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FACING HEADS

ON

ANClENT GREEK COlNS


BY

AGNES BALDWIN.

REPRlNTED FROM
THE AMERlCAN JOURNAL
1909.

OF NUMlSMATlCS.

c-

--

FAClNG HEADS ON GREEK COlNS


BY

AGNES BALDWlN

el

INTRODUCTION.

HE

facing head, in full-front or three-quarter view, occurs


with relative infrequency on Greek coins.
Yet the number

is

of mints which at one time or another issued facing heads


We are too prone to regard the
astonishingly large.
a

very occasional experiment on the part


facing type as
of some highly skilled and over-ambitious die-engravers
of Magna Graecia and Sicily, who flourished during the Fine Period, and
who set the example for the artists who invented the remarkable types of

is

Rhodes, Amphipolis, Aenus and Clazomenae.


am persuaded
This impression, which
quires modification in the following particulars:

more or less general,

re

The facing type was not

created in Sicily by the grand masters of die-engraving who worked in the


In fact the technique of that type did not
latter years of the Fifth century.
" imitation " over the
originate in any given locality and thence spread by

Greek world.

The experiment was tried independently,

with singular initia

tive, in many widely separated places, in the Aegean Islands and on the
is

It

on the mainland of Greece and


coast of Asia Minor during the Sixth century
true that
in Sicily in the early part and the last quarter of the Fifth.
a

the Italian and Sicilian artists grappled with the new problem of perspective,
few
and wrought masterpieces excelling in every detail the work of all but
mints, but much laborious
artists in an earlier period.

experimenting

was done by less well-equipped

FACING

HEADS ON GREEK

COINS.

is,

With the object of showing how wide-spread the employment of the


facing type was, I have collected all the facing heads known to me, and while
think, complete enough to
I do not present this list as exhaustive, it
illustrate the points made.

In the catalogue of types and the accompanying plates,


have arranged
the coins in general chronological sequence without entirely dispensing with
the association of similar types. Thus, the Apollo heads are associated in two
is

distinct period of development.


Other
main groups, each of which falls into
due to the needs of
grouping on the plates which might appear arbitrary
To preserve strict chronological order would have meant to interrupt
space.
series, showing the rise and decline

here and there certain interesting


and creative impulse.

of skill
a

it
a

is

it

it

is

have excluded from my list the Gorgoneion.1


This
of course
has no more reason to be enumerated among human and
facing head, but
does not offer the same problems of per
divine heads than the lion's scalp
Furthermore,
mask, and not as
head.
usually treated as
spective, for
is

the device
quite stereotyped, and while the details of style are varying here
as elsewhere, the only variations which are of interest in this connection are
sphragistics

is

it

or less human expression of the mask


as old as Greek
and heraldry, and was, like many of the heraldic devices, of an
:

the greater

is,

It

has been argued that the facing head on Greek coins


apotropaic character.
the motive which begot the facing
had its origin in the Gorgoneion,2 that

it

it

It

human head was the apotropaic impulse, the averting of the evil eye.
to
seems to me that this theory has been somewhat overworked in forcing
account for so simple
phenomenon as the occurrence of the facing head.
In order to prove the evolution of that type from the Gorgon head,

is

would be necessary to show the exclusively apotropaic character of its ear


Now the survivals from the archaic period bear heads of
liest examples.
From the early
Satyr, and possibly
Apollo, Dionysus and
river-god.
Fifth century the types are those of nymphs of Segesta, for example
and of
goddess Despoina (or Artemis) and the river-nymph Callirhoe.
There
nothing especially diabolical about the kindly Dionysus, or the hairy
"
Athena the " owl-eyed
river-gods, or the sylvan Satyr, or the nymphs.
one appears, to be sure, though not at an early date.
But the primitive
types are not confined to heads of Athena the Wielder of the spear, and
Apollo Averter of evil, and Heracles the Vanquisher, represented as blaz
ing baleful glances from gargoyle orbs. The facing type does not need

For illustration, a few examples

end of the list.

are given

at the

is

its use on coins


as natural as in vase-painting.
any occult explanation
On the Greek vases we see the same stages of growth in the handling of
" Les
figures

de face sur les monnaies

Riv. Num., 1908, p. 213.

antiques."

FACING HEADS ON GREEK


perspective,
front view.

first, the head

n profile,

COINS.

and then in three-quarter

or full-

The most archaic coins show the head in full-front view, for they belong
" frontal "
to the period when, in sculpture, the statues were all of the so-called
a

is,

For
body and head together were in
single median plane.
type, that
the most part, during the post-archaic period, the head slightly to the left or
to the right was preferred to the full-front.

2.

(Aegean Islands?), 600-480 B. C.

Uncertain

Obv. Head of Apollo (?), facing


Drachm.
11

two long curls hang down at each side.

Drachm. (One-fifth less than actual size.)


Num. Chron., 1899, Pl. XVI, 6.

Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.

3.

M. Babel on considers this

female head, and

his view

I, I,

1.

full-front

OF FACING TYPES.

CATALOGUE

is

if

Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.

Drachm.
(One-fifth less than actual size.)
Drachm.
Num. Chron., 1899, Pl. XVI,
Drachm.
Drachm.

5.

6. 5.
7.

4 3

male head, facing full-front, with short hair.

Obv. Beardless

4.

I, I, I,

accepted, the coin


female head, facing.
It appears to me like the famil
affords us the earliest instance of
"
iar " Aegean
Apollo statues. The third example has the archaic smile plainly indicated.

to the effort to express an appropriate

XXVIII,

seriousness.
a

(Asia Minor
Obv. Head of
Satyr, facing full-front, with
600-500 B. C.
Babelon,
Trait, Pl.
globulous eyes, moustache en croc, and wearing ivy-wreath.
?)

8.

flat nose,

is

is

it

This head has


grim expression which contrasts notably with the benign smile of
It
more likely due
Apollo heads, but the fierceness of
probably not intentional.

15.

bearded Satyr, facing full-front,


Phocaea, 6th-5th Cent. B. C. Obv. Head of
EL. Hecte.
with protruding lips and horse's ears.
Treasure of Auriol. Obv. Similar. Babelon, op. cit., Pl. LXXXV, 29.
ID.
Obol.
11.
Uncertain (Aegean Islands?), 600-480 B. C. Obv. Head of Dionysus, facing
full-front, with long, pointed beard, and bunches of grapes suspended at ears.
Tetrobol. (One-fifth less than actual size.)
(Colophon?) c. 450 B. C. (?) Obv. Beardless male head three-quarter face
12.
to r.

Num. Chron., 1899, Pl.

XVI,

7.

I,

I,

g.

is,

if

I,

is

it

i,

is

This coin, which formed part of find of archaic coins made in Egypt,
much later
one
than the others from the same find (cf. our Plate
may judge by the style,
5),
What the head
and the fact that
must
represented in three-quarter view.
remain uncertain.

at the end of the line

is

The reference

to plate

and number.

and

I,

Head of Apollo, facing full-front, with long locks


600-480 . C.
Cf. Num. Chron., 1895, Pl. X, 10; also Pl. X, n, 12.
Hemiobol. (Slightly enlarged.)

Colophon,

13.

laurel wreath.

59

HEADS ON GREEK

FACING

COINS.

The head on this hemiobol would scarcely

be recognizable as that of Apollo, were


it not for the other coins in the series, on which the hair is treated more naturally.
14.

X,

13.
15.
16.

r.
17.
elongated,
18.

Ibid., Pl.
facing full-front, with short, parted locks.
Tetartemorion. I, 16
Obv. Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face to r. Ibid., Pl. X, 15.
Tetartemorion.
Phistelia, c. 470 B. C. Obv. Beardless and neckless male head, facing slightly to
Obol. I, 60
Treasure of Auriol, c. 470 B. C. Obv. Beardless and neckless head very much
Obv. Head of Apollo,

facing full-front. Babelon, Pl.


Obv. Similar. Ibid., Pl.

LXXXV,
LXXXV,

Obol.
Hemiobol.

30, 31, 32.


33, 34.

There is a certain family likeness between the coins found at Auriol and the Phis
telia head, especially No. 33 (pp. cit.).
The long nose and small mouth are the charac

The Auriol coins are probably the older.

teristic features common to both.

