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LAB MANUAL

FOR
METALLURGY
AND MECHANICS OF
SOLIDS

II B.Tech I Semester -Mechanical Engineering


Author: Prof. A C S Reddy, M.Tech, (Ph.D)

SREYAS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


HYDERABAD

OBJECTIVE
In this laboratory, students will have the opportunity to apply loads to various
materials under different equilibrium conditions. The student will perform
tests on materials in tension, compression, torsion, bending, and impact.
These conditions and/or constraints are designed to reinforce classroom
theory by having the student perform required tests, analyze subsequent data,
and present the results in a professionally prepared report.
The machines and equipment used to determine experimental data include universal testing machines, torsion equipment, spring testing machine,
compression testing machine, impact tester, hardness tester, etc. Data will
be collected using Dial indicators, extensometers, strain gages and strain
indicator equipment, as well as load and strain readouts on the machinery
and graphing capabilities to print relevant plots for analysis.

OUTCOMES
Upon the completion of Mechanical of Solids practical course, the student
will be able to:
Determine the youngs modulus for ductile materials.
Analyze the various points on stress strain diagram.
Calculate the modulus of rigidity of ductile materials.
Calculate & Compare the hardness values for various materials.
Experiment on a spring to interpret the stiffeness and shear modulus.
Apply the concept of impact loading and to determine impact values
for various materials.
Analyse the compression strength of different materials
Determine the shear stress of different materials.

Contents

METALLURGY

1 Micro Structure of study pure metals

2 Microstructure study
of alloy steel

Micro Structures study


of Cast Iron

4 Micro Structures study of Non-Ferrous alloys

13

5 Micro structures study of


Heat treated steels

16

II

Hardenability of steels by
Jominy End Quench Test

19

Hardness of various treated


and untreated steels

22

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

25

8 Tensile strength test

26

9 TORSION TEST

28

10 HARDNESS TEST

33

11 Test on springs

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12 COMPRESSION TEST ON CUBE

41

13 Impact test

45

14 DOUBLE SHEAR TEST ON STEEL BAR

48

Author: ACSReddy

Dept of Mech

Part I
METALLURGY

Experiment 1
Micro Structure of study pure
metals
1.1

AIM

To mount the given pure metals like Iron, Cu, and Al specimen in a thermosetting material by using a mounting press and to draw their microstructure.

1.2

APPARATUS

1. Mounting press
2. Thermosetting powder
3. Specimen
4. Belt, plate and disc polishing machines.
5. Microscope

1.3

DESCRIPTION

The mounting press consists of top plate and bottom plate with movable centre
stage plate which is moving up and down along the guide ways. The middle
part is raised and lowered by hydraulic jack. The mould part is the space
between the guide ways. Its temperature is controlled by a knob. A digital
timer is also provided on the panel to maintain the constant temperature of
the mould for a certain period of time. In belt polishing machine, an endless
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belt rotates between two shafts. In plate polishing machine different grades
of emery papers are placed on the stand. In disc polishing machine emery
cloth is placed over the two rotating plates.

1.4

PROCEDURE

The given specimen is placed in the desired position preferably at the centre
of the mould .Bakelite powder is poured up to the required level. The spindle
is tightened. Set 400 sec in the digital timer. Switch ON the power supply.
When 0 sec is reached in the digital timer, press the reset button, so that it
again shows 400 seconds. Then for every 100 sec apply the pressure through
hydraulic jack. When the digital timer shows 0 sec switch OFF the power.
After three to five minutes take out the mounted specimen. Finally the
specimen is mounted in the thermosetting material. The mounted specimen
is polished successively on belt, plate and disc polishing machines to obtain
the fine surface finish. Place the specimen under the microstructure ad draw
the microstructure of the same.

1.5

PRECAUTIONS

Pressure should be applied uniformly The specimen should be placed at the


centre of the mould Heat the specimen uniformly

1.6

RESULT

1.7

CONCLUSION

Author: ACSReddy

Dept of Mech

Experiment 2
Microstructure study
of alloy steel
2.1

AIM

To prepare the specimens of pure metals like mild steels, low carbon steel and
High carbon steels and observes the microstructure of the same

2.2

APPARATUS

1. Given specimen
2. Specially designed files
3. Belt grinder
4. Emery papers (80,120,240,400,600)
5. Disc polishing machine
6. Microscope

2.3

THEORY

Plain carbon steels are steels having carbon as the predominant alloying
element and the other alloying elements are either Nil or negligible though
some amount of sulphur and phosphorous are present. Normally the amounts
are less than 0.05 percent and hence they are not considered. The plain
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carbon steels are broadly classified in to low carbon steels with carbon content
less than 0.3 percent and medium carbon steels contain Carbon between 0.3
to 0.7. The high carbon steels contain carbon from 0.7 to 1.5 percent.

2.4

PROCEDURE

1. The specimens of pure metals like Mild steel, Low carbon steel and high
carbon steels are mounted in a thermosetting material as explained in
the experiment no. 1.
2. Polish the specimen by using (80,120,240,400and 600) grade emery
papers. Subject the given specimen to mirror like finish by using disc
polishing machine and with suitable abrasive.
3. Clean the specimen with alcohol and wash it under the stream of flowing
water.
4. After washing the specimen is dried.
5. After drying apply the suitable etching agent for 30 to 60 sec.
6. After etching wash the specimen under the stream of flowing water.
7. Dry the specimen with the help of air blower.
8. Place the specimen under the microscope for metallurgical studies.
9. Draw the micro structure and identify the material for the given specimen.

