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TROUBLESHOOTING MANUAL 01W-2201 FB-70 series FB 10P, 14P, 15P, 18P 20P, 25P, 28P, 30P NIGHIYSU NIPPON YUSOKI CO.1TD. ‘YOTO, JAPAN CONTENTS Conta lw molm-1 (ee) I 4-1, Why change to AC now? 1-2, Features of SICOS-AC. 1-3. Comparison of DC and AC. 1-4. Types of moto 12 1.5. Features of AC motors Eeewseaal 1-6. Speed control of AC motor. 12 1-7. Induction motors.. 1-7-1. Principles of rotation 13 1-7-2, Rotating magnetic field 16 1-8. Inverter principles and acceleration/ deceleration characteristics .. 1-8-4. Inverter construction 1-8-2. Inverter principles 1-8-3. Switching of rotation direction 2. Adjustment of SICOS-AC Py 2-1. Explanation of the monitor display 2-1-1. Indicator panel 2-1-2. Indication of display 2-1-3, Function of display 2-1-4. Various kinds of mode selection 2- 2. Explanation of the MPU board ...... 2-2-1. Basic control board construction 2-2-2. Travel/ Hydraulic board 2-2-3, Display board 2-2-4, Rotary switch on the Travel/ Hydraulic board 38 2-2-5. Rotary switch on the Display board 39 2-2-6, Adjustment Standards List for FB-70 series 40 2-3, SICOS-AC check and adjustment. 2-3-1. Chassis insulation check 2-3-2, Battery voltage adjustment 2-3-3. Current detector check 2-3-4. Forklift model setting check and adjustment 45 2-8-5, Safety circuit for control (contactor tripping) check 46 2.3-6. Hydraulic setting check and adjustment a7 2.3-7. Descending regeneration check a7 2-3-8, Switch back (plugging/ regenerative) braking force adjustment 48 2-3-8, Regenerative brakina force check and adjustment 49 2-3-10. Safety monitor symbol check and adjustment 50 2-3-11. Display language check and adjustment 51, 2-3-12. Optional setting check and adjustment 52 2-3-13. View and brightness of display adjustment 53 2-3-14, Hour meter working check 53 2-3-15, Auto power off function working check 53 2-3-16. Battery electrolyte level working check 54 2-3-17. Tum signal lamp working check 54 2:3-18. Hydraulic oil level (optional) working check — 55 2-3-19, Brake oil level working check 23-20, Overload (optional) working check 2-3-21. Travel inhibitor (optional) working check 2-3-22. Cooling fan working check 2-3-23, Lift interrupt (optional) working check 87 2-3-24, Turing speed reduction (optional) adjustment and working check 58. 2-3-25, Seat switch (optional) working check 59 2-83-26, Bulin charger (optional) working check 60, EM rcray) Cr] 3- 1. Self diagnosis function ... 344-1. Display 341-2. Error messages and Display conditions 63 3- 2. Error history memory 3-2-4, Error history memory 1 65 3-2-2. Error history memory 2 66 3-2-3, Clearing the error history memory (memory initialization) 68 3- 3. 1/0 Check... 3-3-1, VO check mode display method 69 3-3-2. 1/0 port table a ruchok unde as 77 4-1. FB-70 System wiring..... (4-1-1. FB10 - 28-70 4-1-2. FB30-70 4-2, FB-70 Body wiring .. 4-2-1. FB10 = 28-70 4-2-2. FB30-70 4-3. FB-70 Body harness .. 4-3-1, FB10 - 18-70(Std/CS/FCS/RP/DRP) 81 4-3-2. FB10 - 18-70(EEC) 4-3-3, FB20 - 28-70(Std/CS/FCS/RP/DRP) 83 4-3-4, FB20 - 28-70(EEC) a4 4-3-5, FB30-70(Std/CS/FCS/RP/DAP) 85 4-3-6. FB30-70(EEC) 86 4-4. FB-70 CU wirin 4-5, FB-70 CU harness . 88 4-5-1. CU hamess(1) 88 4-5-2. CU hamess(2) 89 4-6, FB-70 Control unit....... 20 4-6-1. FB10- 28-70 4-6-2. FB30-70 4-6-3, FB10- 25-U70 4-7. FB-70 BC wiring.. 4-8. FB-70 Charger harness 4-8-1. Charger hamess(1) 4-8-2. Charger hamess(2) 4-9. FB-70 Wiring, revolving light ... 4-9-1. Key switch interlock 4-9-2. Forward/backward directional interlock 7 4-9-3. Backward directional interlock 4-10. FB-70 Wiring, working lamp. 4-11. FB-70 Wiring, chime .... 4-11-1, Forward/backward chime 411-2, Forward chime 4-11-3, Backward chime 4-12. FB-70 Wiring, license 4-12-1, Large truck inspections, new small truck inspections 4-13. FB-70 Wiring, load sensor .... 4-1-1, Analog type 4-13-2. Digital type 4-14. FB-70 Wiring, lift limit... 4-14-1. Lift limit for 1st stage 4-142. Lifl limit for 2nd stages 4-15. FB-70 Wiring, seat heater 4-16. FB-70 Wiring, rear lam 4-17. FB-70 Wiring, FS 4-18. FB-70 Wiring, wiper .. 4-18-1. Wiper 4-18-2. Lower wiper Referenc: 5- 1. MPU board connectors .. jm 5-1-1, Pin arrangement of housing 113 5-1-2. Name of parts 113 5-1-3. Installation of terminals into hdusing 114 5-1-4. How to extract terminals 115 5-1-8. Crimp tools (manufactured by AMP) 116 5- 2. Water resistant connector .. i 5-2-1. Water resistant connectors 5-2-2. Water resistant connectors (other than those described above) WNT [EH overview of SICOS-AC (AC control) Why change to AC now? With the spectacular trend in the improvement of electrical technology beginning in the early 1970's, there were advances in new element discoveries and development, especially for controls. In the 1980's, the automation of factories advanced with the rationalization of plants with systems for mass production. Many AC systems became available for this equipment, and at the same time the change to AC power began to spread throughout mass-production industries. The feature of AC power is that, for motors that require power, greater output can be acquired from devices of the same size. Or, putting it another way, you can get the same amount of power from a smaller device, which will result in compact equipment. Also, the range of controls that can be operated as you like is larger, the performance feeling is improved, and costs can be reduced. The primary reasons for the delay in the application of AC power to forklifts in industrial circles are the formerly high prices of elements for converting DC to AC for the