B. C.

Obv. Bearded head of river-god Acheloiis, three-quarter-face


Rev. Head of nymph Callirho, facing full-front. Ibid.,
15.
XXIX, 15.
Drachm.
Acarnania, 4th Cent. . C. Obv. Bearded head of river-god Acheloiis, facing full20.
front. Rev. Head of the nymph Callirkoe, facing slightly to /. Ibid.t Pl. XXVII, 1 ; Jour.
Drachm.
Inter. de Num., 1908, V, 58.
19.

to /.

Brit. Mus.

21.
de

Stratus,

22.

Cat., Pl.

Segesta,

Num., 1908, Pl.

c. 450

c. 420

III,

XXIX,

B. C.

Obv. Head of nymph

Segcsta,

four. Inter.
Litra.

facing full-front.

22.

415-409 B. C.

Obv. Head of nymph

Segesta,

three-quarter-face

to /.

Litra.
Litra.

25.

Obv. Similar. . . C., 43.


Arcadii, 480-417 B. C. Rev. Head of Despeina Artemis, facing full-front.
Tetrobol. (One-fifth less than actual size.)
Rev. Similar head, three-quarter-face to r.

26.

23.

24.

Tetrobol.
Rev. Similar.

(One-fifth less than actual size.)


Diobol.

I,

I,

I,
I,

14
15

The full-front head is placed first in the British Museum

Catalogue, and justly so


it seems to me. Nos. and
with the almond eyes set on a slant are distinctly ear
lier than the following numbers.
On the full-front head the artist has naively shown

the knot of hair which should be invisible.


27.
28.
29.

Tetrobol.
Tetrobol.
Tetrobol.

Rev. Similar.
Rev. Similar.
Rev. Similar.

These three heads, taken with the two preceding, show a gradual progression
the narrow three-quarters which

is little more than a profile, to the

ters which approaches the full face.

On Nos.

I,
I,

I,

12

10

from

wide three-quar

12 and 13 the back knot is not

managed

very skillfully.
30.

Rev. Similar.

Tetrobol.

I,

13

HEADS ON GREEK

FACING

It

COINS.

is the reverses of these Arcadian coins, which were issued at Heraea during

Fifth century, that bear the

the

The obverses

head types, and they present a great variety.

with the seated figure of Zeus are likewise treated with remarkable freedom, some of the
figures being actually seen from the back, and a seated, facing Zeus (with head in pro

Catana, 415-403 B. C.
32.
horns
and loose locks.
with short

Hipparis, facing slightly to


Didrachm.

I,

Camarina, 460-405 B. C. Obv. Head of river-god


31.
with short horns and loose locks.
Master-piece by Evaenetos.

/.,

file) occurs.

17

I, I,

Obv. Head of river-god Amenanos, three-quarter face to r.,


Drachm.
18
Drachm.
19

is

/.,

I,

/.,

/.

I, I,

/.
;

Obv. Similar.
in floating locks,
to
Obv. Head of river-god Amenanos, three-quarter-face
34.
Drachm.
Below, the signature XOl [Choirion].
diadem.
20

Obv.
Similar.

Drachm.
21
35.
B.
C.
Obv.
Head
of
Syracuse,
to
three-quarter-face
river-god Anapos (?),
345-317
36.

Head's Syracuse, Pl. VII, 4.


Selinus, 415-409 B. C. Obv. Head of young Heracles, facing slightly to
in
37.
lion's scalp with floating locks.
Hemidrachm.
23
Obv. Head of young Heracles, three-quarter-face to
in lion's scalp which
38.
33.

Hemidrachm.
24
B.
C.
Uncertain
c.
Obv.
Bearded
head
of
Heracles, facing slightly
(Sicily?),
415
39.
in lion's scalp with floating locks.
Rev. Bow and quiver.
ARA
Num. Chron.,
to
Num.,
Pl.

Drachm.
1887,
1871, Pl. VI,
Zeit.f.
25
I,

seen in profile.

I,

5.

quite suggestive

scalp being treated in

of those on the two preceding,

similar manner

that

is,

of the lion's

The head on this coin


mane

is

7
;

I,

/.,

...

the

waving like the

coins.1
The style
vigorous and
and
the
one
of
It seems, therefore, to belong
expression
somewhat severe,
quiet dignity.
The reverse
to the last quarter of the Fifth century . .
not found on Sicilian

is

is

tresses of the river-god Amenanos on the Catanian

is

that used in Magna Graecia and Sicily.


The
coins, and yet the form of the rho
as
however,
Mr.
Gardner
incuse,
the
and
towards
point
Thessays,
very
strongly
types

40.

Thebes, 426-395 B. C.

coins for comparison, and to show the par-

Obv. Bearded

head

of

Heracles,

facing full-front,

lion's scalp.

Stater.

with

I,

it

with the Sicilian


saly. We merely place
aUelism of subject and style of the obverse.

22

/.,

I,

Cyprus, Evagoras
410-374 B. C. Obv. Head of young Heracles, three-quarter41.
Head's Guide, Pl. 20, 41. B. M. C., Pl. XI, 13.
in lion's scalp.
face to

AV

One-quarter

Stater.

Evans,

Syr. Mtd., Fig.

5.

/.,
in

/.,

1,

1
:

in

Etruria, 350-269 B. C. Obv. Head of young Heracles, facing full-front,


lion's
42.
2.
Didrachm.
B. M. C., p.
scalp.
to r.,
Erythrae, 387-300 B. C. Obv. Head of young Heracles, three-quarter-face
43.
Ibid., Pl. XV, 15.

in lion's scalp.
After 138 B. C. Obv. Similar. Ibid., Pl. XVI, 12.
&
44.
B.
C.
of
Heracles,
Tarentum,
c.
Obv.
Head
to
in
facing
slightly
young
350
45.
Diobol.
Ibid., p. 205 350.
lion's scalp.
Heraclea Pontica, 353-347 B. C. Obv. Head of young Heracles, three-quarter-face
46.
Ibid., Pl. XXX, 2.

Bon's scalp.
to

Head of Apollo, facing slightly to

15 [Heracleidas].
Obv. Similar.
49.
Obv. Similar.
50.
Obv. Similar.
51.

53.

Cyzicus, 450-400 B. C.

Obv. Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face

Obv. Head of Athena, three-quarter-face

Obv. Beardless

to r., in triple-crested

Stater.

54.
represented

Velia,

55.
helmet, on which

(male

full-front,

facing

wearing

B. C.

Obv. Head of Athena,

EL

facing slightly to

KAEYAQPOY [Kleudoros].

Stater.

32

of which the

helmet

in profile.
c. 350

31

helmet.

EL
head,

29

30

to r., laureate.

EL

is

crest

In field r.,
wearing laurel wreath.
Tetradrachm.
27
Tetradrachm.
28
Tetradrachm.
Tetradrachm.

?)

52.

full-front, wearing
a
Tetradrachm. I. 26

I, I, I, I,

Obv.

facing

Stater.

in

triple-crested

Didrachm.
Didrachm.

I, I,

Head of Apollo,

/.,

48.

Obv.

I,

Catana, 420-405 B. C.
47.
wreath of oak leaves.
By Choirion.

COINS.

I,

HEADS ON GREEK

/.,

FACING

33

67.
68.

Heraclea, 380-300 B. C.
Obv. Similar.

70.

71.

69.

72.
73.

74.

Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.

Carelli, Num. Italiae

Obv. Similar.
Tarentum, 400-272 B. C.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.

76.
77.

Lesbos,

78.

Obv.

Vet.

Similar.

Obv. Similar.
Morgantia, 420-400 B. C.

75.

Obv. Similar.

440-350 B. C.
Obv. Similar.

Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.

Tabulae, Pl.

Stater.

Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.

CLXIII,

48

44
45

46
47

58, 59.

Drachm.
Drachm.
Diobol.
Diobol.
Diobol.
Litra.

EL
EL

43

Hecte.
Hecte.

49
50
51

1,52

I, I, I,

66.

I, I, I, I, I,

AV

crested helmet.

I, I, I, I,

/.

I, I, I. I, I, I, I, I,

/.,

in

Obv. Similar.
34
c. 409 B. C.
Obv. Head of Athena, facing slightly to
Syracuse,
triple-crested
57.
helmet, on which EYKAEIAA [Eukleidas].
Tetradrachm.
37

Drachm.
Obv.
Similar.
58.
35
Obv. Similar.
Drachm.
59.
36
Obv. Similar, head somewhat more to
60.
Hemidrachm.
38
Obv. Similar.
61.
Hemidrachm.
39
345-317 B. C. Obv. Similar.
62.
Hemidrachm.
40

Similar.

