Sunteți pe pagina 1din 79

oronal suture

Frontal bone

Parietal bone

Glabella--

Sphenoid bone
Lesser wirig

Orbital surface
Nasal bone

lacrimal bone
~_~

Zygomaficbone
Frontal process

'__

_--"l'r

Orbital plate

--

__

Perpendicular
--Middle

plate

nasal concha

Orbital surface
---Inferior

Temporal process

nasal concha

Zygomaticofacial
foramen

Mandible

Maxilla

Ramus
Orbital surface ---'
Infraorbital fora men
Frontal process---,
~ __

Alveolar process
A_nteriornasal spine

-----

Mental protuberance

Skull - Anterior View


Posterior and
Anterior
ethmoidal foramina

Orbital surface of frontal bone


Orbital surface of lesser
wing of sphenoid bone

Orbital plate of
ethmoid bone

Superior orbital fissure ----~_l:.~


Optic canal (fora men) -----ft..-olJ---l
Orbital surface of greate~r:-_--+'~-l
wing of sphenoid bone

_--lacrimal
--p--Wl----Fossa

bone
for lacrimal sac

Orbital surface of
zygomatic bone ----

Orbital process of
Palatine bone

Inferior orbital fissure

Orbital surface
of maxilla

Infraorbital groove

R"ight Orbit - Frontal and slightly lateral View

Parietal bone

Sphenoid bone
Greater wing

Temporal bone

Temporal fossa

Squamous part

Superior temporal line

Zygomatic process

Inferior temporal line

Articular tubercle
Groove for posterior
(jeep temporal artery

Ethmoid bone
Orbital plate

Fossafor
Lacrimal sac
Occipital bone
External
occipital
protuberance

Maxilla
Frontal process~
u....:...-

Infraorbital
foramen---

__

~~~

Anterior
nasal spin,~-- __
Alveolar process

.-I

Mandible
Head of condylar process
Mandibular notch
Coronoid process
Ramus
line

Zygomatic bone
Zygomaticofacial
foramen -----~~~)~,...~'/Temporal process--~
Zygomatic arch

~---~~L--------Oblique
----~~~--------------Body

.,-.-------~
,
iI!:::::....----------

Mental foramen

----i:::'~"=~..",
...
~

Infratemporal fossa exposed by


removal of zygomatic arch and mandible'
pterygomaxillary: fissu[e------;~~~A~~tl.-..2
Inferior orbital fissure------~~L...:"I!iii~~~
Infratemporal surface of maxilla------.:~~~~~

Temporal bone
Externalacoustic
meatus

Alveolar foramina ---------~-~


Iuberosltv of maxilla

---------i":--......:.""'::"'::---

Mandibular fossa
:t\rticulartubercle
pterygopalatine

fossa

Styloid process

Sphenopalatine foramen

Skull - Lateral View


.f)

Frontalbone

-----------.p...--

Coronal suture-

-/.~;::~~

-I-.:...-.

Bregma--

~~:::~~

--J~_

Parietal bone----

--:-:::;;:~f_t-------_~

Sagittal suture
Parietal foramen (for emissaryve"n)
Lambda

Occipital bone

-:::~~-----Frontal

bone
Frontal crest

r-t-~-:lr-

Groove for superior sagittal slnu:


Coronal suture

Parietalbone
'!.--~~-~~;----

Granular foveolae
(for arachnoid granulations)

~---Diploe

---"!" ....~~---:....

Grooves for branches of


middle meningeal vessels

--:::H7+----Groove

~:;:-----;:-:'H~~---

for superior sagittal slnui

Sagittal suture

._~~~~-----Lambdoid

~~~~~~~rF------

suture

Occipital bone

Calvaria (skull cap)

Maxilla
Incisive fossa ----"
Palatine process --~
Median palatine suture
Zygomatic process

Zygomatic bone
Frontal bone

Transversepalatine suture

Sphenoid bone
Pterygoid process
Hamulus---,
Medial plate---..
~Ptery~oid fossa}
Lateral plate
Scaphoid fossa
Greater wing -.....
Foramen ovale-_
Foramen spinosum
Spine
Temporal bone

Zygomatic process
Articular tubercle------t::r
Mandibular fossa -------l-Styloid process
Petrotympanic fissure -----+--"~-::::-Carotid canal (external o)IP~e:n~i~n~g[::t:;:.:::~~~~~
Tympanic canaliculus ~
Externalacoustic meatus
Mastoid canaliculus
Mastoid process
Stylomastoid fo~r=a::m.:.:e:.:.n.:...-_--~
Petrouspart
Mastoid notch for
digastric muscle
Occipital groove
(for occipital artery)
Jugular fossa
(jugular foramen in its depth)

--------f--.---....

Palatine bone
Horizontal plate
Greater palatine foramen
Pyramidal process
Lesserpalatine foramina
~or
nasal spine

~--Choanae
Vomer

Groove for
pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube
Foramen lacerum

Mastoid fora men


Parietal bone

Occipital bone
Hypoglossal canal
UCcipital condyleCondylar canal and fossa
Basilar part-----Pharyngeal tubercle----'
Foramen magnum----Inferior nuchalline---------'
External occipital crest-----'
Superior nuchal line ------'
External occipital protuberance ----'

-pCranial base - Inferior View

NECKCX

I
I

Ethmoid bone

-:;::=======:J==:-----_-'~
=::::i

Cristagalli
Cribriformplate========j--'--

__

I
,I
.,1

Sphenoid bone
Lesserwing-----------Anteriorclinoid process--------Greaterwing -----------_
Groove for middle meningeal
Vessels(frontal branches)
Body

__

----------~~(E.1::]~

l Anterior

.,;? cranial
. .,: II
," " I
I
I

fossa

~~~::~========:::::::::j~!:~t;~~~~::2=~~ Middle

Jugum
Prechiasmaticgroove
(Tuberculumsellae

cranial
fossa

~=::===~ht-~::=~;~~~:;~,

Sella ) Hypophysealf~s~s~a~=====3~~~~~2~~~~~I~
Posteriorclinoid process
turcica Dorsumsellae
Carotid groove (for intocarotid a,
Clivus

Temporal bone
Squamouspart
Petrouspart
Groovefor lesserpetrosal nerve ---+-~
Groovefor greater petrosal nerve--I-~
Arcuate eminence
Trigeminalimpression
Groovefor superiorpetrosal sinus--+-"
Groovefor sigmoid sinus

----------+-"

-------!-~
------i--"
------+-~

Parietal bone
Groovefor middle meningeal
Vessels(parietal branches)
Mastoidangle--------...r--

Posterior
cranial
fossa

-----1--

Occipital bone
Clivus-------------;-Groovefor inferiorpetrosal sinus---:-Basilarpart -----------Groovefor posteriormeningeal vessels
Condyle-----------Groovefor transversesinus------"
Groove for occipital sinus------Internaloccipital crest
Internaloccipital protuberance ----+--~
Groove for superiorsagittal sinus

---r-~

Cranial base - Internal View

NATOMY

~
fora men cecum

--Emissary vein to superior

Nasal slit ------------Anterior ethmoidal fora men

sagittal

sinus

t l Anterior ethmoidal artery. vein

lt

and nerve

Foramina of cribriform plate-- Olfactory nerve bundles


Posterior ethmoidal foramen -Posterior ethmoidal artery. vein
and nerve
Optic canal

~Optic nerve (11)


Ophthalmic artery

Superior orbital fissure -----

Oculomotornerve (Ill)
Trochlearnerve (IV)
lacrimal. frontal and nasociliary
branchesof ophthalmic nerve (vl)
Abducent nerve (vl)
Superiorophthalmic vein

Foramen rotundum ---------

Maxillary nerve (v2)

Foramen ovale -----------

Mandibular nerve (V3)


Accessory meningeal artery
lesser petrosal nerve (occasionally]

Foramen spmosum
~~~~~:::==:l~rr==:SPhenoid

---------1

lMiddlemeningealarteryand vein

Meningealbranchof mandibularnerve

emissary fora men (vesalius) (inconstant)

r;::~?~~_-_~~:r[=
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal for

~-

[Internet carot~d artery


carotid nerve plexus

.-

Hiatus for-----

1 Internal
-----------lesser

petrosal nerve

Hiatus for-----------------

Greater petrosal nerve

Internal acoustic meatus ---

Facial nerve (VII)


Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

External opening of
vestibular aqueduct -------I

labyrinthine artery
Endolymphatic duct

Mastoid foramen -------(inconstant)

Emissary vein (and occasional


branch of occipital artery)
Inferior petrosal sinus
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
Vagus nerve (X)
Accessory nerve (XI)
Sigmoid sinus
Posterior meningeal artery

Jugular foramen ---------

Condylar canal
(inconstant)

JEmissaryvei~ and meningeal branch


1 of ascendmg pharyngeal artery

Hypoglossal canal---------

Foramen magnum

----

Hypoglossal nerve (XII)


MedUllaoblongate
Meninges
Vert~bral arteries
Meningeal branches of vertebral
arteries
Spinal roots of accessory nerves

Foramina of Cranial base - Superior View


r

Skull, Inferior View


Incisive foramen

Palatal process of maxilla


Palatal process of palatine
Greater palatine fora men
Lesserpalatine foramen
Tubercle of maxilla
Zygomatic arch __
Hamulus-+--LJ~11
Infratemporal crest--..llt...--~
Scaphoid fossa-~f--r--=12:L.
Articular tubercle
_
Mandibular fossa -...;...a;;=Styloid process -I.,..........:::!!
Externalauditory meatus
Stylomastoid foramen

Maxilla
Inferior orbital fissure
Vomer
Lateral pterygoid plate

....-~

~~

Mastoid process

:::::::"-~P'"""""r--Medial
pterygoid plate
Foramen ovale
","-=:::=:+:==-:;1.=
Foramen spinosum
11:
Spine of sphenoid
-~I-Petrous
part of termporal bone
,---t~I-Carotid
canal
Tympanic part of
temporal bone
Jugular foramen
Occipital condyle

Pharyngeal tubercle

Superior nuchal line


Foramen magnum
External occipital protuberance

Skull, Internal View


Frontal c est
Crista galli

Pterion
Tuberculum sellae
Sella turcica
Posterior clinoid process
Dorsum sellae
Hiatus for greater
petrosal nerve
Arcuate eminence