low voltages used in forklifts, and the large energy loss in the conversion of a limited amount of electrical energy, as in batteries, for complex controls. However, the recent use of new elements that have the heavy insulation, high capacity, and high-speed switching of IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors) have allowed the conversion to AC power. ‘Overview of SICOS-AC (AC contro!) [I This has made possible a wide range of controls that were difficult to achieve with conventional DC systems, resulting in expectations for improvements in performance feeling in forklift operations. There are the benefits of the conversion to AC power. [===> offers greater power!! the size can be more compact!! For various applications ), (===> are simple, and the number UE RLU te — i nee of parts can be reduced!! Brush Motor yoke Fan Rotor coil Fixed coll Rotor coll Fixed coil (armature) (eld coil) (roter) (tator) a) DC motor b) AC motor Figure 1 Comparison of DC and AC Motors Compared to DC motors, AC motors ® have no brushes, and motor construction is simpler. can have smailer motor yokes since there are no brushes, resulting in a more compact design. Overview of SICOS-AG (AC control) Features of SICOS-AC i Enhanced regenerative functions on slopes The SICOS-AC has the traditional speed-holding regenerative functions for descending slopes, but in addition it is designed so that regenerative functions are activated simply by release of the accelerator, whether or not the slow speed mode switch (turtle switch) has been pressed. This enables descent down slopes at constant speed. i Enhanced acceleration force / braking force (regenerative / plugging brake) Use of AC control gives acceleration force that is appreciably stronger than in conventional vehicles. And in the SICOS-AC, not only is basic braking performance enhanced, but the regenerative brake is activated simultaneously with release of the accelerator pedal -- unlike in conventional vehicles where the regenerative brake is activated after the brake pedal is depressed. This provides smoother braking. i Simple motor maintenance Motor does not use brushes, so there are no brush wear problems. And the absence of brush holders and brush springs makes for simpler maintenance. i Fewer contactors Use of 3-phase inverter control renders contactors for travel (forward/backward/bypass) unnecessary. The only one contactor is used for emergency sake in the control circuits. i Contactor actuation noise eliminated Because of no contactors for travel and hydraulic circuits, the actuation noise is also eliminated. EEE Comparison of DC and AC ‘Overview of SICOS-AC (AC contro!) JE DC (Direct Current) AC (Alternating Current) A contactor is used to switch (There is a switching sound.) Controls are relatively simple. © The control range is limited to a few dozen levels. Forward and Backward Controls and s Operability | 2 g 3 3 Atew dozen levels 8 < ‘Accelerator open between forward and backward. ‘@ Operated with an inverter (IGBT device). (Very little sound since a contactor is not used.) ® Controls are more complicated. © The control range is larger, and the performance feeling is increased with a few hundred levels (more than 30 times DC). ‘A few hundred levels (neary straight ine without levels) Accelerator output Accelerator open [EB Overview of SICOS-AC (AC control) rc ED ast device Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is the device that have the high voltage insulation and high capacity of bipolar transistors and the high- speed switching of Field Effect Transistors (FET). This low-loss device is compact and highly reliable. Nichiyu uses it and has had good results with all models of the A-SICOS since the FBR-60 series. + Method 5 ‘, i = DC (Direct Current) AC (Alternating Current) © There are several dozen control | © There are several hundred control levels, and the inching speed levels (30 times those for DC control is relatively rough. control), and the inching speed ‘control is high-performance to allow for very slow travel speed and a good feeling. Inching speed control Acceleration © Acceleration is controlled by “ microcomputer, but somewhat rough. Little acceleration during high- “speed travel 1:insen the fork into the pallet. 2, Operate at 3 - 0 km/h. (approach) 8. No chopper sound during start or travel, and low amount of noise. 4, Outstanding inching performance has been achieved, Its resolution is approximately 30 times of current forklifts. Acceleration is possible even in high-speed travel areas. Overview of SICOS-AC (AC contro!) JI Method Performance DC (Direct Current) AC (Alternating Current) © 13.0/15.0kmV/h (loaded/unloaded) for both the 1.5 ton and 2.0 ton models of 65 series © Improved travel speed of 14.0/16.0km/h (loaded/unloaded) for both the 1.5 ton and 2.0 ton models of 70 series. Low speed setting Low speed setting ©65 series has 8 levels from5 to | #70 series has 5 levels from 2 to. Travel speed | 1 5km/h. Settings below 5km/h 6km/h, and 3 levels of 8, 10, and are not possible. 