Obv.
Hemidrachm.
41
63.
Obv. Similar.
Hemidrachm.
64.
42
c.
B.
C.
of
to
in
Athena,
Lampsacus,
Obv.
Head
r.,
three-quarter-face
triple350
65.
56.

53

54
55

Apollo (and Helios) and Athena are the deities most frequently chosen for facing
types, who together with Zeus, appear to have been the gods most worshipped in Greek
cities.
The great Olympian occurs as
facing type only under the form of Zeus

derful triumph of technical skill for this period.

is

Ammon except on late coin of Epirus (No. 170). Nos. 47-52 are the earliest Apollo
heads known, No. 47 being exceptional in having an oak wreath in place of the tradi
It full-face like the oldest facing types, and quite severe, but won
tional laurel.

If

the artist Choirion

had maintained

FACING

HEADS ON GREEK

COINS.

the high level of beauty reached in this masterpiece, his later head

nanos

would have been more successful.

Apollo, No. 47, and

No.

the

river-god Ame-

52 is perhaps earlier than the Catanian

is not to be compared with it for beauty.

The earliest Athena

head

among facing types is probably the Cyzicene stater, No. 53 : it is at any rate very awk
ward and unpleasing.
The Velia head of Athena, No. 55, is, in my opinion, second in
the
to
The face is so full
beauty
Syracusan Athena by Eukleidas, an unrivalled work.

Obv. Head of

nymph, three-quarter-face

to

Obol.

56

I,

to r.
Obv. Head of
nymph, three-quarter-face
EL Hecte. (Somewhat enlarged in plate.)
58
Obv. Head of nymph, facing somewhat to r., hair rolled. Rev. Num., 1897,
81.
EL Hecte.
Pl. VIII, 8.
82.
Mytilene, 440-400 B. C. Obv. Head of
nymph, facing full-front, hair bound
with
riband.
Num. Chron., 1896, Pl. VII, 9.

to r.
Obv. Head of nymph Cyrene, three-quarter-face
Cyrene, 431-321 B. C.
83.
Trihemiobol.
Head, Hist. Num., p. 729.
80.

Lesbos, 440-350 B. C.

I,

440-400 B. C.

Mytilene,

/.

79.

it,

of expression, the head so gracefully set on the curving neck, that for pure grace it is
only equalled by the Syracusan hemidrachms Nos. 60-64. The Athena of Eukleidas,
Nos. 57-59, is distinguished for Pheidian majesty, and can hardly be excelled : compared
with
the Heraclean and Tarentine heads are formal and uninteresting.

86.
87.
88.
89.

I,

/.
;
1
2

on ampyx,

AV TV Stater.
Obv. Head of nymph Cyrene, three-quarter-face to r.
57
Syracuse, 409-367 B. C. Obv. Head of nymph Arethusa, facing slightly to
KIMON (Kimon).
Tetradrachm. II,
Obv. Similar.
Tetradrachm. II,
Obv. Similar.
II,
JR. Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Drachm. II,

85.

84.

Obv. Similar.

There are only two drachms

of this type known.

Drachm. II,
Obv. Head of the nymph Camarina, three-quarter Drachm.
B. M. C.,
20.
face to
37
Syracuse, 409-367 B. C. Obv. Head of nymph Arethusa, three-quarter-face to
91.
Oncia. II,

II,
Obv. Similar. By Kimon or Phrygillos.
92.
Larissa, 400-344 B. C. Obv. Head of the nymph Larissa, three-quarter-face to
93.

96.
97.
98.
99.
1oo.
101.
102.
103.

104.
105.

Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.

II,

95.

Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.

H,

II,
II,

94.

1
1

/.

p.

Camarina, before 409 B. C.

/.

90.

II,
II,
II,
II,
II,
II,
II,

II,
II,

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20

1 06.

Tarsus

HEADS ON GREEK

Satrap

(Cilicia),

COINS.

378-372 B. C.

Datmes,

Obv. Similar, head to

copied from Kimon's Arethusa.


107.

VI,

25.
08.

Obv. Similar.

109.

Obv. Similar.
Motya, 405-397 B. C.

115.

Himera,

Pl.

Satrap Pharnabazes, 379-374 B. C.

II,

Stater.

Cf. Rev. Num.,


Stater.

/.,

FACING

10

21

1898,

II,
II,

Obol.

22

23

7.

Obv. Head of the nymph Motya, three-quarter-face to r.


Litra. II, 24
no. Obv. Head of the nymph Motya, three-quarter-face to r., copied from Kimon's
Arethusa. Num. Chron., 1891, Pl. III, n, 12.
Didrachm.
1n. Obv. Similar. B. M. C., p. 245 18.

Proerna, 300-200 B. C. Obv. Head of nymph, copied from Kimon's Arethusa.


112.
Head, Hist. Num., p. 262.

Scotussa, 400-367 B. C. Obv. Head of nymph, three-quarter-face


to r., copied
113.
from Larissa. Num. Chron., 1890, p. 318 13.

Gyrton, 400-344 B. C. Obv. Similar. Jour. Inter. de Num., 1908, Pl. V,


114.
nymph, facing,

117.
118.

Hemilitron.
nymph, three-quarter-face

to

II,
II,
II,

Litra.
Litra.
Litra.

Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.

We have in Nos. 93-115


original,

Kimon's Are

from

copied

/.

Evans, Syracusan Medallions, Fig. 4.


Abacaenum, 450-400 B. C. Obv. Head of
116.

Obv. Head of

26
27

28

of nymphs, all inspired by the same


by Kimon on the tetradrachms of Syracuse
the most perfect facing type that any Greek engraver of
a

thusa.

B. C.

Hemidrachm.
c. 409

series of heads

the facing head of Arethusa


is

(Nos. 85-89). This head


coins ever produced, and was widely imitated.

is

" Certain coinages of Sicily and Thessaly evidently owe their inspiration to this head, while two
successive satraps of Kilikia about 380 B. C., utterly regardless of local harmony, transported to the
east of the Mediterranean the gracious fountain-nymph of Syracuse, who now however amid
extreme
one of her dis
the uncongenial surroundings of Tarsos has lost all that soft, gentle radiance, which
tinguishing charms in Ortygia."

Frank

Sherman Benson, Ancient Greek Coins,

A.J.

JV.,

XXXVI,

p.

69.

is

Mr. Evans, in his book on Syracusan Medallions, writes that the head on the
coins of Naples (Nos. 742, 743) appears to be anterior to Kimon's head, and was pos
indeed superior to that of
sibly from his hand. The style of the Neapolitan coins
should be inclined to
many of the facing heads of Magna Graecia, and at first glance
agree with

Mr. Evans in placing them before the masterpiece of Kimon,

because

of the

is

But they may be contemporary, and as the same type occurs


greater simplicity of style.
coin of Phistelia (No. 144), we are probably not warranted in assuming the
also on
What seems to be certain
that the head at Phiste
Naples coins to be Kimon's work.
is

is

Another head which may be


No. 90, the head
lia was copied from Naples.
copy
of the nymph Camarina, which resembles so closely that on the drachms Nos. 91 and
the Arethusa on the stater of Tarsus (No. 107),
A curious case of similarity
92.

hard and dry style.

seen.

more like the drachms just mentioned than any other stater of that city
have
The Larissa heads (Nos. 93-105) undergo
gradual debasement, ending with a

is

which

FACING HEADS ON GREEK


The coins of Abacaenum (Nos. 116-118), may
they

have an individual

be quite independent creations, as

style of their own, and are apparently earlier.

B.

119.

Eryx,

120.

124.

Gela, 415-350 B. C.

e. 420

COINS.

C.

Obv. Head of Aphrodite, facing full-front.

Didrachm.
Obv. Similar. B. M. C., p. 62 : 4.
Litra.
Anactorium, 350-300 B. C. Rev. Head of the nymph Akiias, three-quarter-face
121.
to r. Ibid., Pl. XXXI, 7.
Drachm.
Leucas, 400-330 B. C. Obv. Head of the nymph (Leukas), three-quarter-face
122.
to
Drachm.
r. Ibid., Pl. XXXVII, 4.
Corinth, 400-338 B. C. Obv. Head of a nymph, facing slightly to /. Ibid., Pl.
123.
V,

15.

Head of

a nymph, three-quarter

Hemidrachm.
Hill, Sicily, Fig.

face to r.

30.