li,

Basilar part of occipital

Frontal sinus
Foramen cecum
Cribriform plate
Orbital plate of frontal
Optic canal
esser wing of sphenoid
Anterior clinoid process
Foramen rotundum
Foramen lacerum
Foramen ovale
~ ..,~~...Groove for middle
meningeal orterv
rr-c;2~~~~rr
Foramen sptnosurn
~,p;;:.,.a,...j~-Squamous
part of temporal
~~~~i-+lH--Petrous
part of temporal
.. Internal auditory meatus
Groove for superior
petrosal sinus
Groove for sigmoid sinus

~\

Jugular foramen
F oramen magnu

..

~."..~
.. Iio;.h.
.~~:;
".

Internal occlpltol crest


Occiput

",'"
~,,'"

transverse sinus

7':~-"~:'"""Hypoglossal canal
"<A<r:~

Internal occipital

protuberance

Skull base
s

aD C

3_

51,

Sphenoid bone

Temporal bone

Parietal bone

Greater wing
Lesserwing -...
Anterior clinoid
Process
Optic canal-...
Sella turcica
Sphenoidal sinus
Body-----...:
Medial and lateral
plates of
pterygoid
Process-------....

Squamous part

Grooves for
branches of middle
meningeal vessels

etrous part
Internal ocoustic meatus
Groove for superior
petrosal sinus
External opening of
vestibular aqueduct
Groove for
sigmoid sinus

-----i

Frontal bone
Frontal sinus

Ethmoid bone
Crista galli ------:~~~
Cribriform plate --~7:;tlt:!.:.:1i
Perpendicular
Plate

'-

External occipital
protuberance

.?i~~~::=---;0'tf:':""---Jugular

Nasalbone~

foramen

~--_
Inferior nasal
concha ---

Groove for inferior


petrosal sinus
Hypoglossal canal

Maxilla /;
Anterior
nasal spine
Nasal surface
Incisive canal
Palatine process
Alveolar process

Occipital condyle

'~',O"""

Vomer

~-..-.--

Frontal bone

Opening of sphenoidal sinus

Ethmoid bone
Cribriform plate
Superior nasal concha
Middle nasal concha

Sphenopalatine

foramen

_~:::-_~j

Sphenoid bone

Lacrimal bone

Body
'- ~
....J

Maxilla
Nasal surface
Palatine process
Alveolar process

Medial
Plates of pterygoid
Lateral ) process
pterygoid hamulus

Perpendicular plate
Horizontal plate

Skull - Midsagittal section

t
)

Palatine bone

Lateral view

Anterior fontanelle

Parietal bone

Coronal suture~TUber

Sphenoidal fontanelle

Frontal bone

Squamous suture

Squamous part ----""'I


Supraorbital notch (fora men)

Posterior fontanelle
Lambdoid suture

Ethmoid bone
Anterior ethmoidal
foramen --_
Orbital plate

Occipital bone
Mastoid fontanelle

Lacrimal bone
Nasal bone

(eminence)

Temporal bone
Maxilla -----_
Infraorbital foramen --_--'
Zygomatic bone ----Zygomaticofacial fora men

Petrosquamous fissure
Petrous part
(mastoid process absent)
Tympanic part (bony extern
acoustic meatus absent)

..J

Palatine bone
Pyramidal process ------'

Superior view

e-

Oval (vestibular) window


Round (cochlear) window

Zygomatic process
Frontal bone
Anterior fontanelle

Coronal suture
Parietal bone --~--Ir:--~-----+--Sagittal

suture

Posterior fontanelle
Occipital bone

:;.~-.-..,...::......----

Skull of newborn

Lambdoid suture

area related to frist part of maxillary artery


and auriclotemporal nerve
Condylar process

Pterygoid fovea insertion


of lateral pterygoid

-'

Coronoid process

Neck

Temporalis muscle
insertion

Mandibular notch
Lingula
lateral tempro-

Mylohyoid groove

andibular
foramen

Oblique line
Submandibualr fossa

mandibular ligament

Mylohyoid line origin


of mylohyoid muscle

Sublingular fossa

/
/

Interaveolar septa

/
(

/.-\ Ramus
/
Alveolar part (crest)----:Mental fora men
Mental protuberanc:e====f::-;---.;--....:;~
Mental tubercle--

__

Angle

Base of mandible--------,..=..

__

"r-

Buccinator origin

Body
Coronoid process insertion
of temporalis -_

~
r6--condYlar

Head

j?

Neck
Mandibular notch
Pterygoid fovea
insertion of lateral
pterygoid

~.......--

platysma insertion
Mandible of adult:
anterolateral superior view

process

LinguJa- sphenomandibular

ligament

Mandibular fora men


Mylohyoid groove
(.-\ Ramus
Pfregomandibular ligament

Medial pterygoid insertion


area related to 3rd
molar tooth
Angle
_ v>0 ~-Submandibular fossa
Sublingual fossa
---Digastric
fossa origin of anterior
belly of digasteric
Mental spines

Mandible of adult:
left posterior view

@jJz.'1

Mandible

andible of aged
person (adentulous)

Mandible of infant

Anterior tubercle

Anterior articular
facet (for anterior
arch of atlas)

Dens~_
Transverse
process

Superior articular
facet for atlas

Pedicle
Interarticular
part

Transverse
foramen

Vertebral
foramen
Posterior arch
Superiorarticular surface
_-Posterior
tubercle
of lateral mass for
Groove for vertebral artery
occipital condyle

Inferior articular
facet for C3

Axis (C2): anterior view

Atlas (C 1): superior view

Posterior tubercle .....

Transverse
process

Body

Posterior arch

Dens
Superior articular
facet for atlas

Transverse
process

Posterior articular
facet (for transverse
ligament of atals)
Transverse
process

t:~~~~~Articular

facet
for dens
Anterior tubercle

Atlas (Cl): inferior view


Anterior
tubercle
Posterior
tubercle

Axis (C2): posterosuperior

Transverseprocess
Groove for
spinal nerve
Transverse
foramen ........
A
Pedicle ~~~~!!l,..;

Spinous process

4th cervical vertebra:


superior view

Body

-
~

----+

7th cervical vertebra:


superior view

view

NECW
Lateral view
Joint capsule
lateral (temporomandibular) ligament
Sphenomandibular ligament
Sphenomandibular ligament (phantom)
Styloid process
Stylomandibular ligament
Mandibular nerve
and otic ganglion

Joint capsule----.;
Middle meningeal
artery
Auriculotemporal nerve
,'-"',-",Maxillary artery
Inferior alveolar nerve
lingual nerve
_lIIIl1"~rvphenomandibular

ligament

Stylomandibular ligament
Mandibular fosssa
Articular disc
Articular tubercle
Mylohyoid branch of
inferior alveolar artery
and mylohyoid nerve

Jaws closed

\~~

Jaws slightly

opened
(hinge action
predominates)

Jaws widely
opened
(hinge and gliding
action combined)

Temporomandibular Joint

Medial view

Anterior view
----Basilar

part of occipital

Pharygeal

bone

tubercle

Anterior atlantooccipital

membrane

Capsule of atlantooccipital
Atlas (C 1)--

Posterior atlantooccipital
:-,;::.;..---

Lateral atlantoaxial
Anterior longitudinal

joint
membrane

joint (opened

up)

ligament

Posterior view Posterior

atlantooccipital

membrane

Axis (C2)
Skull

Capsule of
Zygapophyseal
joint (C3-4)

Anterior atlantooccipital

membrane

Capsule of
ottontoocctpttot
joint
Posterior
atlantooccipital
membrane

Atlas (C 1)
Vertebral
artery

Ligamenta flavo---:r--;i-~t.i

Ligamenta
. .
.
Subocclpttol nerve (dorsal
ramus of Cl spinal nerve)

{r~';'
Body of axis (C2)
Intervertebral

discs (C2-3 and C3-4)

Zygapophyseal
Anterior tubercle

Spinous process
of C7 vertebra
(vertebra prominens)

joints (C4-5 and C5-6)


of C6 vertebra

Vertebral artery
Tl vertebra

Right lateral view

External craniocervical

ligaments

(carotid

tubercle)

flava

Upper part of vertebral canal with spinous processes


and parts of vertebral arches removed to expose
Ligaments on posterior vertebral bodies: Posterior View
Clivus (surface feature)
of basilar part of occipital bone

l--,--~~~

Capsule of.-.....
atlantooccipital
joint
~~.w

.-tft~

~~:;;;;~-

Tectorial membrane
__

Deeper (accessory)part of tectorial membrane


Posteriorlongitudinal lligament

Atlas (Cl)
Capsule of lateral
atlantoaxial joint
Axis(C2)_-~
Capsule of
Zygapophyseal
jOint
(C2-3)

Alar ligaments

Superior longitudinal band


Cl"
ruciate
Igamen:t

Transverseligament of atlas
{ Inferior longitudinal band

Deeper (accessory) part of tectorial membrane

Principal part .of Tectorial Membrane removed


to expose Deeper Ligaments: Posterior View
--Apical
Atlas (Cl)

~~:-ii;;~_Alar
..:-_-

ligament of dens
ligament
Posteriorarticular facet of dens (for transverse
ligament of atlas)
nterior tubercle of atlas

Ir~~~

~.~~,ynOVial

cavities

Axis (C2)

Cruciate ligament removed to show


Deepest ligaments: Posterior View

Transverseligament
of atlas

Median Atlantoaxial Joint: Superior View

Internal Craniocervical Ligaments

Scalp Subcutaneoustissue--------....,
~Epicranialaponeurosis(galea aponeurotica
Temporal facia
ObI r
I }orbital part
r ICU ens ocu I musc e lPalPebral part

Auricularis anterior muscle


Auricularis superior muscle
Auricularis posterior muscle

Frontalbelly (frontaliS)of epicranius muscle

Occipital belly
(occipitalis) of
epicranius muscle

Corrugator supercilii muscle (frontalis


and orbicularis oculi, partially cut away)

Levator labii superioris muscle


Levator labii superioris
alaeque nasi muscle
(partially cut away)----"'\.
Nasalis ~Transverse part
muscle l Alar part
Depressor septi
nasi muscle
Orbicularis oris muscle-_---!~_
Zygomaticus minor muscle

_,.>fiill:'-"y.~.

Zygomaticus major muscle


Orbicularis oris muscle
Mentalis muscle
Depressor labii inferioris muscle
Depressor anguli oris muscle
Buccinator muscle

Platysma muscle

Pectoralis major fascia

Muscles of Facial Expression - Lateral View

Investing layer of
(deep) cervical fascic

ANATOMY

Scalp-

\.A..

Skin and
subcutaneous tissue
Epicranial aponeurosis
(galea aponeurotica)
(cut to reveal skull)

Parietal emissary vein

Branches of
- superficial temporal
artery and vein

Middle temporal artery and vein


Zygomaticoorbital

artery

Transverse facial
artery and vein

Anterior
auricular
arteries

Supraorbital
artery and vein
Supratrochlear
artery and vein
Nasofrontal vein
Dorsal noscl
artery and vein

Mastoid emissary
vein and meningeal
branch of occipital
artery (posterior
meningeal artery)
Deep facial vein
(from pterygoid
plexus)

ccipital artery
and vein (cut)
Posterior auricular
artery and vein

Facial artery and vei

External jugular vein (cut)


Retromandibular vein
Internal jugular vein
Internal carotid artery
External carotid artery
Common carotid artery
Lingual artery and vein

Sources of arterial supply of face


Black: from internal carotid artery (via ophthalmic artery)
Red: from external carotid artery

Blood Supply of the Face

urlcular branch
of vagus nerve (X)

From ophthalmic division


of trigeminal nerve (V,)
SupKlorbltal nerve --

....
~

Supratrochlear nerve --

...

Medial branches
of dorsal rami
lof cervical spinal
nerves

Palpebral branch of
lacrimal nerve -------:~
Infratrochlear nerve --

.....

Greater occipital
nerve (C2)

External nasal branch of


anterior ethmoidal nerve

3rd occipital
nerve (C3)
From 4th. 5th.
6th and 7th
nerves In
succession
below

From maxillary division


of trigeminal nerve (V2)
Infraorbltal nerve --~~~~
Zygomaticofacial

nerve

--~:p.~~,.;:;:~~~~~Il ...
~

Zygomaticotemporal nerve

--+t'"'~~

Branches from
cervical plexus
Lesser occipital
nerve (C2. 3)
Great auricular
nerve (C2. 3)

From mandibular division


of trigeminal nerve (V3)
Mental nerve

Transverse cervlca
nerve (C2. 3)
Supraclavicular
nerves (C3. 4)

Buccal nerve ------Auriculotemporal

nerve -----

Ophthalmic nerve (V,)

Trigeminal
nerve (V)

Dorsal rami of
cervical spinal
nerves

---1--

Note: Auricular bran(


of vagus nerve to
external acoustic
meatus and small .
area on posteromed
surface of auricle

Maxillary nerve (V2)

-r-;----Branches
Mandibular nerve (V3)---,.----

from
cervical plexus

Cutaneous Nerves of the Head and Neck

ANATOMY
Superficial temporal artery and vein
and auriculotemporal nerve
Branches of facial nerve
Transversefacial artery
Accessory parotid gland

Buccinator muscle (cut)


Masseter muscle
lingual nerve
Submandibular ganglio
Tongue
Sternocleidomastoid muscle

Frenulum of tongue
Sublingual fold with openings
of sublingual ducts

Parotid gland

Sublingual caruncle with opening


of submandibular duct

Retromandibular
vein (anterior and
posterior branches)
Digastric muscle
(posterior belly)

--J>~ilJ-

Sublingual gland
Submandibular duct

External jugular vein


Common trunk receiving facial,
anterior branch of retromandibular,
and lingual veins
Internal jugular vein

Mylohyoid muscle (cut)


Digastric muscle (anterior belly)
Submandibular gland

External carotid artery

Facial artery and vein

Horizontal section in parotid gland


Medial pterygoid

muscle

Main trunk of facial nerve

Ramus of mandible

r;::?~~~~~~---Masseter muscle
Parotid gland

Temporofacial division
~-~
Posterior auricular nerve-

......
\
~'-

-Zygomatic

branches

Main trunk of facial nerve


Nerve to posterior belly
of digastrics muscle and
to stylohyoid muscle
Cervicofacial

~--Buccal

branches

division
Marginal mandibular branc

;:----,1----- Cervical

'A-.

Facial nerve branches In the Parotid gland

Salivary glands

branch

Temporal fascia
Superficial layer
Deep layer

Levator labii
superioris
alaeque nasi
muscle--""'I.

Zygomatic arch

Levator labii
superioris
muscle

Articular disc of
temporomandibular joi
Deep part
~ Masseter
Superficial part S muscle

Zygomatics
minor muscle
Zygomaticus
major muscleLevator
anguli
oris
muscle

...
...::::::.:.;
Buccinator muscle

Orbicularis
oris muscle--l~$Z~~
Mentalis
muscle
Depressor labii
inferiorismuscle

Depressor anguli
oris muscle

'Iemporclls muscle

Insertion of temporalis muscle to


coronoid process of mandible
Parotid duct
Buccinator muscle
Orbicularis oris muscl

Lateral pterygoid
muscle
Masseteric nerve
and artery
axillary artery
Insertion of
masseter muscle

Muscles involved in mastication

Articular disc of
temporomandibular joint
Articular tubercle----ti--f~~~~~
lateral pterygoid muscle -

Sphenomandibular ligamentMedial pterygoid rnuscle-c- __

JI":

~~~--.:~~

Parotid duCt--/~~A~Jt=---2~~
Buccinator muscle--"'~~:z!~~E
pterygomandibular raphe
Superiorpharyngeal constrictor muscl

lateral view

Choanae
Cartilaginc' .("oort of pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tu~.
Masseteric nerve
.~J~jh~"ll.I.:""-lateral

pterygOid plate

ddle meningeal artery


emporomandibular join

lateral ptervqold muscle

Masseteric artery----t'-:'

--Medial

Maxillary artery

pterygoid muscle

Inferioralveolar nerve
lingual nerve
Medial ptervqold muscle
Medial pterygoid plat

