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Composite Materials

ISSUES TO ADDRESS

• What are the classes and types of composites?

• What are the advantages of using composite materials?

• How do we predict the stiffness and strength of the various types of composites?

Chapter 16 - 1
Chapter 16 - 1

Composite

Combination of two or more individual

materials

Design goal: obtain a more desirable

combination of properties (principle of

combined action) e.g., low density and high strength

Chapter 16 - 2

combination of properties ( principle of combined action ) – e.g., low density and high strength

Terminology/Classification

Composite:

-- Multiphase material that is artificially made.

Phase types:

-- Matrix - is continuous -- Dispersed - is discontinuous and surrounded by matrix

-- Dispersed - is discontinuous and surrounded by matrix Adapted from Fig. 16.1(a), Callister & Rethwisch

Adapted from Fig. 16.1(a),

Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter 16 - 3

- is discontinuous and surrounded by matrix Adapted from Fig. 16.1(a), Callister & Rethwisch 8e .

Terminology/Classification

Matrix phase:

-- Functions are to:

- transfer stress to dispersed phase

- protect dispersed phase from

environment

- separates the dispersed phase and prevent propagation of cracks -- Types: MMC, CMC, PMC
-
separates the dispersed phase and
prevent propagation of cracks
-- Types:
MMC,
CMC,
PMC
metal
ceramic
polymer

Dispersed phase:

-- Function:

MMC: increase s y , TS, creep resist. CMC: increase fracture toughness, K Ic PMC: increase E, s y , TS, creep resist.

-- Types: particle, fiber, structural

woven

fibers

cross

Chapter 16 - 4

E , s y , TS , creep resist. -- Types: particle , fiber , structural

Classification of Composites

Adapted from Fig. 16.2, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Adapted from Fig. 16.2,
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter 16 - 5

Classification of Composites Adapted from Fig. 16.2, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. Chapter 16 - 5

Classification: Particle-Reinforced

Classification: Particle-Reinforced Fiber-reinforced Particle-reinforced Structural  Particles usually reinforce a

Fiber-reinforced

Particle-reinforced

Structural

Particles usually reinforce a composite equally in all directions (called isotropic). Plastics, cermets and metals are examples of particles.

The particulates can be very small particles (<0.25

microns), chopped fibres (eg. glass), platelets, hollow spheres, or new materials (eg. carbon nanotubes).

Chapter 16 - 6
Chapter 16 - 6

Subclass of particle-reinforced composites

Large particles

Dispersion-strengthened

Large Particle Composite

• Examples:

- Spheroidite steel

-

WC/Co

cemented

carbide

- Automobile

tire rubber

matrix:

ferrite (a)

(ductile)

- Automobile tire rubber matrix: ferrite ( a ) (ductile) 60 m m particles: cementite (Fe
- Automobile tire rubber matrix: ferrite ( a ) (ductile) 60 m m particles: cementite (Fe

60 mm

tire rubber matrix: ferrite ( a ) (ductile) 60 m m particles: cementite (Fe 3 C)
tire rubber matrix: ferrite ( a ) (ductile) 60 m m particles: cementite (Fe 3 C)
tire rubber matrix: ferrite ( a ) (ductile) 60 m m particles: cementite (Fe 3 C)

particles:

cementite (Fe 3 C) (brittle)

matrix:

cobalt

(ductile,

tough)

:

(Fe 3 C) (brittle) matrix: cobalt (ductile, tough) : 600 m m particles: WC (brittle, hard)
(Fe 3 C) (brittle) matrix: cobalt (ductile, tough) : 600 m m particles: WC (brittle, hard)

600 mm

C) (brittle) matrix: cobalt (ductile, tough) : 600 m m particles: WC (brittle, hard) matrix: rubber
C) (brittle) matrix: cobalt (ductile, tough) : 600 m m particles: WC (brittle, hard) matrix: rubber

particles:

WC

(brittle,

hard)

matrix:

rubber

(compliant)

0.75 mm
0.75 mm
WC (brittle, hard) matrix: rubber (compliant) 0.75 mm particles: carbon black (stiff) Adapted from Fig. 10.19,

particles:

carbon

black

(stiff)

Adapted from Fig. 10.19, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 10.19 is copyright

United States Steel

Corporation, 1971.)

Adapted from Fig. 16.4, Callister &

Rethwisch 8e. (Fig.