&

Laus, 400-350 B. C. Obv. Head of a nymph (?), facing slightly to /. Jour. Inter.
125.

de Num., 1908, Pl. I, 20.


Gomphi Philippopolis, 302-286 B. C. Obv. Head of a nymph as City, three1 26.
Drachm.
quarter-face to r. B. M. C., Pl. III, 2.

B.
III.
C.
Obv.
Similar.
Pl.

Ibid.,
300-190
3.
127.
Obv. Similar, three-quarter-face to /. Ibid., Pl. IlI, 4.

128.
to
Sinope, 333-306 B. C. Obv. Head of the nymph Sinope, three-quarter-face
129.
/.

Ibid., Pl.

XXII,

IQ.

Gergis, 400-350 B. C. Obv. Head of the sibyl Herophile, three-quarter-face


to
130.
Ibid., Pl. X, 12, 13.
,
r., laureate.

350-2418.0. Obv. Similar. Ibid., Pl. X, 14, 15.


131
B.
C.
Obv.
Head
of
the
Pherae,
nymph
Hypereia,
three-quarter-face
300-190
132.

wreath of rushes.
Jour. Inter. de Num., 1908, Pl. V, .
to
wearing
Mesma, 400-300 B. C. Obv. Head of
Ibid.,
spring-nymph, facing full-front.
133.

1908, PI.
38.
Chalis, 369-336 B. C. Obv. Head of
nymph, facing slightly to r., wearing
134.
B. M. C., Pl. XX, 15.

diadem surmounted by five disks with human faces.


196-146 B. C. Obv. Female head facing, on Ionic capital.
Ibid., Pl. XXI,
135.
a

I,

/.,

5,6.

Obv. Head of
nymph or goddess,
Cyprus (Pnytagoras?),
351-322 B. C.
136.
to r. Jour. Inter. de Num., 1904, Pl. XII, 8.
Rev. Similar, three-quarter-face
facing full-front.
IV, 51
B.
Female
C.
Obv.
head, facing slightly to
Metropolis (Thessaly), 400-344
137.

. M.

., Pl.

VII,

9.

/.

Leucas, 4* Cent. B. C. Obv. Head of Bacchic nymph, facing slightly to


Drachm.
Jour. Inter. de Num., 1908, Pl. VIII, 26.
VIII,
21.

Ibid.,
B.
Pl.
C.
Obv. Similar.
Eurea, 300-146
139.
B.
Head
of
Bacchic
to
C.
Obv.
nymph,
three-quarter-face
Meliboea, 400-344
140.
II,

Trihemiobol.
in
hair.
grapes and vine-leaves
25
Obv. Similar. B. M. C., Pl. XXXI, 4.

141.

/.,

138.

has recently analyzed anew the whole subject of nymphs' heads


As
result of his scholarly
Inter.
de Num., 1908, p.
on Greek
ff.).
(Jour.
are
classified on
far
the
multitudinous
nymphs
discrimination and synthetic study,
His attributions of the facing nymphs
sounder basis than has hitherto been secured.
have been followed in this paper.
a

coins

i,

M. Imhoof-Blumer

FACING

12

COINS.

B. C.

Obv. Head of the nymph Parthenope, threeII, 29


JR. Didrachm.

Obv. Similar.
Didrachm. II, 30
143.
Didrachm. II, 31
Phistelia, 420-415 B. C. Obv. Similar.
144.
Obv. Similar.
Didrachm. II, 32
145.
Didrachm. II, 33
Obv. Similar.
146.
Croton, 420-309 B. C. Obv. Head of Hera Lacinia, facing slightly to r., wearing
147.
Didrachm. II, 34
high stephanos ornamented with honeysuckle.
Obv. Similar.
Didrachm. II, 35
148.
Posidonia, 4th Cent. B. C. Obv. Similar. Carelli, N. I. V. T., Pl. CXXVIII, 26.
149.
Pandosia, 4th Cent. B. C. Obv. Similar. B. M. C., p. 370: 2, 3.
150.
Didrachm, Drachm, Tetrobol.
Neapolis (Lucania), 420-405 B. C. Obv. Similar. Ibid., p. 13; Carelli, N. I.
151.
Neapolis (Lucania),

142.

V. T., Pl.

420-405

to r.

quarter-face

HEADS ON GREEK

LXXII, n,

12,

Didrachm.

13.

Croton, 420-390, B. C.

152.
two griffins.

Obv. Similar, stephanos ornamented

Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Fensernia,

Similar.
Similar.
Similar.
4th Cent. B. C. Obv. Similar.
Hyria, 4th Cent. B. C. Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Thurium, 4th Cent. B. C. Obv. Similar.
Phistelia, 450-400 B. C. Obv. Head of a nymph (or

153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
160.
to /.

with a palmette and

Didrachm. II, 36.


Didrachm. II, 37.
Didrachm. II, 38.
Didrachm. , 39.
Didrachm. I, 40.
Didrachm. II, 41.
Didrachm. II, 42.
Didrachm. II, 43.
Herat), three-quarter-face
I, 61

Nos. 145, 146 are later copies of the earlier fine head of a nymph at Phistelia
The next
(No. 144). Nos. 147, 148 are pretty but not interesting heads of Hera.
type of Hera at Crotn (No. 152) is far better, but it degenerates into a poor style in

This latter Hera


which the Stephanos and the hair about the face are too heavy.
type was imitated at Fensernia and Hyria, and from this place it passed to Thurium.
The facing type and the Hera
is no difficulty in detecting
beautiful

are so entirely foreign to Thurium that there


the copyist in this case (No. 159).
No. 150 is the most

of the facing heads

head

of Hera

Lacinia,

and

may be

the

prototype

of

the

others cited.

Istrus (Moesia), 400-300 B. C. Obv. Two youthful male heads (Dioscuri?), fac
161.
Drachm. II, 44
ing, side by side, one on the right inverted.

c. 400 B. C.
Obv. Similar, but heads in higher relief.
Num. Chron., 1896, Pl.
162.

VI,

Drachm.
Obv. Heads of the Dioscuri, jugate, wearing
X.
to /.
B. M. C., Pl. II, 10, n.
laureate pilei, the nearer head three-quarter-face
B.
of
Zeus
C.
Obv. Head
to
Ammon, three-quarter-face
with
Cyzicus, 450-400
164.
1.

Syria (Seleucus I), 312-280 B.

C.

/.,

163.

165.
smaller.
166.

Lampsacus, 394-350 B. C.
Cyrene, 431-321 B. C.

Obv. Similar head, facing

Obv. Similar.

slightly to

AV

Stater.
/.
;

EL

ram's horns.

II,

46
the horns

Stater.

Head, Hist. Num., Fig. 390.


Tetradrachm.

II,

47

FACING HEADS ON GREEK

168.

I3

Barce, 431-321 B. C.

167.

ram's horns.

M.

COINS.

Obv. Head of Zeus Ammon, facing full-front, wearing large


Tetradrachm.
Aphytis, 424-358 B. C. Obv. Head of Zeus Ammon, three-quarter-face to /. B.

C., p. 61 : 1.
169.

XXXIV,

JF_

Pitane, i. 350 B. C.

Obv. Head of Zeus Ammon, facing

slightly to r.

170.

face to r.

Ibid., Pl.

JE

8.

Epirus (Pyrrhus), 295-272 B. C.


Ibid., Pl. XXXII, 12.

Obv. Head of Zeus Dodonaeus, three-quarter-

to

II,
II,

48
50

6,

/.

4
:

Panticapaeum, c. 350 B. C. Obv. Bearded head of Pan, three-quarter-face


171.
with animal's ears. B. M. C., p.
1.
AV Stater.

Obv.
Similar.

172.

Head
of
Obv.
Pan,
to

young
three-quarter-face
173.

Similar,
Obv.
with
Ibid.,
wreath.

p.
ivy
174.
9.

/.,

This is the only head of Zeus facing (except Zeus as Ammon) known to me. Con
sidering how many times the head of Zeus in profile occurs on Greek coins, the absence
of the facing type is at least worthy of comment.

B. C.

Obv. Head of young Pan, facing full-front.


Drachm.
Obv. Bearded head of Satyr, facing slightly to

/.,

Idyma (Caria), c. 437-400


175.
Rev. Num., 1897, Pl. X, n.
Lampsacus, 394-350 B. C.
176.

/.

with animal's ears.


