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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 2
(CHE 523)
NAME /STUDENT NO. : 1) SITI AQUILAH BT SALIM (2014377175)
2) AZIANI BT AHMAD SHAARANI (2014728953)
3) MOHAMAD RIDZUWAN BIN MOHD RAHIMI (2014132635)
4) NUR DINNIE SHAZLYN BT MOHD NOOR SALIZAN
(2014155031)
GROUP
: EH2203A
EXPERIMENT
: TRAY DRYER
DATE PERFORMED
: 17 MARCH 2016
DATE REPORT SUBMITTED : 31 MARCH 2016
SEMESTER
: 3
LECTURER
: MADAM NURHASLINA CHE RADZI
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Title

Allocated Marks (%)

Abstract/Summary
Introduction
Aims
Theory
Apparatus
Methodology/Procedure
Results
Calculations
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
Reference / Appendix
Supervisors grading

5
5
5
5
5
10
10
10
20
5
5
5
10

TOTAL MARKS

100

Comments:
Checked by:

ABSTRACT

Marks

The objectives of this experiment are to determine the drying rate of the sample using tray dryers
and to learn how to operate the tray dryers. Besides that, the experiment also was carried out to
determine the variation of the drying process with different air speeds and heater powers. In this
experiment, the main apparatus used is Tray Drier Training and the sample used is the green
leaves. The mass of both drying plates and the leaves were weighed before it were placed on the
tray dryers. The initial humidity, temperature and velocity of air flow was recorded. The
temperatures, mass of sample, air humidity and velocity were then recorded every 5 minutes. The
sample were being dried until the mass of the leaves are constant. At the end of the experiment ,
the moisture content and the drying rate were calculated as shown on the result table.

INTRODUCTION
In tray dryers, the leaves is spread out, generally quite thinly, on trays in which the drying
takes place. Heating may be by an air current sweeping across the trays, by conduction from

heated trays or heated shelves on which the trays lie, or by radiation from heated surfaces. Most
tray dryers are heated by air, which also removes the moist vapors.
Technically, drying is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture
or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid to end in a
solid state. To achieve this, there must be a source of heat, and a sink of the vapor thus produced.
In the most common case, a gas stream, e.g., air, applies the heat by convection and carries away
the vapor as humidity. Other possibilities are vacuum drying, where the source of heat may be by
conduction or radiation and the vapor is removed by the vacuum system. Another possibility is
drum drying, where a heated surface is used in connection with aspirators to draw the vapor
outside the site.
The term "drying" is a relative one, and simply means that there is a further reduction in
the moisture content from some initial level provided by mechanical dewatering to some
acceptable lower level. For example, a moisture content of 10-20% by volume would normally
allow particles to flow freely, yet suppress dust formation. The necessity for drying may be to
make a product suitable for sale (e.g. paint pigments), or for subsequent processing.
When a solid dries, two fundamental and simultaneous processes occur: (1) heat is
transferred to evaporate liquid; (2) mass is transferred as a liquid or vapor within the solid and as
a vapor from the surface. These factors governing the rates of these processes determine the
drying rate. Commercial drying operations may utilize heat transfer by convection, conduction,
radiation, or a combination of these. Industrial dryers differ fundamentally by the methods of
heat transfer employed. However, irrespective of the mode of heat transfer, heat must flow to the
outer surface and then into the interior of the solid. This experiment apparatus arrangement and
the type of dryer can be seen from figure 1, figure 2 and figure 3.

Figure 1: Types of dryers

ray dryer is the batch operation dryer, which the material is put on the small tray. Air is
sucked by the fan into the dryer and before it passes the material the air will be in
contact with heated coil and thus increase the temperature of the air. Instruments are
set up in both inlet and outlet. These instruments are set to determine relative humidity
and temperature. A weight scale is also installed connected to the tray so we can
observe the change in sand weight at any time. In this experiment we would like to
know the effect of the air inlet temperature and inlet flow rate to drying rate. Based on
the theory drying rate is proportional with dry bulb and wet bulb temperature difference
as well as total heat transfer coefficient.
Rc hv ( Tv Ti )
And total heat transfer coefficient is proportional with air mass velocity.
hv Gv 0.8
So, air mass velocity is not directly proportional with drying rate. Therefore, it expected
when dry bulb temperature increase and air velocity increase will result in higher drying
rate. Our results show positive reaction based on our hypothesis which will be further
explained in this report
ray dryer is the batch operation dryer, which the material is put on the small tray. Air is
sucked by the fan into the dryer and before it passes the material the air will be in
contact with heated coil and thus increase the temperature of the air. Instruments are
set up in both inlet and outlet. These instruments are set to determine relative humidity
and temperature. A weight scale is also installed connected to the tray so we can
observe the change in sand weight at any time. In this experiment we would like to
know the effect of the air inlet temperature and inlet flow rate to drying rate. Based on
the theory drying rate is proportional with dry bulb and wet bulb temperature difference
as well as total heat transfer coefficient.
Rc hv ( Tv Ti )
And total heat transfer coefficient is proportional with air mass velocity.
hv Gv 0.8
So, air mass velocity is not directly proportional with drying rate. Therefore, it expected
when dry bulb temperature increase and air velocity increase will result in higher drying
rate. Our results show positive reaction based on our hypothesis which will be further
explained in this report
ray dryer is the batch operation dryer, which the material is put on the small tray. Air is
sucked by the fan into the dryer and before it passes the material the air will be in
contact with heated coil and thus increase the temperature of the air. Instruments are
set up in both inlet and outlet. These instruments are set to determine relative humidity
and temperature. A weight scale is also installed connected to the tray so we can
observe the change in sand weight at any time. In this experiment we would like to
know the effect of the air inlet temperature and inlet flow rate to drying rate. Based on
the theory drying rate is proportional with dry bulb and wet bulb temperature difference
as well as total heat transfer coefficient.
Rc hv ( Tv Ti )
And total heat transfer coefficient is proportional with air mass velocity.
hv Gv 0.8
So, air mass velocity is not directly proportional with drying rate. Therefore, it expected
when dry bulb temperature increase and air velocity increase will result in higher drying
rate. Our results show positive reaction based on our hypothesis which will be further
explained in this report

Figure 2: The arrangement of the tray dryer

Figure 3

http://ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/AA/00/00/03/83/00083/AA00000383_00083_132.pdf
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~tplacek/courses/4860/Lab%20Notes%20for%20Drying.pdf
Geankoplis, C. J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995.
McCabe, W. L., Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall PTR, 1993

CONTENT

NO.

TITLE

Abstract/Summary

Introduction

Aims

Theory

PAGES

Apparatus

Methodology/Procedure

Results

Calculations

Discussion

10

Conclusion

11

Recommendations

12

Reference / Appendix