16.4 is courtesy

Carboloy Systems, Department, General Electric Company.)

Adapted from Fig. 16.5, Callister &

Rethwisch 8e. (Fig.

16.5 is courtesy

Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.)

from Fig. 16.5, Callister & Rethwisch 8e . (Fig. 16.5 is courtesy Goodyear Tire and Rubber

Chapter 16 - 7

Large Particle Composite

Concrete gravel + sand (the particulates) + cement (matrix) + water

- Why sand and gravel?

Sand fills voids between gravel particles

Reinforced concrete Reinforce with steel rebar or remesh - increases strength - even if cement matrix is cracked

concrete – Reinforce with steel rebar or remesh - increases strength - even if cement matrix

Chapter 16 -

concrete – Reinforce with steel rebar or remesh - increases strength - even if cement matrix

Prestressed concrete

- Rebar/remesh placed under tension during setting of concrete

- Release of tension after setting places concrete in a state of compression

- To fracture concrete, applied tensile stress must exceed this compressive

stress

applied tensile stress must exceed this compressive stress Post-tensioning – tighten nuts to place concrete under

Post-tensioning tighten nuts to place concrete under compression

nut

stress Post-tensioning – tighten nuts to place concrete under compression nut 9 threaded rod Chapter 16

9

threaded

rod

Chapter 16 - 9

stress Post-tensioning – tighten nuts to place concrete under compression nut 9 threaded rod Chapter 16

Elastic modulus, E c , of composites:

-- two “rule of mixture” extremes:

upper limit: E = V E + c m m V p E p E(GPa)
upper limit:
E
= V
E
+
c
m
m
V p E p
E(GPa)
350
Data:
lower limit:
Cu matrix
30
0
1
V m + V p
w/tungsten
250
=
particles
E
E
E
20
0
c
m
p
150
0 20
40
60
80
10 0 vol% tungsten
(Cu)
(W)

Adapted from Fig. 16.3,

Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

(Fig. 16.3 is from R.H.

Krock, ASTM Proc, Vol. 63, 1963.)

• Application to other properties:

-- Electrical conductivity, s e : Replace E’s in equations with s e ’s. -- Thermal conductivity, k: Replace E’s in equations with k’s.

Chapter 16 - 10

with s e ’s. -- Thermal conductivity , k : Replace E ’s in equations with

Dispersion Strengthened Composite

The particles are normally much smaller, with diameters between 10 and 100 nm, the strengthening occurs at the

atomic level.

The dispersed phase may be metallic or nonmetallic, oxide materials are often used.

The mechanism of strengthening is similar to that for precipitation hardening.

The matrix bears the major portion of applied load, the small

dispersed particles hinder or impede the motion of dislocations.

Chapter 16 - 11

portion of applied load, the small dispersed particles hinder or impede the motion of dislocations. Chapter

Classification: Fiber-Reinforced

Classification: Fiber-Reinforced Fiber-reinforced Particle-reinforced Structural • Fibers very strong in tension –

Fiber-reinforced

Particle-reinforced

Structural

Fibers very strong in tension Provide significant strength improvement to the composite

Ex: fiber-glass - continuous glass filaments in a

polymer matrix

Glass fibers

strength and stiffness

Polymer matrix

holds fibers in place

protects fiber surfaces

transfers load to fibers

Chapter 16 - 12

Polymer matrix – holds fibers in place – protects fiber surfaces – transfers load to fibers

Fiber Types

Whiskers - thin single crystals - large length to diameter ratios

graphite, silicon nitride, silicon carbide

high crystal perfection extremely strong, strongest known

very expensive and difficult to disperse

Fibers

small diameter

polycrystalline or amorphous

generally polymers or ceramics

Ex: alumina, aramid, E-glass, boron, UHMWPE

Wires

relatively large diameters

metals steel, molybdenum, tungsten

boron, UHMWPE – Wires • relatively large diameters • metals – steel, molybdenum, tungsten Chapter 16

Chapter 16 - 13

boron, UHMWPE – Wires • relatively large diameters • metals – steel, molybdenum, tungsten Chapter 16

Critical Fiber Length

Critical fiber length for effective stiffening & strengthening:

fiber ultimate tensile strength

fiber diameter

fiber ultimate tensile strength fiber diameter s d f  c 2 critical fiber length 
fiber ultimate tensile strength fiber diameter s d f  c 2 critical fiber length 
s d f
s
d
f
 c
c

