Allows you to replace the gasoline or gasoline in
any proportions.
United States and Brazil are the main producers of ethanol in the world, its production
represents approximately 90% of the world production.
He bioethanol can proceed of the corn as in the United States or of the cane of sugar as
which is manufactures in Brazil. In the latter country has been used as automotive fuel
alcohol since the 1960s.
Sugar cane, beets or corn are not the only source of sugar; cellulose can also be used for
sugar. Cellulose is a macromolecule composed of "links" of glucose. Thus, almost all
plant residue is potentially susceptible to be transformed into sugar (through chemical
processes or enzymatic processes) and then through fermentation by yeast obtain alcohol
by distilling the product obtained.
The use of biofuels has advantages environmental facing them fuels fossil. It
employment of biofuels reduces the volume total of dioxide of carbon (CO2) that is
emits in the atmosphere, since this is absorbed by the process of photosynthesis in the
measure that grow them plants and emit practically the same amount that them fuels
conventional when is burn, by what is produces a process of cycle closed.
Biofuels are mixed with other fuels and provide a limited greenhouse gas reduction.
The use of biofuels carries some disadvantages. Thus is has the increase of prices of
them food that serve as matter prima of them biofuels, the rising of the land suitable for
cultivation. Also, the high cost of production of the biofuels entails an important impact
fiscal derived from them subsidies to these biofuels.

Table 5-production of biofuels in the world (expressed in %)