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A E R O S PA C E E N G I N E E R I N G AT M I C H I G A N

Contents
A View Into the Future

Pioneers of Innovation

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Our Department Today

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The Future of the Field

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our Nine Key Initiatives

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leading the way

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he Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Michigan has, since its inception,

a er o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

been recognized as one of the leading members of the academic component of the aerospace
enterprise. Throughout its nearly 100-year history, the Departments entire educational and
research activities have been organized around advancing and teaching the essential elements
of the aerospace enterprise, and especially the evolving engineering issues associated with air

and space vehicles, vehicle systems, and their associated technologies.


Todays aerospace engineers may take for granted the accomplishments of the field thus far, but a hundred years
ago these things were the stuff of science fiction. As we look ahead we can imagine what future innovations may
bring some of todays science fiction will surely become fact. Commercial high-speed flight will become
practical. Unmanned vehicles will become increasingly important, and in some cases their design may be inspired

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by biological flyers. Safe and quiet vertical flight may enable direct air travel into city centers. Parts of the hub-andspoke travel system may be replaced by new point-to-point models. Air routes will open up new corners of the
world and pose new challenges to aircraft designers. Satellite-based technologies will pervade our lives in ways we
cannot yet imagine.

To accomplish these and other innovations, aerospace

Tomorrows aerospace enterprise will continue to be a

engineers will increasingly work in interdisciplinary

pillar of the U.S. and world economies, in part because

teams. International collaborations will be needed to

of the broad impact that this field has on our society

enable ambitious and expensive projects. The com-

and the continuing fascination it inspires in the most

plexity of aerospace systems may call for new modes

innovative minds of each new generation. Along the

of analysis and design. Software-based tools may

way, tomorrows aerospace engineering graduates from

replace some of yesterdays subject matter specialists.

Michigan will continue to serve as leaders into this

Aerospace engineers, like those in other disciplines,

future, making use of their strong backgrounds in the

may move more frequently from one employer to

science and technologies on which the future will be

another. Many will adopt entrepreneurial careers.

founded, and the abilities that we have instilled in them

The aging U.S. population and the large federal and

to think independently, critically, and creatively.

state entitlements through Social Security, Medicare,


and Medicaid will likely have major implications for
support of university research and education. Growing
concerns over energy and environmental sustainability

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a er o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

will drive basic research efforts, and aerospace


engineering will contribute to solutions such as better
wind turbines, advanced propulsion systems, and more
efficient aerodynamic designs.
While it is impossible to predict the precise future of
the aerospace enterprise a decade or two from now,
it is clear what changes a leading academic department must make to remain at the forefront of this field.
In this document we envision the new challenges
and opportunities that the aerospace engineers of
tomorrow will face, and describe the key initiatives that
we have put in place at Michigan to prepare our
graduates and our research endeavors to succeed in
this future.

Franois-Xavier Bagnoud (FXB) Building, home of the


Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of
Michigan.

Todays aerospace engineers may take for granted the


accomplishments of the field thus far, but a hundred years ago
these things were the stuff of science fiction. As we look ahead

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todays science fiction will surely become fact.

a v i ew i n t o t h e f ut ur e /

we can imagine what future innovations may bring some of

AerospAce Engineering At MichigAn

he University of Michigan started the

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a er o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

first collegiate aeronautics program in


the United States, in 1914, just 11
years after the Wright brothers first
controlled, powered flights at Kitty

Hawk. The first course was taught by Professor Felix


Pawlowski, a talented engineer who had been a
student of Lucien Marchis at the University of Paris in
the earliest aeronautics course given anywhere, and
went on to build his own airplane. Since then, the
Department has graduated more than 4,000 aeronautical and aerospace engineers who have gone on
to distinguished careers in essentially all areas of the
aerospace enterprise, in related fields, in government,
and in academia. Five were astronauts who orbited the
Earth. Three went to the moon.

The early years of the Department were filled with daring


experimentation in balloons, gliders, and when available,
powered airplanes, including a model B hydroplane built by
the Wright brothers.

The Departments most prominent alumni include Clarence Kelly Johnson, B.S.E.
32, M.S.E. 33, widely considered one of Americas greatest aircraft designers. He
went on to establish the legendary Lockheed Skunk Works and created aircraft
such as the P-38, the F-104, the U-2, and the SR-71 (pictured above).

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a er o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

Michigan Alumni Ed White (left) and Jim McDvitt (right) inside the
Gemini IV Spacecraft

Michigan alumnus, Clarence Kelly


Johnson

Felix Pawlowski, first professor of


Aeronautics at Michigan

Throughout its long history, the Department has been

conducting leading-edge research that seeks to

an integral part of one of the nations great teaching

expand the existing knowledge in the field. At the

and research universities. The University of Michigan

same time, the efforts required to fulfill that mission

is among the most successful public educational

are changing. The demands of the aerospace industry

institutions, with a record of accomplishments that

and the science and technology basis needed to meet

can be matched by few. Formally a state university,

its needs are undergoing dramatic transformations.

its founding in 1817 predates all but a handful of the

Key components of these changes are described

nations state universities, and since its inception it

herein.

has operated autonomously under the Michigan


constitution. The result is an exceptional institution
that has provided leadership in higher education
throughout its history.

Building on its history, the Department has undertaken


an in-depth assessment of these changes and
implemented the specific initiatives described in this
document to adapt to them. In doing so, Aerospace

Today, the Department of Aerospace Engineering at

Engineering at Michigan has positioned itself and its

Michigan continues its two-fold mission of providing its

graduates to continue to succeed, extending its long

students with a strong foundation in the technical

history of excellence and success in its teaching and

disciplines that comprise aerospace engineering, and

research mission well into the next decade and beyond.

p i on eer s o f i n n o vat i o n /
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Our graduates
include five
astronauts who have
orbited the earth.
Ed White (pictured
at left), made the
first spacewalk by
an American, and
three went to the
moon. Other Michigan
astronauts include
Jack Lousma, who
commanded Skylab
and piloted the
third Space Shuttle
flight; James McDivitt,
commander of Apollo
9, and James Irwin and
Alfred Worden of
Apollo 15.

Leading, Researching, Teaching

oday, the Department of Aerospace


Engineering at Michigan is a vibrant
place. Over the past two years we
have added six new faculty members
to our ranks, representing a quarter

that has added to our Departments strength in specific


strategic areas that we have targeted for development
and growth. We currently have searches underway
for new faculty members to continue our growth in
strategic areas. Among our faculty are fifteen Fellows
of major professional societies. Eleven are associate
editors or editors-in-chief of leading archival technical
journals. Many others serve on key national and
international panels and in various leadership positions
in their field.
We are also an integral part of an exceptionally strong
College of Engineering, consisting of eleven top-ten
ranked and five top-three ranked academic departments. Together they contribute to an environment of
unsurpassed intellectual challenge and excitement that
is at the same time collegial and conducive to learning.
Our faculty has a high level of enthusiasm, accessibility,
and a strong dedication to excellence in teaching and
research at both the undergraduate and graduate
levels.