2

critical fiber length

shear strength of

fiber-matrix interface

Ex: For fiberglass, common fiber length > 15 mm needed

For longer fibers, stress transference from matrix is more efficient

Short, thick fibers:

fiber length 15

is more efficient Short, thick fibers: fiber length  15 s f d 2  c

s f d

2

c

Low fiber efficiency

Long, thin fibers: s f d fiber length  15 2  c
Long, thin fibers:
s f d
fiber length  15
2
c

High fiber efficiency

14

Chapter 16 -

 c Low fiber efficiency Long, thin fibers: s f d fiber length  15 2
Fiber Alignment Longitudinal direction Transverse direction random
Fiber Alignment
Longitudinal
direction
Transverse
direction
random

aligned

continuous

aligned

discontinuous

Chapter 16 - 15

Adapted from Fig. 16.8, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

random aligned continuous aligned discontinuous Chapter 16 - 1 5 Adapted from Fig. 16.8, Callister &

Aligned Continuous fibers

Examples:

-- Metal: g'(Ni 3 Al)-a(Mo)

by eutectic solidification.

matrix: a (Mo) (ductile)

by eutectic solidification. matrix: a (Mo) (ductile) 2mm fibers: g ’ (Ni 3 Al) (brittle) From
2mm
2mm
by eutectic solidification. matrix: a (Mo) (ductile) 2mm fibers: g ’ (Ni 3 Al) (brittle) From

fibers: g’ (Ni 3 Al) (brittle)

From W. Funk and E. Blank, “Creep

deformation of Ni 3 Al-Mo in-situ composites", Metall. Trans. A Vol. 19(4), pp. 987-998,

1988. Used with permission.

-- Ceramic: Glass w/SiC fibers

formed by glass slurry E glass = 76 GPa; E SiC = 400 GPa.

(a)

(b)

g l a s s = 76 GPa; E S i C = 400 GPa. (a)
g l a s s = 76 GPa; E S i C = 400 GPa. (a)
g l a s s = 76 GPa; E S i C = 400 GPa. (a)

fracture

surface

From F.L. Matthews and R.L. Rawlings, Composite Materials;

Engineering and Science, Reprint

ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL,

2000. (a) Fig. 4.22, p. 145 (photo by J. Davies); (b) Fig. 11.20, p. 349 (micrograph by H.S. Kim, P.S. Rodgers, and R.D. Rawlings). Used with permission of CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

by H.S. Kim, P.S. Rodgers, and R.D. Rawlings). Used with permission of CRC Press, Boca Raton,

Chapter 16 - 16

Discontinuous fibers, random in 2 dimensions

Example: Carbon-Carbon

-- fabrication process:

- carbon fibers embedded

in polymer resin matrix,

- polymer resin pyrolyzed

at up to 2500ºC.

-- uses: disk brakes, gas turbine exhaust flaps,

missile nose cones.

Other possibilities:

-- Discontinuous, random 3D -- Discontinuous, aligned

500 mm
500 mm
Discontinuous, random 3D -- Discontinuous, aligned 500 mm view onto plane C fibers: very stiff very
Discontinuous, random 3D -- Discontinuous, aligned 500 mm view onto plane C fibers: very stiff very

view onto plane

C fibers:

very stiff

very strong

C matrix:

less stiff less strong

(b)

very stiff very strong C matrix: less stiff less strong (b) (a) fibers lie in plane
very stiff very strong C matrix: less stiff less strong (b) (a) fibers lie in plane

(a)

fibers lie

in plane

Adapted from F.L. Matthews and R.L. Rawlings,

Composite Materials; Engineering and Science,

Reprint ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000. (a) Fig. 4.24(a), p. 151; (b) Fig. 4.24(b) p. 151. (Courtesy I.J. Davies) Reproduced with permission of CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Chapter 16 - 17

Fig. 4.24(b) p. 151. (Courtesy I.J. Davies) Reproduced with permission of CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Composite Stiffness:

Longitudinal Loading

Continuous fibers - Estimate fiber-reinforced composite modulus of elasticity for continuous fibers

