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In engineering, manufacturing, and business, it is vital for suppliers, purchasers, and
users of products or services to understand and agree upon all requirements.
The specification might include:

Descriptive title and scope of the specification

Date of last effective revision and revision designation
Person, office, or agency responsible for questions on the spefication, updates,
and deviations.
The significance or importance of the specification and its intended use.
Terminology and definitions to clarify the meanings of the specification
Test methods for measuring all specified characteristics
Material equirements: physical, mechanical, electrical, chemical, etc. Targets
and tolerances.
Performance requirements. Targets and tolerances.
Certifications required.
Safety considerations and requirements
Environmental considerations and requirements
Quality requirements, Sampling (statistics), inspections, acceptance criteria
Person, office, or agency responsible enforcement of the specification.
Completion and delivery.
Provisions for rejection, reinspection, rehearing, corrective measures


Specifications in the Philippiones form part of the contract documents that accompany
and govern the construction of a building.
Generally, "Specifications overrule Drawings" in the event of discrepancies between the
text document and the drawings.
The specifications fall into thirteen (13) divisions, or broad categories of work involved
in construction. The divisions are subdivided into sections, that address specific
workscopes. Each section is subdivided into three distinct areas: General, Products and
Installation. This format has been uniformly applied to residential, commercial and much
though not all industrial work.
Specifications can be either performance-based, whereby the specifier restricts the text to
stating the performance that must be achieved in each section of work, or prescriptive,

whereby the specifier indicates specific products, vendors and even contractors that are
acceptable for each workscope.
The following are the typical divisions of a specification in construction:
Batter Boards and Benchmarks
Grading, Excavation, Filling, and Backfill
Concrete: Cement, Fine Aggregates, Coarse Aggregates, Water, Admixtures
Concrete Hollow Blocks
Floor Finishes
Steel Reinforcement
Placing Reinforcement
Concrete Covering over Steel Reinforcement
Quality of Lumber
Treatment of Lumber
Joints & Anchorag,
Doors and Windows
Substitution of Lumber
GI Wire


GI Sheets
Scope of Work: Woodworks, Concrete & Plaster Works, Metal Works, Varnishing
Scope of Work: Openings, Connections, Traps, Vents, Septic Vaults
Scope of Work: Wiring System, Electric Meter
General Notes
Scope of Work
Completion of Work
While Philippine specifications are usually restricted to broad descriptions of the work,
European ones can include actual work quantities, including such things as area of
drywall to be built in square metres, like a bill of materials. This type of specification is a
collaborative effort between a specwriter and a quantity surveyor. This approach is
unusual in the Philippines, where each bidder performs his or her own quantity survey on
the basis of both drawings and specifications.

Specification writing is a professional trade with its own professional designations

Specification writers can be either employees of or sub-contractors to civil engineers.
Specification writers frequently meet with manufacturers of building materials who seek
to have their products specified on upcoming construction projects so that contractors can
include their products in the estimates leading to their proposals.
An official document intended primarily for supporting procurement, which document
clearly, and accurately describes, the essential technical requirements for items, materials,
or services, including the procedures by which it will be determined that the requirements
have been met.
A good engineering specification, by itself, does not necessarily imply that all products
sold to that specification actually meet the listed targets and tolerances. Actual production
of any material, product, or service involves inherent variation of output. With a normal
distribution, the tails of production may extend well beyond plus and minus three
standard deviarions from the process average.
The process capability of materials and products needs to be compatible with the
specified engineering tolerances. Process controls must be in place and an effective q,
such as Total Quality Management, needs to keep actual production within the desired
Effective enforcement of a specification is necessary for it to be useful.

Appendix 1: Sample Specification 1


Date :

The scope of work covered by this section of the specifications consists in furnishing all
items, articles, methods, plant, labor, equipment, appliances, and materials, and in
performing all operations that may be necessary, proper and incidental, to complete
grading, excavation, filling, backfilling, and foundation work in accordance with this
section of the specifications, all applicable plans and drawings, and schedule (if any), and
subject to the terms and provision of the General Conditions.
Batter Boards and Bench Marks
Basic batter boards and basic reference marks as directed by the supervising Engineer or
Architect shall be erected by the Contractor at such places where they will not be
disturbed during construction of foundation.
The Contractor shall construct two permanent benchmarks of previously known
elevations near or within the site of construction for the purpose of determining any
settlement that may occur during progress of construction.
When required by the architect, weekly reading shall be taken from at least ten points in
the building as directed by the Engineer. A permanent record of the weekly readings shall
be kept in the construction site and monthly report thereof shall be submitted to the
The Contractor shall make all necessary excavations for foundation to grade indicated on
the drawings without extra compensation, including all other excavations drainage, sewer
and water service system, etc., required and necessary for the proper prosecution of the