12km/h, for a total of 8 levels. Feature: Settings below Sknvh are possible for operators who. want to keep low-speed travel. © The accelerator pedal should be | # Speed adjustments can be made depressed fully when climbinga | easily with the accelerator, even grade. when climbing. When climbing, speed adjustments | @ Inching is possible while climbing Gradeability | _ With the accelerator are difficut. © Inching is impossible when climbing. EE cverview of SICOS-ACG (AG control) DC (Direct Current) AC (Alternating Current) When descending, travel speed is | @ The slow speed mode switch regenerated by activating the (turtle switch) is not required to slow speed mode switch (turtle turn on while descending. When switch). The regenerative force descending, the speed when the increases in the high speed accelerator is released plus range, and decreases by lowering| _1km/h is maintained throughout the speed. (Regeneration is not the descent. possible at speeds of 3km/h or Feature: This function is not lower.) available on competitor's Descending speed is the preset forklifts or engine forklifts. Descending speed plus 1km/h. Regenerative Breaking when Descending and Regenerative Breaking Regeneration Function when Descending 65 series Toyota 7FB Available Setting | Descent is at the Not available set speed plus knvh When stopping mid-grade with a | © Even after stopping mid-grade, normal load, creeping back will the parking brake alignment is occur when starting again. not necessary and creeping back © After stopping mid-grade, the will be minimized for starting. parking brake must be aligned _| e Even after stopping mid-grade when starting again. and releasing the brake and ‘© When stopping mid-grade, releasing| accelerator, the forklift will the accelerator and brake pedals descend at a safe speed of will cause the forklift to descendand} 1knvh. accelerate dangerously. © No chopper sound is emitted. Starting on a Achopper sound is emitted when | Feature: To warn to the operator to sane starting mid-grade. apply the parking brake, Creeping back the forklift will descend with very slow speed if both accelerator and brake pedals are released ona grade. This function is not available on competitor's forklifts or engine forklifts. Starting Mid-Grade Overview of SICOS-AC (AC control} Method : iio DC (Direct Current) AC (Alternating Current) Mid-Grade Starting Conditions 45P Grade | 19% 17% Model | 65series [77 Toyota 7FB | 65 series ‘Specs = STD STD Slide for about Slide for | Creep back for | pee | 0.5 meters, about? | about os ‘and. |and 3 seconds meter, and_ | meters, and 3 |. depress | later take off then take off | seconds later accelerator] Speed.can not speed can be | startto climb. _ adjusted. ‘adjusted. | Speed can not| | be adjusted. | After a3 Take off and | After 3 Fan fone an speed | second ie ir take off spee justment | start to clit Starting ona | | aignment| “can not be are posable, Speed can not slope / adjusted, be adjusted. |; Creeping back oP Grade 14.5% Model | 65 series 65 series Specs = sTD lalease Creep back for | ee paul about 0.5 a meters, and 3 and’ | Not possible seconds later |! enon slart to climb. can not pedal e adjusted. i After a3 Parking second mp brake | Not possible |i start to climb. alignment Speed can not |=4 be adjusted. ® A linking sound is made when No contactor is used except one the contactor is turned on or off. | emergency contactor. No clicking Since the brush is pressed against | __ sound is made while traveling the commutator, a brushing sound | _and hydraulic operations. is made. © Since there is no brush, there is no brushing sound. a , 4 Noise The new drive axle is adopted on 70 series to reduce the traveling noise. With the use of a low-rotation (27% reduction) high-torque motor, hydraulic noise has been reduced, FEB overview of SICOS-AG (AC contro!) Method : ura DC (Direct Current) AC (Alternating Current) Noise Measurements (dB) 15P Fe Competitor's 65 series Toyota 7FB | engine forklitt FG , Loaded] 68.0 72.0 88.0 Noise Travel Unloaded 70.0 74.0 86.0 t Loaded 66.5 70.0 82.0 ift 7 Unloaded 66.0 68.0 79.0 Note: A change of 3dB means that the actual noise level has either doubled or halved. © Brake regeneration means that the brakes will be applied even if the brake pedal is not depressed strongly, and that this regenerative energy is stored in the battery in order to extend the operation time of the forklift and reduce work stress on the operator. Feature: This function is not available on engine forklifts. Brake Brake regeneration Regeneration — © Not available © The system is applied automatically when the operator removes his/her foot from the accelerator. © No coasting with the regenerative system. Released Regenerative energy is stored as Accelerator electricity in the battery to extend (Neutral) operation time. Regenerative Feature: This function is not Brakes available on engine forklifts. Released Accelerator (Neutral) Regenerative Brakes Qverview.of SICOS-AC (AC contro!) [J Method [Performance DC (Direct Current) AC (Alternating Current) Switch back regeneration When the directional lever is switched to the opposite direction while traveling, the regenerative function activates and the truck speed is reduced electrically. This is the Switch back regeneration. The braking force is adjustable by depression of accelerator pedal. 