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professors, who have brought with them fresh expertise

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of our total faculty. All are assistant or associate

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Extracurricular team projects, hardware exposure, and


hands-on experiences are critical components to complement
in-class teaching to help prepare future engineering talent.

Freshman level ENG 100 student blimp project.

Students

students, and 20 PhD students annually. Metrics for

Enrollments in our Department are strong at all levels.


We currently have more than 350 sophomore, junior,
and senior undergraduate students in Aerospace

student satisfaction throughout the program are high.

Teaching

Engineering, of whom over 40% come from outside the

Our Department places an exceptionally strong

state of Michigan and nearly 10% come from outside the

emphasis on excellence in the teaching component of

U.S. to study in our Department. A sequential graduate/

its mission. All our faculty teach, and all courses are

undergraduate studies (SGUS) option encourages our

taught by faculty teaching assistants hold additional

best aerospace engineering undergraduates to advance

office hours and provide other assistance to students,

to masters degree studies in Aerospace Engineering.

but they do not teach our courses. Three among the

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Departments faculty hold Arthur F. Thurnau


We have a long tradition of drawing some of the best

Professorships, a University honor for the highest

students from the U.S. and around the world into our

accomplishments in teaching.

masters and doctoral programs. Our Department today


has more than 160 graduate students, the majority of

The course catalog is rich in required and elective course

whom are U.S. citizens. They hold numerous National

offerings at all degree levels. In our undergraduate

Science Foundation, Department of Defense,

program, students choose at least four upper-level

Department of Education, and other national fellow-

technical elective courses and two general electives,

ships. Aerospace Engineering at Michigan has in recent

allowing them to specialize or broaden their aerospace

years graduated about 120 BSE students, 60 MS

engineering education. In our graduate programs,

The University of Michigan Student Space Systems Fabrication Laboratory (S3FL) is a student group that provides opportunities
for undergraduate and graduate students to gain experience in real world, hands-on, space systems projects.

The principal feature of both our undergraduate and graduate programs is the
strong emphasis placed on understanding how to think, learn, and adapt. The
resulting ability to incorporate new theoretical discoveries and technological
advances allows Michigan graduates to grow and adapt rapidly as the
aerospace field evolves.

Since its inception, our Departments mission has been to provide


students with a solid foundation in aerospace engineering, and
to advance the existing state of knowledge in the field through

Major Collaborative Research Centers

Engineering (M.S.E.) or the Master of Engineering

Our Department is home to several major research

(M.Eng.) degree. Those continuing to the doctoral

centers in which broader groups of faculty and students

program take additional courses beyond their masters

collaborate within the Department and with other

degree. Our curriculum at all degree levels undergoes

departments and organizations. Currently, these major

continuous revision and renewal, with courses being

collaborative research centers include:

developed that reflect changes in aerospace engineering.


The Constellation University Institutes Program,

Research

part of NASAs Constellation Program efforts to

Top students from around the U.S. and the world have

return to the moon. In this second five-year phase,

long been attracted to graduate studies at Michigan, in

we are leading nearly a quarter of more than 50

part because of the breadth and quality of the research

research efforts among 20 universities. Our research

being done across all major technical disciplines of the

focuses on thrust chamber assemblies, propellant

field. Our research portfolio is distinguished by a strong

storage and delivery, reentry aerothermodynamics,

and sustained focus on fundamental research questions.

and structures and materials for extreme


environments.

In recent years, research addressing engineering


systems and applications has extended beyond the

The Michigan-AFRL-Boeing Collaborative Center for

traditional boundaries of aerospace engineering

Aeronautical Sciences, a research effort addressing

sciences, and allowed us to contribute to such contem-

high-speed flight and micro-air vehicles. Our

porary topics as energy, environmental sustainability,

computational and experimental research targets

homeland defense, and large-scale computing. Much

high-speed flows and shocks, shock-boundary layer

of our research is organized around developing,

interactions, plasma flows, aerothermodynamics,

sustaining, and improving our internationally recognized

flapping wing aerodynamics, fluid-structure interac-

work in computational aerospace sciences.

tions, and dielectric barrier actuators.

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students can pursue either the Master of Science in

l ead i n g , r e sea r c h i n g , t ea c h i n g /

leading edge research.

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NASAs Ikhana, a civil version of the Predator B unmanned aircraft.

The Michigan-AFRL Collaborative Center in Control

wings for optimal flapping flight of micro air vehicles.

Science addresses control of large numbers of

Anisotropic structures as found in natural flyer

unmanned semi-autonomous fixed- or rotary-wing

wings provide biological guidance for the research,

craft or ground vehicles for such roles as persistent

including passive shape control for lift enhancement.

urban intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance.


It also explores controllability of air-breathing
hypersonic vehicles using models that account for
strong interactions between aerodynamics, airframe
elasticity, control effector deformations, heat
transfer, and the propulsion system.
The Air Force Office of Scientific Research
Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative to
develop biologically-inspired, anisotropic, flexible

The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics, a


large-scale research effort at Michigan with participation by the Department, to advance computing
and simulation. It uses large-scale computations to
advance predictive science by understanding
uncertainties and their sources in simulation results
and to improve predictive capabilities in complex
systems.

The Vertical Lift Research Center of Excellence, in


which Michigan, along with our partner universities,
is one of two Army Centers of Excellence for Vertical
Lift Research. Work at Michigan is focused on
barrier issues in vertical lift technology, including
active flaps and microflaps for reduced rotor
vibration and noise, and active blades for vibration
and noise reduction.
The DARPA Flying Fish Program, a longer-term
effort to develop an ocean environmental monitoring
buoy. Flying Fish is a robotic pelican-inspired
electric-powered vehicle designed to drift at sea and

autonomous take off, climb, cruise, descent, and


landing of a vehicle that is much smaller than the
oceans surface wave environment.

Diagnostics and prediction of flow fields in advanced gas


turbine combustors.

The General Electric Aircraft Engines University


Strategic Alliance Program, part of a long-term

Facilities

strategic alliance that involves universities from

Nearly all of our Department is housed in the Franois-

around the world. Our research is directed at

Xavier Bagnoud (FXB) Building, containing 91,000

improving the revolutionary GE-TAPS lean premixed,

square feet of modern classrooms, research laborato-

prevaporized combustor, which promises to

ries, and support space. Being located in one building

significantly reduce emissions of nitric oxide and

greatly facilitates a collaborative atmosphere and strong

carbon monoxide from the new GEnx engines.

intellectual climate among our faculty and students.

The General Motors Collaborative Research

Highly-dedicated clerical and technical staff assist in

Laboratory for Smart Materials and Structures

our teaching and research missions by helping to meet

involves research on smart material maturity, smart

students needs and maintain our instructional and

device technologies, and mechamatronic system

laboratory facilities.

design methodologies. Results are applicable to


smart pumps and fuel injectors, smart latches and
locks, and smart air flow control devices for aerodynamic performance.

