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Fi de lucru

Descompunerea n factori
A descompune n factori o sum algebric , nseamn a o scrie sub forma unui produs de doi sau mai
muli factori care nu se mai pot descompune.
Metode de descompunere n factori:
 Metoda factorului comun const n scoaterea din suma algebric dat a factorului comun tuturor
termenilor acestei sume algebrice (dac el exist)
ab +ac = a(b + c)
ab ac = a(a - c)

Exemple:
e) x3 + x2 x = x(x2 + x - 1);
f) 2 2 x 3 2 x 2 = 2 x 2 (2 x 1) ;
g) 2x(x + 1) (x + 1) = (x + 1)(2x - 1).

a) 5x 5y = 5(x - y);
b) 3x2 + 5x = x(3x + 5);
c) x3 x2 = x2(x - 1);
d) 6x2y3 + 3xy4 = 3xy3(2x + y);

 Metoda formulelor de calcul prescurtat const n folosirea formulelor de calcul prescurtat nvate
n sens invers.
a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2
a2 - 2ab + b2 = (a - b)2
a2 - b2 = (a + b)(a - b)

Exemple:
a) x2 + 6x + 9 = x2 + 2x3 + 32 =(x + 3)2;
b) 4x2 -20x + 25 = (2x)2 - 22x5 + 52 = (2x - 5)2;
2

c) x2 + x +

1
1
1
1
= x2 + 2x + = x + ;
4
2
2
2

d) (x2 - x)2 + 2(x2 - x) + 1 = (x2 - x)2 + 2(x2 - x) + 12 =(x2 x + 1)2;


e) 49x2 81 = (7x)2 92 =(7x - 9)(7x + 9);
f) 25 16x2 = 52 (4x)2 =(5 4x)(5 + 4x)
 Metoda gruprii termenilor const n gruparea convenabil a termenilor sumei algebrice astfel nct
s putem folosi metodele de mai sus i s putem descompune n factori suma algebric dat.

Exemple:
3

a) x + x2 + 2x + 2 = (x3 + x2) + (2x + 2) = x2(x + 1) + 2(x + 1) = (x + 1)(x2 + 2);


b) x2 + 5x + 6 = x2 + 3x + 2x + 6 = (x2 + 3x) + (2x + 6) = x(x + 3) + 2(x + 3) = (x + 3)(x + 2);
c) x2 y2 + 2x + 1=(x2 + 2x + 1) y2 =(x + 1)2 y2 = (x + 1-y)(x 1 + y) =(x y +1)(x + y - 1);
d) x2 6x 7 = x2 + x 7x 7 =(x2 7x) + (x - 7) = x(x - 7) + (x 7 ) = (x 7)(x + 1)
sau
x2 6x 7 =x2 6x 6 - 1 =(x2 1)-(6x + 6) =(x -1)(x + 1) 6(x + 1) =(x + 1)(x 1 -6)=(x+1)(x-7)

Observaie:
Atunci cnd facem o descompunere n factori vom parcurge urmtoarele etape:
 scoatem factorul comun (dac exist);
 cercetm dac ne ncadrm n formulele :
a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2
a2 - 2ab + b2 = (a - b)2
a2 - b2 = (a + b)(a - b)
 folosim metoda gruprii termenilor

S rezolvm singuri
Descompunei n factori:
1) 6x2 3x =
2) 5x + 10 =
3) 4x 4 =
4) x2+x =
5) x2 7x =
6) x4 + x3 + x2 =
7) (x+2)2 - (x+2) =
8) (2x+5)(x-3) 4(2x+5) =
9) (2x-1)(x+1) (x+3)(x+1) =
10) x2 2x +1 =
11) x2 10x + 25 =
12) 4x2 + 4x + 1 =
13) x2+4x+4 =
14) 36x2 + 84x + 49 =
15) (x+2)2 - 6(x+2) + 9 =
16) x2 49 =
17) x2 9 =
18) 25 x2 =
19) (2x+1)2 (x+2)2 =
20) (2x+1)2 (2x-1)2 =
21) x3+2x2-x-2 =
22) x2-6x+5 =
23) x2+4x+3 =
24) x2-4x+3 =
25) x2+5x-14 =
26) x2-7x+10 =
27) x2-2x-15 =
28) 12x3-3x =
29) x3-x =
30) (x2+2x)( x2+2x+3)+2 =