Trim excavation bottoms to required lines and grades. Incidental excavation to level the
bottom of footing, compacting and tamping it are included in the building contract.
If the required safe bearing capacity is not obtained at the excavation level indicated on
the drawings, the excavation shall be continued until such safe bearing power is obtained,
pier and walls being lengthened accordingly, and the footings shall be revised
accordingly to suit the new conditions for which the Contractor shall be paid at the unit
price bid for concrete works.
All excavation shall be backfilled as work permits after concrete walls or piers have
attained full design strength hand or as directed by the engineer.
All concrete works shall be done in accordance with the specifications for Concrete and
Reinforced concrete as adopted by the National Structural Code of the Philippines for
buildings and towers (Volume 1) and the American Concrete Institute Building Code
Requirements for the Reinforced Concrete in so far do not conflict or are not
inconsistent with specification herein.
Portland cement shall conform to ASTM Standard Specifications for Portland Cement
and of the American Society for Testing Materials and subsequent standards thereof to
meet local conditions.
Fine Aggregates shall consist of sand, stone screenings or other inert materials with
similar characteristics or a combination thereof, having clean, hard, strong, durable,
uncoated grains and free from injurious amount of dusts, lumps soft or flaky particles,
shales, alkali organic matters, loams or clays.
Coarse Aggregates shall consist of crushed stones; gravel or other approved inert
materials with similar characteristic or a combination thereof.
Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from injurious amount of oils,
acids, alkalis, salt, organic matters, or other substances that may be deleterious from
concrete or steel.
Forms shall conform to the shape, line, and dimensions of the finished concrete as called
for the plans.
Plywood, metal or surfaced lumber forms shall be used for all concrete work whether cast
in place or pre cast. Lumber used in form for exposed surfaces shall be dressed to a
uniform thickness and shall be free from loose knots or other defects. For unexposed
surfaces and rough work, undress lumber may be used. Removed nails in lumber once
used in forms; clean surfaces exposed to concrete before reuse.

Forms shall be set true to line and grade and so constructed and fastened as to produce
the required lines, planes and elevations. Special care shall be taken to prevent bulging.
Steel Reinforcement
No metal reinforcement shall be placed until it has been thoroughly cleaned of mill and
rust scale, and of coating of any character that will adversely affect bonding capacity.
Reinforcements shall be carefully formed to indicate shapes and dimensions on the plans
or called for in the specifications. Unless otherwise specified the radius of bends shall be
not less than four (4) times the least diameter of reinforcing bars.
Placing Reinforcement
Reinforcement prestressing steel, and ducts shall be accurately placed and adequately
supported before concrete is placed and shall be secured against displacement within
permitted tolerances. Welding of crossing bars shall not be permitted for assembly of
reinforced cement unless authorized by the Engineer.
Metal reinforcement shall be accurately placed and secured against displacement by the
used of annealed iron wire not smaller than No. 18 gauge or suitable clips at intersections
and shall be supported by concrete or metal chairs or spacers or metal hangers.
Concrete Covering over Steel Reinforcement
The concrete over steel reinforcement shall not be less than the following thickness:
1. Footings and other principal structural members in which concrete is deposited
against the ground 75 mm..
2. Concrete surfaces exposed to weather or ground after removal of the forms for
bars more than 16 mm. In diameter 5 mm. For bar 16 mm. Or less than 3.7 mm.
3. Surfaces not directly exposed to weather or ground:
for slabs and walls 18 mm
for beams, girders tied column 3.7 cm.
4. Splices of reinforcement shall be made only as required or permitted on the
design drawings or in Specifications, or as authorized by the Engineer. Except as
provided herein, all welding shall conform to Recommend Practice for Welding
Reinforcing Steel ; Metal Insects and Connection in Reinforced Concrete
Construction (AWAD 12).