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its watch circle. Sea trials have demonstrated fully

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take flight autonomously when needed to maintain

Our Mission
Our goal is to provide internationally recognized

undergraduate and graduate degree programs, that

leadership in aerospace engineering education and

make major contributions to the knowledge base in

research by being a place that:

aerospace sciences and technology, and that are

Educates students who are widely known for


exceptional strength in technical fundamentals

turned to by industry, government, and academia


Creates an environment of unsurpassed intellectual

across all aerospace disciplines, who are cognizant

challenge and excitement that at the same time is

of modern aerospace technologies, and who are

collegial and conducive to higher learning

sought after by top graduate schools and by


aerospace and related industries worldwide
Offers a variety of excellent degree programs
satisfying the needs of a diverse body of students,
with graduates who are of exceptionally high value
to aerospace and related industries worldwide
Supports vibrant and highly recognized research
programs that serve the educational goals of its

Recognizes that aerospace engineering comprises


disciplines and technologies that are distinct in the
manner of their integration and application and must
be taught accordingly
Takes full advantage of the unparalleled breadth of
knowledge, technology, facilities, and resources of
one of the largest and most highly regarded
universities worldwide, the University of Michigan

those who will chart the future of the field. We look ahead to the next decade and beyond to anticipate the
changes that academic departments must make to adapt themselves for the future, and to continue serving
at the leading edge of this field. Our goal has been to assess how our teaching and research missions can
be best positioned to ensure the continued success of our Department and our graduates.

Here we identify key challenges that will influence aerospace engineering over the next two decades. Rather than
making speculative predictions or assertions about which technical topic will become the next major focus of our
field, we have based our vision of the future on a rational, anticipatory, and forward-looking assessment of the
changes that will occur in the aerospace enterprise. In the next section, we describe the nine key initiatives that we
have implemented at Michigan to position ourselves to respond effectively to these new challenges and to take
advantage of the new opportunities they present.

Left and center: Michigan is a leading university in electric propulsion


research. Right: Our ongoing effort in cavitation investigation is
aimed at improving liquid rocket propulsion design.

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n the aerospace enterprise, the second century of flight will demand agility, flexibility, and innovation from

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New Challenges, New Opportunities

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Advanced carbon fiber textiles will be a key enabler for future


aerospace and other engineering structures.

Hexagonal honeycomb made from superelastic shape


memory alloy corrugated strips will enable the development of
adaptive aerospace systems.

One World:
Growing Internationalization

Tomorrows aerospace engineers will need to interact

The engineering profession as a whole aerospace

cultural awareness than has traditionally been the case

engineering more than many other disciplines

for most engineers. For many it will mean greater

is rapidly becoming a global enterprise. Markets for

international contacts and collaborations. Some may

aerospace products have traditionally been inter-

see extended assignments to expatriate positions,

national, but now the profession itself is attracting

where they will work with engineers having substantially

bright minds from all over the world.

different backgrounds. Professional advancement in

with this global enterprise. This will require a broader

aerospace engineering will increasingly depend on the


Many countries already have substantial technical

ability to succeed in such international contexts.

capabilities in aerospace engineering, and many others


are seeking to build their capabilities. Emerging

Redefining the Engineer

economies increasingly regard aerospace engineering

Many analysis and design functions traditionally

as having the capacity to make significant contributions


to their Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Some are
establishing the education infrastructure to promote
these new capabilities. The contributions these nations
make to the aerospace industry do more than lower
labor costs; they are helping to advance the field. In
many cases, these talented, new workforces rival those
in the U.S., Europe, and elsewhere.

associated with aerospace engineering are being


transformed into packaged software. Todays
commercial software offers substantial coupled
multi-physics simulation capabilities. Examples include:
finite-element analysis software for thermo-mechanical
modeling, computational fluid dynamics tools for fluid
flow analyses, and computer-aided design software for

solid modeling and fabrication, and computer software

InnovAtion, Invention, And Venture


CapitAl

for flight simulation and flight control design.


Companies that formerly needed dozens of experienced engineers for these functions can now achieve
similar results more quickly with a far smaller staff.
Consulting houses can make these capabilities widely
available even to smaller companies on an as-needed
basis.
All engineers will still need to learn the underlying
principles. However, as classical engineering functions
become more commoditized, successful engineers
will need a deeper understanding of system-level
problems. They will require backgrounds in analysesof-alternatives, balanced optimization, and similar
higher-level analysis approaches. The pedagogical
changes needed to accommodate this shift go beyond
traditional curricular revisions. They may require us to

Major engineering companies once kept substantial


in-house research and development staff, but costs
have changed this model. Today, these firms acquire
the innovations they need by buying up small entrepreneurial companies built around researching and
developing specific technology solutions.
In effect, large companies today buy the technologies
they need, pushing part of the cost and risk of developing them onto smaller entrepreneurial companies. The
growth of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR)
programs over the past two decades has provided a
tremendous boost for early-stage technology development in the private sector. This has accelerated the
move toward reliance on such companies as a main
development path for new technologies.

fundamentally rethink the skill set that defines an

Universities often provide the basic research that

aerospace engineer.

launches and drives these small companies. Many

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U-Ms Flying Fish capable of take-off/landing on water.

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Autonomous flight vehicles investigating collaborative control.

Aerospace engineering will play a major role in the broader quest


for alternative energy and environmental sustainability.

small companies build on the stream of basic research


generated at universities, creating new opportunities for

property issues, and other aspects of the modern


technology development path.

going green
Even before the rapid rise in the cost of petroleumderived fuels, there has been strong emphasis on
making aerospace systems use less energy and create
a smaller impact on the environment. The importance of

The Next-Generation 737-700 sports Blended Winglets,


which enhance range and fuel efficiency while lowering engine
maintenance costs and noise. Copyright Boeing

fuel efficiency is well known in the commercial airline


market, where fuel costs today account for more than

Improved energy efficiency and reduced carbon

30% of total airline operating costs. Even in the defense

emissions can come in less obvious ways as well.

sector, fuel efficiency matters greatly. In 2003, the Air

Lighter-weight structures and aerodynamic improve-

Forces fuel bill was $2.5 billion; by 2006 it had jumped

ments such as winglets can significantly reduce fuel

to over $6 billion despite substantially lower fuel

consumption.

consumption. Every $10 increase in the barrel price of


fuel costs the Air Force $0.6 billion more in annual fuel

Aerospace engineering will play a major role in the

costs.

broader quest for alternative energy and environmental


sustainability. Advanced wind turbines rely on aero-

The possibility of some type of carbon tax in the

dynamic improvements and stronger lightweight

foreseeable future drives airlines to look for possible

structures for much of their performance. Photovoltaics,

new sources of fuels, such as biomass-to-liquid

fuel processors, and fuel cells for hydrogen or hydro-

processes and even plant and algae-derived biofuels,

carbon fuels also involve aerospace-related

that can provide lower life-cycle CO2 emissions.

technologies.