70 series has improved deceleration (relationship between speed and stop distance) settings over 65 series Feature: This function is not available on engine forklifts Regenerative Brakes Switch back Distances (m) Lift and Tilt Controls 15P. 20P 65 series Toyota 7FB | 65 series [71 2 Distance] 5.83 9.56 6.50 : Loaded 1.13 0.87 1,01 |Deceleratian| [98] [76] [95] Distance| 6.03 8.02 6.40 |Untoaded| 1.52 1.38) 1.36 pesseaton) 95) e7)_| 196) @ Not available Has controls to start the lift and tilt operations smoothly and prevent shock. When hydraulic operations are complete, the regenerative ‘system is applied to the motor and pump to reduce unnecessary motion (noise) and store regenerative energy. Lift and Tit Controls Hill overview of SICOS-AC (AC control) Method nner DC (Direct Current) AC (Alternating Current) ‘Soft landing is the function to prevent the fork from striking the ground or lower surface when lowering the fork. Once the fork has been lowered to a set height, a brake will be applied to lower it softly to the ground. Note: This function is only engaged when there is no load. © Not available Soft Landing Cylinder Soft Landing Cylinder Dverview of SICOS-AC (AC control) BEEZ Types of motor There are various methods of classifying motors. Classification according to principles and construction yields the main types shown below. Those that use an inverter for their drive are usually 3-phase squirrel cage motors. Nichiyu also uses 3-phase squirrel cage motors. Series-wound DC motors DG motors Bolieapand DS: TCompoundawound| ‘DC motors ma] Wound-rotor chore. induction motors Trduction Single-phase motors motors ; AC motors toon net ‘Synchronous phase motors motors [ns | i Classification by Classification by Classification by ower supply operation principle. ‘construction Features of AC motors @Robust against high current. Good efficiency. @Rugged and durable. @Simpler construction than DC motor (generally) - no brushes, small number of components. @Speed fluctuation due to torque variation is low, enabling high speeds. @Heat-up occurs mainly in stators, so cooling is simple and a fan is not needed. EEG Speed control of AC motor AC motors used to be generally considered as constant-speed motors, because their speed is determined by a rotating magnetic field, and the only power source for generating the field was constant-frequency commercial power supply. But advances in semiconductor technology brought the appearance of power devices able to handle large electrical power with ease, which enabled variable voltage/frequency contro! of AC motors. As a result, AC motors have come to be-used as variable-speed motors. 12 Overview of SICOS-AC (AC control) EERA Induction motors The induction motor is the typical type of AC motor. In the induction motor, squirrel-cage type windings are deployed inside a rotating magnetic field which is generated by alternating current, and the mutual interaction between the induced current generated by these windings and the magnetic field causes the motor's rotation. [1-7-1. [Principles of rotation The induction motor makes use of a principle known as the “Arago's disc" principle, which was discovered by the French physicist Arago in 1924. This motor has the construction shown in Fig. 1.7.1, which uses a rotor (b) called a “squirrel cage" rotor. Such a rotor is made of aluminum and silicon steel plate; the aluminum parts constitute the flowpath through which the current flows, while the silicon steel plate facilitates the induction of magnetic flux. Drawing (c) in Fig. 1.7.1 shows the rotor’s aluminum conductor component alone. Here, the description of the induction motor’s principles of rotation focuses on this aluminum conductor component (Fig. 1.7.2). (b) Squirrel cage rotor (¢) Aluminum conductor ‘component (@) Induction motor Fig. 1.7.1 Construction of induction motor Completely closed coil ‘Samo ast conductor {inthis direction 1 Praton of Z Fleming's right-hand rule Magnets are rotated Induced currant 1 dhe Fleming's left-hand rule Overview of SICOS-AC (AC contro!) JE As shown in Fig. 1.7.2, the coil used is in a completely closed state; when the magnets deployed around the coil are rotated, induced current flows in the coil, causing a force to act on the coil so that it rotates. This is the rotation principle of an induction motor. Fig. 1.7.2 illustrates the principle using a single coil; by replacing that with multiple coils as in Fig. 1.7.3 we get a basic idea of the extension of the principle to an actual squirrel cage rotor. Rotation direction of magnet som <==y N N bos Substituting multple 7 coils gives this kind Ss : of concept = Yoo Tr 4 Induction current <5 Force produced by induction effect Fig. 1.7.3 Extension of principle to squirrel cage motor i Arago's disc The phenomenon in which a disc is turned by the interaction of a magnetic field with an induced current generated by electromagnetic induction is known as "Arago's disc" after its discoverer. The figure below shows Arago's disc reproduced in a modern configuration. It consists primarily of an iron disc with a pair of ferrite magnets attached, and an aluminum disc, which are deployed facing each other. The center axes of the two discs are aligned, but they are not connected. When the disc with magnets attached is rotated at high speed, the aluminum disc also starts to rotate. This is the phenomenon called "Arago's disc.” If the aluminum disc were an iron disc, there would be nothing extraordinary in its being attracted by the magnets and rotating. But it is extraordinary that a disc made of aluminum, which is not attracted by magnets, should rotate together with ferrite magnets. ‘Arago’s disc experiment (when an iron disc with a pair of ferrite magnets attached is rotated at high speed, an aluminum disc deployed facing it also rotates) ‘Aiuminurn aise Iron disc with pair of ferrite magnets attached 14 TEBE Overview of SICOS-AC (AC contro!) 