Quality of Lumber
Lumber shall be of approved quality of the respective kinds required for the various parts
of the work, well seasoned, thoroughly dry and free from large, loose or unsound knots,
saps, shakes or other imperfections impairing its strength durability or appearance.
Framing lumber shall be smoothly dressed and sandpaper.
All exposed woodwork shall be glued in addition to nails. Use Weldwood glue.
Treatment of Lumber
Lumber shall be well seasoned and kiln dried to maximum moisture content of 15 %
except Yakal which shall not be more than 12 %.
Lumber shall be pressured treated with wolman salts or approved equal. Accompany
lumber with certificate from lumber company, certifying treatment amount, and moisture
percentage after kiln drying.
Doors and Windows
All lumber shall be of kiln dried with not more than fourteen percent (14 %) moisture
content, of approved quality of the respective kind required for the various parts of the
work, well seasoned, thoroughly dry and free from large, loose or unsound knots, sap,
shakes or other imperfection impairing its strength durability or appearance.
All doors shall be done in accordance with full size details that will be furnished hereafter
to the Contractor. Door shall have forty-four (44) millimeter finished thickness, unless
otherwise specified or shown on drawings, details, and expecting doors for counter kind
railing which shall be thirty-one (31) millimeter finished thickness.
1. Framing lumbers shall be of rough dimensions shown on drawings.
2. All joints and connections shall be glued in additional to nails, like Weldwood
3. Door jambs, headers and Castings: Jambs in contact with concrete and masonry
walls, use Narra, Guijo or equal.
4. Hollow core flushed doors, 44 mm finished thickness. Flushed doors shall be
Tanguile veneer plywood, 5.50 mm thick, three ply grade or Class B on both sides
with kiln dried Tanguile frames.

5. All doors exposed to weather or water shall be waterproofed plywood, provide

water seal.
6. Solid panel door, 44 mm.-finished thicknesses.
Substitution of Lumber
Any lumber equally good for the purposes intended maybe instituted for the kinds
specified, subject to the approval of the Architect/Civil Engineer, provided, however, that
in the substitution of a cheaper kind of lumber than that specified , a reduction in the
contract price equal to the difference in cost of two kinds of lumber will be made Manila
market prices, of the date upon which authority for said reduction in price.
Painting of concrete and masonry in preparation remove dirt, dust, oil, wax, grease,
strains and efflorescence. The method of surface preparation shall be left to the discretion
of the Contractor provided that the results are satisfactory to the Engineer. Masonry
surfaces to be painted shall be free from alkali and thoroughly dry before paint is applied.
New masonry should be treated with masonry neutralizer, a paint mixed with 9.50 liters
of water. Allow this solution to dry thoroughly before applying a first coat of monocote
or permacoat. Putty minor cracks and other surface imperfections with patching
compound by mixing monocote or permacoat product into putty consistency. Asbestos
cement board to be painted with latex paint should first be spot primed in nail heads with
red lead primer. Do not apply latex paint direct on nail heads.
Exterior and interior masonry surface apply three (3) coats permacoat latex paint. All
woodwork shall be sanded with No. 00 sand paper, between coats and dusted. Clean, dry
surfaces to be painted and apply thin coat of shellac (or aluminum paint) to knots, sappy
streaks and strains from wood preservatives. After primer has dried thoroughly, fill
cracks, nails holes, etc. with putty.
Scope of Work
Unless otherwise specified, the contractor or his sub contractor shall furnish all
materials, tools, equipment, apparatus, appliances, transportation, labor and supervision
required for the complete installation of the plumbing system in accordance with the best
practice of the plumbing trade.

The plumbing contractor is required to refer to all architectural, structural, and electrical
plans and investigate all possible interferences and conditions affecting his work. All