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deeper understanding of entrepreneurship, intellectual

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targeted synergy. Tomorrows students will need a

airplanes, rockets and beyond


Aerospace engineering has always gone beyond
airplanes and rockets, and many of tomorrows

Engineering systems today, and aerospace systems in

technology emphases will be in areas not traditionally

particular, are becoming more complex and adaptive.

associated with aerospace engineering. Commercial

Complexity itself is not new in aerospace engineering;

aircraft will see advances in such areas as lightweight

the Space Shuttle has over a million individual parts,

composite structures, more efficient and quiet clean-

and modern flight control software typically has about

burning engines, and blended wing-body designs.

two million lines of code. However, the addition of high

However, these improvements will come as much from

levels of adaptability and reconfigurability, such as by

in-flight system monitoring, model-based adaptation,

coupling reconfigurable control effectors with an

and advanced network-enabled operations. In defense,

integrated vehicle health monitoring system, is creating

engineers are shifting emphasis on higher-performance

a new category of complex adaptive aerospace

air vehicle platforms to their payloads. The F-22,

systems.

designed 25 years ago, achieved its air superiority with


supercruise and high-agility thrust vectoring; today the
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F-35 is placing greater emphasis on such functions as

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Increase in Complex Adaptive


Aerospace Systems

data fusion and electronic attack.

Future air and space vehicles will take full advantage


of this functionality. Failure or degradation in one or
more parts of the system will be compensated by
automatically reconfiguring the control software. The

In the future we may see small unmanned vehicles,

reconfiguration is adaptive because it does not simply

perhaps inspired by biological flyers. Groups of robotic

follow predetermined rules for a limited set of failure

or semi-autonomous fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft and

modes. Instead, the system experiments with itself to

ground vehicles may operate over large areas, provid-

gauge its degraded state and determine how to

ing persistent, cooperative, networked sensing and

maximize its remaining functionality.

communication relays for intelligence, surveillance, and


reconnaissance.

Such systems create new challenges not only in their


design, but in their reliability. The number of possible

Aerospace engineers have always worked on the

system states can make direct verification and

system as a whole as well as its parts, but in the future

validation approaches impractical, requiring more

they will need a broader education to accomplish this.

probabilistic approaches and adaptive concepts foreign

Academic departments must integrate traditional core

to most engineers. Future engineers will need technical

aerospace disciplines with nontraditional subject areas.

backgrounds in basic aspects of such systems and their


underlying theoretical concepts.

broader education to accomplish this. Academic departments


must integrate traditional core aerospace disciplines with
nontraditional subject areas.

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a whole as well as its parts, but in the future they will need a

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Aerospace engineers have always worked on the system as

Engineering as a New Liberal Arts


Degree

Rising Social Costs and Diminishing


Federal Support

Our technology-oriented society is convincing a

The aging U.S. population and the large government

growing number of students to choose engineering as

entitlements through Social Security, Medicare, and

a safe degree. For many who believe they can handle

Medicaid have begun an unprecedented drain on

the mathematics and science but are not sure what

federal and state budgets that will only worsen over the

their life goals are, engineering is becoming a popular

next two decades. The first of 77 million retiring baby

option.

boomers born between 1946 and 1964 became


eligible for Social Security benefits in January 2008.

Many elementary and high school students are

Their numbers will grow at a rate of 4 million per year

becoming exposed to engineering at an early age.

through 2026, and they will continue to draw entitle-

State education standards have mandated engineering

ment benefits through 2050.

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contents in Massachusetts since 2001, in New Jersey


since 2004, and in Texas since 2007. Intels

The Congressional Budget Office has calculated that

Engineering is Elementary curriculum is already being

the cost of these benefits will grow from 8.4% of Gross

used in more than 900 K-12 schools, up from just five

Domestic Product (GDP) today to 14.5% by 2030, and

in 2003. More than 2,200 middle and high schools now

18.6% by 2050. By comparison, the entire federal

use engineering courses from Project Lead the Way.

budget today is just 20% of GDP. By 2049, these


benefits would consume every federal program except

Many of these students will choose aerospace engi-

interest on the federal debt. Even with proposed

neering as their major. Yet unlike the students of

reductions in entitlement benefits, the looming budget

previous generations, many lack the fundamental

pressures will be immense. Europe and Japan face

intuition or understanding of the engineering that goes

similar situations.

into the mechanical, computing, or electrical systems


they use daily.

This will strain the federal governments ability to support

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research and development, including basic research in


Engineering students in the next decade will be

academia. The impact on the academic profession is

substantially different from past engineering students.

largely underappreciated. The major supporters of

They may come to the field with different passions, skill

research programs in aerospace engineering have been

levels, and drive. We may increasingly see students

NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of

who are just kicking the tires and who may have no

Energy, and the National Science Foundation. Their

intention of making their career in engineering after

combined research and development totals are just

graduation.

under $111 billion. The basic research components that


fund most university research are about $30 billion.
While federal reductions in basic research spending will

affect all fields, aerospace engineering faces greater

sustainability needs grow. These may include pilotless

hardship over the next two decades, because of its

aircraft and other unmanned aerial systems, as well as

greater reliance on federal funding.

satellite systems.

Meeting Societys Needs

Other satellites for telecommunications, spaceborne

will be directed toward meeting societal needs in areas


such as health care, energy efficiency, alternative
energy, environmental sustainability, and homeland
security. Several of these hold significant opportunities
for aerospace engineering. Other areas, such as
expanded low-cost air transport and improved air traffic

intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and other


applications ranging from low-Earth orbits up to
geosynchronous orbits may also become increased
priorities. Associated technologies to reduce launch
costs, decrease failures associated with launches or
orbit insertions, and increase on-orbit reliability will
become more important.

control systems, have obvious aerospace content and

Aerospace engineering will be called on to help our

are likely to see growth.

society meet these new challenges. The engineers we

Earth observation systems to monitor effects such as


urban growth, deforestation, and water management
will become more important as environmental

graduate and the research endeavors we undertake will


need to be positioned to successfully address these
needs.

/ 29

Federal research spending over the next two decades

ne w c h a l l e n g es, n e w o ppo r t un i t i e s /

Engineers of today and tomorrow will need to make technological advances while ensuring that societal and environmental
needs are being met.

Provide greater opportunities for students to


participate in substantive international exchanges
and internships
Reduce commodity subject matter in courses;
increase education in system-level analysis-ofalternatives concepts
Bring further nontraditional systems-related content
into the curriculum

Enable a broader and deeper understanding of


entrepreneurship and its role in the aerospace field
Accommodate a broader spectrum of different
types of students, including those who lack natural
engineering intuition
Adjust to looming decreases in federal research
funding and shifts in federal research priorities

Preparing for tomorrow

component of the aerospace enterprise. They represent new opportunities for those academic
departments that are prepared to adapt to these changes to stay positioned as leaders in
this field.
Accordingly, the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Michigan, along with the College of

Engineering and the University, has recently implemented nine key initiatives to prepare our Department and its

/ 33

graduates to continue to succeed over the next decade and beyond in aerospace engineering.

Pr epar i n g f o r t o m o r r o w /

he challenges we have identified in this document have implications for the academic

Advanced battery for future air and ground vehicles.