AV Stater. II, 49
Lesbos, 440-350 B. C.
Rev. Bearded head of bald Silenus, facing full-front. Cf.
177.
. M. C., Pl. XXXIII, 9, 20, 21.
EL Hecte. II, 51
Obv. Similar, three-quarter face to
178.

EL Hecte. (Somewhat enlarged on the plate.) II, 45


Obv. Bearded head of
178. Lycia (Tththivibi of Antiphellus?), 480-460 B. C.
bald Silenus, facing full-front. B. M. C., Pl. V, 6.
Tetrobol.

ears.

Rev. Bearded head of Silenus, facing full-front, with horse's


178. Gaza, 450-302 B. C.
Babelon, Cat. des Monn. Gr., Pl. VIII, ao.
Drachm.
179.

Catana, 420-405 B. C.

Rev. Similar, full-front.

Hill,

Ancient Sicily, PL

Drachm.
Macedonia in

ing ivy wreath.

B. M.

168-146 B. C.

genere,

C., p. 14

180.

IX,

6.

II,

52

Obv. Head of Silenus, facing full-front, wear

JE

55.

is

is

Nos. 171-174 are heads of Pan, patron deity of the city.


No. 176, the Lampsacene stater,
The type differs from the baldprobably not Pan, but merely
Satyr.
headed Silenus who
represented on the hectae of Lesbos and the coins of Catana.

The hecte of Lesbos (No. 178) shows an expressive treatment of the Satyric counte
The look of animalism haunts you when you turn from the face.
nance.
Obv.

Head of Hermes,

facing slightly to
wearing
Tetradrachm. III,

86.

187.
88.

Similar.
Similar.
Similar.
Similar.
Similar.
Similar.
Head of Hermes, three-quarter-face

to r., wearing

Tetradrachm.
Tetradrachm.
Tetradrachm.
Tetradrachm.
Tetrobol.
Tetrobol.
broad petasos.

Drachm.

IlI,
III,
IlI,
III,
III,
III,
IlI,

4 3

Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.

6 5

184.
185.

B. C.

7.

183.

400-350

182.

Aenus,

/.,

181.

petasos.

HEADS ON GREEK

FACING

!4

The facing head of Hermes occurs only

at Aenus.

COINS.

The round, boyish face charms

us by its bold directness and youthfulness, but there is not the breath of divinity in this
conception of the god, that is nowhere lacking in the Apollo heads.
189.
ate.
190.
191.

192.
193.

194.
19s.

Obv. Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face to r., laure


Tetradrachm. III, 9
to

Tetradrachm. III,
Similar,
head
/.
Obv.
III, n

to
r.
Tetradrachm.
Similar,
head
Obv.
Tetradrachm. IlI, 12
Obv. Similar.
Tetradrachm. III, 13
Obv. Similar.
Drachm. III, 14
Obv. Similar.
III, 15
Triobol.
Obv. Similar.

Amphipolis,

424-358 B. C.

The last three numbers


phipolis figured in the plates.
done in the late "dry" style.

are much inferior

in execution to the other coins of Am

The Apollo on No.

193

Nos. 191, 193 are insipid

looks haggard and old.

It

is

in comparison with Nos. 189,

190.
196.

Rhodes, 408-400 B. C.

XXVI, 1,2.
400-333 B.
197.
198.
199.
200.
201.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.

Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
304-166 B. C.

209.
2IO.
211.
212.

2I3.
214.
215-

2l6.
217.
218.
219.
219.

Pl.

XXXIX

220.

C.

Obv.

Obv. Similar,
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar,
Obv. Similar,
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.
Obv.

Similar.
Similar.
Similar.
Similar.
Similar,
Similar,

Obv. Head of Helios, three-quarter-face to r. B . M. .,


Tetradrachm, Hemidrachm.

Obv. Head of Helios, facing slightly to r.


Tetradrachm.
Tetradrachm.
Tetradrachm.

Obv. Radiate head of Helios, three-quarter-face


Tetradrachm.
Tetradrachm.
facing slightly to r.
Tetradrachm.
Tetradrachm.
Didrachm.
head to /.
Didrachm.
head to r.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
head to /.
Didrachm.
head to r.
to r.

Similar.
Head of Helios, facing slightly to r., without
Similar.
Similar, head to /.

189-166 B. C.
, 19-

Obv. Similar.

Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.

Drachm.

rays.

Obv. Head of Helios, three-quarter-face

to r., radiate.

AV

Stater.

III,

III,
III,

III,
III,

III,
III,
III,

III,
III,
III,
III,
III,
III,
III,

16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
2S
26
27
28
29

30
111,31

III,

32

HI,

34

III,

36

I",

"I,

HI,

III,

33

35

37

38

B. M.

l",

39

HEADS ON GREEK

FACING

COINS.

15

Clazomenae, 386-300 B. C. Obv. Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face to ., lau


Ibid., Pl. VI, 7.
AV
Obv. Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face to
222.
laureate.
By Theodotos. Ibid.,

221.

Pl. VI,

9.

223.
224.
225.
226.

Obv. Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face


Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.

to

/.,

/.,

reate.

Tetradrachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.
Hemidrachm.
Drachm.

IV,
IV,

laureate.

IV,
IV,

23
24
25

26

is

is

on the whole inferior to that of


The style of the Apollo heads at Clazomenae
The latter of course represents the Sun-god, par excellence,
Amphipolis and Rhodes.
It was as widely imitated as Kimon's
and
pre-eminent among the heads of Helios.
Arethusa. (See below.)
Metapontum, 330-272 B. C.
227.
face to r., wearing wreath of barley.

228.

229.

/.

230.

I,

231.
1887, Pl.

Obv. Head of Dcmetcr or Persephone, three-quarter Didrachm. IV,


Obv. Similar.
Didrachm. IV,
c. 280 B. C. Obv. Similar.
Didrachm. IV,
Obv. Similar.
Didrachm. IV,
B.
C.
Obv.
of
Head
Demeter,
Num.Chron.,
Cyzicus, 450-400
facing slightly to

EL

14.

Stater.

Obv. Head of DemeUr, copied from type of


(Sarmatia)
232.
Imhoof-Blumer,
Die
Antiken
Mnzen
Pl. XIII, .
Nord-Griechenlands,
Cyzicus.
B.
C.
Obv.
of
Head
Artemis,
Orthagoria,
three-quarter-face to
400-350
233.

240.
/.,

241.
wearing

ment.

B. M.

369-357 B. C.

C., Pl.

X,

Obv.

Head of Hecate, three-quarter-face

to

1.

to r., wearing
Abydus, 320-200 B. C. Obv. Head of Artemis, three-quarter-face
Ibid., Pl. II, 2.

Obv. Similar, head turreted. Ibid., Pl. II,

Obv. Similar, head facing full-front. Ibid., Pl. II, 4.

Obv. Similar, head slightly to


Ibid., Pl. II, 9.
laureate.

Phygela, 350-300 B. C. Obv. Head of Artemis Munychia, three-quarter-face to


Ibid., Pl. XXIV, 2.

stephanos.

Obv. Head of Artemis


242.
Rev. Num., 1897, Pl. IX, 12.
Myrina (Aeolis),

Munychia,

B. C.

three-quarter-face

to

/.,

238.
239.

torch.

5.

237.
Stephanos.

Pherae (Alexander),

IV,

/.,

236.
behind,

Obv. Similar.

IV,
IV,

copy of the preceding type.

r.

235 appears to be

No.

Obv. Similar.
Macedon (Philip II), 359-336 B. C.

234.
235.

Triobol.
Triobol.
Triobol.

6 5

/.

I,

350-280 B. C.

without

head orna

Tetradrachm.
8

Rev.

c. 197

/.

Head of Artemis, three-quarter-face to


Hemidrachm (?) IV,
B.
C.
Head
of
Artemis Dutynna, facing
Obv.
Polyrhenium
(Crete),
220-67
244.
Hemidrachm. IV,
to
r.,
stephanos.
wearing
slightly
168
B.
A.
D.
Head
of
Artemis
Elenthera or Myrea,
C.Obv.
(Lycia),
Myra
43
245.

Ifev. Num., 1898, Pl. II, 4.


facing full-front, veiled.
B.
ot
Artemis.
Ibid.,
c.
C.
Obv.
Head
2022.

Oenoe
(Icaria),
1897,

246.
243.

A CING HEADS ON GREEK

I
247.

Scotussa, 300-190 B. C.

248.

Cleitor, 370-240 B. C.

COINS.