2.4.1

LOW CARBON STEEL

As the microstructure shows the structure of the mild steel, it contains 25and
75% ferrite. The dark region defines the pearlite and bright portion is of
ferrite. The properties of low carbon steels are
1. The material is soft and ductile
2. It is easily weldable
3. It is cold workable
4. The tensile strength varies between 390 to 550 N/mm2

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5. The Brinell hardness number varies from115 to 140. The application includes making steel wire, sheets, rivets, screws, pipe chain and structural
parts.

2.4.2

MEDIUM CARBON STEEL

The microstructure reveals two phases are to be about 50% each. Hence the
carbon content can be accessed to be equal to it. The properties of medium
carbon steels are invariably between low and high carbon steels. The tensile
strength varies between 75 to 800 N/ mm2 The medium carbon steels are
used in manufacture of drop forging dies, die block plates, punches, screws
and valve springs etc.

2.5

HIGH CARBON STEEL

Microstructure of high carbon steels consists of continuous network of cementite in matrix to pearlite. This cementite structure is hard and brittle and
hence has poor machinability. As carbon content increases weldability and
cold working decreases. They have high strength and hardness. Its Tensile
N
strength is up to 1400 mm
2 hardness varies from 450 to 500 BHW.
High carbon steels are used in cutting machine tools, manufacturing cold
dies and wheels for railways.

2.6

PRECAUTIONS

1. Polishing should be slow, sooth and flat.


2. Uniform pressure is applied through out the polishing.

2.7

RESULT

2.8

CONCLUSION

Author: ACSReddy

Dept of Mech

Experiment 3
Micro Structures study
of Cast Iron
3.1

AIM

To identify and draw the microstructures of Cast Iron specimens like Grey
Cast Iron, White Cast Iron, Malleable Cast iron, and S.G. Cast iron etc.

3.2

APPARATUS

1. Given specimen
2. Specially designed files
3. Belt grinder
4. Emery papers (80,120,240,400,600)
5. Disc polishing machine
6. Microscope

3.3

THEORY

Cast irons contain 2 to 6.67 % of carbon. Since high carbon content tends to
make the Cast iron very brittle, most commercially manufactured types are
in the range of2.5 to 4% of carbon. The ductility of Carbon is very low and it
cannot be rolled, drawn or worked at room temperature. However they melt
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readily and can be cast to complicated shapes which are usually machined
to final dimensions. Since the casting is only the suitable process applied to
these alloys, they are known as cast irons.
Although the common cast irons are brittle and have lower strength
properties than most steels, they are cheap, can cast more readily than steel
and have other useful properties. In addition by proper alloying good foundry
control and appropriate heat treatment is possible. The properties of any
cast iron can be varied over a wide range.

3.4

PROCEDURE

1. Polish the specimen by using (80,120,240,400,600) grade emery papers.


Subject the given specimen to mirror like finish by using disc polishing
machine and with suitable abrasive. clean the specimen with alcohol
and wash it under the stream of flowing water
2. After washing the specimen is dried. After drying supply the suitable
etching agent for 30 to 50 sec.
3. After etching wash the specimen under stream of flowing water.
4. Dry the specimen with the help air drier.
5. Place the specimen for metallurgical studies.
6. Draw the microstructure and analyze the properties

3.4.1

WHITE CAST IRON

In white cast iron most of the carbon is present in the combed forms as
cementite.This is obtained by rapid cooling of the iron. White cast irons
contains large amount of cementite as continuous inter dendritic network. It
makes the cast iron hard, wear resistance but extremely brittle and difficult
to machine.
White cast irons are limited in engineering applications because of brittleness and lack of mach inability. They are used where resistant to wear
is important and service does not require, such as cement mixer, ball mills
certain types of drawing dies and extrusion nozzle. A large tonnage of white
cast iron is used as a raw material for manufacture of malleable cast iron.
The composition of typical malleable cast iron is as follows
Carbon: 2.9%
Silicon: 1.15%
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Manganese: 0.6%
Phosphorous: 0.15% Sulphur: 0.5%

3.4.2

MALLEBLE CAST IRON

In which most of the carbon is uncombined form of irregular particles known


as tempered carbon. This is obtained by heating the white cast iron to 920 to
1000 degree centigrade for about 50 hours followed by slow cooling to room
temperature. While on heating, the cementite structure tends to decompose
in to ferrite plus tempered carbon (Graphite). The lubrication action of the
graphite imports high machinability to malleable cast iron and lower the
melting point makes it much easier to cast than steel. Malleable cast irons are
tough, strong and shock resistant. The addition of copper and molybdenum in
combination produces malleable cast iron of superior corrosion resistance and
mechanical properties. The malleable cast iron is used for wide applications
such as agricultural implements, automobile parts, man hole covers, rail road
equipment gears, cams and pipe fittings etc.

3.4.3

GREY CAST IRON

In which most or all of the carbon is uncombined form of graphite flakes.