Expanded Departmental
Research Thrusts

Beyond our existing research focus areas noted earlier,


our Department has further identified the major
research thrusts listed below. Each builds on strengths
already in the Department, and is being developed
through strategic targeted hires and larger collaborative
research efforts. They bring together teams of faculty

Advanced computational aerodynamics utilizing Cartesian


grid and local adaptation to achieve desirable accuracy while
alleviating cost for mesh generation.

and student researchers to address key technical


issues in these areas.

Our Department already has a strong reputation in

/ 34

ae r o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

many key aspects of computational aerosciences. We


These Departmental research thrusts and those that

are expanding our activities in this area, building on

span more broadly across the College and University

numerous on-going research efforts that involve federal

help place our research focus in areas that will be key

agencies and industry partners.

to the next two decades in aerospace engineering.


We plan to broaden our expertise and strong record in
Computational Aerosciences

advancing alternative numerical techniques such as

Computer-aided analysis and design tools are routinely

adaptive Cartesian grid methods, discontinuous

used to simulate and predict component and subsys-

Galerkin methods, DSMC and hybrid DSMC/continuum

tem performance, allowing dramatic reductions in the

techniques, and simulation-based design optimization

need for costly and time-consuming physical testing.

and sensitivity evaluations. Experiments will provide

Further advances in computational aero-

insights and data to guide development of physical

sciences will allow entire aerospace vehicles to be

models and improved numerical techniques. Data

reliably designed in virtual environments. Development

assimilation techniques will also be addressed to

of the numerical methods and software tools to

effectively utilize data generated from computationally-

accomplish this plays a critical role throughout the

intensive methods, merging data with models to give

aerospace enterprise and will continue to be a major

more useful estimates than can be obtained by either

research area over the next two decades.

one alone.

anisotropic flexible wings for optimal flapping flight.

Unmanned flight vehicles are being rapidly developed

Research is utilizing insights gained from biological

and deployed. Today these are primarily used for

flight, while focusing on hovering and forward-flight

defense, but evolving civil airspace regulations will allow

modes of micro air vehicles, with an emphasis on the

broader uses of unmanned flight vehicles. Such

intrinsically unsteady environment due to wind gusts

vehicles range from high-altitude long-endurance

and flapping motions.

platforms with sizes measured in tens of meters and


endurances measured in days or even years, to micro
air vehicles a few centimeters in size that are designed
for several minutes of operation.

In the future, we will address a wide range of essential


technical issues associated with aerodynamics,
propulsion, structures, and control of individual
unmanned vehicles, as well as collaborative control of

Our Department has recently developed strong

multiple vehicles and even large swarms of such

programs in both large and small unmanned flight

platforms.

vehicles, which we will grow over the next two


decades. A substantial portion of our research focuses
on cooperative control of potentially large numbers of
such semi- or fully-autonomous vehicles, coordinating
their motion to provide persistent real-time services,
autonomous fault management, and strategic-level
decision making. Our ongoing low-speed micro air
vehicle research is also addressing biologically-inspired,

Space Systems
Our Department has a portfolio of space systems
research that we will cultivate further. We have played a
central role in NASAs 10-year, two-phase Constellation
University Institutes Program (CUIP), a consortium of
approximately twenty universities in the U.S. addressing
key technical challenges in NASAs Moon-Mars

/ 35

Unmanned Flight Vehicles

Pr epar i n g f o r t o m o r r o w /

Vortex flow structures associated with a flapping wing during a stroke.

We have one of the most comprehensive and advanced spacecraft propulsion


research groups at any academic institution in the world, focusing on electric
propulsion development and engine-spacecraft interaction studies, as well as
hypersonic vehicle concepts for space access and reentry.

exploration endeavors. Our research includes investigations of flow, mixing, and combustion in chemical
rocket engines, propellant delivery systems, reentry
aerothermodynamics, and hot structures and materials
for extreme environments.
We have one of the most comprehensive and
Pr epar i n g f o r t o m o r r o w /

advanced spacecraft propulsion research groups at


any academic institution in the world, focusing on
electric propulsion development and engine-spacecraft
interaction studies, as well as hypersonic vehicle
concepts for space access and reentry. This includes
development of computational models and highlycoupled, control-oriented concepts for air-breathing
hypersonic vehicles.
Small satellite systems and satellite constellations are
another research area that we have targeted for growth

/ 37

and where we will build on our existing strengths.


Research topics include: integration of advanced
space sensors, computational algorithms and software, constellation setup and operations, as well as
low-cost command and control processes that take
advantage of multi-element worldwide ground systems.

High-resolution flow field measurements of shock wave


interactions with a turbulent boundary layer.

Strategic New Aerospace


Faculty Hires

Recently, the Department has hired six new faculty members, representing nearly 25% growth in faculty size. All
are either assistant or associate professors and hold 100% appointments in the Department. More critically, each
of these new faculty members, as noted below, brings strong expertise to enhance one or more of our expanded
research thrust areas. We also have ongoing searches to add several more new faculty members to further enrich
our teaching and research portfolios.

Assoc. Prof. Ella Atkins

multigrid solver for the discontinuous Galerkin finite

Professor Atkins research is on task and motion

element method.

planning algorithms for autonomous systems under


various sources of uncertainties. This includes flight
ae r o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

vehicle mission planning and adaptation, and human-

/ 38

planning and guidance, autonomous unmanned air

station networking technologies. He has taught satellite

robot collaboration.
Asst. Prof. James Cutler
Professor Cutlers research interests include the
development of distributed space vehicles optimized for
complex missions, advanced spacecraft software, the
robust use of commercial off-the-shelf hardware for
satellite systems, and the development of global ground
design, and developed small satellite systems and
robust ground station networks, including regular space
and near-space flights.
Asst. Prof. Krzysztof Fidkowski
Professor Fidkowski works on computational methods,
including a triangular cut-cell adaptive method to allow
high-order discretizations of the compressible NavierStokes equations. He previously developed a new

Asst. Prof. Anouck Girard


Professor Girards research is in nonlinear control and
systems engineering. Her work applies to control of
swarms of autonomous small and micro air vehicles
and/or ground robots that operate in formation. She
works with hybrid, distributed, and embedded systems.
Asst. Prof. Matthias Ihme
Professor Ihme works on computational modeling of
reacting flows, radiation, emissions, and combustiongenerated noise. He uses direct and large-eddy
simulations for turbulent reactive flows, mixing, and
aeroacoustics, and has made advances in flamelet
progress variable methods.
Asst. Prof. Veera Sundararaghavan
Professor Sundararaghavans research is on multi-scale
computations for material design and optimization.
He uses finite element homogenization, molecular
dynamics, ab initio simulations, and statistical
mechanics approaches, and has developed adaptive
reduced-order optimization methods.