Rezolvare:
Descompunei n factori:
1) 6x2 3x = 3x(2x - 1)
2) 5x + 10 = 5(x + 2)
3) 4x 4 = 4(x - 1)
4) x2+x = x(x + 1)
5) x2 7x = x(x - 7)
6) x4 + x3 + x2 = x2(x2 + x + 1)
7) (x+2)2 - (x+2) = (x + 2)( x + 2 - 1) = (x + 2)( x + 1)
8) (2x+5)(x-3) 4(2x+5) = (2x+5) (x 3 - 4) = (2x+5) (x 7)
9) (2x-1)(x+1) (x+3)(x+1) = (x+1)[(2x 1) (x + 3)] = (x+1)(2x 1 x - 3) = (x+1)(x - 4)
10) x2 2x +1 = x2 2x1 +12 = (x - 1)2
11) x2 10x + 25 = x2 - 2x5 + 52 = (x - 5)2
12) 4x2 + 4x + 1 = (2x)2 + 22x1 + 12 = (2x + 1)2
13) x2+4x+4 = x2 + 2x2 + 22 = (x + 2)2
14) 36x2 + 84x + 49 = (6x)2 + 26x7 + 72 = (6x + 7)2
15) (x+2)2 - 6(x+2) + 9 =(x+2)2 - 2(x+2)3 + 32 = [(x + 2) 3]2 = (x + 2 3)2 =(x 1)2
16) x2 49 = x2 72 = (x + 7)(x - 7)
17) x2 9 = x2 32 = (x + 3)(x - 3)
18) 25 x2 = 52 x2 = (5 + x)(5 - x)
19) (2x+1)2 (x+2)2 = [(2x+1)+(x+2)][(2x+1)-(x+2)] =(2x+1+x+2)(2x+1-x-2) = (3x+3)(x-1)
=3(x+1)(x-1)
20) (2x+1)2 (2x-1)2 =[(2x+1)+(2x-1)][(2x+1)(2x-1)] =(2x+1+2x-1)(2x+1-2x+1)=4x2 = 8x
21) x3+2x2-x-2 = (x3+2x2)-(x+2) = x2(x+2)-(x+2) = (x+2)(x2-1) = (x+2)(x2-12) = (x+2)(x+1)(x-1)
22) x2-6x+5 = x2-x-5x+5 =(x2-x) (5x-5) = x(x-1)-5(x-1)=(x-1)(x-5)
23) x2+4x+3 = x2+x+3x+3 =(x2+x)+(3x+3) =x(x+1)+3(x+1) =(x+1)(x+3)
24) x2-4x+3 = x2-x-3x+3 =(x2-x)-(3x-3) = x(x-1)-3(x-1) = (x-1)(x-3)
25) x2+5x-14 = x2-2x+7x-14 = (x2-2x)+(7x-14) =x(x-2)+7(x-2) =(x-2)(x+7)
26) x2-7x+10 = x2-2x-5x+10 =(x2-2x)-(5x-10) =x(x-2)-5(x-2) = (x-2)(x-5)
27) x2-2x-15 = x2-2x+1-16 = (x2-2x+1)-16=(x-1)2-42=[(x-1)+4][(x-1)-4]=(x-1+4)(x-1-4)=(x+3)(x-5)
28) 12x3-3x = 3x(4x2-1)=3x[(2x)2-12] =3x(2x+1)(2x-1)
29) x3-x = x(x2-1) =x(x2-12)=x(x-1)(x+1)
30) (x2+2x)( x2+2x+3)+2 =(x2+2x)[( x2+2x)+3]+2=(x2+2x)2+3(x2+2x)+2=
=(x2+2x)2+2(x2+2x)+1+(x2+2x)+1=[(x2+2x)2+2(x2+2x)+1]+[(x2+2x)+1]=
=[(x2+2x)+1]2+ (x2+2x+1)=(x2+2x+1)2+ (x2+2x+1)=[(x+1)2]2+(x+1)2=
=(x+1)4+(x+1)2=(x+1)2[(x+1)2+1]=(x+1)2(x2+2x+2)