The tendency of carbon to form as graphite flakes is due to increased silicon
and carbon content and there by decreasing the cooling rate. It is a low
melting alloy, having good cast ability and machanibility. It has low tensile
strength, high compression strength and very low ductility. Grey cast iron
has excellent damping capacity and is often used as base for machinery or
any equipment subject to vibration. It is also used for machine tool bodies,
pipes and agricultural implements. The presence of graphite flakes provides
lubricating effect to sliding bodies.
The composition of typical grey cast iron is as follows
Carbon: 2.8 to 3.6%
Silicon: 1 to 2.75% Manganese: 0.4 to 1% Phosphorous: 0.1 to 1% Sulphur:
0.06 to 0.12%

3.4.4

NODULAR CAST IRON-SPHEROIDAL


GREY CAST IRON

Nodular cast iron is also known as ductile iron. Spheroidal graphite iron
is a cast iron in which graphite is present as tiny balls or spheroids. The
compact spheroids interrupt the continuity of the matrix much less than
graphite flakes. This result in higher strength and toughness compared with
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a similar structure of grey cast iron. Nodular cast iron differs from malleable
cast iron in that it is usually obtained as a result of solidification and does
not require heat treatment. The spheroids are more rounded than irregular
aggregates of temper carbon found in malleable cast iron. The formation of
spherical graphite is due to addition of magnesium to the molten grey iron.
The composition of typical S.G.cast iron is as follows
Carbon: 3 to 3.5%
Silicon: 2 to 2.5%
Manganese: 0.15 to 0.6%
Phosphorous: 0.025 to 0.4%
Sulphur: 0.015 to 0.04 %

3.5

APPLICATIONS

Agricultural tractor and implement parts, automotive and diesel crank shafts,
piston and cylinder heads, electrical fittings, motor frames, hoist drums,
flywheels and elevator buckets, steel mill, furnace doors and bearings wrenches
levers and handles.

Author: ACSReddy

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Dept of Mech

Experiment 4
Micro Structures study of
Non-Ferrous alloys
4.1

AIM

To study the microstructures of Non ferrous specimen alloy specimens like


Cu, Al, alloys and bearing metal

4.2

APPARATUS

Given Al, Cu alloy specimens Metallurgical microscope Suitable etchants

4.3

THEORY

Non ferrous metals ad alloys contain other than iron as a main constituent.
They exhibit different properties compared to ferrous metals and alloys.
Hence their application also differs from ferrous metals. We shall study the
microstructures of Al, Cu, and alloys.

4.4

PROCEDURE

1. Polish the specimen by using (1/0, 2/0,3/0,4/0,) grade emery papers.


Subject the given specimen to mirror like finish by using disc polishing
machine and with suitable abrasive. clean the specimen with alcohol
and wash it under the stream of flowing water

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2. After washing the specimen is dried. After drying supply the suitable
etching agent for 30 to 50 sec.
3. After etching wash the specimen under stream of flowing water.
4. Dry the specimen with the help air drier.
5. Place the specimen for metallurgical studies.
6. Draw the microstructure and analyze the properties

4.4.1

CU- ALLOYS

BRASS
Brasses are the copper alloys containing zinc up to 30% they possess relatively
good corrosion resistance and good working propewrties. They also posses
high ductility hence they are suitable for drastic cold working. In common
to relieve the stresses annealing is done. Most normally used brass contains
30% zinc and 70% copper which is known as cartridge brass. This shows
higher ductility and malleability. The microstructure shows a typical equi
axied grain structure with twins in annealed structure. This brass is used
for making cartridge cases. Other applications include4s radiator cases, head
light reflectors, hardware, and plumbing accessories.

4.4.2

AL-ALLOYS

Aluminum alloy contains silicon up to 12 %. Aluminum- silicon is also called


as silumin. There are two types of aluminum silicon alloys are there.
LM-6
It contains above 12% silicon due to its higher corrosion resistance and fluidity.
It is used in water cooled marine tools for pump parts
LM-13
It contains silicon up to 12.5%, Ni 2.5%, ca 1% and Mg 12%. This shows good
forgability and low coefficient of thermal expansion. It is used in automobile
pistons.

Author: ACSReddy

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4.4.3

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BEARING METAL

Bearing metal has high compressive strength and high wear r resistance,
high fatigue strength and better thermal conductivity for heat dissipation,
corrosion resistance and good machinability. They have hard and soft phases.
Most widely used bearing metal is a Babbitt metal. They are called as low
melting bearing alloy. Lead based ad tin based Babbitt contain Antimony as
most popular this group.

4.5

PRECAUTIONS

Polishing should be slow, smooth and flat Uniform pressure is applied through
out the polishing

4.6

RESULT

Author: ACSReddy

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Dept of Mech

Experiment 5
Micro structures study of
Heat treated steels
5.1

AIM

To identify, draw and to analyze the microstructures of heat treated specimens


like Grey Cast Iron, White Cast Iron, Malleable Cast iron, and S.G. Cast
iron etc.