Longitudinal deformation

σ c = σ m V m + σ f V f

and

e c =

e m =

e f

m V m + σ f V f and e c = e m = e

volume fraction

E cl = E m V m + E f V f

c = composite f = fiber

m = matrix

isostrain

E cl = longitudinal modulus

Chapter 16 - 18

m + E f V f c = composite f = fiber m = matrix isostrain

Composite Stiffness:

Transverse Loading

In transverse loading the fibers carry less of the load

e c = e m V m + e f V f

1 V V = m + f E E E ct m f
1
V
V
=
m
+
f
E
E
E
ct
m
f
E E m f E = ct + V m E f V f E
E
E
m
f
E
=
ct
+
V m E f
V f E m

and

σ c = σ m = σ f = σ

V m E f V f E m and σ c = σ m = σ

isostress

E ct = transverse modulus

c = composite

f = fiber m = matrix

Chapter 16 - 19

m = σ f = σ isostress E c t = transverse modulus c = composite

Composite Stiffness

Composite Stiffness Fiber-reinforced Particle-reinforced Structural • Estimate of E c d for discontinuous fibers:

Fiber-reinforced

Particle-reinforced

Structural

• Estimate of E cd for discontinuous fibers:

-- valid when fiber length <

for discontinuous fibers: -- valid when fiber length < -- Elastic modulus in fiber direction: K

-- Elastic modulus in fiber direction:

KE K f V f f V f

< -- Elastic modulus in fiber direction: K E f V f E c d =

E cd = E m V m +

efficiency factor:

-- aligned:

K = 1

(aligned parallel)

-- aligned:

K = 0

(aligned perpendicular)

-- random 2D: K = 3/8 (2D isotropy) -- random 3D: K = 1/5 (3D isotropy)

Table 16.3, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

(Source is H. Krenchel, Fibre Reinforcement, Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1964.)

Chapter 16 - 20

Rethwisch 9e . (Source is H. Krenchel, Fibre Reinforcement , Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1964.) Chapter 16

Composite Production Methods (i)

Pultrusion

Continuous fibers pulled through resin tank to impregnate fibers with thermosetting resin

Impregnated fibers pass through steel die that preforms to the desired shape

Preformed stock passes through a curing die that is

precision machined to impart final shape

heated to initiate curing of the resin matrix

final shape – heated to initiate curing of the resin matrix Fig. 16.13, Callister & Rethwisch

Fig. 16.13, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Chapter 16 -

final shape – heated to initiate curing of the resin matrix Fig. 16.13, Callister & Rethwisch

Composite Production Methods (ii)

Hand lay-up process:

Gel coat is applied to open mold.

Fiberglass reinforcement is placed

in the mold.

Base resin mixed with catalysts is applied by pouring brushing or spraying.

Spray-up process:

Continuous strand roving is fed by chopper and spray gun and chopped

roving and catalyst resin is deposited in

the mold.

22

roving is fed by chopper and spray gun and chopped roving and catalyst resin is deposited
Chapter 16 -
Chapter 16 -

Composite Production Methods (iii)

Filament Winding

Continuous reinforcing fibers are accurately positioned in a predetermined pattern to form a hollow (usually cylindrical) shape

Fibers are fed through a resin bath to impregnate with thermosetting resin

Impregnated fibers are continuously wound (typically automatically) onto a mandrel

After appropriate number of layers added, curing is carried out either in an oven or at room temperature

The mandrel is removed to give the final product

Adapted from Fig. 16.15, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. [Fig. 16.15 is from N. L. Hancox, (Editor), Fibre Composite Hybrid Materials, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1981.]

is from N. L. Hancox, (Editor), Fibre Composite Hybrid Materials, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1981.]

Chapter 16 -

is from N. L. Hancox, (Editor), Fibre Composite Hybrid Materials, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1981.]

Classification: Structural

Classification: Structural F i b e r - r e i n f o r c

Fiber-reinforced

Particle-reinforced

Structural

•• Laminates -

-- a series of sheets or panels, each of which has a preferred high strength direction. These sheets are stacked and then cemented together such that the orientation of the high-

strength direction varies from layer to layer

-- stacking sequence: e.g., 0º/90º -- main reason: constructed in order to have a relatively high

strength in virtually all directions within

the plane of the laminate.

virtually all directions within the plane of the laminate. Adapted from Fig. 16.16, Callister & Rethwisch

Adapted from

Fig. 16.16,

Callister &

Rethwisch 8e.

directions within the plane of the laminate. Adapted from Fig. 16.16, Callister & Rethwisch 8e .