Tensorveli palatini muscle

pterygoid hamulus

levator veli palatini muscle

Nerve to mylohyoid

pterygoid hamulus

Posterior view

Muscles Involved in Mastication (continued)

Anterior division

Temporal fascia
and temporalis muscle

Lateral view

Posterior! Deep temporal nerves


Anterior ~

Foramen ovale

Masseteric nerve

Meningeal branch
lateral pterygoid
nerve and muscl

Foramen spinosum
Middle
meningeal arter
Auriculotemporal
nerve
Posterior
auricular nerve
Facial nerve (VII)
Chorda tympani
nerve

Buccal nerve
and buccinato
muscle (cut)

lingual nerve
Inferior alveolar nerve (cut)
Nerve to mylohyoid
Medial pterygoid muscle (cut)
Digastric muscle (posterior belly)
stvtonvoto muscle
Hypoglossal nerve
Submandibular gland

Inferior alveolar nerve (cut)

Sublingual nerve

Medial view

Digastric muscle (anterior belly)

Trigeminal (semilunar)
ganglion

------~.....r--~~'1-_~..-!:I

Ophthalmic nerve

(\J....:l-~

Maxillary nerve (V2)


----"~:-1"'-

t_~~~~~e~~~~rr~GeniCUlum
Tympanic cavity
~r--:~r4J~:.Elr;;.;-t-Chorda

Mandibular nerve (V3)

'\\"~~~f---

Anterior division

tympani nerve
Facial nerve (VII)
Tensor tympani
muscle and nerve

Tensorveli palatini
nerve and muscle

lesser petrosal nerve

otic ganglion

Auriculotemporal

Chorda tympani nerve

nerve

Medial pterygoid
nerve and muscle (cut)
pterygoid hamulus

Inferior alveolar nerve entering


mandibular foramen

lingual nerve

Mandibular Nerve (V3)

AnteriOr} Deep temporal


Lateral pterygoid

artery and muscle

Supraorbital

artery_-.-

Supratrochlear

Posterior

Masseteric

arteries and nerves


artery and nerve

...

Lateral ligament of
temporomandibular

artery

Ophthalmic

artery -~

Middle menin eal arter


Auriculotemporal
nerve

...--iiiIiiiI~

Dorsal nasal artery


Angular artery
Infraorbital

Maxillary

-c..-

Posterior auricular artery


Facial nerve
~_~.,-

Inferior alveolar
artery and nerve

Buccal artery and nerve

Sphenomandibular

Medial pterygoid
artery and muscle

Digastric

Lingual nerve

External carotid

artery

Artery of pterygoid

~Uik-:g

(!!/'

Lingual artery

Pharyngeal
Posterior lateral nasal branch

artery

Facial artery

--==~....

Anterior } Dee temporal arteries


Posterior and nerv s
Accessory meningeal artery

canal

artery

Sphenopalatine foramen

Middle meningeal

artery

Anterior tympanic artery


Deep auricular artery
uriculotemporal
nerve

artery

Posterior superior
alveolar artery
Sphenopalatine

muscle (posterior belly)

StylohYOid muscle

Facial artery----.l~~""'"'~~=-~..ft
Mental branch of
inferior alveolar artery
Submental artery

Infraorbital

ligament

MylohYOid nerve and branch


of inferior alveolar artery

raphe

Sphenopalatine

artery

Superficial temporal artery

artery - ...

Superior { Posterior
alveolarMiddle --+~'--;,
arteries
Anterior --..,..~-,

Pterygomandibular

joint

artery

Posterior septal branches


Descending palatine
artery in pterygopalatine fossa ---:~~----::f--~~""u..._..:;
Buccal artery

-~~--~~~fIIII7J~~-1M
Superficial
temporal artery
Ascending pho.vnqeol
artery
Ascending palatine :utery

Anastomsis in
incisive canal----_+.::
Left and right
greater palatine
Left and right
lesser palatine

arteries

Tonsillar branches
Tonsillar artery

arteries

External carotid artery


Facial artery
Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

Pterygoid arteries
Masseteric artery
Inferior alveolar

artery

Styioglossus muscle

Maxillary artery

Communicating branch
Posterior ethmoidal nerve

Anterior ethmoidal nerve


Supraorbital nerve
Supratrochlear nerve

Long and short ciliary nerves

Lacrimal gland
Infratrochlear nerve
(from nasociliary nerve)
Cutaneous branch of
lacrimal nerve
Zygomaticotemporal
nerve
Zygomaticofacial
nerve
External
nasal
branch of
anterior
ethmoidal
nerve

Trigeminal
(semilunar) ganglion
Trigeminal
nerve (V)

-~--=::-~

~OZJ
(jJf
lr
Anterior superior
alveolar nerve

Mucous membrane
of maxillary sinus
Nerve (vidian) of pterygoid canal
Superior dental plexus

Pterygopalatine ganglion

Infraorbital nerve entering


infraorbital canal

Greater and lesser palatine nerves


Ganglionic branches to pterygopalatine

ganglion
Posterior superior alveolar nerve

Ophthalmic (vl) and Maxillary(V2)

Lateral, slightly inferior view


Hyoglossus muscle
Mylohyoid muscle
Fibrousloop for intermediate digastric tendon
Digastric muscle (anterior belly)
Mastoid
process
Styloid process
Digastric muscle
(posterior belly)
Stylohyoid muscle

Median raphe between mylohyoid muscles

Anteroinferior
view

Greater horn~
lesser horn
Hyoid bone
'Body
Thyrohyoid muscle
Omohyoid muscle
Sternohyoid muscle
Digastric muscle (anterior belly)
Mylohyoid muscle
Stylohyoid muscle
Digastric muscle (posterior belly)

/7f'7""';

~Uik:9
~'

Fibrous loop for intermediate digastric tendon

Posterosuperior view
Inferior alveolar nerve and artery

~oI......-.

Mylohyoid nerve and artery


Submandibular gland and duct

--.lL.......

Mylohyoid muscle,-_.......:
Geniohyoid muscle --Hyoid bone

lesser horn
Body-------f
Greater horn

Floor of Mouth

Hyoglossus
muscle (cut)

Parotid gland

(cut)

Masseter muscle
Submandibular

gland

Hyoglossus muscle

Mastoid

process

Body of
mandibl

Digastric muscle
(posterior belly)
Middle pharyngeal
constrictor muscle
Longus capitis

Digastric
muscle
(anterior
belly)

muscle

Splenius muscle

----~~L.

Sternocleidomastoid

muscle .......

~"'~:-<T""'.._..Jh~----

7it-~lf;lr----Posterior
Scalene muscles { Middle
Anterior

Hyoid bone
Thyrohyoid

Omohyoid muscle
(superior belly)
Sternohyoid

Brachial

muscle

muscle

plexus
Inferior phyarynge
constrictor muscle

Omohyoid

muscle (inferior

belly
Sterna I head}
.
.
. I h
d Sternocleidomastoid
Cl ovicu
or ea

Pectoralis

major muscle

Muscles of neck - Lateral View

muscle

Digastric muscle (anterior belly)


Masseter muscle
Submandibular gland
Fibrous loop for
intermediate
digastric tendon
Stylohyoid muscle
Digastric muscle
(posterior belly)
Carotid sheath

Internal jugular vein

Fascia of infra hyoid


muscles and cut edge
Thyroid carilage

---~~~..:3

_---

Thyrohyoid muscle

----

Omohyoid muscle
(superior belly)
Sternohyoid muscle

Investing layer of (deep)


cervical facia and cut edge

Sternothyroid muscle
Scalene muscles

Cricoid
. cartilage--~i'r-~

Trapezius muscle

Omohyoid muscle
(inferior belly)
Pretracheal layer of
(deep) cervical fascia over
thyroid gland and trachea
Suprasternal space
Manubrium of sternum

Clavicular head} Sternocleidomastoid


Sterna I head muscle
Jugular notch

Muscles of Neck- anterior view


vs

aD

NEC~

~ S

Right anterior dissection


Thyroid gland
(reflected)

Internal jugular vein----+-tt,-1il

--r-i

Common carotid artery __


Ascending cervical

artery -

__

Middle cervical
sympathetic ganglion

..,.;.._

Phrenic nerve --~f---::~,f+:;-~~1


Anterior scalene muscle

!"T!'-t--Vagus

_---~~~'r~t

nerve (X)

Vertebral artery

Inferior thyroid artery


Common carotid arter

Transverse cervical artery

~-.....;=--=iTf7-- Recurrent laryngeal


~ .,Costocervical

u....;._-,

nerve

=-lt~=f~a.--BrachiocePhalic

trunk

Thyrocervical trunk

trunk

Internal jugular vein


(cut)

Subclavian artery and vein

Right lateral schematic

view

/
;'
;'

Vertebral artery

External carotid artery


Internal carotid artery
Ascending cervical

artery

Inferior thyroid artery


Costocervical

_....:.~~_--

trunk

1-----

Supreme intercostal
artery

Transverse cervical

artery

Common carotid artery


Thyrocervical

,~~~r--~---Suprascapular

--~r-----_

trunk
artery

Subclavian artery
(1st part medial to,
2nd part posterior to,
3rd part lateral to
anterior scalene muscle)

2nd posterior
intercostal
artery ---1rf-~~U~

Internal thoracic

.---1.\.

Subclavian Artery

artery

Parotid space
(bed) : right lateral
dissection

Superficial temporal artery


Transversefacial artery
Maxillary artery
External carotid artery

Mastoid process--.......J~_~~~_
Styloid process

---~~;-..:.....--lB...J.
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

Facial nerve (VII)(cut) ---T-~~r'""'!-"';"''-:~

Stylohyoid muscle
Sternocleidomastoid muscle (cut)-~...:.:!..~~

. Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

Digastric muscle (posterior belly) (cut),~~~Wl


Occipital artery and
sternocleidomastoid branch
Accessory nerve (Xl )-

---"':"'_"'---T

lingual artery

~~""n n~
-..::--~

.
. ~Superior root
Anse cervlcolls {Inferior root ---

__

Mylohyoid muscle

~.;;i~nrl;r-Hyoglossusmuscle

...-:!:~::.:tl

_Digastric muscle
(anterior belly)
Hyoid bone

Vagus nerve (X)---..JI--!.--1.~l\


...,;::"i-

Ascending pharyngeal artery


Carotid branch of glossopharyngeal
nerve (IX) and carotid body

Branch to
thyrohyoid muscle
(from ansa cervicalis)

Internal carotid artery

Superior laryngeal artery

Internal jugular vein

Superior thyroid artery


External carotid artery
Superficial temporal artery-~.lM.!+J~1

Transversefacial artery

Common carotid artery

Maxillary artery

Digastric mUSC~lee
~
(phantom) ---/"

"'~L-I~------Posterior

Occipital artery
Descending branch
sternocleidomastoid branch

~"!I.~

auricular artery

~1OQo-",#~--Facial
~--"';;;;;;;"""---lingual

artery
artery

Ascending pharyngeal artery


Internal carotid artery
External carotid artery

Superior thyroid artery and


superior laryngeal branch
Omohyoid muscle (phantom)

Common carotid artery

External carotid branches:


schema
Thyrocervical trunk

Carotid Arteries

From
{SUpraorbital artery
ophthalmic
artery
Supratrochlear artery
Middle meningeal artery
Deep tem pora I artery
Dorsal nasal artery
Masseteric artery
Angular artery _ .--....1.\
Infraobital artery