5.2

APPARATUS

1. Given specimen
2. Specially designed files
3. Belt grinder
4. Emery papers (80,120,240,400,600)
5. Disc polishing machine
6. Microscope

5.3

THEORY

Heat treatment is a process of heating the metal below its melting point
and holding it at that temperature for sufficient time and cooling at the
desired rate to obtain the required Properties. The various heat treatment
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processes are annealing, normalizing, tempering, hardening, mar tempering,


austempering.
The final mechanical properties depend on the microstructure formed
due to various heat treatment processes (due to various cooling rates). An
annealed specimen was cooled in the furnace or any good heat insulating
material; it obtains the coarse grain structure of ferrite and pearlite in case
of hypo eutectoid steels and coarse grain structure of ferrite and cementite in
case of hyper eutectoid steel. It possesses high ductility.
A normalized specimen was cooled in the presence of air so cooling rate
increases, it obtains the fine grain structure of ferrite and pearlite in case of
hypo eutectoid steels and fine grain structure of ferrite and cementite in case
of hyper eutectoid steel. It possesses high ductility. A hardened specimen
was quenched in oil (incase of alloy steels) or in water (in case of carbon
steel).due to faster cooling rate martensite (hard steel) structure was formed.

5.4

PROCEDURE

1. Take the given treated (annealed, normalized, hardened) specimens.


2. Polish the specimen by using (80,120,240,400,600) grade emery papers.
Subject the given specimen to mirror like finish by using disc polishing
machine and with suitable abrasive. clean the specimen with alcohol
and wash it under the stream of flowing water
3. After washing the specimen is dried. After drying supply the suitable
etching agent for 30 to 50 sec.
4. After etching wash the specimen under stream of flowing water.
5. Dry the specimen with the help air drier.
6. Place the specimen for metallurgical studies.
7. Draw the microstructure and analyze the properties

5.5

PRECAUTIONS

1. Polishing should be slow, smooth and flat.


2. Uniform pressure is applied through out the polishing.

Author: ACSReddy

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5.6

RESULT

5.7

CONCLUSION

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sreyas

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Dept of Mech

Experiment 6
Hardenability of steels by
Jominy End Quench Test
6.1

AIM

To evaluate the hardenability of the low carbon steel or medium carbon steel
by Jomny end quench test Method.

6.2

APPARATUS

1. Heat treatment furnace


2. Jomny end quench apparatus,
3. Test specimen,
4. Rockwell test setup

6.3

PROCEDURE

The various steps involved in evaluating the hardenability test for a given
specimen are
1. Determination of hardness no. by Rockwell hardness test
2. Heat treatment in the furnace
3. Quenching the specimen in Jomny end quench apparatus

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DETERMINATION OF HARDNESS NO.BY ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST

The method of determining the hardness consists of measuring the depth of a


diamond cone penetrant that was forced into a metal by applying primary
and secondary loads. This method of measuring hardness significant because
errors due to mechanical defects on the system such as backlash are eliminated
ad as well as errors resulting fro slight surface imperfections. The specimen is
placed on a suitable anvil on the upper end of the elevation screw. A minor
load of 10 kg is applied by raising the anvil by using elevation screw. Then
apply the major load by using the leaver. After applying the load for a period
of 20 sec, remove the load by turning the lever. Note down the reading on
the Rockwell scale.

6.3.2

HEAT TREATMENT IN THE FURNACE

Heat treatment is a combination of heating and cooled operations timed and


applied to a metal or alloy so as to produce the desired properties. Heat
treated steels amount to about 5 percent of total steel production, but it is
indispensable for tools, dies, ad a variety of special purpose steels.

6.4

SPECIMEN

Medium carbon (plain Carbon) steel.


The percentage of composition is
Carbon 0.35% to 0.45%
Silicon 0.35 %( max)
Manganese 0.60% to 0.8%
Sulphur 0.05 %( max)
Phosphorus 0.05 %(max)
Take the specimen, place it I the furnace and supply the power. Wait till
the temperature reaches to the austenising temperature. Heat the specimen at
the austenising temperature until it is completely transformed in to Austenite.
Remove the specimen from the furnace with the help of tongs and gloves
and place it in the Jomny end quench apparatus and allow the jet of water
to strike one end of the specimen. When the specimen reaches to the room
temperature remove it fro the apparatus and find the Rockwell hardness at
0.5cms along the length of the specimen. Plot the graph between the hardness
and distance from the quenched end.

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6.5

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PRECAUTIONS

1. Dont use the hard water as it leads to formation of scales in nozzles


and copper conduits.

6.6

RESULT

6.7

CONCLUSION

Author: ACSReddy

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Dept of Mech

Experiment 7
Hardness of various treated
and untreated steels
7.1

AIM

To find the hardness of the given treated and untreated steel specimens by
conducting the hardness test.

7.2

APPARATUS

1. The given specimens


2. Hardness tester
3. Diamond penetrant

7.3

THEORY

The method of testing introduced by J.A.Brinell in 1900 consisting of indenting


the metal with a d mm diameter and tempered steel ball subjected to a definite
load. ball of 10 mm , 5 mm , ad 2.5 mm are generally used. The load is
maintained for a definite period (usually 10 or 15 sec) after which the load is
removed and the diameter of the impression or indentation is measured. The
hardness of the material expressed as number and represented by the symbol
HB.
Brinnels hardness number HB = Total load / surface area of indentation

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2F

(7.1)

D(D (D2 d2 )

