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LCM07

Version:
Issue Date:
Review By Date:
Owned By:
Authorised By:

1.1
August 2006
June 2008
Engineering Manager D & P
Executive Manager D & P

LINE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL LCM07

TOWER STRUCTURE SUPPLY AND


FABRICATION

REVISION TABLE
Version No

Date of Revision

1.0

June 2006

1.1

August 2006

Details of Amendment
Initial Release
Numbering changed to represent previous system used

The above table lists in summary the amendments which have been made with most recent issues of this standard. The table is
updated with each re-issue. The latest amendments within the documents are marked with a change indicator (|) in the outer
margin.

CONTACT
This standard is the responsibility of the
Development and Projects Division, ElectraNet.
Please contact the indicated owner of the standard
with any inquiries.

ElectraNet
52-55 East Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000
PO Box 7096, Hutt Street Post Office,
Adelaide, South Australia 5000
Ph (08) 8404 7966, Fx (08) 8404 7104

LI M I T AT I O N O F L I A B I LI T Y A N D
D I S C LA I M E R O F W A R R AN TY
ElectraNet makes no representation or warranty as
to the accuracy, reliability, completeness or
suitability for particular purposes of the information
in this document. ElectraNet and its employees,
agents and consultants shall have no liability
(including liability to any person by reason of
negligence or negligent misstatement) for any
statements, opinions, information or matter
(expressed or implied) arising out of, contained in or
derived from or for any omissions from the
information in this document, except in so far as
liability under any statute cannot be excluded.

2006 ElectraNet Pty Limited trading as ElectraNet. No part of this document may be
reproduced or copied in any form or by any means (graphic, electronic, mechanical,
including photocopying, recording, taping or information retrieval systems) without the prior
written permission of ElectraNet.

LCM07

ElectraNet

TABLE OF CONTENTS
7.1

SCOPE......................................................................................................................................................3

7.2

GENERAL ...............................................................................................................................................3

7.3

MATERIALS...........................................................................................................................................3

7.4

FABRICATION.......................................................................................................................................3

7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.4.4

CUTTING, DRILLING, DEFORMATION AND PUNCHING OF MEMBERS ......................................................3


BENDING ................................................................................................................................................4
ERECTION MARKS..................................................................................................................................4
GALVANIZING ........................................................................................................................................4

7.5

HANDLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT.....................................................................................4

7.6

WELDING ...............................................................................................................................................4

7.6.1
7.6.2
7.6.3
7.7
7.7.1
7.7.2
7.7.3
7.7.4

GENERAL ...............................................................................................................................................4
QUALIFICATIONS ...................................................................................................................................4
WELD SPLICES .......................................................................................................................................5
TESTS AND INSPECTIONS AT CONTRACTS WORKS ...............................................................5
INSPECTION ............................................................................................................................................5
MATERIAL TESTS ...................................................................................................................................5
GALVANIZING TESTS .............................................................................................................................6
WELDING TESTS ....................................................................................................................................6

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7.1 SCOPE
This Section covers the material supply, fabrication, galvanizing and testing of components for lattice
steel towers.

7.2 GENERAL
All fabricated units shall be supplied in pieces to be bolt assembled and shall be based on the
principles contained in AS3995, AS4100 and requirements of Drawing A3 T000-0000-000016
Fabrication Data Transmission Tower Steelwork.
All components shall be fabricated using jigs and machines such that close tolerances are maintained
and burred and sharp edges, weld spatter, weld slag and galvanizing slag are avoided.

7.3 MATERIALS
The towers shall be fabricated from 250 and 350 MPa yield steel in Australian Standard sizes in
accordance with AS/NZS3678 and AS/NZS3679 unless otherwise approved in writing by the
Construction manager. The steel shall be of L zero degree type. International sizes and grades of steel
may be approved for use.
The steel shall be free from blisters, scale, laminations or any other defects.
All material shall be clearly identified at all stages of storage and fabrication by colour coding and
labels. Unidentifiable material shall be rejected.
Tower bolts, nuts and flat washers shall comply with the requirements of AS1559 unless otherwise
approved.
Spring washers shall not be used.