--II.'t-'W

Sphenopalatine artery --~

~~~-~

descending palatine artery--+~~~


Posterior superior ~..-,~.:;:~:::s::::::.s~
alveolar artery
1 """"'!;05
Superficial
temporal artery

Superior labial artery--I,,..

Maxillary artery

Buccal artery

Posterior auricular artery

Buccinator muscle
and parotid duct (cut)

Ascending pharyngeal

Inferior labial artery

arter

Occipital artery and


sternocleidomastoid branch

Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle

Glossopharyngeal

nerve (IX)

Ascending palatine artery

Mental branch of
inferior alveolar artery

Tonsillar artery

Inferior alveolar artery


and lingual branch

Facial artery
Lingual artery

Facial artery

Ascending pharyngeal

Submental artery

arte

Internal carotid artery

Mylohyoid branch of
inferior alveolar artery

Vagus nerve (X)


Superior cervical
cardiac nerve

Submandibular gland
Hypoglossal ~erve (XII)
Suprahyoid artery

Sympathetic trunk
Anterior scalene muscle

External carotid artery


Middle scalene muscle
Ascending cervical arte
Superior thyroid arter,Y
Cricothyroid artery
Common carotid artery
Vertebral artery

_-r4-.z!,-:ar-1~

Inferior thyroid ortef


Transverse cervical arte

Suprascapular arterY,
Costocervical trunk

Subclavian artery-~I.-~~-.=l~w7~

Arteries of the Head and Neck

External carotid artery - ......


~
Internal carotid artery--~

~~-:.~~Z1~~~~t=

-,.",,-.f"----.

Hyoid bone

~is:~~r::;"'"~~~!ll.~~==~Superior
~

Superior thyroid and vein __

laryngeal nerve
Internal branch
External branch

n'

_~Ulrl,tXfl:i:l-_ThyrOid

Superior laryngeal artery

cartilage (lamina)
Median cricothyroid
ligament

Thyroid membrane
Ansa
{ Superior root
cervicalis - Inferior root

j.J.IIL---

L----Cricoid
cartilage
Pyramidal iobe
(often absent
.Thyroid
or small)
Right lobe
gland
left lobe
Isthmus
~_
Pretracheal lymph
nodes
Phrenic nerve

Common carotid artery


Internal jugular vein-~""~
Middle thyroid vein
Inferior thyroid veins
Ascending cervical artery
Inferior thyroid artery--

Cricothyroid muscles

...

Transversecervical artery--c:::c~

Anterior scalene muscle

Suprascapular artery---w~

~-

Vagus nerve (X)


External jugular vein
Anterior jugular vein
1st rib (cut)

Vagus nerve (X)

left recurrent laryngeal nerve

Right recurrent
laryngeal nerve
Brachiocephalic trunk
Brachiocephalic veins
Superior vena cava

Thyroid cartilage
Cricothyroid ligament
Common carotid artery
Medial margin of
sternocleidomastoid

muscle!---+- __

Cricothyroid muscle -----1t--- ....


~
Cricoid cartilage
Thyroid gland ~~--?:....---p
Cupula (dome) of pleura

----...,.c:;.

Trachea---~~:::=J

Thyroid Gland : Anterior view

3e

Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle

External carotid artery


Internal carotid artery

Middle pharyngeal
constrictor muscle-1ri:tf+n~r,......t-.-.;;:;~

Facial artery

Tip of greater horn


of hyoid bone _--+--If1~~~
Inferior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle

Lingual artery
.,-r":'it-__

'_1".1.-

Pharyngeal raphe

Superior thyroid artery

Zone of sparse
muscle fibers

Superior laryngeal artery


Common carotid artery

Cricopharyngeus
muscle (part of inferior
pharyngeal constrictor

Vagus nerve (X)

Circular esophageal
muscle in V-shaped
area of sparse
longitudinal muscle
fibers (area of laimer)\t~~~~~~'~~~1
Longitudinal
esophageal muscle

Superior laryngeal nerve


Internal branch
External branch

Internal jugular vein


Thyroid gland
(right lobe)
Superior parathyroid gland
Ascending cervical artery

Inferior thyroid vein


Inferior parathyroid gland
"I~---Inferior
Inferior bulb of
internal jugular vein
Vertebral artery
Left subclavian
artery and vei

thyroid artery

Right recurrent laryngeal nerv


~~--Transverse

cervical artery

Suprascapular artery
Thyrocervical trunk

Internal thoracic
artery and vein

Right subclavian
artery and vein
Right brachiocephalic vein
Brachiocephalic trunk

Arch of aorta
Left vagus nerve (X)---1r-----.lU

Right vagus nerve (X)

s-

Thyroid Gland and Pharynx: Posterior View

MINI

ATLAS OF

ANATOMY

NEC~

External carotid artery

rohyoid membrane

Posterior view

Hyoid bone

Superior laryngeal nerve


Internal branch :---4!~~~.
External branch

Internal carotid artery


Superior thyroid artery

Ii5,r;-,;H~4---Superior laryngeal orter


Inferior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle (cut)

Epiglottis

Common carotid artery


Fibrous capsule of
thyroid gland (cut)
Cricopharyngeus muscle
(part of inferior pharyngeal
constrictor)
Superior parathyroid glanc

Superior thyroid artery


Common carotid arteryFibrous capsule of
thyroid gland (cut) __

~~:':''\".':'

Superior parathyroid gland-"--7~~..Jl..::.


left lobe of thyroid gland

Right lobe of thyroid glanc

---=-~~ __

Inferior parathyroid gland


(may be more caudally locate
even within mediastinum)
Inferior thyroid artery

Ascending cervical artery


Inferior parathyoid gland ----Hk~~~
Recurrent laryngeal nerve- __

ecurrent laryngeal nerv


ransverse cervical orterv

~~~~_-.J:"

~ __ -Suprascapular

Esophagus----~~~~~--~~

artery

Thyrocervical trunk
Vertebral artery

Subclavian artery-~~1]~:~~~~~)~~~~=~~
Trachea -

Right lateral view

Brachiocephalic

~DI~~r~"'l-----lnternal

External carotid artery


Superior laryngeal artery

Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

Superior parathyroid gland

Common carotid artery

Thyroid gland (right lobe)


(retracted anteriorly)

Internal jugular vein

Inferior parathyroid glan

Inferior thyroid artery

Esophogus

branch of
superior laryngeal nerve
External branch of
superior laryngeal nerve

Superior thyroid artery (cut)

Recurrent laryngeal nerve --.Hir

trunk

rfjJikXJ

Parathyroid Glands

Ophthalmic vein
Angular vein

~--Superior
sagittal sinus

--+-~J

1f'.,......--;....--...:.i!I~...4--Superficial

Cavernous---~~~~~~-pJ
sinus

Pterygoid
plexus

lingual vein

temporal veins

;;iii-~~~~y--Transverse

--~~~----

sinus

Superficial temporal
vein

-----1~---~~=~~~~
Facial vein
.\~~~----

Superior
thyroid vein
Anterior
jugular vein

4--

Deep
cervical vein
EXfernal'~\
\lugular vein)

..
;.;.;.:.ilf.

~===~-- Vertebral

Internal ---+:.;;,:..;:';':;
jugular vein ~
Jugular
venous arch
left brachio- ---~~~+'JjIiE
cephalic vein

Angular vein

1:oC~-

Occipital vein

Posterior auricular vein


Superficial temporal vein

~-+--- Jugulofacial
~-Anterior
jugular vein

Right brachio- --+r


cephalic vein

External jugular vein


Internal jugular vein

Jugulosubclavian
venous junction ---""""","'"

venous junction

~--Right
subclavian vein

Princiocl Venous trunks in the Neck

vein

Supratrochlear

vein

Supraorbital vein

--:H"--II

Nasofrontal vein --+H~


Superior ophthalmic

vein

Angular vein
External nasal vein -~~

1~~t::;~~~

Emissaryvein (Vesalius)
communicating with
cavernous sinus
Infra orbital vein _.-If:o.-,;r.

ccipital vein
and artery

Posterior superior
alveolar veins
Palatine vein
Pterygoid Plexus:

~~~~~il~~!

Superior labial vein


Deep facial vein ........-4e:iii_~~~='\."sIII

uperficial temporal
vein and artery
Transversefacial vein (cut)
ostromandibular vein

,.---

,Retromandibular vei
tanterior and]
~ste[io[ branches~
(xternal jugular vein (cut~
Inferior alveolar vein and artery

Maxillary veins

--

Inferior labial vein


Mental vein

Occipital vein and artery

facial vein and ar e~-.....;


external palatine vein
Submental vein

Hypoglossal nerve (XII)


Common trunk receiving
facial, anterior branch of
retromandibular, and
lingual veins
External carotid artery

Submandibular gland
Vena comitans of
hypoglossal nerve
Dorsal lingual vein coursing
medial to hyoglossus muscle

Internal jugular vein


Common carotid artery

Lingual vein
Communication to anteior jugular vein (cut)
Superior laryngeal

vein

Vagus nerve (X)and


sympathetic trunk
Middle scalene muscle
nterior scalene muscle

Superior thyroid vein


Thyroid gland
Middle thyroid vein
Inferior thyroid veins
Termination of anterior jugular
vein (cut)
--~L.'
left brachiocephalic
vein

Transversecervical
vein (cut)
uprascapular vein (cut)
Subclavian artery

~~:ljrJr- Subclavian vein

Veins of Oral and Pharyngeal Regions

Inferior longitudinal

Palatopharyngeus
muscle
Palatoglossus muscle
muscle of tongue

Mastoid process
Digastric muscle (posterior
belly) (cut)
Styloid process
Pharyngobasilar fascia
Superior pharyngeal constrictor musel
Stylohyoid ligament
Styloglossus muscle
Glossophoryngeal part of superior
pharyngeal constrictor
Stylopharyngeus muscle
Stylohyoid muscle
Middle pharyngeal

constrictor muscle

Digastric muscle (posterior belly) (Cut)


Hyoglossus muscle
Intermediate tendon of digastric muscle (cut)
Fibrous loop for intermediate digastric tendon

Mylohyoid muscle (cut)


Geniohyoid muscle

rfJ!Iik--:<J

Hyoid bone

Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle
\'

Submandibular ganglio
J

Deep lingual artery


and venae comitantes

/StYloglossus

V~

muscle

Palatoglossus muscle
Stylohyoid ligament
Stylopharyngeus muscle
Hyoglossus muscle (cut)
lingual orterv
External carotid artery

Artery to frenulum

Internal jugular vein


Retromandibular vein
Facial vein

Submandibular duct

Common trunk for facio


retromandibular and
lingual veins
Suprahyoid artery

Sublingual artery and vein

lingual vein

Hyoid bone

Dorsal lingual artery and vein

Hypoglossal nerve

Vena comitans of hypoglossal nerve

Tongue

NECK!

MINI ATLAS OF

ANATOMY

Parotid gland
Facial artery and vein
Submandibular gland
Mylohyoid muscle

2:;~~~~~!t

Hypoglossal nerve (XII"""=NMI


Digastric muscl_e__
(anterior belly)

~tr::""'''-..,

Lingual artery
External carotid

artery

Internal carotid

artery

Thyrohyoid muscle
Superior thyroid artery
Omohyoid muscle (superior belly) (cut)
.
. {Superior root
Ansa cervlcolts Inferior root
Sternohyoid

muscle

Sternothyroid

muscle

Internal jugular vein


Common carotid

artery

Inferior thyroid artery


Vagus nerve (X)
Vertebral artery
Thyrocervical

trunk:

Subclavian artery and vein


Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

Togeniohyoid muscl
Tothyrohyoid muscle
Communication to vagus nerve
Transverse cervical

nerves

Toomohyoid muscle (superior belly)


Ansa cervicalis

~~:::::::::=:::::::::::~~---To

Sup~rior root
llnfenor root

longus capitis and


longus colli muscles

To sternothyroid muscle
To sternohyoid muscle
Toomohyoid muscle (inferior belly)
Supraclavicular

nerves -...oIii~..u..;~

Cervical plexus in situ

To scalene and levatc


scapulae muscles

Pharyngobasilar fascia
Tensor veli palatini muscle
levator veli palatini muscle
lateral pterygoid plate

Pterygoid hamulus
Buccinator muscle (cut)

Pterygomandibular

raphe

Digastric muscle
(posterior belly) (cut)
Styloid process
Superior pharyngeal

constrictor muscle

Styloglossus muscle

Oblique line
of mandible

Stylohyoid ligament
Stylopharyngeus

muscle

Middle pharyngeal

constrictor muscle

Hyoglossus muscle
Greater horn of hyoid bone
Superior horn of thyroid cartilage

Digastric muscle (anterior belly)


Mylohyoid muscle
Hyoid bone

Thyrohyoid membrane
nferior pharyngeal

constrictor muscle

Tendinous arch

Stylohyoid muscle (cut)


Zone of sparse muscle fibers

Thyroid cartilage
Median cricothyroid

ligament

ricopharyngeus muscle
(part of inferior pharyngeal

Cricothyroid muscle
Cricoid cartilage

Esophagus

Muscles of Pharynx: Lateral View

constrictor

Medial pterygoid
Cartilaginous

plate

part of pharyngotympanic

Tensor veli palatini


Pharyngobasilar
levator

(auditory) tube

muscle
fascia

veli palatini

muscle

Palatine aponeurosis and tendon of


tensor veli palatini muscle
.-:.-~r--Pharyngeal
tubercle (basilar part of occipital bone)
~7'J~

~(i~~~~_

Pharyngeal raphe

'1Ir-ff::Pr-:H-lI---Anterior

longitudinal ligament

Anterior atlantooccipital

membrane

Apical ligament of dens

~~I'J~~I/)~W~[=
Salpingopharyngeus

muscle

Muscles of soft palate


Palatopharyngeal

sphincter (assavant's ridge)

1~:::~~~'2~~~I~~~~~~tj!~~t~=
!
Pterygoid hamulus

Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle


Pterygomandibular raphe

Palatopharyngeus muscle
Buccinator muscle

~---===l~-Glossopharyngeal

part of

t~~~il:~i~~:::g~-'-I
superior pharyngeal

constrictor
Stylopharyngeus muscle
Stylohyoid ligament
Styloglossus muscle
Middle pncrvnqeol

constrictor muscle

H-~.-....:a.o.""-+:t-- Fibers to pharyngoepiglottic

fold

ItH~I.!:J-':~"""=:T-++-- Buccopharyngeal fascia and


retropharyngeal
Hyoglossus
muscle
Geniohyoid
muscle
Mylohyoid
muscle
Hyoid bone
Thyrohyoid
membrane
Thyroid cartilage
Median
cricothyroid ligament
Corniculate and
arytenoid cartilages
Cricoid cartilage

space

Prevertebral fascia and anterior


longitudinal ligament
Internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve
Longitudinal pharyngeal muscles
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Pharyngeal aponeurosis
Cricopharyngeus muscle
(part of inferior pharyngeal constrictor)
~C'ljlr::-~.z...p.._
Cricoid attachment of longitudinal
esophageal muscle

.....
~~i-A~T.t--

...
=.,....;;---:-'tt'r-

Circular esophageal muscle


Longitudinal esophageal muscle

Trachea

Muscles of Pharynx: Median (Sagittal) Section

38

Pharyngeal
tonsil
Cartilaginous part
of pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube

Styloid
process
Digastric
muscle
(posterior
belly)
Stylohyoid
muscle ---":"'--:J

II.~:';;:~:::----'!;f1""'----Levtor

veli
palatini muscle

Stylopha ryngeus
muscle-----:-

-ot-_

Accessory muscle
bundle from
petrous part of
temporal bone
Medial
pterygoid

Salpingopharyngeus
muscle
-- --

Uvule
Palatopharyngeus

muscle
---

Pharyngobasilar

Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle

muscle

Middle pharyngeal
constrictor muscle

fascia

Pharyngeal raphe
Superior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle

Pharyngoepiglottic

F'7;:t1tft~~~~-

Hyoid bone (tip of greater horn)


Middle pharyngeal

constrictor

nferior pharyngeal
constrictor muscle (cut edge)

muscle

constrictor

Longitudinal

Internal branch of
superior laryngeal nerve

(Transverse and oblique


arytenoid muscles

Pharyngeal

muscle

Cricopharyngeal
muscle (part of
inferior pharyngeal constrictor)
Longitudinal

esophageal

muscles

Thyrohyoid membrane

tubercle

Posterior cricoarytenoid

pharyngeal

Superior horn of
thyroid cartilage

muscle

Cuneiform tubercle
Corniculate

fold

NIT-

Epiglottis
Inferior pharyngeal

Aryepiglottic

fold

muscle

aponeurosis

Cricopharyngeus
muscle (part of
inferior pharyngeal constrictor)
Posterior border of thyroid cartilage
Cricoid attachment of longitudinal
esophageal muscle
Circular esophageal

muscle

lamina

MINI

ATLAS

OF

'X..,.

ANATOMY

. NECK~
Base of skull (basilar part of occipital bone)

1/ ~ /

Pharyngeal tonsil

~~fa=~~~~.

%!
~V
'" .

-~-._~

Styloid process
- Nasal septum

~[J:-~-1'-- Torustubarius

u:!a.I~
__
Nasopharynx

-r--Pharyngeal
opening
of pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube
Pharyngeal recess
Parotid gland
Toruslevatorius (fold)
caused by levator
veli palatini muscle)
Salpingopharyngeal

fold

Soft palate
Angle of mandible
Submandibular gland
Uvula
Palatine tonsil
Oropharynx

Root of tongue
Palatopharyngeal

arch

Prominence caused by greater horn


of hyoid bone
Epiglottis
Laryngeal inlet (aditus)
Prominence caused by superior horn
of thyroid cartilage
Aryepiglottic fold
Piriform fossa

Laryngopharynx

Cuneiform tubercle

----------------

Fold over internal branch


of superior laryngeal nerve
Corniculate tubercle
Interarytenoid notch
Prominence over lamina
of cricoid cartilage

Esophagus

Pharynx: Opened PosteriorView

Zygomaticotemporal nerve (V2)


Deep temporal nerves (V3)
Masseteric nerve (V3)
Mandibular nerve (V3)
Nerve to medial pterygoid and
tensor veli palatini muscles (V3)(cut
Zygomaticofacial

nerve (V2)

Maxillary nerve (V2)

-:~;~;i~~~

Infraorbital nerve (V2)


Pterygopalatine ganglion .
Greater and lesser
palatine nerves (V2)----1t-"-fr'--::
Anterior, middle and posterio
superior alveolar nerves (V2)
Nerve to lateral pterygoid
muscle (V3)(cut) --"""T"II
Buccal nerve (V3)~~:'r.=:.

------~!~~~~~~i

Chorda tympani nerve (V1I)?:~~Ji:


Lingual nerve (V3)~~~
Medial pterygoid muscle (cu
(lateral pterygoid removed)
Inferior alveolar
nerve (V3)

Pharyngeal plexus composed of


branches from glossopharyngeal
(IX), vagus (X) and sympathetic
nerves

Mental nerve (V3)


Nerve to mylohyoid (V3)
Submandibular ganglion
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
and tonsillar branch --Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Carotid nerve (IX) and carotid body
Nerve to thyrohyoid muscle (C1, 2 via XII)
Internal and external branches
of superior laryngeal nerve (X)
..
[ Superior roof
Ansa cervlcolls (Cl, 2, 3) If'
t
n enor roo
Nerves to superior and inferior bellies of omohyoid,
sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles (ansa cervica~lis!L)
~~~
Recurrent laryngeal nerve (X)
Sympathetic trunk and middle cervical ganglion
Common carotid artery
Vertebral artery----I-