PROCDEDURE

1. The face of the specimen is lightly grind and rubbed with fine emery
paper if required.
2. Select the proper test table based o the size and shape of the specimen
and place it on main screw or elevating screw
3. Select the diameter of the indenter as 10mm or 5 mm based on the
thickness of the specimen and place it I the corresponding ball holder
and fix the ball holder.
4. Place the required weights on the weight hanger based on the type of
material of the specimen and diameter of the indenter
5. Check and keep the operating level in horizontal position
6. Place the specimen securely on testing table
7. Turn the hand wheel in clock wise direction so that the specimen touches
the ball indenter
8. Lift the operating lever fro the horizontal position upwards slightly,
after which it rotates automatically.
9. Wait for 10 to 15 sec after lever becomes stand still.
10. Bring the lever back to horizontal position
11. Turn back the hand wheel and remove the specimen Measure the
diameter of impression of indentation by Brinnel microscope and find
the Brinnel hardness number.
12. Repeat the above procedure for three to four times

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7.5

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PRECAUTIONS

(a) Apply the load slowly and gradually on the sample


(b) Distance between old impression and location for new impression
should be 3D (three times the ball diameter)
(c) After applying the specified load wait for 15 sec then remove the
load
(d) The thickness of the test piece must not be less than 8 times the
depth of impression
(e) The surface o which the brinnel impression is to be made should
be sufficiently smooth and clean.

7.6

RESULT

The Brinnel hardness number of the give material is - CONCLUSION:

Author: ACSReddy

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Dept of Mech

Part II
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

25

Experiment 8
Tensile strength test
8.1

AIM:

To determine ultimate tensile stress of a metal.

8.2

OBJECTIVE

To conduct a tensile test on a mild steel specimen and determine the following:
1. Limit of proportionality
2. Elastic limit
3. Yield strength
4. Ultimate strength
5. Youngs modulus of elasticity
6. Percentage elongation
7. Percentage reduction in area.

8.3

APPARATUS

1. Universal Testing Machine (UTM)


2. Mild steel specimens
3. Graph paper
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Figure 8.1: Universal Testing Machine

4. Scale
5. Vernier Caliper

8.4

DIAGRAM

Author: ACSReddy

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Experiment 9
TORSION TEST
9.1

AIM

To conduct torsion test on mild steel or cast iron specimen to determine


modulus of rigidity.

9.2

APPARATUS

1. A torsion test machine along with angle of twist measuring attachment.


2. Standard specimen of mild steel or cast iron.
3. Steel rule.
4. Vernnier caliper or a micrometer.

9.3

Torsion testing machine

The torsion testing machine is as shown in Figure 9.1

9.4

M/C SPECIFICATIONS

Capacity: Torque Range: 0-10 Kg-m.


Model: TTM-10..
SR.No: 2001/1012.
Mfd. By: Macro Testing Machines, Ichalkaranji, M.H, India.
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Figure 9.1: Torsion Testing Machine

9.5

THEORY

For transmitting power through a rotating shaft it is necessary to apply a


turning force. The force is applied tangentially and in the plane of transverse
cross section. The torque or twisting moment may be calculated by multiplying two opposite turning moments. It is said to be in pure torsion and
it will exhibit the tendency of shearing off at every cross section which is
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.

9.6

Torsion equation

Torsion equation is given by below


T

G
=
=
J
R
L
G=

TL
J

(9.1)
(9.2)

T= maximum twisting torque (N mm)


4
J = polar moment of inertia (mm4) = d
32
= shear stress (N/mm2)
G = modulus of rigidity (N/mm2)
= angle of twist in radians
L= length of shaft under torsion (mm)

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9.7

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Assumptions made for getting torsion equation

1. The material of the shaft is uniform throughout.


2. The shaft, circular in section remain circular after loading.
3. Plane sections of shaft normal to its axis before loading remain plane
after the torque have been applied.
4. The twist along the length of the shaft is uniform throughout.
5. The distance between any two normal-sections remains the same after
the application of torque.
6. Maximum shear stress induced in the shaft due to application of torque
does not exceed its elastic limit.

9.8

PROCEDURE

1. Select the driving dogs to suit the size of the specimen and clamp it
in the machine by adjusting the length of the specimen by means of a
sliding spindle.
2. Measure the diameter at about three places and take the average value.
3. Choose the appropriate range by capacity change lever
4. Set the maximum load pointer to zero.
5. Set the protractor to zero for convenience and clamp it by means of
knurled screw.
6. Carry out straining by rotating the hand wheel in either direction.
7. Load the machine in suitable increments.
8. Then load out to failure as to cause equal increments of strain reading.
9. Plot a torque- twist (T ) graph.
10. Read off co-ordinates of a convenient point from the straight line portion
of the torque twist (T ) graph and calculate the value of G by
using relation.
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9.9

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OBESERVATIONS

Gauge length of the specimen, L = ......


Diameter of the specimen, d = ........
4
= ........
Polar moment of inertia, J = d
32

9.10

TABULATION

Sl. No.

9.11

Torque,
kg-cm

Angle of twist
Modulus of
N - mm radians
Regidity
N/mm2

Average G
N/mm2

RESULT

Thus the torsion test on given mild steel specimen is done and the modulus
of rigidity is - N/mm2

9.12

GRAPH

1. Torque Vs Angle of Twist

9.13

PRECAUTIONS

1. Measure the dimensions of the specimen carefully


2. Measure the Angle of twist accurately for the corresponding value of
Torque.
3. The specimen should be properly to get between the jaws.
4. After breaking specimen stop to m/c.