15 Ampere's right-hand screw rule When current flows through a conductor, magnetomotive force is generated in its surroundings. It was Ampere (Andre Marie Ampere) who discovered the relation between the flow of current and the direction of the magnetomotive force. The figure below illustrates “Ampere's right-hand screw rule," which states that when an electric current flows in the direction in which a right-hand screw (regular screw) advances, the orientation of the magnetic field that forms in the current's surroundings will be the same as the direction in which a right-hand screw is turned. A strip of soft iron placed in this magnetic field will be magnetized with the north and south poles shown in the figure. i Fleming's rule This is the rule formulated by the British physicist Fleming, in the form of Fleming's left-hand rule (principle of motors) and Fleming's right-hand rule (principle of generators) (1) Fleming's left-hand rule Fleming's left-hand rule models the direction of the force acting on an electric wire L in a magnetic field when a current | is passed through the wire, as shown in the figure at right. When the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of a left hand (see hand drawn in figure) are held out perpendicular to one another and oriented so that the forefinger points in the direction of the magnetic field and the middle finger in the direction of the current's flow, then the force acting on the wire will be in the direction indicated by the thumb. The size of this force F (newtons) can be given by: F=B.1.L where B: Magnetic flux density (wb/m’) 1; Current (A) L: Length of wire (m) man stectec curent ows inthe direction in whieh fighthand sciew acvances, arragnsbe led is generdled wi tho saa doctor as hal in wich a figherand brow ie tumed Reference Fig. 2 Ampere's right-hand screw law Direction of acting fore (7) Direction of magnetic ld Let are Aetng fore Direstion of currant (9 Reference Fig. 3.1 Fleming's left-hand rule Overview of SICOS-AG (AC control) (2) Fleming's right-hand rule This rule models the direction of the voltage induced at the two ends of an conductor L in a magnetic field when the conductor is made to move rapidly, as shown in the figure at right. When the thumb, forefinger, and middle finger of a right hand (see hand drawn in figure) are held out perpendicular to one another and oriented so that the forefinger points in the direction of eet tT Direction in which ™agnetic ela the magnetic field and the thumb in the direction of the sonductoris moved Conductors direction ‘of movement conductor's movement, then the voltage induced in the > ney conductor will be in the direction indicated by the < x forefinger. The size of this induced voltage E (volts) Joy 2 can be given by: reed lecomate Qrcton easeed E=B.L.V foroe (€) electromotive force where Reference Fig.3.2 B: Magnetic flux density (wb/m2) Fleming's right-hand rule Length of conductor (wire) (m) V: Canductor's movement speed (m/s) Rotating magnetic field When the magnet in Fig. 1.7.4 is turned, the needle of the compass inside it rotates. This means that the magnetic field generated by the magnet rotates. A magnetic field that rotates in this way is called a “rotating magnetic field." 4, OMagnet rotates when handle is turned wi iN) @ 2 @Compass needle rotates, attracted by nara Fig. 1.7.4 Fig. 1.7.5. Extension of rotating magnetic Model of a rotating magnetic field fletd principle to motor EEE Overview of SICOS-AC (AC control) if we substitute an actual motor for the model in Fig. 1.7.4, then the motor's stator plays the role of the magnet and its rotor the role of the compass needle, as shown in Fig. 1.7.5, Here however the magnetic field is not rotated by an external force as in Fig. 1.7.4 -- that is not how an electric motor works. Rather, in an actual motor the stator generates a rotating magnetic field using 3-phase AC power. How it does so can be described as follows. When S-phase alternating current is applied to stator windings of the kind shown in Fig. 1.7.6, the direction of the magnetic field created by the stator rotates clockwise with time in the manner shown in Fig. 1.7.7. Thus, the stator generates a clockwise rotating magnetic field. * Auows indicate the regular Now direction ofthe current Magnetic eld withthe arection Pnase U winding current i Diedonctmapmictas — Beevetarrmne sg = £ o>: Phase V winding currant i Phase W winding current iw 1 Direction t of currant Bas "O®@806 6 a -_ Figure 1.7.6 Windings of 3-phase stator Contined magnets os Magnet is of gaze So _ ce ey lao ld of pase oe fod of pase V eetiiesotrme ney (mann) Time 2) Time 3) Tie Tine 5) Tie os 17 Fig. 1.7.7 3-phase rotating magnetic fleld Overview of SICOS-AC (AC contro!) JE Inverter principles and acceleration/deceleration characteristics This section describes the operation principles of the basic circuits that produce the variable frequency/voltage power that is output by the inverter for variable control of the motor’s speed. The inverter is a power conversion device for the motor (converting fixed frequency/voltage power to variable frequency/voltage power). 1-8-1. |Inverter construction The inverter is constructed with a main circuit of the inverter unit that converts direct current to the variable-frequent alternating current and a control circuit. A device that converts direct current to alternating current is called the inverter. [ 1-8-2. [Inverter principles @Method of producing AC from DC The inverter is a device that produces alternating current from direct current. Here its basic principles are described for the simplest form of AC-DC conversion, that is, conversion to single phase AC. In Fig. 1.8.1, which illustrates the method of DC-AC conversion, a lamp is substituted for the motor as the load. The 4 switches S1-S4 connected to the DC power supply in that figure are switched on and off alternately to produce the alternating current, in the way shown in Fig. 1.8.2, Sn y Switch St id Switch $3 3 £ H Hi ' i 8 ' 8 ' 82,83 ON Switch $2 / { ‘ ' Fig. 1.8.1 Production of AC Fig. 1.8.2 Current waveform When switches S1 and S4 are.on, current flows to the lamp L in the direction of arrow A. When switches S2 and S3 are on, current flows to the lamp L in the direction of arrow B. Thus, by alternately switching on and off the switch pairs $1+S4 and S2+S3, the direction of the current flowing to the lamp is alternately inverted, resulting in alternating current. 