Auriculotemporal
nerve (V)
Middle meningeal orten
Superficial temporal
artery (cut)
Facial nerve (VII) (cut)
Maxillary artery
Accesssory nerve (XI) (cut)
1 spinal nerve
(ventral ramus) (cut)
2 spinal nerve
(ventral ramus) (cut)

:-..--+-~~

Internal carotid artery


External carotid artery
Vagus nerve (X) and superior
cervical cardiac branch
C4 spinal nerve
(ventral ramus) (cut)
Phrenic nerve (C3, 4, 5)
Ascending cervical artery
Middle scalene muscle
Anterior scalene muscle
Brachial plexus (cut)

Thyrocervical trunk

"~"'Il.._

Subclavian artery

Nerves of Oral and Pharyngeal Regions

-------"------17-

Philtrumof lip
Soft palate
Palatopharyngeal arch
Uvula

::=-_--7:'.--

-----i----

Palatoglossal arch
Palatine tonsil

------4~-_

Posteriorwall of pharynx

Frenulum of upper lip

-":"'--::::::::='~~"---:-=-'

Lingual minor salivary gland


Deep lingual artery and veins
and lingual nerve
Fimbriated fold
Submandibular duct
Sublingual gland
Frenulum of tongue
Sublingual fold with openings
of sublingual ducts -----....
.....;:..::;..:.i!o-Sublingual caruncle with opening
:>--~:::5.-_I~
of submandibular duct
Frenulumof lower IiP-\""':=t--_":':::.......-J

Parotid papilla with


opening of parotid duct

Inspection of Oral Cavity

haryngeal opening of
pharyngofympanic
(auditory) tube
Sphenooccipital
synchondrosis

Nasopharynx

Pharyngeal

tonsil

Pharyngeal

tubercle

Pharyngeal

of occipital

raphe

Anterior longitudinal

Soft palate

ligament

nterior atlantooccipital

Palatine glands

Apical

Hard palate

Palatine tonsil
__ ~

Oropharynx

lingual tonsil
Genioglossus
muscle

membrane

ligament

Oral cavity

Body of tongue

bone

of dens

Anterior
arch of
atlas (Cl
vertebra)
Dens of
axis (C2
vertebra)
Pharyngeal
constrictor
muscles

~~~~----Buccopharyngeal
fascia
-rr.~~~--Retropharyngeal
space
Prevertebral
fascia and
anterior
longitudinal
ligament
Vertebral
bodies

==~~~~~~!!~~~~I~~~

Geniohyoid
muscle
Hyoid
bon~:
Hyoepiglottic

ligament
Thyrohyoid membrane
Laryngopharynx
Laryngeal inlet (aditus)
Thyroid cartilage

Transverse arytenoid

muscle

Cricoid cartilage
Trachea

Esophageal muscles
Thyroid gland
Investing layer of (deep) cervical fascia
Pretracheal fascia
Suprasternal space
Manubrium of sternum -~~-r.:::I"

Pharynx: Median Section

ANATOMY

NEC~

Sphenoidal sinus
Pharyngeal tonsil
Torustubarius
Pharyngealtubercle (basilarpart of occipital bone)
Pharyngealraphe
Pharyngeal
openingof pharyngotympanic
(auditory)tul
Hard palate
Pharyngeal recess
m...::"--'!IIm7o-\ ...-....,-_
Salpingopharyngeal fold
~~It"--Soft
palate
1~::=~===~P.H~::1~:'-IPalatine
glands
~~~;:::=--';:':"':.;......::.:--;~
Uvula
~~~~ftr~ttitil~ii~~tr~=semilunar
fold
~
Supratonsillarfossa
Palatinetonsil
alatopharyngeal aech
.~+-:":"i-"":+-+~H~:r-:---;+--Palatoglossal
arch

~~~#'1ffr::;-:::rltr-

~~~~t-~f:~~~~:::,oroPharynX
..
'ft.,-.-a-.:-ilr:o---~~~~~:"-~-Tongue

Triangularfold
(drawnforward and downward)

;"'ili-~--ti+:lH~ff:""---Lingual

tonsil
Epiglottis
~~Vallecula

~_~m-:rr-----:

Pharyngeal mucosa removed .


Cartilaginous part of pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube
Medial pterygoid plate ~ __
Tensorveli palatini muscle and tendon

~-_1'

levator veli palatini muscl~=cS!~~~i~~~~


Ascending palatine artery
Pharyngeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
lesser palatine arterY'--t::~_~~_
Salpingopharyngeus muscle --,jr.....;;..;...o:.-,;.;....--tllil
Pterygoid hamulus

_~------1r

raPhe-:3~~~~~t~i~~~~I~i~~~~~~;l~f
TonsillarbranchPterygomandibular
of lesser palatine artery
Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Tonsillarbranch of ascending pharyngeal artery
Palatoglossus muscle
Palatopharyngeus muscle
Tonsillarbranch of ascending palatine artery
Tonsillarbranch of facial artery
Tonsillarbranch of dorsal lingual artery
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) and tonsillar branch
Stylohyoid ligament

--"Zf,~.......a:

Hyoglossusmuscle::~E~~~~S;
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
Stylopharyngeus muscle

Fcuces

,.....
......
""u,

Permanent

Deciduous
(primary)
Usual age of
eruption

(colored blue)
Usual age of
eruption

Central incisor (7th year)


Lateral incisor (8th year)

r=---.....;...--~~=-~~=t...--

Central incisor
(8-10 months
Lateral incisor
(8-10 months)
Canine (cuspid)
(16-20 months)
1st molar
(15-21months)
2nd molar
(20-24 months)

) (11th - 12th year

::~t-..!...;;.,.;2.

1st premolar (9th year)


2nd premolar (10th year)
1st molar (6th year)
2nd molar (12th year)
3rd molars (17th - 25th year)

2nd molar (l2th - 13th yaer)


~,..-.1 st molar (6th year)

:I!~~~.J-I- __
~~~llii~~~~~~~~~~l
~

2nd premolar (10th year)


anine
(cuspid)(9th
(11th
- 12th year)
st premolar
year)
Lateral incisor (8th year)
central incisor (7th year)

Incisive fossa

Horizontal
plate of
palatine
bon

Greater and lesser


palatine foramina

Upper permanent teeth

Teeth

Lower permanent teeth

Ename
Dentine and dentinal tubules

1'Z~_---+-\-__

Crown

--lnterglobular

fij~~-!--"\__ -~~~~#i!J;!Il::;t=~;:==-lnterproXimal

Odontoblast

layer

spaces
Dental pulp containing
and nerves
Gingival

Neck

spaces

(gum) epithelium

vessels
(stratified)

Gingival groove
Lamina propria of gingiva (gum)
(mandibular or maxillary periosteum)
Periodontium
(alveolar periosteum)
Papilla
Cement

Root

Root (central) canals


containing vessels and nerves
Bone
Apical foramina

..

..

Left upper
permanent
teeth:
labiobuccal
view

Left lower
permanent
teeth:
labiobuccal
view
Central

Lateral

Incisors

Canines
(cuspids)

Premolars

Teeth (continued)

Molars

Coronal dissection

Diploic veins

Superior sagittal sinus


Emissary vein
Frontal and parietal tributaries
of superficial temporal vein
Frontal and parietal branches
of superficial temporal arter
Granular foveola
(indentation of skull by
arachnoid granulation)
Lateral (venous) lacuna

Arachnoid granulation
cerebroi vein penetrates subdural space to enter
SinUS

Dura mater (periosteal and meningeal layers)


Dura-skull interface (site of epidural
hematoma)
Arachnoid
Subarachnoid space
Pia mater
Middle meningeal
_artery and vein
Deep,
middle and
superficial
temporal
arteries
and veins

'.