Author: ACSReddy

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9.14

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M and MOS Lab

Viva Questions

1. Define torque.
2. Give the expression for torque.
3. Define modulus of rigidity.
4. Give the values of G for different materials.

Author: ACSReddy

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Dept of Mech

Experiment 10
HARDNESS TEST
10.1

OBJECTIVE

To conduct hardness test on mild steel, carbon steel, brass and aluminum
specimens.

10.2

APPARATUS

Hardness tester, soft and hard mild steel specimens, brass, aluminum etc.

10.3

DIAGRAM

10.4

THEORY

The hardness of a material is resistance to penetration under a localized


pressure or resistance to abrasion. Hardness tests provide an accurate, rapid
and economical way of determining the resistance of materials to deformation.
There are three general types of hardness measurements depending upon the
manner in which the test is conducted:
Scratch hardness measurement
Rebound hardness measurement
Indention hardness measurement.
In scratch hardness method the material are rated on their ability to scratch
one another and it is usually used by mineralogists only. In rebound hardness
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Figure 10.1: Hardness testing machine

measurement, a standard body is usually dropped on to the material surface


and the hardness is measured in terms of the height of its rebound. The general
means of judging the hardness is measuring the resistance of a material to
indentation. The indenters usually a ball cone or pyramid of a material much
harder than that being used. Hardened steel, sintered tungsten carbide or
diamond indenters are generally used in indentation tests; a load is applied by
pressing the indenter at right angles to the surface being tested. The hardness
of the material depends on the resistance which it exerts during a small
amount of yielding or plastic. The resistance depends on friction, elasticity,
viscosity and the intensity and distribution of plastic strain produced by a
given tool during indentation.

10.5

BRINELLS HARDNESS

10.5.1

AIM

To determine the Brinell hardness of the given test specimen.

10.5.2

APPARATUS

1. Brinell Hardness testing machine,


2. Specimen of mild steel / cast iron/ non ferrous metals

Author: ACSReddy

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M and MOS Lab

3. Brinell microscope.

10.5.3

THEORY

Hardness represents the resistance of material surface to abrasion, scratching


and cutting, hardness after gives clear identification of strength. In all hardness
testes, a define force is mechanically applied on the test piece for about 15
seconds. The indentor, which transmits the load to the test piece, varies in
size and shape for different testes. Common indenters are made of hardened
steel or diamond. In Brinell hardness testing, steel balls are used as indentor.
Diameter of the indentor and the applied force depend upon the thickness of
the test specimen, because for accurate results, depth of indentation should be
less than 1/8th of the thickness of the test pieces. According to the thickness
of the test piece increase, the diameter of the indentor and force are changed.
A hardness test can be conducted on Brinell testing m/c, Rockwell hardness
m/c or vicker testing m/c. the specimen may be a cylinder, cube, thick or
thin metallic sheet. A Brinell- cum-Rockwell hardness testing m/c along with
the specimen is shown in figure. Its specification are as follows:
1. Ability to determine hardness upto 500 HB.
2. Diameter of ball (as indentor) used D = 2.5mm, 5mm, 10mm.
3. Maximum application load = 3000kgf.
4. Method of load application = Lever type
5. Capability of testing the lower hardness range = 1 HB on application
of 0.5D2 load.
Indentation Hardness-A number related to the area or to the depth of the
impression made by an indenter or fixed geometry under a known fixed load.
This method consists of indenting the surface of the metal by a hardened steel
ball of specified diameter D mm under a given load F kgf and measuring the
average diameter d mm of the impression with the help of Brinell microscope
fitted with a scale. The Brinell hardness is defined, as the quotient of the
applied force F divided by the spherical area of the impression.
HB =

2F
q

D(D D2 d2 )

kg/mm2

(10.1)

where HB is the load applied (kgf.)/ Spherical surface area indentation (in
mm.)
Author: ACSReddy

35

Dept of Mech

II B.Tech I Sem.

10.5.4

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M and MOS Lab

PROCEDURE

1. Select the proper size of the ball and load to suit the material under
test.
2. Clean the test specimen to be free from any dirt and defects or blemishes.
3. Mount the test piece surface at right angles to the axis of the ball
indenter plunger.
4. Turn the platform so that the ball is lifted up.
5. By shifting the lever applies the load and waits for some time.
6. Release the load by shifting the lever.
7. Take out the specimen and measure the diameter of indentation by
means of the Brinell microscope.
8. Repeat the experiments at other positions of the test piece.
9. Calculate the value of HB.

10.5.5

OBSERVATIONS

1. Test piece material =


2. Diameter of the ball, D =
3. Load section, P/D2 =
4. Test load =
5. Load application time =
6. Least count of Brinell Microscope =

10.6

TABULATION

S. No. Impression Diameter d1 d2 (d1+ d2)/2 Load Applied, Kg Diameter of


Ball, D mm Average HB Kg/mm2 1 2 3

10.6.1

RESULT

:- The Brinell hardness number of the specimen is


Author: ACSReddy

36

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10.6.2

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M and MOS Lab

PRECAUTIONS

1. The surface of the test piece should be clean.


2. The testing machine should be protected throughout the test from shock
or vibration.
3. The test should be carried out at room temperature.
4. The distance of the center of indentation from the edge of test piece
should be at least 2.5 times the diameter of the indentation and the
distance between the centers of the two adjacent indentations should
be at least 4 times the diameter of the indentation.
5. The diameter of each indentation should be measured in two directions at
right angles and the mean value readings used the purpose of determining
the hardness number.