7.4 FABRICATION
7.4.1 Cutting, Drilling, Deformation and Punching of Members
Bolt holes shall be punched, drilled or sub-punched and reamed to the diameters and edge distances
specified in the member detail drawing.
All members shall be carefully cut and holes accurately located, so that when members are assembled
the holes will be truly opposite each other before being bolted. Steel shall be fabricated to ensure that
manufacturers markings or embossing are not located in the contact area of any splice plates.
Holes in material having a thickness exceeding 16 mm or exceeding the diameter of the holes shall be
drilled, other holes may be punched.
The diameter of the hole shall not exceed that of the bolt by more than 1.5 mm, measured before
galvanizing for bolts 16 mm and less and 2.0 mm for bolts greater than 16 mm measured before
galvanizing. In addition, the diameter of the die used in the punching machine shall exceed the
diameter of the punch by the minimum practical amount so as to avoid excessive hole taper and
consequent heavy bearing stress on the bolt shank. In no case shall the die exceed the punch diameter
by more than 12.5 per cent.
Deforming of members by swaging, opening or closing angle legs shall only be permitted where this
detail has no detrimental effect on the performance of the structural element.

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7.4.2 Bending
Bending of steel members shall comply with Drawing A3 T000-0000-000016 Fabrication Data
Transmission Tower Steelwork.

7.4.3 Erection Marks


Before galvanizing, all members shall be stamped with an alphanumeric mark number to identify the
member and also a mark to indicate the grade of steel. Unless a full test in accordance with AS1391 is
made, unidentified steel shall be rejected.
This marking shall be carried out in such a manner as to enable it to be clearly read after galvanizing.
The positioning of member marks, except for packer plates, shall be such that they are clearly visible
after all components of the tower are erected.
Only fully interchangeable members shall have the same mark.

7.4.4 Galvanizing
Steel sections shall have all burrs, sharp edges and trademarks removed from faying surfaces. All
ferrous items shall be hot dip galvanized in accordance with AS/NZS4680 after all fabrication is
completed. Bolts and nuts shall be effectively hot dip galvanized in accordance with AS1214.
The zinc coating shall be adherent, smooth, continuous and thorough, free from lumps, drips, blisters,
gritty areas, uncoated spots, acid and black spots, dross and flux or other defects.
The mass of zinc coating per square metre of surface area of ferrous items shall be not less than 600
grams.
All galvanized steelwork, including reinforcement bars, shall be passivated in a 0.1% sodium
dichromate solution or its equivalent applied by the galvanizer.
After hot-dip galvanizing, the maximum allowable bow, in any of the main members shall not exceed
1 in 500 measured in any plane. The Contractor shall provide steel gauges of the stub type or other
gauges approved by the Superintendent, to enable checking of any members considered necessary.

7.5 HANDLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT


Particular care shall be taken in the handling and storage of galvanized steelwork to minimise damage
and avoid the occurrence of "white rust". Reference should be made to the provisions of
AS/NZS4680.
Closed containers shall be used for marine transport of imported steel.

7.6 WELDING
7.6.1 General
Welding shall address workmanship and quality issues as required by AS1554.1.
The Contractor shall submit appropriate welding procedures for all proposed welding fabrication
processes utilising welding equipment & consumables compatible with design intent and shall be
such as to minimise weld defects, distortions or restraint.

7.6.2 Qualifications
Welders shall be qualified for welding with the equipment proposed, in the positions required and for
the steel grade used. Documentary evidence of relevant prior experience by the fabricator and the
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qualifications of the welding personnel shall be submitted to the Superintendent and welders shall be
approved by the Superintendent prior to commencing work.
The Superintendent reserves the right to conduct acceptance tests on any welders and procedures.