18 Overview of SICOS-AC (AC control) @Method of varying frequency Changing the duration for which the switches are turned on/off varies the frequency. For example, turning on $1+S4 for 0.5 seconds then S2+S3 for 0.5 seconds repeatedly will produce alternating current whose direction is reversed once per minute, that is, 1 Hz frequency alternating current. 05 sec os Fig. 1.8.3 1 Hz AC waveform Generally speaking, when S1+S4 and S2+S3 are each turned on for the same length of time the frequency will be given by the equation below, where te is the total time for 1 cycle: f= 1M» [Hz]. a Fig, 1.8.4 Frequency @For 3-phase AC The basic circuits for a 3-phase inverter are shown in Fig. 1.8.5. lhe g*] oy Motor DC power supply, w ‘S2 ¥ Fig. 1.8.5 Basic circuits for 3-phase inverter When switches S1 through S6 are turned on/off in a sequence such as shown in Fig. 1.8.6, equal-interval pulses are obtained between U and V, V and W, and W and U, resulting in application of rectangular-wave AC voltage to the motor. By varying the timing of such orvoft switching, any desired frequency can be output to the motor. And if the DC voltage E is also varied, the motor input voltage can be varied at the same time. 0 © 1 im a wo oD eo 4 Fig. 1.8.6 Production of phage AC Overview of SICOS-AC (AC contro! Construction of inverter unit The construction uses 6 transistors instead of switches, in the manner shown in Fig. 1.8.7. The inverter is connected to a 3-phase motor, and the motor is run via alternate on/off switching of the transistors Changing the on/off switching sequence for the transistors can change the motor's rotation direction. ® siphase AC 1 10 re eee Motor e Fig. 1.8.7 Transistor inverte @Operation of transistors Each transistor consists of 3 terminals: collector (C), emitter (E) and base (B) (or gate (G) with IGBT). When the base signal is off, there is no continuity between G and E (equivalent to the OFF condition of a switch; see "S" in figure below), and when current flows to the base terminal, continuity is created between C and E (equivalent to the ON condition of a switch). Thus, each transistor performs the same function (on/off switching) as a switch, but at high speed. Switch Transistor IGaT c c fi oe a. Fig. 1.8.8 Transistor 20 Overview of SICOS-AC (AC control) @Method of varying AC voltage, and types of such The inverter control method is called the “voltage method" since the inverter unit constitutes the voltage source. This method is divided into the following types according to the method of varying the voltage: Voltage method] - - -Method that controls the voltage applied to the motor PAM typo |--------------- ‘Type that varies the DC voltage PWM type |---------------' ‘Type that varies the transistor switching pulse width ‘Sinewave approximation |___ Type that varies the transistor switching pulse width so as to PWM lype ~~ ‘makes the output mean voltage approximate to a sinewave The diflerences between these methods result in different motor characteristics (vibration, noise, torque ripple, motor current ripple, torque response, etc). (Refer to Table 1.8.1.) Table 1.8.1 Voltage method Inverter control types (E: DC voltage) Low output frequency High output frequency Control type. (low voltage) (high volinge} Characteristics PAM (pulse _ —~e ‘Good effelency aripinace, a | E + | Voltage controlled by converter is modulation) fe | saopeary type —— ‘Slow response aie one | Output voltage wavetorn (Output mean votlage Caner PWM (pulse Frequency and voltage control pos- width modu- sible using invertor unit only lation) type Motor emits high-frequency noise: ‘Output votlage wavefor Siren Output moan vollage Low-speed, smooth operation Gr E Lower-order high frequency is small H Motor emits high-frequency noise ‘type i E PWM is a type in which several switching pulses are generated per cycle, and changing the pulse width varies the output voltage. The sinewave approximation PWM type is used at Nichyu. 21 Overview of SICOS-AC (AC contro!) IM 1-8-3. | Switching of rotation direction The rotation direction of an AC motor is determined by the rotation direction of its rotating electric field. And the rotation direction of the electric field is determined by the direction of the current. Fig. 1.8.9 shows the rotation direction switching methods for single phase and 3- phase induction motors. S-phase Single phase ‘S-phase power supply Black Rotor Black Ros —_ oO BUS vor eel ay ronson SEES C) Gre ‘Yellow Write Capacitor ike Aunany ————— ‘winaing. 