Superior thalamostriate and


choroidal veins, internal cerebral
veins and choroid plexus of
lateral ventrisle

Diploic and emissary


veins of skull

Frontal siploic vein

Parietal emissary vein


Posterior temporal
diploic vein

--~-~~4i~\Y~!I~tl'i:_(rf::'~;.~~~~~~~~~~~~~li
p- __

---f--7-:"'i:::

Anterior tempo__
r..:a~1
diploic vein -

Occipital emissary
vein

Occipital diploic veil


Mastoid emissary vein

Meninges and Diploic Veins

Frontal (anterior) and parietal


(posterior) branches of
middle meningeal artery~ta~;;~fZ~'~
Middle
meningeal
artery
Anterior
meningeal
branch of
anterior
ethmoidal
artery

Arachnoid granulations
Opening of superior
cerebral vein
:~~~~~~-Lateral
(venous)
lacuna
Superior sagittal
sinus
Dura mater

~~Mastoid
branch of
occipital artery

Middle meningeal artery

Meningeal branches of
ascending pharyngeal
artery
Mastoid branch
of occipital artery

Recurrent meningeal branch----.....:;:'.!L.:.


of lacrimal (ophthalmic) artery
Accessory meningeal artery
Anterior meningeal branch of
anterior ethmoidal artery
Posteriorethmoidal artery
Internal carotid artery and its
meningohypophyseal trunk
Middle meningeal artewryv-.,.a~
Accessory meningeal
artery Superficial
Maxillary artery
temporal ~r~te~ry~~~~~~~;ri.~'~~
Posteriorauricular
artery Occipital
artery
External carotid
artery

----t~rf:fi~~~#_.J-.UJ

MENINGES AND Meningeal

/._/Anterior and
,.!!/ posterior
~
meningeal
~~r
branches of
vertebral artery
Tentorial, cavernous sinusand
meningeal branches of
meningohypophyseal trunk

arteries

Great cerebral

vein (Galen)

Sagittal section

Superior
Straight

Tentorium

sagittal

sinus

sinus

cerebelli

.~.'"

Inferior

sagittal

Sphenoparietal
Anterior

and

sinus

,.'

sinus

posterior

~~2~~~~~~

intercavernous
sinuses
Superior petrosal sinus
:4
Basilar venous
Inferior

plexus

petrosal

sinus

To jugular

fora men
Sigmoid
si us
Transverse

sinus

Occipital

Skull sectioned horizontally:


superior

Falx cerebelli
Confluence
of sinuses

view

Superior

sagittal
sinus (cut
Falx cerebri
(cut)
Superior
ophthalmic
veinr
Anterior and posterior
"
intercavenous sinuses -Superficial middle
cerebral vein (cut)
Cavemous sinus
Basilar venous plexus
Superior petrosal sinus
Inferior petrosal sinus
Tentorial artery.
Tentorium cerebelli
Inferior cerebral

sinus

vein (cut)_-~
Transverse sinus

Inferior sagittal sinus (cut) ~--,


Straight sinus
Falx cerebri (cut)
Confluence of sinuses--~~
Superior sagittal sinus (cut)
Cavenous
Oculomotor

~~~~

Hypophysis (pituitary gland)


Optic nerve (11)
Intemal carotid artery
culomotor nerve (Ill)
t.
Sphenoparietal
sinus
Trochlear nerve (IV)
Ophthalmic
nerve (Vl)
Maxillary nerve (V2)
Trigeminal ganglion
Mandibular nerve (V3)
Middle meningeal artery
Abducent nerve (VI)
Petrosal vein
iiC:::::::::~~Facial
nerve (VIII). intermediate
vestibulocochlear
nerve (VIII)
:-Glossoparyngeal
(IX) and
vagus (X) nerves
Jugular foramen
Sigmoid sinus (Continuation of
transverse sinus)
Transverse sinus
Accessory nerve (XI)
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Great cerebral vein (Galen)

sinus

Optic chiasma
Posterior communicating

nerve (Ill)

Trochlear nerve (IV)


Abducent
OphthalmiC
Maxillary

Intermal carotid

artery

artery

nerve (VI)
nerve (Vl)

____

- Hypophysis (pituitary

nerve (V2)
~....--Sphenoidal

Coronal section through


cavernous sinus

.c.~.....
-Nasopharynx

Dural Venous sinuses

49

nerve a

sinus

gland)

_:.t,;t.-~---Fax

cerebri

Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone


Sphenoidal sinus
Sella trucica

Lateral process of
septal nasal cartilage
Major
alar cartilage

Anterior nasal spine

Oral cavity

Frontal bone

Squamous part
Sinus-Nasal spine

Vomerine groove
(for nasopalatine nerve
and vessels
Septal cortuooe -~,....._
Major alar
cartilage (medial crus)

Maxilla

Crista galli }
Cribriform plate
Ethmoid bone
Perpendicular plate
_--Crest
Body
Sphenoidalsinus
Medial
Lateral
Plates of
pterygoid
process

Sphenoid
bone

Basilar part of

?In:~~~__occlpltol

bone
Pharyngeal
tubercle

Perpendicular plate
Nasal crest
Posteriornasal spine
Horizontal plate
Lesser palatine
foramen

Palatine
bone

Medial wall of Nasal Cavity (Nasal Septum)

_~,,,,,~-.w-::- ....
{~~~,.;;.;._jiiii~"~~~~~.".Sphenoethmoidal

Frontal sinus

Opening of
sphenoidal sinus
ypophysis
(pituitary gland)
in sella turcica
--1.ll1:.--- ...
r Sphenoidal sinus
Pharyngeal tonsil
(adenoid if enlarged)
Basilar part of
occipital bone
-m~"""l-.:...;l,I~Pharyngeal
~~~~,
raphe
Choane

Superior nasal concha


Superior nasal meatus
Middle nasal concha
Agger nasi
Atrium of middle nasal meatu
Middle nasal meatus
Inferior nasal concha
(turbinate)
Limen nasi --"'--'
Nasal vestibule-~

recess

-==_'::_~~l1";7~1~~l~~~~~.;~~~

Torustubarius
OPening of
pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube
Pharyngeal recess
Horizontal plate of
palatine bone
Soft palate

Inferior nasal meat us


Palatine process of maxilla

_~Tlll

Incisive canal
Tongue

Middle nasal concha


Middle nasal meatus
Bulging septum
Airway to nasopharynx
-Inferior nasal concha
L..iL.-.I~-lnferior nasal meatus
..L.-...l

i/...... ;-

~--

Floor of nasal cavity

Speculum view
Frontal sinus

Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone

Probe passing from semilunar


hiatus into frontal~S~in!;U~s..!v:!!ia~
__
T
frontonasal duct
G
Middle nasal concha (cut surface)

'~~~~ii
iiiil~

Ethmoidal bulla
Openingsof middle ethmoidal cells
Semilunar hiatus with opening
of anterior ethmoidal cells

Probe in opening of sphenoidal sinus


Sphenoidal sinus
Superior nasal meatus
with opening of posterior
ethmoidal cells
Basilar part
of occipital bone
~ __

L~~--:rJ~

Uncinate process
Inferior nasal concha
(cut surface)
Opening of nasolacrimal duct
Inferior nasal meatus

Lateral Wall of Nasal Cavity

Torustubarius
Openinq of
pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube
Anterior arch
of atlas (Cl vertebra)
Dens of axis
(C2 vertebra)

Sagittal section
Ethmoidal cells
Frontal sinus

Opening of
sphenoidal sinus

Opening of frontonasal duct


Sphenoidal sinus

Semilunar hiatus ---.,....,.

Middle nasal
concha (cut away)

Unicinate process
Opening of
maxillary sinus
Inferior nasal concha

Frontal sinus --~

.......;,r.

Opening into middle nasal meatus

Orbit --~~-...,..~

Pterygopalatine fossa

Maxillary sinus

Rootsof teeth

_Jb~~It-j'7t!JIT-t"jtrP..""""_,,,

lateral dissection

lateral wall of Nasal Cavity (lateral dissection)

52

Lacrimal bone

Frontal bone

soucrnous part
sinus
{ Nasal spine

Middle nasal concha


Uncinate process
Ethmoid
Cribriform plate
Superiornasal concha
Highestnasal concha

I'

----4-~
,

"

"'

Sphenoethmoidal

bone

recess

Sphenopalatine
Agger nasi

foramen

----:::~.L..:.;~fi~,
Basilar part of
occipital bone

Lateral process of septal


nasa I cartilage - __
-.,.:.;,:...;._
Major alar cartilage

Alar fibrofatty

tissue

_~~~::::3

~~JJ~fi~~~Y:li~Wn

Sphenoidal
sinus
Medial
and

Lateral
plates of
pterygoid
process

Maxilla
Alveolar process

Inferior
nasal concha

Sphenoid bone

Pterygoid
hamulus
Sphenoidal process
Orbital process
Posteriornasal spine Palatine
Perpendicularplate
Horizontal plate

bone

Ethmoidal bulla
Opening of middle ethmoidal
Superior nasal concha
Opening of frontonasal

cells
(Cut away)

canal
Openings of posterior ethmoidal

Middle nasal concha


Infundibulum
frontonasal

(cut away)~~~!p-~""'-I~~~~~I.~~~

leading
canal

to

Opening of sphenoidal

sinus

Openings into maxillary sinus

~---~;",:-~~~~f~~~~:I~Uj
Sphenopalatine

Semilunar hiatus with openi ..n:..:g:.:.s~~-;~~


of anterior ethmoidal cellsUncinate process
Inferior nasal concha

cells

(cut away)

Ethmoidal process of
inferior nasal concha
Lesser palatine

Opening of nasolacrimal

canal

Greater palatine

fora men

foramen

Lateral wall of Nasal Cavity (continued)

foramen

Nasal septal branch of superior labial brunch


(of facial artery)
Nasal septum (turned up)

Anastomosis between posterior


septal branch of sphenopalatine
artery and greater palatine artery
in incisive canal
Septal and lateral nasal
branches of posterior
ethmoidal artery

Anterior septal branch,

Posterior septal
branch of
sphenopalatine
artery

External nasal branch


of anterior
ethmoidal
artery

Sphenopalatine
artery

Alar branches of
lateral nasal
branch
(of facial artery

Posterior
lateral nasal
branches of
sphenopalatine
artery

Anastomosis between
posterior septal branch
of sphenopalatine artery
and greater palatine
artery in incisive canal

External carotid
artery
Lesser palatine fora men and artery
Greater palatine foremen and artery

Lateral wall of nasal cavity

Arteries of Nasal cavity - Nasal septum Turned Up

Olfactory

Nasal septum (turned up

nerves (I)

Incisive canal
Schematic

hinge

Medial internal nasal,


Lateral internal nasal,
Sphenopalatine
fora men
(dissected away)

External nasal
branches of
anterior
ethmoidal
nerve (Vj)

Pterygopalatine
ganglion
Nerve (vidian)
of pterygoid canal

Internal nasal
branches of
infraorbital
nerve (V2)

Posterior superior lateral nasal


branch of maxillary nerve (V2)
Greater and lesserpalatine nerves(V2)

Nasal branch of anterior


superior alveolar nerve (V2)

Posteriorinferior lateral nasal


branch of greater palatine nerve (V2)
sser palatine nerves (V2)

Communication
between greater
palatine and nasopalatine
nerves at incisive canal

Greater palatine

External nasal branch of anterior ethmoidal

nerve (V2)

nerve (Vj)

Lateral internal nasal branch of anterior ethoidal nerve (Vj)


Olfactory bulb
Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
Olfactory tract

Posterior superior lateral nasal branches


from maxillary nerve (V2)
Maxillary nerve (V2) sphenopalatine
fora men dissected away)
Pterygopalatine ganglion

~"""-~~--Greater
petrosal nerve
Deep petrosal nerve

~;::::;.:;c:::=:
~~--~~~~I~

Nerve (vidian) of pterygoid

canal

Pharygeal branch of maxillary nerve (V2)


Nasopalatine

nerve (v2) passing to septum (cuI)

Posterior inferior lateral nasal branch


from greater palatine nerve (V2)

Lateral
wall of
nasal
cavity

Palatine nerves (V2)

Medial internal nasal branch


of anterior ethmoidal nerve (Vj)
Olfactory nerves (I)

Incisive canal

Nasal septum

Nerves of Nasal cavity

Coronal section
Olfactory bulbs
Celebral falx
Frontal sinus

Brain

Middle
nasal concha
Middle

'JflDl~~~~~t@f.Tt~~=

nasal meatus~-1f11M~~~~~~rtJ

InfraorbitallRecessesof
Zygomatic maxillary
Alveolar
sinus

I1

Maxillary sinus -\""in-~~C~


Inferior
nasal meatus

Buccinator muscle
~!.!~4f.~ff-_-Alveolar

process of maxilla

Inferiornasal concha
Body of tongue
Hard palate
.J;~~~~r--Sublingual

gland

Oral cavity
Mandible (body)

Ethmoidal cells -_~~-!!!.~

~U!!!~~~~~r
Orbital fat and muscles

-~r;7~~~~

Medial wall
of orbit
ptic nerve (11)

Sphenoidal sinuses--I1ti;;-::n~II!!E:~~-d:~
Optic chiasma

---~~+-~

-':~~...:.:::-

Horizontal section

Paranasal Sinuses

NEC~

~~a~---"7If----~

Epiglottis -----1r;:;;:---tC..!
Hyoid bone
Thyrohyoidmembrane

uperior horn of thyroid cartilag


Corniculate cartilage
Arytenoid carilage

~L-~";"":7"---

Superiorthyroid notch
Thyroidcartilage lamina _ .
~_.
Vocal ligament

-----r-:-:,_~

Median cricothyroid ligament


Inferior horn of thyroid cartilag
~~_~~~IF~.-J~

- Cricoid cartilage
Trachea

----.......3i:II

Posterior view

Anterior view

Corniculate cartilage

~~tceu~~~~urface

Cricoid
cartilage

Muscular process] Arytenoid


lamina

Vocal process

cartilage

Arch ------..31

Anterosuperior view
~~

~_~EPiglottis-;:~
Hyoepiglottic ligament
u_----Hyoid
bone----....f...!~---~,...
Thyrohyoidmembrane__ -+-~.:-.
Thyroidcartilage lamina

tl
t-".::~~

~~~~-=W

Oblique line
laryngeal prominence
Corniculate cartilage
Arytenoid cartilage
Media~

.......1-.;;;:;---t

ateralJ\

Muscular process
Vocal process

----=~~~~~:::::i

Vocal ligament
Thyroepiglottic ligament
Cricothyroid ligament
Cricoid cartilage
Cricothyroid joint

Right lateral view

Trachea

Medial view, median


(sagittal) section

Cartilages of Larynx

;y

Epiglottis

jorornen for superior


laryngeal branch of
, superior laryngeal nerve

Aryepiglottic
fold
Cuneiform
tubercle
Oblique and transverse
Corniculate
arytenoid muscles
tubercle
-....ll;"'-..-jF.r---Aryepiglottic
osterior cricoarytenoid
muscle
muscle
~~~ ......
-..-.;jt..-- Oblique
arytenoid muscle
Transverse
~ ~Straight
}
~
part
.Cricothyroid
arytenoid muscle
'\i~~~~:;-:::~---\:----Oblique
muscle
Posterior
-.... .....
'.1~'-part
cricoarytenoid
____
-..;0::;1
muscle
Cricoid cartilage

Right lateral view


Posterior
view
...."..:;,;-.