Obv. Head of nymph or Artemis, facing slightly


Triobol.
Obv. Head of Helios, facing full-front, radiate.

Triobol.
Triobol.
Triobol.

Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Tarentum, 334-330 B. C.

249.
250.
251.

with rays.

Obv. Similar.
(Under Alexander I,

252.
253.

Head of Helios, facing

Obv.

of

Epirus),

c. 334

B. C.

Stater.
Stater.

Obv. Similar, head to

AV ^

IV,

10

IV,

11

IV,
IV,

slightly to r., on

AV ^
AV ^

to /.

12
13

disk

IV,
IV,

14

IV,

16

15

/.

Stater.

Apamea Myrlea, 300-203 B. C. Obv. Head of Helios, facing full-front, radiate.


254.
XXV, 4.

Pl.
M.
C.,
B.
B.
ad
C.
Head
Apollonia
Obv.
of
Rhyndacum,
Apollo,
facing full-front,
450-330
255 Diobol.
Ibid., Pl. II, 8.
laureate.
to r., laureate.
Lesbos, 440-350 B. C. Obv. Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face
256.
Ibid., Pl.

XXI,

XXXIV,

EL

8.

Miletus, 400-350 B.

257.
8.

250-190 B.

258.

C.

Obv.

Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face

Hecte.
Ibid., Pl.

to /.

C.

Head of Apollo, facing slightly to

Obv.

Ibid.,

/.

XXI,

17.

-:

259.

Pl.

XXII,

c. 190

B. C.

Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face

Obv.

to r., laureate.

AV

1.

Halicarnassus,

260.

Rev. Num., 1897, Pl.

Thera,

261.

262.

X,

400-377 B. C.

Obv.

Head of Apollo,

Ibid.,

Stater.
to

three-quarter-face

r.

Drachm.

5.

4th Cent. B. C.

3d and 2d Cent. B. C.

Obv. Similar.

Num. Chron.,

1890,

Pl.

XIX,
.

Obv. Similar, head to

/.

B. M.

C.,

Pl.

13.

XXIX,

13.

^E

XI,

263.

Gortyna, 200-67 B. C.

Obv. Head of Helios, three-quarter-face

(M. Svoronos calls this head


heads.

It

Ibid., Pl.

to r.

1o.

a Medusa, and it does resemble the humanized Gorgon

is however quite suggestive of the later heads of Helios at Rhodes.

Cf. Nos.

I), 312-280 . C.
II, 12.
I), 280-261 B. C.

Syria (Seleucus
264.
Ibid., Pl.
laureate, hair long.
265.

Ibid., Pl.

(Antiochus

IV,

Obv.

Head of Apollo,

Obv. Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face

10.

facing slightly to

/.,

218, 219.)

A\
Ai

to r.

/.

Ibid., Pl. IV, r.


Obv. Similar, head to
Astypalaea, 4th Cent. B. C. Obv. Head of Apollo, facing slightly to r. Jfev.

Num., 1897, Pl. X, 16.


268.
Grynium, 3d Cent. B. C. Obv. Head of Apollo, three-quarter-face to
laureate.

B. M. C., Pl. XXVI,


9.
Birytis, 300-290 B. C. Obv. Similar, head to r. Zeit.f. Num., 1903, Pl. V, 1.
269.
266.

8,

/.,

267.

270.

Obv. Similar.

Ibid., Pl. V,

2.

FACING
271.

Caria (Maussolus),

HEADS ON GREEK

377-353 B. C.

273.
274.
275.
276.
277.
278.
279.
280.
281.
282.
283.

Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
(Hidreus), 351-343 B. C. Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
(Pixodarus), 341-335 B. C. Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar.
Astyra,

I?

Obv. Head of Helios,

Rhodian coins.
272.

COINS.

facing, copied from


IV, 27
Tetradrachm.
Tetradrachm. IV, 28
Tetradrachm. IV, 29
IV, 30
Tetradrachm.
IV, 31
Tetradrachm.
Didrachm. IV, 32

Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Didrachm.
Drachm.
Drachm.

IV,
IV,

IV,
IV,

IV,
IV,

34
35
36
37

38
to r., as on earliest

B. C. Obv. Head of Helios, three-quarter-face

Ibid., Pl. X, 5, 6.
Erythrae, 300-200 B. C. Obv. Head of Helios, facing full-front, radiate.
284.

C., Pl. XV, 20.


Priene,
200
B.
Helios,
c.
C.
Obv.
Head
of
to
r.
three-quarter-face
285.
2830.

33

c. 480

gold coins of Rhodes.

. .

IV,

Drachm.

286.

Num. Zeit.,

Lepsimandus,

III,

2d Cent. B.

Obv. Head

C.

of Helios,

facing,

Rhodian

Pl. X, 27.
Lycia (Dynast

Obv. Head of Helios, facing.


Pericles), c. 375 B. C.

Num., 1898, 2980.


(Uncertain Dynast of Tos), 400-360 B. C. Rev. Similar. Ibid., Pl.
288.
287.

(Telmessus), 196-189 B.
B. M. C., Pl. XVII, 9.

288.
radiate.

Obv. Head of Helios,

ate.

Patara,

c. 168

IV,

I,

25.

facing slightly to r.,

B. C.

Obv. Head of Apollo, facing slightly to r. Rev.


Ibid., XV, 15, 16.

Artemis, facing, wearing stephanos.


Lycia (under Rhodes), 188-168 B. C. Obv. Similar, full-front, with
289.
B. M. C., Pl. XXXIX, 12.

front of right cheek.


Obv. Head of Helios, facing full-front,
Metapontum, 350-272 B. C.
290.

Carelli, N. I. V. T., Pl. CLIX, 171.


Alexandria Troas, c. 189 B. C. Obv. Head of Apollo, facing slightly to
291.
288.

Rev.

C.

46

style.

Head of
eagle

in

radiate.
r., laure

B. M.

C., Pl.

292.

Anaphe, 2d and 1st Cent. B. C.

3, 4.

Obv. Head of Apollo Aigletes, facing full-front.

Halicarnassus,

2d and 1st Cent.

B.

IV,

43

Obv. Head of Helios, facing slightly to


Drachm. IV, 44
r., Rhodian style.
Scythian Dynast, Heles or Aelios, 2d Cent. B. C. Obv. Head of Helios, fac
294.

ing. Num. Chron., 1899, Pl. IX, 2.


Gaza (Uncertain Dynast), 450-332 B. C. Obv. Head of Helios, facing slightly to
295.
Rev. Num., 1898,
/. Rev. Mask of Besa, facing, bearded and wearing a feather head-dress.
Pl. XVIII, 11. Cf. Babelon, Cat. des Monn. Gr., Pl. VIII, 22. " Head of Arethusa."
293.

C.

Etenna, c. 350 B. C.
296.
F, 18.
Gr.,
Pl.
Monn.

Obv. Head of Apollo, facing slightly to r.

Imhoof-Blumer,

FACING HEADS ON GREEK

l S

Istrus, c. 200 B.
I, Pl. II, 25.

2960.

Blumer, Op.

Obv. Head of Helios,

C.

315-286 B. C.

slightly to
302.

303.
triple-crested

Rev. Similar to No. 297, head much smaller.


Clazomenae, 387-300 B. C. Obv. Head of Athena,
Obv. Head of Athena,

IV,

to r.,

IV,

18

21, 41

facing slightly to r., in triple Tetrobol. IV, 22

Obv. Similar. Ibid., Pl. XVIII, 12.


Obv. Similar. Ibid., Pl. XVIII, 14, 15, 16.
Pale, 370-189 B. C. Obv. Similar. Ibid., Pl. XVII, 21.
Ibid., Pl.
Phocis, 371-357 B. C. Obv. Similar, head to
/.

307.
308.

19

20

facing

Stater.

370-189 B. C.

304.
crested helmet.

306.

three-quarter-face

helmet.

Same.

305.

IV,
IV,

5,

/.,

301.

Obv. Similar, head to /. B. M. C., p. 4: 1.


Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar, head to r.
Drachm.
Obv. Similar, head to /.
Drachm.
Tarsus (Period of Mazaeus), 361-333 B. C. Obv. Head of Athena,
in triple-crested helmet.
Ibid., p.

10.

in

300.

&

Obv. Head of Alhena, facing slightly to r.,


Tetradrachm. IV, 17

299.

Imhoof-

facing full-front, radiate.

cit.,

Paeonia (Audoleon),
297.
in triple-crested helmet.
298.