work shall comply with pertinent provisions of the Plumbing Code of the concerned city,
the water district regulations and/or the National Plumbing Code. Plumbing work
includes all fixtures, sewer lines, and connections of the building sewer main or public
sewer. Where no main sewer street line is available provide sufficient size, water tight,
reinforced concrete top, septic tank with cast iron pipe outlet leading to public drainage
line at street level. All the wastes, soil and vent pipes are included. All rough in and
accessories, whether installed or not, necessary to for the proper functioning of all
installation, whether or not specifically called for in the specifications or in the Working
Drawings. Plumbing works includes the water supply pipe from the nearest water main
and the water service line to all fixtures and equipment within the building. The
Contractor shall all pay for fees and permits incident for the completion during the
construction. Excavation and backfilling in connection with the work shall be included.
Materials shall be subjected to test necessary to as certain their fitness if the Architect/
Engineer so required all galvanized steel pipes for the water supply shall be European or
Japanese manufactured. All soil and waste pipes and fittings shall be cast iron except
those expose in rooms, which shall be nickled, plated like the traps. All cast iron pipes
shall meet the ASTM ( American Society for Testing Materials ) designation and the
sulfur content and the ASTM. Specifications on transverse set for cast iron soil pipe as
samples test results by the Division of Testing and Physical Research Laboratory,
Minister of Public Works And Highway. All soil pipes and manufacturer. The Contractor
shall furnish the Engineer the original and two (2) copies of the Certificate of Origin of
all soil pipes and fittings that will be used in the Project. Exposed vent pipes in rooms or
on the exterior of the building, 50 mm diameter and under, shall be of galvanized steel
pipes. All concrete pipes shall be of the centrifugal concrete pipe with hub and spigot.
The general conditions and provisions of the civil works contract not in conflict with
these specifications and the drawings from part of and/or included in this section of these
The contractor is advised to visit the site and satisfy himself as to local conditions and
facilities, the nature of the soil, and as certain such other conditions as may affect his
work. He will be deemed to have done this before preparing his proposal and no
subsequent claim on the ground of inadequate information will be entertained.
The electrical contractor shall be responsible for excavation, backfill, tamping, shoring,
bracing, pumping, street cuts, repairing of finished surfaced and all protection for safety
so persons and property as required for installing a complete electrical system. All
excavations and backfill shall conform to the applicable provision of site works;
excavation; filling; grading; and foundation work of the specification. Excavation shall
be made in a manner to provide a uniform bearing for conduit. Where rock is
encountered, excavate 76 mm ( 3 ) below conduit grade and fill with gravel to grade.
After required test and inspection, backfill the ditch and tamp, the first foot above the
conduit shall be hand backfill with rock free from clean earth. The backfill in the ditches

on the exterior and interior of the building shall be tamped to 90 percent. The electrical
contractor shall be responsible for any ditches that go done.
All materials shall be new and conform to the Technical Specifications. All materials
shall be the standard products of reputable manufacturers and shall bear the name of the
Manufacturer. All materials shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. This
approval shall not relieve the contractor of the responsibility of inspecting such materials
for defects or non-conformance with the specification.
Where the Technical
Specifications or the Drawings give the name of the manufacturer and / or catalog
number of the materials, it is given as a guide to the size, strength, quality, or class of the
materials desired and shall be interpreted to mean that item or another fully equal for the
service intended. Substitution shall be subject to prior written approval of the Engineer.
The apparent silence of the specifications and Drawings as to any detail, or apparent
omission from them of a detailed description concerning any material shall be regarded to
mean that only material of first class quality shall be used. The Contractor shall, within
the ten ( 10 ) days after the award of the Contract, submit for the approval of the Engineer
a list of the materials he proposes to used in the work, including such samples, catalogs,
drawings, and description data as may be required by the Engineer, all materials and
equipment installed without prior approval of the Engineer shall
General Notes
The General conditions apply to all works under this section of the specifications.
Scope of Work
The work to be undertaken under this section shall include the furnishing and erection or
installation of all anchor bolts, erection bolts, bracing, reams, girders, trusses, and all
other structural steel works indicated on the plans and specifications.
Materials and workmanship shall be in accordance to the requirements of the Association
of Structural Engineers of the Philippines--Handbook on Structural Steel Shapes and
Sections. All welding materials and workmanship shall conform to the requirements of
the Philippines Standard Specifications.
The contractor shall submit shop drawing to the Engineer for approval, prior to
fabrication and erection.
Steel required for this structure shall conform to ASTM A-36 for structural grade unless
otherwise noted in plans and specifications.

All arc welding electrodes shall conform to the requirements of the Philippines
Standard Specification.
Butts shall be carbon steel, unless otherwise specified.
The paint shall be used as prepared by the manufacturers without thinning or admixtures.
All steel, except where it is to be encased in concrete, shall be one coat of shop paint.

Prepared by :

Conforme :



Issued on
Issued at