Epiglottis
Thyroepiglottic
muscle

Oblique and
transverse
arytenoid muscles

Arytenoid Muscular process


cartilage tyocal process

Posterior
cricoarytenoid
muscle

Lateral
cricoarytenoid
muscle

Thyroidarticular
surface

----~i-.I.-

Lamina of
cricoid cartilage

Conus elasticus

Cricothyroid
muscle (cut away)

Lateral dissection
Posterior cricoarytenoid

muscle

Lateral cricoarytenoid

muscle

Transverseand oblique orvtenold muscles


Cricothyroid muscle
Thyroarytenoid muscle
Lamina of
thyroid
cartilage

Vocalis muscle
Vocal ligament

Superior view

Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx

,,
\

/',
I
I
J

Cricothyroid joint
(Pivot point) --+-:t-ti-

,{ ~/

Action of posterior cricoarytenoid


muscles Abduction of vocal
ligaments

Action of transverse arytenoid


Adduction of vocal ligaments

I
I

muscle

Action of cricothyroid
muscles lengthening
(increasing tension)
fo vocal ligaments

Action of lateral cricoarytenoid


muscles Abduction of vocal
ligaments

Action of vocalis and thyroaryten


muscles Shortening (relaxation) 0
vocal ligaments

Action of Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx

IA.~~~

--Superior
laryngeal nerve
Internal branch
. External branch

Internal branch of
SUPE

rlor laryngeal

sensory

nerve

branches to larynx
Ansa of Galen

~~~H---:--Aryepiglottic
,, __

muscle

Thyroepiglottic

t?<~-;'~=+l-J.--Transverse

muscle

and oblique

arytenoid

muscles

Thyroarytenoid

muscle

Vocalis muscle
~ ..

Cricothyroid

;il;~~~;:=-

muscle

Cricopharyngeus
muscle
(part of inferior
pharyngeal constrictor)

Lateral cricoarytenoid

muscle

osterior cricoarytenoid

muscle

Thyroid articular surface


Anterior and posterior branches
of inferior laryngeal nerve

Recurrent
laryngeal nerve

Recurrent laryngeal

Right lateral view:


thyroid cartilage lamina removed

Right lateral view

a---- Left vagus


Right vagus nerve (X)-

nerve (X)

~!....--Left common
J-~-~~~~..;.i~:a"M~#r---

Anomalous right inferior


laryngeal nerve (not recurrent)

carotid

artery

Left inferior laryngeal

nerve

.u.-I-~=---Left recurrent
Anomalous (retroesophageal)
right subclavian artery

nerve

laryngeal

,.::::._
Left subclavian

Right common

nerve

artery

Anomalous (retroesophageal)
right subclavian artery originating
from left side of aortic arch

carotid artery

Arch of aorta----+-~'7-~_-4---Left

recurrent laryngeal

Anterior view:
anomalous right
inferior laryngeal
nerve, not recurrent,
associated with
anomalous right
subclavian artery

Nerves of Larynx

iJ/ik,y)
/-

nerve

Helix

Triangular fossa

Crura of
antihelix ~-~
Auricular
tubercle
(Darwin)

71'

Scapha
Antihelix
Concha sCymba
of ourlcle] Cavity

Right tympanic membrane (ear drum)


viewed through speculum

lobule of auricle

Right auricle

Chorda tympani nerve

Malleus
ncus

Epitympanic recess

long limb of incus


Stapes in ova
(vestibular) window
lateral process
bf malleus
~~;,....-Tendon
of tens
tympani
muscle
Handle
of malleus
Promontory
Tendon of stapedius
muscle
Fossa of round (cochlear) window

Stapes
Tensor
tympani
muscle

'"Tympanic cavity
T

Pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube
levator veli palatini muscle

External acoustic meatus


Tympanic membrane

Coronal oblique section of external acoustic


meatus and middle ear

View into tympanic cavity after


removal of tympanic membrane

Auditory ossicles

Articular surface
for inCus\ .
-/
~
Neck--~-~'

Handl

Head

Articular
surface
for malleus

Anterior
process

__ ~ __
Base

lateral
process
Posterior
limb

Malleus:
lateral view

Head

Incus:
lateral view
Anterior
limb

Stapes: superolateral view

Osslcles articulated: medial

External Ear and Tympanic Cavity

Frontal section

Facial nerve (VII) (cut)

Limbs of stapes

Prominence of lateral semicircular

canal

Vestibule

Incu

Semicircular ducts, ampullae,


utricle and saccule
Facial nerve (VII) (cut)

Tegmen tympani
Malleus (head)
Epitympanic

Base of stapes In oval (vestibular) window

Vestibular nerve

recess

Cochlear nerve
Auricle

Internal acoustic
eatus
Vestlbulocochlear
nerve (VIII)

External
acoustic meatus

Helicotrem

Tympanic membrane

Scala vestibuli

Tympanic cavity
Promontory
Round (cochlear) window
Pharyngotympanlc

(auditory) tube

Cochlear duct
containing
spiral organ
(Corti)
Scala tympani

Nasopharynx

Cochlea

Note: Arrows indicate course of sound waves

Pothwovot Sound Reception

Superior ligament of malleus

Head of malleus

Superior ligament of incus

Epitympanic recess

Short limb of incus

Anterior process of malleus

..

Posterior mallear fold

Chorda tympani nerve

Posterior ligament of inc

Anterior mallear fold

long limb of incus

Tensortympani muscle

r~~~?-f--- Chorda

Handle of
malleus

~.:;;;.~~-

Tympanic membrane .. '~z


(pars tensa)

-I-~~_...L..
__

lenticular

tympani nerve
process of inc

Facial nerve (VII)

Pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tuoe
Internal carotid -~~~~~./J
artery

Lateral wall of Tympanic Cavity: medial (internal) view


Prominence of lateral semicircular

canal

Prominence of facial canal

Mastoid antrum
Base of stapes in
fossa of oval (vestibular)
window

Tensor tympani muscle


(tendon cut)

limbs of stapes---i"-':.:J
Pyramidal
eminence --'t':::!l~~-&..l~~:!!!:::

Pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube

Chorda tympani
nerve (cut)

levator veli palatini


muscle

Mastoid cells
Tendon of stapedius
muscle
Fossa of round
(cochlear) window

Jugular fossa

Promontory with tympanic


nerve (Jacobson) and plexus
under mucosa
Internal carotid artery

Facial nerve (VII)


in stylomastoid foramen

Tympanic cells

Medial wall of tympanic cavity: lateral view

Tympanic Cavity

Right bony labyrinth (otic capsule). anterolateral


surrounding cancellous bone removed
Posterior
Lateral
Anterior

Semicircular

Common

view:

Dissected right bony labyrinth (otic capsule):


membranous labyrinth removed

Posterior
lateral
Anterior

canals

Semicircular canals

Elliptical recess ~Vestibule

bony limb

(note
Cochlear recess
.
Spherical reces perforations
for nerve
fibers)

Ampullae
Vestibule
Cochlea

Oval (vestibular)
window
Round (cochlear)
window

amulus
of spiral
lamina

Internal opening of
vestibular aqueduct
(for endolymphatic
duct)
Round (cochlear) window

Cochlear
cupula

Scala vestibuli
Osseous spiral
lamina
Scala tympani

Right membranous labyrinth with nerves: posteromedial view


Anterior semicircular duct
Superior part of vestibular nerve
(from utricle and anterior and
lateral membranous ampullae)

Utricle

Anterior membranous ampulla


lateral membranous ampulla

Cochlear duct (basal turn)


Common
membranous limb

Cochlear nerve

lateral
semicircular
duct
11rf---Posterior

semicircular
duct
~-::::~~".._
Saccule
Vestibular ganglion
Endolymphatic duct
Inferior part of vestibular nerve (from
saccule and posterior membranous ampulla)

Bony and Membranous Labyrinths

Posterior membranous
ampulla

Superior palpebral conjunctiva:


tarsal (meibomian) glands
shining through

Superior lacrimal papilla and punctum


Plica semilunaris

Seen through [~~Pil


cornea
ms

.W'/

Corneoscleral junction
(corneal limbus)

V~

--..;,o~

Lacrimal caruncle in
lacrimal lake (locus lacrimalis)

r'L<~'---lnferior

Bulbar conjunctiva
over sclera ---

lacrimal papilla and punctu

Inferior conjunctival fornix

----.'r~..."'.....

Inferior palpebral conjunctiva:


tarsal glands shining through
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle
Orbital septum
Superior tarsal (Muller's) muscle (smooth)
Superior conjunctival fornix
Orbicularis oculi muscle (palpebral part)

Bulbar conjunctiva

Superior tarsus
Tarsal (meibomian) glands ~
Sebaceous glands

'i-:o.;(,--....l.- __

Palpebral conlunctlvi
Cornea

Eyelashes (cilia)
Iris

Openings of tarsal glands

Posterior chamber

Inferior tarsus
Orbicularis oculi muscle (palpebral part)
Inferior conjunctival fornix
Orbital septum
Frontal bone

Insertion of levator palpebrae


superioris muscle
Orbital septum-

__

~
..-.~

Superior tarsus --t-~.:;::~~_


Lateral palpebral ligament
and overlying raphe --~;.--::
Inferior tarsus

--+-""~~,-:-;"'
...
~P;

Orbital septum __
Zygomatic bone

I------J..~..,.-..-~

Supraorbital artery and nerve


Supratrochlear artery and nerve
Dorsal nasal artery
and infratrochlear nerve
Lacrimal sac
Medial palpebral ligament
Maxilla (frontal process)
-------Infraorbital

artery and nerve

Superior lacrimal papilla and punctum


Orbital part of
lacrimal gland

lacrimal canaliculi

lacrimal sac

Palpebral part of
lacrimal gland

-----+_~~~
Nasolacrimal duct

Excretoryducts of
lacrimal gland
~_--

Plica semilunaris

Opening of
nasolacrimal duct

lacrimal caruncle

Inferior lacrimal papilla and punctum

Superior lacrimal papilla and punctum


Frontal bone (cut away)
Orbital part of
lacrimal gland
lacrimal sac
Palpebral part o:f~ __
lacrimal gland

..!:;:.-f-lf.f1~~~~K;~~."~

Excretory ducts of
lacrimal gland

Nasolacrimal duct

Middle nasal
concha

Plica semilunaris
and lacrimal lake

;",;..._--Nasal

cavity

lacrimal caruncle
~---Inferior
nasal
concha (cut)
Inferiorlacrimal papilla and punctum
Inferior nasal meatu
Opening of nasolacrimal duct

Lacrimal Apparatus

Horiaontal section

Tarsusof eyelid
Palpebral conjunctiva

Medial palpebral ligament

Bulbar conjunctiva

Nasal cavity
Check ligament of
medial rectus muscle---rlHH~-r;;~;./t.~\~
Ethmoidal cells _--r:"!!'"

lateral palpebral ligament


Check ligament of
lateral rectus muscle

lllr.:-,"",,-

n..:.~~r--Periorbita

Periorbita

.JIII,.JJ,...:J,.:......jiJ.-:.--...!--

Medial rectus muscle


and fascial sheath
Fascial sheath of eyeball
(Tenon'scapsule) ---J~

__

"

Sclera

~-:'f-r-:rP:---~-Fascial
sheath of eyebal
(Tenon'scapsule)
Episcleral space
~~~,}:~t!.:~~~~L-lateral
rectus muscle
and fascial sheath
Retrobulbar fat
(orbital fat body)

Episcleral space
Optic nerve (11) and
outer sheath -----

:"!~~~ff-_..;....._---

Medial rectus muscle and fascial sheott

Superior rectus mus;cc~le~~~~~~~i~jf


and fascia I sheath lacrimal gland
lateral rectus mwcle and
fascial sheath ----.....,!"'""""~_++_~]t:

Ethmoidal cell
Sclera
tJLfiS["4+",:::;:~ttt.[_-Fascial
sheath of eyeball
(Tenon'scapsule)
~--Inferior
rectus muscle
and fascial sheath
Inferior oblique muscle
and fascial sheath
Infraorbital nerve (V2)

Periorbita-~~~\Lf~~,,(

Retrobulbar fat (orbital fat body)

tendinous ring

levator palpebrae superioris muscle and


fascia I sheath
Superior oblique muscle and fascial sheath

Frontal section

Sclera
Fascial sheath of eyeball
(Tenon'scapsule) --Episcleral space

-common

.~.:,

::;'1

.-> <>:

tJ:/a~.~-~--~

,-;~

Muscle attachments ,Nerves and Vesselsentering Orbit


Superior orbital fissure
lacrimal nerve (Vl)
_
Frontal nerve (Vl)
Trochlear nerve (IV) ~Superior ophthalmic vein
lateral rectus muscle
Superior branch of oculomotor
nerve (Ill)
Inferior orbital fissure
Abducent nerve (VI)

_____
~~

levator palpebrae superioris muscle


Superior oblique muscle

.~tlllli1I""--Superior

rectus muscle

~~tlC::::::::--Medial
rectus muscle
Optic nerve (11)]

t
in optic canal
Op htha Imic ar ery
Inferior rectus muscle
Inferior branch of oculomotor nerve (Ill)
Nasociliary nerve (Vl)

Fascia of Orbit and Eyeball

~ight lateral view .

