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1945 - Yalta conference (the big three) :


Founding of the United nations

Rebuild europe, establish order and destroy nazism
Germanys surrender
Polish government

1945 United Nations :

26 nations, each member has a vote
Goals :

Preserving world peace

Promoting human rights
Developing relations between members
Promoting economy and social progress

6 main organs :

The Security Council : 5 permanent members (USA, UK, Russia, China and
France) + 10 guest members (changes every 2 years)
The General Assembly : Parliament of Nations : all member states
represented (president is republic of Fiji)
The Economic and Social Council : cooperation between member states
Trusteeship Council : decolonization of land taken in WWII
The International Court of Justice : 15 judges elected by the general
assembly and the Security Council. (deals with disputes between nations
and crimes against humanity)
The Secretariat : Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon (South Korea). 44.000 civil
servants in the world. Implements UN decisions.

Nuremberg trials :

24 Nazi officials prosecuted

The big three :


1945 - Potsdam conference (the big three) :

Division of Germany and Austria into 4 zones (US/UK/FR/USSR)

Denazification + demilitarization of Germany
Prosecution of Nazi criminals
War reperation fro USSR
German borders moved westwards
Potsdam Declaration : Requesting surrender of Japan (after 2

1951 Treaty of San Fransisco :

Japan accused of war crimes and crime against humanity.

1975 Helsinki Declaration :

Recognition of the new borders of Germany

1945 started during WWII
Nomenklatura : few wealthy people in the USSR
Gulag : Labour camps
Kominform : Communist international organisation
1947 Truman Doctrine :
Created to counter the spread of comunism.

Contain Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey (financial help to anticommunist groups)
Financial helps other nations against communism

1948 1951 Marshall Plan :

US-sponsored program to rebuilt europe and boost economy to avoid

communist progression (13billion$) -> successful

1949 -North Atlantic Treaty :

12 founding members (USA, Canada, UK, Denmark, Iceland, France, Luxembourg,
Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Norway and Portugal)

Founed NATO (military alliance)

1950 The World Peace Council :

International organization promoting peace , disarmement and

independence (lost popularity because didnt stand up against the
Hungarian uprising of 1956)

1951 The European Coal and Steel Community :

Body supervising the production of coal and steel(West Germany, France,

Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, The Netherlands) -> common market for coal
and steel

1953 Stalins death

1955 The Warsaw Pact :

Military alliance between communist states

1948 1949 The Berlin Blockade :

Stalin blocks any traffic from/to west Berlin
USA provides everything by plane -> end of the blockade

1957 Eisenhower Doctrine

Any Middle East country can request American economic assistance or

military aid if threatened.
Used to counter the Soviet Threat
Strengthen US position in the Middle East, enforce containment.

Brinkmanship :

Pushing to countries to the limit of confrontation to achieve a withdrawal of

both parties (USSR+USA)

Peaceful cohexistence
1961 Berlin wall :

Prevent brain drain from east to west Berlin -> economy grows

Monroe Doctrine :

Stating that the US will intervene in any matter on the American continent
if their national security is at risk.