COINS.

III,

17.

I.

/.,

Tegea, 370-240 B. C. Obv. Head of Athena, facing slightly to


wearing close309.
Ibid., Pl. XXXVII, 16.

fitting crested helmet.


CLIX, 176.
Carelli,
B.
T.,
C.
Obv.
Similar.
N.
V.
Pl.
Metapontum,
350-272
310.

Rev. Head of Athena Itonia, three-quarter-face to r., in


387-374 B. C.
311.

helmet.
B. M. C., Pl. VII, 10.
triple-crested
B.
C.

Solus,
Ibid.,
Cent.
Obv.
Similar.
p.
4th
242
312.
B.
IV, 42
Similar,
C.
head
to
Pharsalus,
Obv.
300-190
313.
XII,

ibid.,
1st
B.
C.
Pl.
1.
Ilium,
Cent.
Obv.
Similar.
314.
Obv. Similar, head to

Ibid., 15.
315.
XXX, 10.
B.
Macdonald,
C.
Similar.
Pl.
Coll.,
Phalanna,
Obv.
Hunt.
300-200
31

V. T., Pl. VII, 1.


Etruria, c. 420 B.C. Obv. Similar. Carelli, N.
317.
:

I.

6.

/.

/.

5.

Coroneia,

323.

Leuce, 350-300 B. C.
Priene, 3d Cent. B. C.

324.

Soli,

Num., p.

B. M.

3240-.

(Pasikrates),

C., Pl.
325.

Pl.

XVI,

370-350

XIII,

. C.

8,

C.,

5.

B. M.

9.
to

Ibid., Pl. XVII, 9.


Obv. Similar, head to r. Ibid., Pl. XVII, 15.
Obv. Similar, head full-front. Ibid., Pl. XXIV,
Obv. Head of Athena,

helmeted,

facing.

c. 331

10.

B. C.

1.

Peloponnesus (Megalopolis?).

Head, Hist.
Stater.

laureate.
Obv. Head of Apollo, facing slightly to
Diobol.
Obv. Head of Athenalor.
Num. Chron., 1892,
/.,

322.

Didrachm.
VII, 16.
Ibid., Pl. XVI,

to r.

/.

321.

7,

319.
320.

Assus, 400-241 B. C. Obv. Similar, head


Sigeum, 4th Cent. . C. Obv. Similar.
Obv. Similar. Ibia., Pl. XVI,
Lebedus, c. 190 B. C. Obv. Similar, head
6,

318.

4.

Obv. Similar. . Num., 1898, 2985.


Rev. Head of Athena. facing,
32. Cyprus (Sidqmelek of Lapethus) c. 450 B. C.
Stater.
8.
B. M. C., Pl. VI,
low helmet with cheek-pieces.
7,

Lycia (Dynast Zakhaba).

6,

326.

in

FACING

HEADS ON GREEK

COINS.

Ig

Miletopolis, 4th Cent. B. C. Obv. Head of Athena, facing, wearing crested hel

Num. Chron., 1904, Pl. XV, 15.


B.
to r., in
C.
Obv.
Head
of
Heracles,
Cos,
three-quarter-face
young
190-166
327.
Didrachm. IV, 39
lion's scalp.
Obv. Similar.
Didrachm. IV, 40
328.
326.

met.

3280. Methymna, 2d and 1st Cent.


Macdonald, Hunt. Coll., Pl. L, 5.
wreath.

B. C.

Obv. Head of Dionysus, facing, wearing

Myconos, 3d and 2d Cent. B. C. Obv. Head of young


329.
B. M. C., Pl. XXV, 2.
face to r., wearing ivy wreath.

Dionysus,

ivy

three-quarter-

Ibid., Pl. XXV, 3, 4, 5.


330.
B.
2d
and
1st
Cent.
C.
Obv.
Head
of
bearded
and
Scepsis,
Dionysus,
facing,
.

B. M. C., Pl. XV, 13.


horned.
Obv. Head of Heracles, three-quarter33<D. Selge (Pisidia), 2d and 1st Cent. B. C.
Drachm.
Ibid., Pl. XL, 6, 7, 8.
face to r., wreathed.
Neapolis (Apulia), c. 300 B. C. Obv. Similar, head to /. Carelli, N. I. V. T.,
331.

Pl. CI, 4.
Thebes, 395-387 B. C. Obv. Head of bearded Dionysus, facing slightly to r.,
332.
Obv. Similar.

Stater.
B. M. C., Pl. XIV, 9.
Metapontum, 4th Cent. B. C. Obv. Head of young Dionysus, three-quarter-face
Didrachm.
Jour. Inter. de Num., 1901, Pl. VI, 16.
Syria (Seleucus I), 312-280 B. C. Obv. Similar, head horned and wreathed.
334.
ivy wreath.

wearing

333.
to /.

/.,

B. M.

C., Pl.

XXVIII,

1.

Larissa (Thessaly),
335.
Ibia., Pl. V, 12.
helmeted.
336.

Ibid., Pl.

400-344 B. C.

to

Samos, 322-205 B. C.

XXXVI,

Obv. Head of Aleuas, three-quarter-face

Obv. Head of Hera, facing full-front, wearing

stephanos.

4.

Ibid., Pl. XXXVI, 10.


Obv. Similar.
B.
C.
Head
of
Hera
Obv.
Neapolis (Ionia), c. 300
(?), facing full-front, wearing
338.
Rev. Num., 1897, Pl. X, 6.
stephanos.
Plataea, 387-384, B. C. Obv. Head of Hera, facing full-front, wearing stephanos.
339.

B. M. C., Pl. IX, 3, 4.


full-front,
B.
C.
Hector
Obv.
Head
of
tripleOphrynium, 350-300
(?), facing
340.

Ibid., Pl. XIV,


crested helmet.
Obv. Similar, three-quarter-face to

Ibid., Pl. XIV,


341.

343.

f.

344.
Zeit.

Obv. Similar, head to r. Ibid., Pl. XIV, 9.


Rhaucus, 309-166 B. C. Obv. Head of beardless youth, three-quarter-face to r.
Drachm. IV, 47
Autokane (?) (Aeolis).
Obv. Head of Asckpios (?), facing full-front, laureate.

Num., 1884, Pl.

I,

342.

7.

/.

6.

in

337.

to

of Xanthus),

/.

344.
three-quarter-face

4.

Lycia (Khri

(Pericles), 380-362 B. C.

450-410 B. C.

Rev. Head of bearded

Stater.

Satrap,

IV,

50

B. M.

C., PL

VII,

7.

f.

/.,

of portraitObv. Bearded head facing slightly to


344.
like character, with laurel wreath.
Regung, Die Griechischen Mnzen der Sammlung Warren,
Didrachm.
Pl. XXVIII, 1231.
B.
C.
Head
of
Larisa
Cent.
Obv.
river-god,
facing slightly to
young
(Troas),
3d
345.

Num., 1897, Pl. X, 19, 20.


r. Zeit.
B.
Head
of
C.
Obv.
river-god
Metropolis
(1), facing.
(Thessaly),
400-344
346.

HEADS ON GREEK

FACING

20

COINS.

Obv. Head of young river3460. Macedonia (Philip V and Perseus), 185-168 B. C.


god Strymon, horned and crowned with rushes.
Imhoof-Blumer, Antik. Mnzen,
: Pl. I, 14.

III

347.
de la Crete,

Crete (Uncertain City).


Pl. XXXI, 19, 20, 21.
Gortyna (?).

349.

Celenderis, 2d Cent. B. C.

350.
351.
352.
353.
354.
wreath.
355.
356.
357.
358.
359.
360.
361.

Pl. XVII,

XIV,

Gorgon (?),

Obv. Head of

facing.

humanized.

Gorgon,

Svoronos,

Ibid., Pl. XV,

Obv. Head of a nymph (?), horned (?).

348.

1903, Pl.

Obv. Head of

Num.

4.

Rev.

Num.,

21.

Etruria, c. 450 B. C. Obv. Head of a Gorgon.


Didrachm. IV,
Parium, 400-300 B. C. Obv. Head of a Gorgon.
Triobol (?). IV,
Tegea, c. 431 B. C. Obv. Similar.
Trihemibol. IV,
Agrigentum, c. 412 B. C. Rev. Crab, on whose carapace is a human head.
Drachm. IV,
Boeotia, 220-197 B- C.

Similar.
B. C.
Obv. Similar.
Leontini, 3d Cent.