Superior oblique muscle


frochlea (pulley)

Superior rectus muscle


Medial rectus muscle
,-

lateral

rectus muscle (cut)

Common tendinous ring


ateral rectus muscle (cut)

~---J.--Inferior

oblique muscle

Inferior rectus muscle

-~Superior tarsus

Superior view
~~~~-levator
Superior oblique muscle __

~!..!!.._

Medial rectus muscle ----f1&~

palpebrae
superioris muscle (cut)

~t....:..._+*-~:----Superior
~~_--

rectus muscle (cut)

lateral rectus muscle

Inferior rectus muscle

Otic nerve (11)

Common tendinous ring

Superior rectus muscle (cut)


levator palpebrae

superioris muscle (cut)

ervation and action of extrinsic eye muscles: anterior view

~3"--:fii_.--Superior..

oblique muscle

[
Trochlear
nerve (IV)

levator palpebrae
superioris muscle
Superior rectus muscle
Oculomotor
nerve (11/) Medial rectus muscle

~-.JIH--loterol rectusmuscle[ :~~c~~t

Inferior rectus muscle


Note: Arrows indicate direction of eye
movement produced by each muscle

Extrinsic Eye Mus~IA~

Medial palpebral artery

Superior view

Lateral palpebral artery

Supratrochlear artery -"--1-..::!:,


Dorsal nasal artery

L!.,;!I,.-_--oupraorbital
Anterior meningeal artery

artery

Zygomatic branches

Anterior ethmoidal artery

~_-

Posterior ethmoidal artery

Posterior ciliary arteries

~---

Continuation of
ophthalmic artery

Muscular branch

----~~..:!:l.-_ Lacrimal artery


Central retinal artery

Muscular branch
Ophthalmic artery
Internal carotid artery ---h-- __ .I

Supraorbital artery
Supratrochlear artery
Dorsal nasal artery

Anterior view

Superior medial
palpebral artery

Frontal branch of
superficial temporal artery

lU ..H--- Angular artery


IEI:~~--ti\---

Superior lateral palpebral artery


Inferior lateral palpebral artery
Zygomaticofacial

artery

Facial artery

Transverse facial artery

(X = anastomosis of vessels from


external and internal carotid orterle

Infraorbital artery
Supratrochlear vein

Lateral view

Supraorbital vein

Superior ophthalmic vein

Inferior medial
palpebral artery
Superior and inferior
palpebral arterial archei

----"~"""rII~~l\

Nasofrontal vein

,L_-- Angular vein


JI!I~~ __

-Vorticose veins
Facial vein

Inferior ophthalmic vein


Pterygoid plexus

--~i,oIjj

Maxillary vein
Retromandibular vein

1::3=~-Deep

facial vein

Arteries and Veins of Orbit and Eyelids


Eac

I __ S

3i]

Medial branch lSupraorbital


lateral branch S nerve
If voter palpebrae
superioris muscle
.
Superior rectus muscle

Superior view
--~~...tJ

Supratrochlear nerve
Medial rectus muscle-

~~

lacrimal

Superior oblique muscle --_--...;:.~


Infratrochlear

lacrimal nerve
lateral rectus
muscle
Frontal nerve
Maxillary nerve
(V2)

---"""ii;-r...~~1;..

nerve

---++~r.--

Nasociliary nerve
Trochlear nerve (IV)

Meningeal branch
of maxillary nerve
Mandibular nerve

Common tendinous ring


Ophthalmic

nerve (Vl)

---":tS~~~?~

Optic nerve (11)


Internal carotid artery
and nerve plexus
Oculomotor

nerve (Ill)

lesser petrosal
nerve
Meningeal branch
of mondlbulor nerve
Greater petrosal
nerve
Trigeminal (semilunar)
ganglion
.J.;.~~~---:.;.-:--:--Tentorial nerve (meningeal)
branch of ophthalmic nerve

--~~;;::::;;;:g2~rJj,

Trochlear nerve (IV) ----:.~~


Abducent

nerve (VI) --~:.

Tentorium cerebelli- __

.!.I

Superior view
levator palpebrae superioris,
superior rectus and superior
oblique muscles partially
cut away

Anterior ethmoidal

nerve

Parasympathetic root of ciliary


ganglion (from inferior branch
. of oculomotor nerve)
\!
Sympathetic root of ciliary
ganglion (from internal
carotid plexus)
Sensory root of ciliary ganglion
~~~---I(frOm
nasociliary nerve)
r:;:=-=-~-- Branches to inferior
and medial rectus muscles

!::~:r-

OptiC nerve (11)-~~~Posterior


ethmoidal
,

C)

Ciliary ganglion

praorbital nerve branches (cut)


nerve

~~

Short ciliary nerves

nerve (cut)

Infratrochlear

0f'

long ciliary nerves

Supratrochlear

gland

nerve

Superior branch of
oculomotor nerve (1-/1) (cut)

Abducent

Nasociliary nerve
Internal carotid plexus --~~~~~
Trochlear nerve (IV) (cut)

nerve (VI)

Inferior branch of
oculomotor nerve (11/)
lacrimal nerve
Frontal nerve (cut)

Oculomotor nerve (Ill)

Ophthalmic

nerve (Vl)

Abducent nerve (VI)

Nerves of Orbit

70

Horizontal section

Cornea

Zonular fibers
Capsule of lens
(suspensory ligament of lens)
lens
Scleral venous sinus
(Schlemm's canal)

Anterior chamber

Iris

Posterior chamber
( Iridocorneal angle

Scleral spur

Ciliary processes

Ciliary body and ciliar


muscle
Ciliary part of retina
Tendon of
lateral rectus
muscle

Bulbar conjunctiva
Ora serrata

Tendon of
medial recnn
muscle

Optic (visual)
part of retina
Choroid
Hyaloid canal

Perichoroidal space
Sclera ~

Fascial sheath of e~
(Tenon's capsule)

-l~:----

Episcleral space

""-~~

Fovea centralis in macula (lutea)


Outer sheath of optic nerve
Subarachnoid

space

Eye ball

71

lamina cribrosa of
sclera
Optic nerve (11)
__

Central retinal
artery and vein

Cornea

Minor arterial circle of iris

terior chamber

Major arterial circle of iris

erol venous sinus


hlemm's canal)

Blood vessels of ciliary body


ulbar conjunctiva and
conjunctival vessels
Anterior ciliary artery
and vein

idocorneal
ngle----'

Iris

Ciliary
body

Lens

Muscular artery
w~--and
vein

sterior chamber
Zonular fibers

:p--

Retina-~
Vitreous chamber
"--~---Long

Extrinsic eye
muscle

posterior
ciliary artery

Vorticose vein
//----Episcleral

artery and vein

Retinal artery and vein

Long posterior ciliary artery


Short posterior ciliary arteries
Central retinal artery and vein
Superior temporal
retinal arteriole
Optic nerve (11)

and venule

Superior macular
arteriole and
venule
Superior
nasal retinal
arteriol
and
venule

-~1t---~~_.i_"..::-_...;..;;..;.+-_Optic
disc

Macula and
fovea centralis --~.;-------

Inferior temporal
retinal arteriole
and venule

Right retinal vessels: ophthalmoscopic

Inferior nasal
retinalarteriol
and venule

view

Intrinsic Arteries and Veins of Eye

Inferior macular
arteriole and view

~Sclera

/Choroid
Optic part of retina
, Vora

~~_= /\

serrata

Axis

Orbiculus ciliaris of
ciliary body covered
by ciliary part of retina
Ciliary processes

Nucleus
Capsule
Cortex
Equator

Posteriorchamber

Eyeball sectioned in frontal plane:


anterior segment viewed from behind
Zonular fibers

Preequatorial
Equatorial
{
Postequatorial

Orbiculus ciliaris of ciliary body -+-- ...


Ora serrata

Horizontal section

Optic part of retina


Ora serrata
Orbiculus ciliaris of
Optic part
ciliary body covered
of refna
by ciliary part of retinan

k-r~'--__

Zonular fibers fanning out


and blending into lens apsulE
Ciliary processes

Zonular fibers
Iris

Enlargement of segment outlined in top illustration (semischematic)

Lens and Supporting Structures

73

lens

Schwalbe's line
'Trabecular meshwork and spaces
of iridocorneal angle (Fontana)

Posterior limiting lamina


(Descemet's membrane)
Endothelium of anterior chamber
Cornea

Scleral venous sinus (Schlemm's canal)


Scleral spur
Iridocorneal

angle

Pectinate ligament
Major arterial
circle of iris
Anterior ciliary vein
Bulbar
conjunctiva

olds of iris
Minor arterial
circle of iris

Sclera

Meridional
Vbers
t

Ciliary
process
Circular
fibers!

Ciliary muscle
Ciliary body
Perichoroidal space

Dilator
muscle
of pupil
onular fibers
(suspensory
ligament
of lens

Pigment
epithelium
(iridial part of
retina)
Sphincter muscle of pupil

Note: For clarity, only sigle plane of zonular fibers shown;


actually, fibers surround entire circumference of lens

Anterior and Posterior Chambers of Eye

Basilar part of
occipital bone

Longus capitis muscle (cut)

Occipital
Jugular process of
occipital bone
Mastoid process
Styloid process

-------'d

Longus capitis muscle

,,~\~"''':p_

------=-,r

Transverse process of atlas

Anterior
Tuberclesof transvers
Posterior ~processof C3 vertebr

Posterior tubercle of
transverse process of axis (C2)

Slips of origin of anterio


scalene muscle (cut)

Longus coli muscle

Slips of origin of posterio


scalene muscle
Scalene
muscles

Anterior
.
Middle

Middle
Scalen
posterior~ muscle

Posterior

Phrenic nerve
Brachial plexus

1st rib
Subclavian vein

Common carotid artery

Posterior tubercle of transverse


process of C7 vertebra

Internal jugular vein

Scalene and Prevertebral Muscle

Superficial parotid nodes


(deep parotid nodes
deep to and within
parotid gland)
Subparotid node

-~"!'J

Facial nodes
Nasola bial---:::;:;;:::::t1iiit
Buccinator

Occipital nodes
Mastoid nodes

Mandibular
nodes

sternocleldorncstok
nodes
Superior lateral
superficial cervical
(external jugular)
node
~ugulodigastric node

Submandibular
nodes

Submental
nodes--........:::;~~

Posterior lateral
superficial cervical
(spinal accessory)
nodes

Suprahyoid nOde-=:~~~~~~~~
-Superior thyroid nodes
Juguloomohyoid

node

Anterior deep cervical


(pretracheal and thyroid) nodes
(deep to infrahyoid muscles)
Anterior superficial cervical
nodes (anterior jugular nodes

Intercalated node
Inferior deep
lateral cervical
(scalene) node

Transverse
cervical
chain of
nodes

Jugular trunk--&.-:-7I:I
Supraclavicular

nodes

bclavian trunk and node

Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Head and Neck

A Anterior arch of atlas


(Cl vertebra)
C Condyle- of mandible
CP Coronoid process of
mandible
CS Coronal suture
D Dens of axis (CS
vertebra)
F Frontal sinus

Greater wing of
sphenoid
H Hypophyseal fossa
L Lambdoid suture
M Maxillary sinus
MS Mastoid air cells
P Palatine process of
maxilla
S Sphenoid sinus

Skull - Lateral Radiograph

A Angle of mandible
C Crista galli
E Ethmoid sinus
F Frontal sinus
G Greater wing of sphenoid
L Lesserwing of sphenoid
M Maxillary sinus
R Ramus of mandible

Skull - Anteroposterior Radiograph