3-phase power supply go Bt Rotor oO ck area Rotor - rons wre {[Peee 3 C) a = Yellow Write BL mS yo ___] Capacitor “Wile Aulary “Direction switched by changing winding ‘around any 2 wires. CW (Clockwise) CCW (counter clockwise) Fig. 1.8.9 Switching of rotation direction BEA adjustment of sicos-ac Explanation of the monitor display [ 2-1-1. [Indicator panel Monitor display Made select switch Battery discharge indicator @iravel speed indicator @Battery charge reservation indicator (Option with built-in charger) @Calendar and clock @®Hour meter @Safety monitor for traction circuit @Satety monitor for hydraulic circuit @Satety monitor for power steering circuit @Satety monitor for battery electrolyte level (Option with GS battery) @Satety monitor for brake fluid (Safety monitor for overload (Option) @Satety monitor for hydraulic oil level (Option) @Satety monitor for parking brake @Service (spanner) mark Mode select switch {Slow speed mode switch icons of © to @ is not aetual @ shown in the illustration are-displayed for the explanation. it They are displayed when abnormalities are occurred. [mur Adjustment of SICOS-AC JE [ 2-1-2. |Indication of display Turn on the key switch. Wen te key site fs tumed on. The self-diagnosis function checks the contro! system and display "MONITORING OK" when no problems are found. Icons of "Read operator's manual” and "Fasten seat belt" are flashed three times for warning to the operator. The normal screen is displayed. If any abnormalities are detected, the error message is Normal screen rg displayed. If the long message is displayed or some 1 messages are displayed, they are scrolled from right to left alternatively. After 2 or3 seconds Sigs SO-Oct» contact to your local Nichiyu dealer to check the truck. (Safety monitor (for overloading) (Option) When overloaded, the load icon flashes and " REDUCE THE LOAD +" message is displayed on the screen. @Safety monitor (for hydraulic oil) (Option) If the hydraulic oil level is low, the icon is flashed and the message of *#REFILL HYDRAULIC OIL ** is displayed. The hydraulic oil level sensor detects the oil level for 2 seconds after turning on the key switch. So, the fork must be on the ground when turning on the key switch. If the forks are ralsed and turn on the key switch, the warning message of "REFILL HYDRAULIC OIL -&" may be displayed even the quantity of oil is enough. (Safety monitor (for parking brake) When the parking brake lever is pulled, the parking brake icon is lit. if the operator move the truck without releasing the parking lever, the icon flashes and the warning buzzer is beeped. ioe Sms SB-Oct CTU. 28 EB Adjustment of Sicos-AC 29 (Service icon Warns the fault of the forklift truck to an operator. If fault is detected, the spanner icon flashes and the presumed defective part name is displayed. If some parts are detected, scroll each part name alternatively for every 5 ae seconds. elf the next fault is detected, all traveling, hydraulics and power steering functions are shut down. B11:IGBT-TRAVEL C21:IGBEHYD #* FAIL CURRENT* eAll &,®,@,©@ buttons are invalid while displaying these messages. (Mode select button @ Change the screen to each mode by pushing these buttons, @& e& ® Mode select button (@Slow speed mode button The slow speed mode is activates by pushing this button. Normal traveling mode (When the slow speed button is off) The slow speed mode indicator (~@™ ) is not displayed. Siow speed mode (when the slow speed button is on) bite pe ecaan The turtle icon and preset speed are displayed on the screen. Proset speed indication © If the value of the slow speed mode is preset, the maximum traveling speed can be changed in the FRem®"So-p-tctiiy slo: 30. normal mode-and slow speed mode by pushing tne ‘When the stow speed button is on turtle-button. (Turtle mark is displayed) Adjustment of SICOS-AC [2-1-4. [Various kinds of mode selection NOTE [Slow speed setting Travel mode setting Meter mode setting Display mode setting ICoast mode setting How to set the date and time Seee8 © These settings are invalid while traveling or depressing the brake pedal. If traveling or hydraulic operation is done while setting, the display is returned to the normal screen immediately. Push the turtle button to appear (-@™ ) icon on the screen. When pushing the "(4 " button, the mode selection screen is displayed. If pushing the *(M)" button again, the normal screen is displayed again. & — ‘Slow speed When setting the mode of next [7] to [5] , each preset indication button works as below. eo" @® "and" @ " buttons : Move the cursor to select the value. ©" @® " button : Move the cursor to the next item. ©" @ " button : Back the cursor to the previous item, [1]Slow speed setting This mode set the maximum speed under the slow speed mode. Make sure the turtle button is pushed and the turtle icon Claret Current is flashed, Then, push *@)" or "@®) * button to set the speed. The maximum speed can be set to 8 steps of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12 km/h. After setting, push "(R)" button to move the cursor to the travel mode setting. If push the * @) * button, the normal screen is displayed. To the setting of travel mode Ei Adjustment of Sicos-ac a1 2 vel mode setting Gontinued from the previous page. This screen is used to set the travel mode. Make sure that the current traveling mode indication is flashed. Push “ “or* (©) “to select the mode. After selection, push "(R)" button to move the cursor to the meter mode setting. Hf pushing the *@)* button, the cursor is moved to the | Sus\® jae [am Ba? | slow speed mode setting. ore Set the travel mode. The traveling mode can be set to the next three modes. E (ECONOMY) This mode is convenient for the slow speed inching, This mode saves the battery energy consumption also. N (NORMAL) This is the normal traveling mode. The quick acceleration and smooth inching can be realized. P (POWER) This is the most powerful mode for acceleration. 