The Association Franois-Xavier Bagnoud (FXB) has

by flight vehicles in an educational setting. It helps to

been extraordinarily generous in supporting our

advance the strategic areas we have identified for

Department over the years. To help further advance our

growth. Through the FXB Flight Vehicle Institute,

teaching and research missions, the Association has

faculty, undergraduate, and graduate students work

recently pledged an additional $4 million to endow the

together to advance the state-of-the-art in flight vehicle

Franois-Xavier Bagnoud Fellowships, as well as the

research and teaching. Extracurricular projects at the

research and educational initiatives in the Department.

undergraduate level are being promoted. The Institute

This brings the Association FXBs total support to $13

will sponsor workshops, issue scholarly reports and

million. Part of this support has been directed toward

papers, and serve as a catalyst in the academic

establishing the Franois-Xavier Bagnoud Flight Vehicle

community. The Institute also helps establish inter-

Institute.

national as well as industrial collaborative activities,

The Institute is an integral part of our Department,

students.

/ 39

focusing on research and educational topics motivated

including guest lecturers, visiting researchers, and

Pr epar i n g f o r t o m o r r o w /

The FXB Flight Vehicle


Institute

Students gather for a photo with Aerospace Engineering alumnus Jim McDivitt (the Commander of Apollo 9) in the Atrium of the
FXB Building.

A New Major Energy Initiative

In response to the growing need for energy conversion and storage technologies, the University of Michigan has
established the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Energy Institute (MMPEI) with $11 million in building renovation and
an additional $9 million in initial funding. Our Department participates in this new initiative, and several members of
our faculty are involved in research supporting MMPEI goals.
Major thrusts of the Institute include energy conversion, storage and utilization, carbon-neutral energy sources,
energy policy, and economic and societal impacts of energy usage. It coordinates research across the University in
areas such as solar power, hydrogen technology, fuel cells, nuclear energy, battery research, and low power
electronics.
It brings together Michigans energy research activities to achieve maximum impact. MMPEI serves as a resource

/ 40

ae r o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

to assist in developing funding and attracting faculty, managing facilities, engaging industry and providing a focal
point on energy research, policy, and education. It also established several new chaired faculty positions, and
several new graduate fellowships in energy.
This new energy institute gives our aerospace engineering students greater opportunities to learn about energy
issues and to become directly involved in research to help solve energy-related problems.

This new energy institute gives our aerospace engineering


students greater opportunities to learn about energy issues and to
become directly involved in research to help solve energy-related

/ 41

Pr epar i n g f o r t o m o r r o w /

problems.

In response to the growing concerns around environ-

research and academic efforts, encourages innovative

mental issues, The Graham Foundation and the

academic programs that explore the complexities of

University have recently created a new $10.5 million

environmental sustainability, and emphasizes relation-

Graham Environmental Sustainability Institute (GESI) to

ships between ecosystems. The Institute also educates

develop solutions to complex environmental sustain-

communities and policy makers on how to economi-

ability issues, recognizing the need for balance between

cally and effectively achieve environmental sustainability.

Department is a participant in this new sustainability


institute, and several members of our faculty are
involved in research that supports the GESI mission.

The Institute is focused on areas of research where


knowledge is critical to reaching the goal of environmental sustainability. These include energy, biodiversity
and global change, freshwater and marine resources,

The Institutes goals are to increase the Universitys

sustainable infrastructure, human health and environ-

multidisciplinary research and education in environmen-

ment, and environmental policymaking.

tal sustainability and position Michigan as a global


leader in this field. The Graham Environmental
Sustainability Institute facilitates collaborative research
on environmental sustainability through financial and
administrative support. It leverages the Universitys

Through this new institute, undergraduate and graduate


students at Michigan have greater access to opportunities for learning about environmental sustainability and
for becoming involved in research to address related
issues.
Multi-scale simulation
methods are providing
important new insights
into tailored materials
that can provide
environmentally-friendly
performance benefits.

Pr epar i n g f o r t o m o r r o w /

societal needs and social responsibilities. Our

/ 43

A New Environmental
Sustainability Center

A New International Minor


for Engineers

In response to the growing internationalization of


aerospace and other engineering disciplines, a new
International Minor for Engineers program has recently
been instituted and made available to undergraduates
in Aerospace Engineering at Michigan. The College of
Engineering and the Department have also expanded
strategic partnerships with leading universities overseas
to facilitate student exchanges. The International
Programs in Engineering office has expanded its role in
connecting students with companies abroad seeking

/ 44

ae r o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

engineering interns.
The minor seeks to prepare our engineering graduates to

Our students participating in the Paris Air Show (above) and


the University of Michigan/Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint
Institute Summer Program (below).

succeed in a global society. It facilitates work in multinational teams, creating products for a global marketplace,
and solving problems across national borders and
cultures. The minor officially recognizes not just foreign
language proficiency, but also understanding of other
cultures, study of engineering in a global context, and the
experience of living and working abroad.
The 17-20 credit-hour engineering degree minor
requires four semesters of college-level foreign language study, two courses on non-U.S. cultures or
societies, one course in business, humanities, or social

This minor expands an existing global engineering

sciences with a comparative or global perspective, an

program that allowed students to add an international

International Engineering Seminar that teaches global

component to their engineering education. The new

trends in engineering and business as well as strategies

International Minor for Engineers increases the

for working in multinational teams, and also requires at

requirements and acknowledges these with a formal

least six weeks of study, work, research, or organized

degree minor certification.

volunteer work abroad.

A New Engineering
Entrepreneurism Center

In light of the importance that entrepreneurship has for technology development, the College of Engineering has

innovation and business from professors or members of the broader entrepreneurial community. It also provides
grants for students to pursue their ideas, and connects current students with alumni from the College of
Engineering who work in the start-up community. The Center simplifies and clarifies student intellectual property
transfer, and advises the new entrepreneurship-focused engineering student group MPowered.
The Center is the latest initiative in a broad effort to further facilitate student entrepreneurship. It coordinates with
Michigans existing Zell-Lurie Institute for Entrepreneurial Studies, part of the Ross School of Business, to include
business courses in the engineering curriculum. This helps students bridge the gap between inventor and venture
capitalist.
The Center for Entrepreneurship increases the ability of aerospace engineering students at Michigan to get
first-hand experience in entrepreneurial processes and the role that entrepreneurism plays in the aerospace
enterprise.

/ 45

This new center is developing an entrepreneurship certificate program for engineering students taking courses in

Pr epar i n g f o r t o m o r r o w /

recently established a new Center for Entrepreneurship with $1 million in initial funding.

Expanded Curriculum and


Design Opportunities

To further expand our students backgrounds beyond

the Human Powered Helicopter team, the Michigan

traditional engineering analyses, our Department has

Mars Rover team, the AeroDesign/MFly team, the

been enhancing its curriculum and encouraging student

Student Space Systems Fabrication Laboratory, the Jet

involvement in extracurricular design-build-test

Engine Club, the Model Airplane Club, and the

opportunities. We offer a highly successful first-year

Michigan Aeronautical Science Association (MASA).

engineering course that combines an introduction to


engineering with design-build-test projects. Students
design a Mars surveillance blimp that they then test via
Earth-scaled models. They learn by direct experience
and immersion in systems engineering issues. The
Lockheed Martin, as well as the National Science
Foundation, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the
Department of Energy.

design projects, the College has recently completed a


$3 million renovation of the Walter E. Wilson Student
Team Project Center, located adjacent to our
Department. This 10,000 square-foot center provides a
modern collaborative environment and team workspaces for design, assembly, machining, and electronics. The Wilson Center allows student teams to
experience the practical application of engineering

Our students are highly engaged in extracurricular

theories as well as hands-on development and

design-build-test activities involving collaborative

fabrication in a team environment.

teams. Aerospace engineering student teams include

/ 46

ae r o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

course has been supported in part by Boeing and

To increase opportunities for collaborative student team

Active student team activities include low gravity, flight-ready


equipment and solar cars.