Author: ACSReddy

37

Dept of Mech

Experiment 11
Test on springs
11.1

AIM

To find the stiffness of the given spring using tensile testing machine

11.2

APPARATUS

KMI testing machine model 1.3-D ,,set of weight discs and springs.

11.3

PROCEDURE

1. Select the measuring range by attaching weights on the pendulum rod.


(Use B for 0- 5000N range).
2. To control sudden fall of the pendulum the valve opening of the dash
point is increased for lower range and decreased for higher range.
3. Set the zero in the measuring dial by moving the collar as on the
pendulum bracket arm
4. Fix the griper for tensile testing.
5. Fix the spring between these two grippers.
6. After fixing spring, note the reading of the knife-edge pointing on scale
provided on upper gripping device
7. Turn the power on and press down button to apply gradual tensile force
on the spring.
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Figure 11.1: Spring testing machine

8. Note the tensile force from the measuring dial for every 10mm elongation
of spring
9. Draw the graph by taking elongation () on X-axis and force (F) on Yaxis.
10. Calculate the slope of the line joining all the measured points by a
straight line, which gives the stiffness of the given spring.
11. Repeated procedure for different springs of same material.

11.4

OBSERVATION TABLE

11.5

CALCULATION

Net Deflection in loading = Final Initial = mm


Net deflection in unloading = Final Initial = mm
Author: ACSReddy

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M and MOS Lab

Deflection () mm
Tensile Force (F)
Loading
Un-loading
N
S.No Initial Final Net Initial Final Net Initial Final Net
mm
mm mm mm
mm mm

stiffness
k= F

4
5

Net Tensile force = Final Initial = N


N
Stiffness= F = mm

11.6

GRAPH

A graph is drawn taking elongation on x- axis and tensile force on y- axis.

11.7

RESULT

Stiffness of the given spring =


From graph

Author: ACSReddy

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Dept of Mech

N
mm

Experiment 12
COMPRESSION TEST ON
CUBE
12.1

AIM

To determine the ultimate crushing strength of concrete and wood

12.2

EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS USED

Compression Testing Machine M/C (CTM).


Wooden block or Concrete block
Scale.

12.3

THEORY

Concrete and Wood are generally used in engineering constructions and it


may be subjected to compressive loads. To with stand the structural loads, it
is necessary to determine the compressive strength of concrete and wood.
Compressive test is conducted at room temperature to determine the
ultimate compressive strength of the given concrete and wooden block under
static loading conditions. The external faces of wooden block are made
perfectly plane. The block is held between the lower and upper cross head
of C. T. M. Inter mutual loads are applied gradually on the specimen. The
concrete or wood undergoes compression. At a particular load the needle
of the control unit starts to rotate anti clock wise, which can be noted as
ultimate crushing load.

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II B.Tech I Sem.

12.4

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M and MOS Lab

DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT

Compression Testing Machine is operated hydraulically. Driving is performed


with the help of electric motor. Depending upon the size of the specimen the
C. T. M. can be set into two ranges C. T. M. consists of two units
(a) Loading & (b) Control Unit. The specimen is tested upon the loading
unit and the corresponding readings are taken from the dial fitted to the
control unit. Hydraulic cylinder is fitted in the center of the base and the
piston slides in the cylinder when the machine is in operated. A lower table
is rigidly connected to an upper crosshead by two straight columns. This
assembly moves up and down. Compression test is conducted by putting the
specimen in between lower table and upper crosshead.
The control panel consists the two valves one is at right side and the
another one at left side. These valves control the flow of oil in the hydraulic
system. The right side valve is a pressure flow control valve and left side
valve is return valve to allow the oil from cylinder to go back in to the tank.
Control panel consists of dynamometer, which measures and indicates the
load on the specimen.

12.5

PROCEDURE

1. Prepare the concrete or wood specimen as per required dimensions.


a) In case of compression test of wood perpendicular to the grain, tests
are made on normal 50 x 50 x 150 mm .
b) In case of compression test of wood parallel to the grains the dimensions of the specimen are 50 x 50 x 200 mm .
2. In case of concrete block 150 x 150 x 150 mm
3. Measure the dimensions of the specimen with the help of scale.
4. Place the specimen in between the lower table and upper cross head of
C. T. M. in such a way that the grains of the specimen are perpendicular
to the direction of application of the load.
5. Apply the compressive load on the specimen. The needle of the control
unit rotates in clockwise direction.
6. By applying the load the specimen crushes. At particular load the
needle starts to rotate in anti clockwise direction. The corresponding
load is called ultimate crushing load.
Author: ACSReddy

42

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M and MOS Lab

7. Repeat the same procedure by keeping the specimen in such away that
the grains are along the axis of loading and take the ultimate crushing
load.

12.6

OBSERVATION TABLE

When the load is applied perpendicular to the grains of the specimen.