3|Meter mode setting The hour meter or odometer can be selected by this mode on the normal screen. [BiMeter mode setting When the cursor is located on the meter mode, "HR" L (hour meter) or "km" (odometer) can be selected by Saloct the foster mode: pushing * @) * or " CB)" button. Push & Ep Push @ After selection, push "() “ button to move the cursor to a To the display mode setting screen the display mode. If pushing the *(@) * button, the cursor is returned to the traveling mode area. The display is switched from the normal screen to the meter mode screen by pushing "@) * or "(@®) " button. The meter mode screen has 2 kinds. Refer below for details. Adjustment of SICOS-AC Normal screen and meter mode screen In the case of the hour meter (HR) mode In the case of the odometer (km) mode Total operating hours Normal screen mike SB-OctCTU) ml [Seals After 5 seconds, Push the normal screen Push pre! pore ae ___Confirmation screen “38-DetCTU)— Total operating hours. ——! Total traveling distance Total hydraulic hours. ———— Total hydraulle hours: Total traveling hours. $————— Total traveling hours Total traveling distance Normal screen ‘After 5 seconds, ws the normal screen L| is displayed. t Total traveling distance —————I Total operating hours 2éThe normal screen is displayed even within 5 seconds : when the traveling or hydraulic operation is done. 4\Display mode setting This mode sets the contrast and the brightness of the screen. When the cursor is located on the view mode, push the *@" or"@®)" button to change the value for the best contrast. The view can set 15 steps (from 1 through 15). After setting, push the “ ® “ button to move the cursor to the brightness setting. If the "(@#)" button is pushed, the previous screen is displayed, Make sure that the cursor is located on the brightness setting area. Push the "@)" or " @)" button to select the brightness for the best. It can be selected 15 steps (from 1 to 15). After setting, push "(R) " button to get the coast mode setting screen. If pushing the " (4) * button, the cursor is returned to the view (contrast) setting Continued from previous page. Display mode setting screen Set the view (contrast) are Sree) button button _| Display mode setting (Brightness) Set the brightness To the setting mode of regeneration (Coast mode) © 32 EE Adjustment of sicos-ac NOTE! | Refer the table below for the view and brightness settings. W (Coni 1 Thick - Thin BRIGHTNESS (Intensity of back light) 5 15 Dark = sign [5|Coast mode setting This mode can set the regenerative braking force when releasing the accelerator pedal while traveling. Make sure that the REGEN(NEUTRAL) mode screen is displayed. Then push "@)* or "@) " button to select the strength. The braking strength can be set to 4 steps of "NON" (No. braking), "LOW", "MID" (Middle) and "HIGH". After setting, push "(R)* button to return to the normal screen. If pushing the "(M)" button, the display mode setting screen is displayed. 6|How to set the date and time When the *(M) " button is pushed for more than 3 seconds, the date and time setting screen is displayed. Push *(@) " button to return to the normal screen. If traveling or hydraulic operation is done while setting, the display is returned to the normal screen immediately. When setting the mode of next ‘ to @, each button works as below. " @ “and " () " buttons : Move the cursor to select the value. oe" ® “ button : Move the cursor to the next item. : Back the cursor to the previous item. Continued from previous page. UBietting mo regereration {coast mode) "Set the regenerative braking force when coasting. ae er fener Return to te normal screen a NCHORNAL Bi SO-Oct (TU) m1 B1 38] a FR SB-Oct (TU) (ria? 3a Push@ button Current date {or more shan and time ‘Year's flashed. Adjustment of SICOS-AC @Set the year Make sure the cursor is located on the year area. Push "@)" or "(@®)" button to set the year. The year can be set from 2000 to 2999. After setting, push the "(R) " button to move the cursor to the month area. If push the " @® "button, the normal screen is displayed. @Set the month Make sure the cursor is located on the month area. Push "@)" or "(®)" button to set the month. the month can be selected from 1 to 12. After setting, push " @R) " button for the date setting. Set the month If pushing "(4)" button, the cursor is returned to the [Push @ Push @ year area. puter To the setting of date (day) @Set the date Make sure the cursor is located on the date area. push “@)" or "@®)" button to set the date. The date can be set from 1 to 31. When setting the date, the day of the week is set automatically. After setting, push the "(R)" button to move the cursor to the AM/PM area. bee er eee? If pushing "(@)" button, the cursor is returned to the (ilwsengaame ou month area. oe Set the date (Day of the week is set automatically) @Set the AM or PM Push the *@) "or" ®" button to select the AM or PM. After setting, push the "(R) " button to move the cursor to the hour area, If pushing "@ “ button, the cursor is returned to the data area. Continued from previous page. Adjustment of SICOS-AC @Set the hour Push the "@)" or "(@®)" button to set the hour. The hour can be set from 1 to 12. After setting, push the "(R) " button to move the cursor to the minute area. If pushing " (@#) " button, the cursor is returned to the AM or PM area. To the setting of minute aye @Set the minute Push the "@)" or "(®) " button to set the minute. The minute can be set from 00 to 59. After setting, push the " (R) " button. Then "COMPLETE" message is flashed three times. In any cases, push "(™)" button to get the previous step. @ When pushing the "@) " or "@)" button, the second is set to "00". © After setting the minute and push the "(Q)" button, the second is set to "00". eo elf set the date and time, the reserve charge setting is also renewed.