100-Faculty Interdisciplinary
Hiring Initiative

faculty positions in areas that advance interdisciplinary teaching and research. These new positions are created
with the goal of recruiting scholars whose work crosses boundaries and opens new pathways, or for cluster hires
that bring scholars from different fields together to explore significant questions or address complex problems. The
program is enhancing the Universitys ability to engage emerging research opportunities.
A total of 25 new junior faculty have been hired under this initiative in 2008, the first year of the program, and three
of these are in engineering. Their research will be in data mining, learning, and discovery using massive datasets;
energy storage, and global change.
Over the next four years, the remaining 75 positions in this initial phase of the program will be similarly filled with

Pr epar i n g f o r t o m o r r o w /

The University has begun a $30 million Interdisciplinary Junior Faculty Initiative to add 100 new junior tenure-track

research opportunities for the future.

/ 47

junior tenure-track faculty working in interdisciplinary areas that address some of the most important teaching and

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Expanded
Departmental
Research Thrusts
Strategic New
Aerospace Faculty
Hires

The FXB Flight Vehicle


Institute

A New Major Energy


Initiative

A New Environmental
Sustainability CenteR

6
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ince its inception, the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Michigan has
been recognized as one of the leading members of the academic component in the aerospace
enterprise. Today, as throughout its nearly 100-year history, the Departments educational and
engineering issues associated with air and space vehicles, vehicle systems, and related

technologies. This includes a strategically balanced representation in the Departments research areas and in its
curriculum of aerodynamics and propulsion, solid mechanics and structures, flight dynamics and control, and

/ 51

design of hardware and software in ways that prepare our students to become future leaders in this field.

l ead i n g t h e way /

research activities are organized around advancing the technical disciplines needed to address

The Michigan-designed UAV Endurance recently broke the record for fuel-cell
powered flight. It flew for 10 hours, 15 minutes and 4 seconds on October 30th,
2008 in Milan, MI.

As outlined in the preceding pages, our Department is

approach. Rather than making speculative predictions

exceedingly well-positioned for the future. We have a

or simplistic assertions about which technical topic will

growing professoriate faculty of highly-recognized

become the next major focus of our field, we instead

individuals working in a collaborative and vibrant

base our assessment of the future on identifying some

intellectual climate, and strong enrollments of highly-

of the key elements that will influence the aerospace

qualified students at both the undergraduate and

enterprise over the next two decades. All of these will

graduate levels. We have an excellent and highly

have important impacts on this field, and will most likely

modern curriculum that is deep in its course offerings

have implications on the future.

and meets the needs of tomorrows aerospace


engineers. We have a strong research position that
successfully balances our traditional focus on
fundamental research questions with additional
efforts addressing engineering systems and
applications research in some of todays and
tomorrows most imperative topics.

Department takes an anticipatory and forward-looking

represent fresh challenges and opportunities for


academic departments that understand the forces
driving them, their nature and extent, and the implications they have across the aerospace enterprise. The
opportunities they present are available to those who
are prepared to be properly positioned for the next two
decades in this field.
The Department of Aerospace Engineering at Michigan
is ready for the future. We have implemented in a set
of closely coordinated steps with the College of
Engineering and the University the key initiatives
described herein to position ourselves and our
graduates to succeed. With these strategic moves,
aerospace engineering graduates from Michigan will
continue to lead the way into the future by building on
strong backgrounds in science and technology

/ 52

ae r o spac e at m i c h i g a n /

In preparing for the next decade and beyond, our

The resulting changes that these factors will produce

reflected in our research and teaching, and in our


determination to think independently, critically, and
creatively.
Curiosity and enthusiasm are two critical factors that
characterize Michigan aerospace engineers.

Tomorrows aerospace engineering graduates from Michigan will


continue to serve as leaders into the future, making use of their
strong backgrounds in the science and technologies on which
the future will be founded, and the abilities that we have instilled in

/ 53

l ead i n g t h e way /

them to think independently, critically, and creatively.

Our faculty members are inspired, driven, and dedicated to the dual teaching and research missions on which the
Department is based. Many are recognized leaders in their fields of expertise; their research areas span the most
important contemporary aspects of aerospace engineering.

Ella M. Atkins, Associate Professor. Individual and

James F. Driscoll, Professor. Turbulent combustion,

collaborative air and space systems, fault-tolerant flight

nitric oxide reduction, supersonic combustion, scram-

management, UAV/MAV applications.

jets, rocket combustion, laser diagnostics.

Luis P. Bernal, Associate Professor. Fluid mechanics,

Krzysztof Fidkowski, Assistant Professor.

aerodynamics, turbulent shear flow, whole-field flow

Computational fluid dynamics, higher-order discretiza-

measurement, microgravity fluid physics.

tions, discontinuous Galerkin methods, fluid dynamics.

Dennis S. Bernstein, Professor. Linear and nonlinear

Peretz P. Friedmann, Professor. Rotary and fixed wing

systems, identification, optimal, robust and adaptive

aeroelasticity, aerothermoelasticity, multidisciplinary

control.

optimization, micro air vehicles.

Iain D. Boyd, Professor. Electric propulsion, hyperson-

Alec D. Gallimore, Professor. Experimental plasma

ics, micro-scale flows, computation of nonequilibrium

physics, plasma probes, microwave and optical

gas and plasma dynamics.

diagnostics, electric propulsion, space propulsion.

Carlos E. S. Cesnik, Professor. Aeroelasticity, active

Anouck R. Girard, Assistant Professor. Nonlinear

vibration and noise reduction, structural health monitor-

systems, hybrid systems, embedded systems,

ing, transducer design, signal processing.

cooperative control, unmanned vehicles.

James W. Cutler, Assistant Professor. Small satellites,

W. Matthias Ihme, Assistant Professor. Turbulent

space systems, ground stations, engineering design,

reactive flows, large eddy simulation, flamelet modeling,

system engineering.

scalar mixing, aeroacoustics.

Werner J.A. Dahm, Professor. Turbulence, turbulent

Pierre T. Kabamba, Professor. Control theory, dynam-

flows, mixing, combustion, flow and combustion

ics, modeling robustness, sampled-data systems,

modeling, propulsion, aerodynamics, defense science.

guidance, navigation, process control.

N. Harris McClamroch, Professor. Nonlinear dynamics

Nicolas Triantafyllidis, Professor. Continuum mechan-

and control, geometric mechanics, feedback control,

ics, micromechanics, structural stability, geomechanics,

optimization, estimation.

magneto-electro-mechanical coupling in solids.