12.7

RESULT

Ultimate crushing strength of given concrete or wood specimen =


When the load is applied perpendicular to the grains of the specimen =
When load acts along the grains =

Author: ACSReddy

43

Dept of Mech

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S.No

sreyas

Area of cross Ultimate crushing


section
load
in mm2

M and MOS Lab

Ultimate crushing
stress
c = PAc

When the load is applied along the grains of the specimen

Author: ACSReddy

44

Dept of Mech

Experiment 13
Impact test
13.1

AIM

To determine the impact strength of the given specimen by conducting Charpy


test.

13.2

APPARATUS

Charpy testing machine with accessories, specimen, Vernier Calipers.

13.3

THEORY

The loads that are suddenly applied to a structure are known as impact loads.
The performance on engineering materials like strength, toughness etc. vary
with rate of loading. Materials exhibits poor performance under dynamic or
shock loads.
Hence it is required to know how the strength and toughness varies with
impact or instant shock loads. In the impact test, the impact strength (i.e.
the resistance to shock loads) and the toughness of material under dynamic
load is determined.
The principle employed in all impact testing procedures is that a material
absorbs a certain amount of energy before it breaks or fractures. The quantity
of energy thus absorbed is characteristic of the physical nature of the materials.
If it is brittle it breaks more readily, i.e., absorbs a lesser quantity of energy
and if it is tough, it needs more energy for fracture.
The two important standard impact tests are
(1) Izod Impact test and
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M and MOS Lab

(2) Charpy impact test.

13.4

DESCRIPTION

The machine consists of a swinging pendulum that has an a rm and head.


For this test the dimensions of standard specimen are 55 mm x 10 mm x 10
mm. It is a simple supported beam. Swinging Head strikes other side of the
specimen notch. Pendulum falls from 1.457 m height or from an angle of 1400 .
The weight swinging hammer is 20.932 kg or 250 N. The specimen struck
exactly at its center i.e. 27.5 mm. The machine also has a pedal operated
brake, to stop the hammer after the specimen is struck.

13.5

SPECIFICATIONS

1. Maximum impact energy of pendulum 300 Joules


2. Minimum value of scale graduation 2 Joules
3. Distance between supports 40 mm 0.2 mm
4. Angle of test piece supports 780 to 800
5. Angle of inclination of supports 00
6. Radius of supports 1 mm to 1.5 mm
7. Maximum width of striker 10 18 mm
8. Angle of striking edge 300 10
9. Radius of curvature of striking edge 2 mm to 2.5 mm
10. Weight of the machine 415 kg (approx.)

13.6

PROCEDURE

1. Measure the dimensions of specimen by using Vernier Calipers.


2. Raise the pendulum and keep it in position, fix the correct striking
edges to the head of the swinging pendulum.
3. Set the pointer of the scale to maximum energy value.
Author: ACSReddy

46

Dept of Mech

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M and MOS Lab

4. Calibrate the tester by releasing the clutch so that the pointer coincides
with zero on the scale with no specimen at the anvil
5. Re-clutch the hammer after calibration.
6. Place the specimen centrally over the supports such that the notch is
opposite to striking end.
7. Reset the pointer on the scale at its maximum value
8. Release the pendulum by operating the two levers simultaneously. The
striking edge strike against the specimen and ruptures it. The specimen
absorbs a part of the energy due to fall of the pendulum.
9. Stop the free swinging or oscillations of pendulum by a pedestal brake.

Author: ACSReddy

47

Dept of Mech

Experiment 14
DOUBLE SHEAR TEST ON
STEEL BAR
14.1

AIM

To determine the maximum shear strength of the given bar by conducting


double shear test.

14.2

Apparatus and specimen required

1. Universal Testing machine (UTM)


2. Mild steel specimen
3. Device for double shear test
4. Veriner caliper / screw gauge

14.3

Description

In actual practice when a beam is loaded the shear force at a section always
comes to play along with bending moment. It has been observed that the
effect of shearing stresses compared to bending stress is quite negligible. But
sometimes, the shearing stress at a section assumes much importance in
design calculations. Universal testing machine is used for performing shear,
compression and tension.
There are two types of UTM
1. Screw type
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2. Hydraulic type.
Hydraulic machines are easier to operate. They have a testing unit and
control unit connected to each other with hydraulic pipes. It has a reservoir of
oil, which is pumped into a cylinder, which has a piston. By this arrangement,
the piston is made to move up. Same oil is taken in a tube to measure the
pressure. This causes movement of the pointer, which gives reading for the
load applied.

14.4

Procedure:

1. Measure the diameter (d) of the given specimen.


2. The inner diameter of the hole in the shear stress attachment is slightly
greater than that of the specimen.
3. Fit the specimen in the double shear device and place whole assembly
in the UTM.
4. Apply the load till the specimen fails by double shear.
5. Note down the load at which the specimen fails (P).
6. Calculate the maximum shear strength of the given specimen by using
the following formula:
7. Maximum shear strength = Load at failure (P) in N 2 (c/s area in
double shear) 2 x cross sectional area of the bar in mm

14.5

OBSERVATIONS

1. Material of the specimen =


2. Diameter of the specimen, d = mm
3. Cross sectional area in double shear, (A) =2 X 4 d2 mm2
4. Shear Load taken by specimen at the time of failure (P) = KN

14.6

Result

The maximum shear strength of the given specimen =


N/mm2
Author: ACSReddy

49

Dept of Mech