Elea,

Obv.

c. 340

52

54

Obv. Head of Dtmeter, three-quarter-face to r., with corn


Drachm. IV, 49
B. M. C., Pl. VI, 8.

Obv. Similar, head to /. Ibid., Pl. XVIII, 1 1.


&
Ibid., Pl. XVIII, 12.
M
B. C. Obv. Head of Demeter, facing.
Ibid., p. 93.

B. C. Obv. Head of Demeter, facing slightly to r.


Cardia, c. 35 B. C. Obv. Similar, head to /. Ibid., n.
Euboea, 196-146 B. C. Obv. Head of Demeter, facing full-front,
Crithote,

55
53

c. 350

IV,
X.

veiled.

48

Ibid.,

18.

Olbia (?).
Obv. Head of a nymph (?), facing full-front, with loose locks.
Im
362.
hoof-Blumer, Antik. Mnzen, I : Pl. VIII, 4.

Cyprus (Paphos), c. 350 B. C. Obv. Head of Aphrodite, facing full-front, crowned


363.
with myrtle and wearing a stephanos.
B. M. C., Pl. XXII, 7.
AV Stater.

From the fore-going list it will

be seen that the facing head was employed by


of
one
hundred
and
different
autonomous cities and districts, extending
upwards
sixty
over practically the whole territory of the Greek world, and that its use was not re

stricted to the Fourth Century, as has been generally assumed.


A very large pro
portion of the facing heads were issued during this century, but the practice began at
the initiation of Greek coinage, and extended down through the Second and First

the closing years of independent Greek issues.


The type was not of such
frequent occurrence as the profile, as indeed the objections to it are only too evident, at
least from the practical point of view.
But the Greek artists of die-engraving did not
Centuries,

begin the experiment at a time when they had complete mastery of their technique, and
To illustrate the prevalence of the erroneous
reject it as unsuitable for coins.

then

[i.

impression about the Fourth Century, the following quotation from Corolla Numismtica
is given : "The style of the coin
e. Pharsalus, Pl. IX, 17] appears to me more ancient

than the date (300-190 B. C.) to which Mr. Percy Gardner ascribes it.
do not believe
the full-face or three-quarter-face heads are often found after the middle of the

that

A
I

fourth century B. C."1

glance at the catalogue of facing

Th. Reinach, Achilles on Thessalian

types will show that, on

Coius, p. 69.

FACING HEADS ON GREEK

COINS.

21

the contrary, the facing head, often through sheer imitation, was on the whole rather
common from the Third to the First Century.
The most archaic examples are found to be in full-front view. The characteristic

head of the Fifth and Fourth Centuries is in three-quarter or slightly to right or left of
The true full-front head, due in the archaic period to the halting hand which

full-front.

dared not essay a more difficult perspective, was not wholly neglected by the Fourth
Century engravers (cf. Nos. 167 and 175), and a goodly number of these full-front heads
occur among the late coins (cf. Nos. 207, 248, 254, 289, 292-3, 2, 324, 336, 361).
A few coins, belonging to various periods, have a facing head on both obverse and
reverse (Nos. 19, Stratus; 20, Arcarnania; 136, Cyprus; 288^, Patara, and 295, Gaza).
Among the subjects repesented are the deities Athena, Hera, Demeter (Persephone),
Artemis (Hecate), Aphrodite (?), Apollo, Hermes, Zeus (Ammon), Heracles, Dionysus and
Pan ; the Disoscuri, satyrs, nymphs and river-gods, certain heroes and a Satrap.
There
can be no question that the facing head was not regarded as apotropaic in meaning, like
the human eye placed on the prows of ships, or the Gorgoneion

on the warrior's

shield.

INDEX.
[The references are to the numbers in the preceding list.]

Abacaenum 116-118
Abydus 237-240
Acarnania 20
Aenus 181-188
Agrigentum 353
Alexandria Troas 291
Amphipolis 189-195
Anactorium

Arcadii

121

ad Ryndacum

Cos 327, 328


Crete (Uncertain City) 347
Crithote 359

Hyria

(Pnytagoras ?) 136
(Sidqmelek of Lapethus)
3260

255

(Heraea) 24-30

Assus 3 18
Astypalaea 267
Astyra 283
Autokane 344
Barce 167
Birytis 269, 270
Boeotia 354, 355
Camarina 31, 90
Cardia 360
Caria (Hidreus) 275, 276
(Maussolus) 271-274

(Pixodarus) 277-283
Catana 32-35, 47-51, 179
Celenderis 349
Chalis 134, 135
Clazomenae 221-226, 303
Cleitor 248-250
Colophon 13-15

Heraclea (Lucania) 66-71


Heraclea Pontica 46

Crotn 147, 148, 152-155


Cyprus (Evagoras I) 41
(Paphos) 363

Anaphe 292
Apamea Myrlea 254
Aphytis 168
Apollonia

Corinth 123
Coroneia 3 11

Himera 115
157, 158

Idyma 175
Ilium 314, 315
Istrus 161, 162, 2g6a
Lampsacus 65, 165, 176
Larisa (Troas) 345
Larissa 93-105, 335
Laus 125

Cyrene 83, 84, 166

Lebedus 321

Cyzicus 52-54, 164, 231


Elea 356, 357

Leontini 358
Lepsimandus 286
Lesbos 77, 78, 80, 81, 177, 178,

Epirus (Pyrrhus)

170

Erythrae 43, 44, 284

Eryx

256

Leuce 322
Leucas 122, 138
Lycia (Khri of Xanthus) 344
(Patara) 288*

119, 120

Etenna 296

Etruria42,

317, 350

Euboea 361
Eurea 139

Fensernia 156
Gaza (Judaea, Uncertain Dynast)
178*, 295

Gela 124
Gergis 131, 131
Gomphi Philippopolis
Gortyna 263, 348
Grynium 268
Gyrton 1 14
Halicarnassus 260, 293

(Pericles) 344*
of Antiphel-

(Tththivibi

126-128

lus?) 1780
(Telmessus) 2880
(Under Rhodes) 289
(Uncertain Dynast) Per
icles) 287
(Tos) 288

(Zakhaba) 326
Macedonia (in genere ) 180

(Philip II)

235

INDEX.
Macedonia (Philip V and Perseus) Parium 351
Patara 288*
3460
Meliboea 140, 141
Mesma 133
Metapontum 227-230, 290, 310,
333

Methymna 327*1
Metropolis (Thessaly) 137, 346
Miletopolis 326*

Phalanna 316
l'hars.il us 313
Pherae 132

Syracuse 36,

(Alexander) 236
Phistelia 16, 144-146, 160
Phocaea 9
Phocis 308

Miletus 257-259
Morgantia 76

Phygela 241, 242


Pitane 169

Motya 109-111
Myconos 329, 330

Plataea 339
Polyrhenium 244
Posidonia 149

Myra 245
Myrina 243

Priene 285, 323

Mytilene 79, 82
Neapolis (Apulia) 33 1
(Ionia) 338

(Lucania) 142, 143, 151


Oenoe (Icaria) 246

Olbia

Same 304-306
Samos 336, 337

171-174

Sigeum 319, 320

I)

265, 266

(Seleucus I) 163, 264, 334


Tarentum 45, 72-75. 251-253
Tarsus (Datmes) 1o6

(Pharnabazes) 107, 108


(Period of Mazaeus) 301,
302

Tegea 309, 352


Thebes 40, 332
Thera 261, 262

Selge (Pisidia) 330


Selinus 37, 38

150

Thurium

Pale 307
Pandosia

Panticapaeum

Syria (Antiochus

Rhaucus 343
Rhodes 196-220

Orthagoria 233, 234


Paeonia (Audoleon) 297-300

340-342

57-64, 85-89, 91,

92

Proerna 112

Scepsis 330
Scotussa 113, 247
Scythia (Dynast Heles) 294
Segesta 21-23

362

Ophrynium

Sinope 129
Solus 312
Soli 324, 324*1
Stratus 19

159

232
Velia 55, 56
Uncertain.
Aegean Islands 1-7, 1l.

Asia Minor

Colophon 12
Dra. . (Sicily ?) 39
Peloponnesus (Megalopolis?) 325
Treasure of Auriol 10, 17, 18

FACING

HEADS.

1.

49

FAClNG

HEADS. ll.

50

5l

52

34

FACING

HEADS. lII.

***r.j

49

FACING

HEADS, IV.

**isa