7.6.3 Weld splices


The welding of two or more lengths of available sections to form a single straight member of the
required length will not be permitted for leg and bracing members. Plug welds shall only be permitted
with approval of the Superintendent.
Welding of two sections to form a bent member shall require written approval from the
Superintendent. All such welds shall be complete-penetration butt welds and subject to 100% visual
and non-destructive examination.

7.7 TESTS AND INSPECTIONS AT CONTRACTS WORKS


7.7.1 Inspection
The Contractor shall be responsible for quality control and inspection of all materials and processes of
fabrication and galvanizing to ensure that the materials and workmanship comply with the
requirements of the relevant Australian Standards and this Specification.
However, the
Superintendent may independently inspect and test materials, fabrication and galvanizing.
The Contractor shall give the Superintendent two weeks advance notice in writing of fabrication and
testing and furnish the Superintendent with all test certificates for materials and fabrication processes.
The Contractor shall carry out any reasonable tests required by the Superintendent but not specifically
nominated in the Australian Standards or this Specification, such tests being at the Superintendent's
expense except where results show defective materials or workmanship.
The Contractor shall repair or replace to the satisfaction of the Superintendent, materials and
workmanship, which do not comply with the relevant Australian Standard or the Specification.

7.7.2 Material Tests


All steelwork and material provided under this Specification shall be subject to such tests and
inspections as are usual in the best practice and as may be necessary in the opinion of the
Superintendent, to determine whether they comply in all respects with this Specification and to prove
their safety and suitability for the use to which they will be applied. These tests shall include, but not
be limited to, mill test certificates of steel and production, verification and referee tests of bolts in
accordance with AS1559.
Samples selected at random by the Superintendent or his duly authorised representative may be taken
from this material after it has been allocated for fabrication of specific tower members and suitably
identified. The samples shall then be subject to check tests. Should any specimen so tested fail to
meet the requirements, the procedure for additional tests, if any, set out in the relevant Australian
Standards shall be carried out.
Failure of the check tests, unless stated otherwise, shall result in rejection of the material. The
Contractor shall give every assistance to the Superintendent representative to enable a check to be
made of the accuracy of all instruments used during the tests either by the production of a recently
certified calibration report for the instruments, or by actual calibration of the instruments, against
accepted standard equipment, in the presence of the Superintendent.
The Contractor shall bear the costs of all members used for the tests required by this sub-clause.

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7.7.3 Galvanizing Tests


One steel tower member, at the option of the Superintendent shall be withdrawn from each batch after
galvanizing and test specimens shall be taken and submitted to testing for quality and weight of
coating in accordance with AS/NZS4680. The test specimens shall have a minimum coated area of
600 mm2.
The selected tower member shall be suitably marked for identification with the batch it represents and
should the specimens taken from it fail their tests, an additional tower member or members sufficient
to provide twice the original number of specimens shall be selected. Should the second series of tests
fail, the batch represented shall be rejected.
In the event of rejection a batch may be stripped and regalvanized once only.
The tests shall be made in accordance with the appropriate Standards previously listed in this
Specification for quality and for weight of coating by stripping. The Contractor shall bear the cost of
all members used for the galvanizing tests required by this sub-clause.

7.7.4 Welding Tests


Non-destructive tests shall be carried out on all welded joints in main load carrying structural
members and plug welds for compliance with AS/NZS1554. The Contractor shall be responsible for
all costs associated with this work.
The results of all welding tests shall be to the satisfaction of the Superintendent. Upon acceptance of
the tests the Superintendent shall authorise the manufacturer to proceed with fabrication.
Where welding is carried out using automated procedures or where repetitive welded components are
used the Superintendent may permit random sampling for testing.
Non-destructive testing of welds shall be by means of Visual Inspection and Magnetic Particle
examination plus either Radiography or Ultrasonic examination by a suitably qualified welding
inspector.

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