Chapter 16 - 24

Classification: Structural

Classification: Structural F i b e r - r e i n f o r c

Fiber-reinforced

Particle-reinforced

Structural

Sandwich panels

-- consist of two outer face sheets of a high-strength material that

are separated by a layer of a less-dense and lower-strength core material. -- main reason: produce structures having high in-plane strengths, high shear rigidities, and low densities.

Chapter 16 - 25
Chapter 16 - 25

face sheet

rigidities , and low densities. Chapter 16 - 25 face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb Adapted from

adhesive layer

adhesive layer

honeycomb

honeycomb

Adapted from Fig. 16.18, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 16.18 is from Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, Composites, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1987.)

Composite Benefits

• CMCs: Increased toughness

• PMCs: Increased E/r

Force particle-reinf fiber-reinf un-reinf
Force
particle-reinf
fiber-reinf
un-reinf

Bend displacement

ceramics 10 3 E(GPa) PMCs 2 10 10 metal/ metal alloys 1 0.1 polymers 0.01
ceramics
10 3
E(GPa)
PMCs
2
10
10
metal/
metal alloys
1
0.1
polymers
0.01
0.1
0.3
1
3
10
30

10 -4

• MMCs:

e ss (s -1 )

1 3 10 30 10 - 4 • MMCs: e s s (s - 1 )

10 -6

Increased

creep

resistance

10 -8

10 -10

Density, r [mg/m 3 ]

6061 Al 6061 Al w/SiC whiskers
6061 Al
6061 Al
w/SiC
whiskers
Density, r [mg/m 3 ] 6061 Al 6061 Al w/SiC whiskers 20 30 50 100 Adapted
20 30 50 100
20 30
50
100

Adapted from T.G. Nieh, "Creep rupture of a silicon-carbide reinforced aluminum composite", Metall. Trans. A Vol. 15(1), pp. 139-146, 1984. Used with permission.

s(MPa)

composite", Metall. Trans. A Vol. 15(1), pp. 139-146, 1984. Used with permission. s (MPa) 200 Chapter

200

Chapter 16 - 26

Applications of Composite Materials

1. Automobile industries (e.g. steel & Al body)

2. Marine applications like shafts, hull, spars (for racing boats)

3. Aeronautical applications like components of rockets, aircraft (business and military), missiles etc.

4. Communication antennae, electronic circuit board (e.g. PCK, breadboard)

5. Safety equipment like ballistic protection and car airbags

circuit board (e.g. PCK, breadboard) 5. Safety equipment like ballistic protection and car airbags Chapter 16
circuit board (e.g. PCK, breadboard) 5. Safety equipment like ballistic protection and car airbags Chapter 16
circuit board (e.g. PCK, breadboard) 5. Safety equipment like ballistic protection and car airbags Chapter 16
circuit board (e.g. PCK, breadboard) 5. Safety equipment like ballistic protection and car airbags Chapter 16
circuit board (e.g. PCK, breadboard) 5. Safety equipment like ballistic protection and car airbags Chapter 16
circuit board (e.g. PCK, breadboard) 5. Safety equipment like ballistic protection and car airbags Chapter 16
circuit board (e.g. PCK, breadboard) 5. Safety equipment like ballistic protection and car airbags Chapter 16

Chapter 16 - 27

circuit board (e.g. PCK, breadboard) 5. Safety equipment like ballistic protection and car airbags Chapter 16

Composites in Aerospace

Composites in Aerospace Chapter 16 - 2 8

Chapter 16 - 28

Composites in Aerospace Chapter 16 - 2 8

Summary

• Composites types are designated by:

-- the matrix material (CMC, MMC, PMC)

-- the reinforcement (particles, fibers, structural)

• Composite property benefits:

-- MMC: enhanced E, s , creep performance -- CMC: enhanced K Ic -- PMC: enhanced E/r, s y , TS/r

Particulate-reinforced:

-- Types: large-particle and dispersion-strengthened -- Properties are isotropic

Fiber-reinforced:

-- Types: continuous (aligned) discontinuous (aligned or random) -- Properties can be isotropic or anisotropic

Structural:

-- Laminates and sandwich panels

Chapter 16 - 29

-- Properties can be isotropic or anisotropic • Structural : -- Laminates and sandwich panels Chapter