Elaine S. Oran, Adjunct Professor. Computational fluid

Bram van Leer, Professor. Computational fluid dynam-

dynamics, computational combustion, rarified gas flow,

ics, fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, compressible

fluid and particle dynamics, astrophysics.

flow, hyperbolic partial differential equations.

Kenneth G. Powell, Professor. Computational fluid

Anthony M. Waas, Professor. Composite structures,

dynamics, aerodynamics, numerical methods for

structural stability, biologically inspired materials,

plasmas, computational space physics.

nanocomposites, engineered materials.

Philip L. Roe, Professor. Computational fluid dynamics,

Peter D. Washabaugh, Associate Professor.

gasdynamics, nonequilibrium flow, hypersonics,

Experimental solid mechanics, fracture mechanics,

magnetohydrodynamics, electromagnetics.

instrumentation, non-destructive testing, optimization.

John A. Shaw, Associate Professor. Mechanics of

Charla K. Wise, Adjunct Professor. Vice President of

adaptive materials and structures, instabilities and

Technology Environment, Safety and Health,

thermomechanical behavior of solids, experimental

Lockheed Martin Corporation.

mechanics.

Margaret S. Wooldridge, Professor (Mechanical

Daniel J. Scheeres, Adjunct Professor. Astrodynamics,

Engineering). Combustion, reburn and co-firing

orbital mechanics, asteroid and comet science,

technologies, reaction kinetics, aerosol sampling

navigation and control, space science.

and transport, optical diagnostics.

Wei Shyy, Professor and Chair. Computational fluid

Thomas H. Zurbuchen, Professor (Atmospheric,

dynamics, micro air vehicles, bio-inspired flight, biofluid

Oceanic, and Space Sciences). Space flight hardware,

dynamics, thermofluid systems.

space particle detectors, heliosphere plasma

Timothy B. Smith, Lecturer. Experimental plasma


physics, atomic spectroscopy, laser diagnostics,
electric propulsion, space propulsion.
Veera Sundararaghavan, Assistant Professor.
Computational mechanics, multi-scale modeling,
atomistic simulations, optimization, high performance
computing.

composition, solar wind, interstellar gas and dust.

Photo credits:

Page 24: Photo: Jupiterimages.com.

Cover: The Eagle Nebula as seen with the Spitzer Space Telescope.
Image: courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/ Institut dAstrophysique
Spatiale.

Page 25: Photo: Copyright Boeing.

Page 3: Photo: Jupiterimages.com.

Page 30-31: Row of Wind Turbines. Photo: Don Klumpp/ Iconica/


Getty Images.

Page 6: The Wright Brothers first heavier-than-air flight on December


17, 1903. Photo: courtesy NASA.
Page 7: This look-down view of NASAs SR-71A aircraft shows the
Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center,
Edwards, California, with Rogers Dry Lake in the background. Photo:
courtesy NASA.
Page 8: Astronauts Ed White and James McDivitt inside the Gemini
IV Spacecraft. Photo: courtesy NASA.
Page 9: On June 3, 1965 Edward H. White II became the first
American to step outside his spacecraft and let go, effectively setting
himself adrift in the zero gravity of space. Photo: courtesy NASA.
Page 10-11: Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea) in flight.
Photo: Darrell Gulin/Riser/Getty Images.
Page 14: Workers position the tail cone on the Space Shuttle

Discovery in preparation for its return to Nasas Kennedy


Space Center in Florida. Photo: courtesy NASA
Page 16: Photo: courtesy NASA.

Page 18-19: STS-96 Shuttle Mission Imagery. Photo: courtesy NASA.


Page 20: Technicians inspect the sub-scale X-48B Blended Wing
Body concept demonstrator in the full-scale wind tunnel at NASAs
Langley Research Center. Photo courtesy: NASA.

Page 27: Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II in flight. Photo: courtesy


Lockheed Martin.

Page 33: (lower right image) NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center
(MSFC) and university scientists from the National Space Science
and Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, Alabama, are watching
the Sun in an effort to better predict space weather - blasts of
particles and magnetic fields from the Sun that impact the
magnetosphere, the magnetic bubble around the Earth. Photo:
courtesy NASA.
Page 36: Space shuttle launch, Cape Canaveral, Florida. Photo:
Jupiterimages.com.
Page 42: Space station orbiting around Earth. Photo: World
Perspectives/Stock Image Collection/Jupiterimages.
Page 49: A diversified mission of astronomy, commercial space
research and International Space Station preparation gets under way
as the Space Shuttle Columbia climbs into orbit from Launch Pad
39B at 2:55:47 p.m. EST, Nov. 19, 1996. Photo: courtesy NASA.
Page 50: The F-22 Raptor in flight. Photo: Jupiterimages.com.
Page 54-55: This wide-field image of the Eagle Nebula was taken at
the National Science Foundations 0.9-meter telescope on Kitt Peak
with the NOAO Mosaic CCD camera. Image: courtesy NASA /
T.A.Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage, NRAO/AUI/NSF and
NOAO/AURA and B.A.Wolpa.

Department of Aerospace Engineering


The University of Michigan
3054 Franois-Xavier Bagnoud Building
1320 Beal Avenue
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2140
aerospace.engin.umich.edu

Graduate Program:
Denise Phelps, Graduate Student Services
Coordinator
Phone: (734) 615-4406 or (734) 764-3311
dphelps@umich.edu
Undergraduate Program:
Linda Weiss, Undergraduate Student Services
Coordinator
Phone: (734) 764-3310
lweiss@umich.edu

Regents of the University


Julia Donovan Darlow, Ann Arbor; Laurence B. Deitch, Bingham Farms; Denise
Ilitch, Bingham Farms; Olivia P. Maynard, Goodrich; Andrea Fischer Newman,
Ann Arbor; Andrew C. Richner, Grosse Pointe Park; S. Martin Taylor, Grosse
Pointe Farms; Katherine E. White, Ann Arbor; Mary Sue Coleman, ex officio
Nondiscrimination Policy Notice
The University of Michigan, as an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer,
complies with all applicable federal and state laws regarding nondiscrimination
and affirmative action, including Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The University of Michigan is
committed to a policy of nondiscrimination and equal opportunity for all persons
regardless of race, sex, color, religion, creed, national origin or ancestry, age,
marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, disability,
or Vietnam-era veteran status in employment, educational programs and
activities, and admissions. Inquiries or complaints may be addressed to the
Senior Director for Institutional Equity and Title IX/Section 504 Coordinator,
Office of Institutional Equity, 2072 Administrative Services Building, Ann Arbor,
Michigan 48109-1432, 734-763-0235, TTY 734-647-1388. For other
University of Michigan information call 734-764-1817.
MMD 080568

30%

This report was printed with vegetable-based


inks on recycled paper stock with 30 percent
post-consumer fiber, and is certified to Forest
Stewardship Council (FSC) standards.

aerospace.engin.umich.edu