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Prior to the 18th century, the bandurria had a round

back, similar or related to the mandore. It had
become a flat-backed instrument by the 18th
century, with five double courses of strings, tuned in
fourths. The original bandurrias of
the Medieval period had three strings. During
the Renaissance they gained a fourth string. During
the Baroque period the bandurria had 10 strings (5
The modern bandurria has 12 strings (6 pairs). The
strings are tuned in unison pairs, going up in fourths
from the low G#. The lowest four strings are a
major-third above those of a standard guitar and the
highest two strings are a fourth above a standard
guitar, i.e. G, c, f, b, e and a.

A plectrum-plucked chordophone from Spain, played
also in diaspora countries such as Cuba and the
It belongs to the cittern family of instruments, with six
double courses in unison (i.e. twelve strings in pairs),
similar to the bandurria, but with a longer neck.
Traditionally it is used by folk string musical groups,
such as the Filipino rondallastring ensemble, together
with the guitar and the bandurria. Like the bandurria, it
is tuned in fourths, but its range is one octave lower.

The guitar is a popular musical instrument classified as a string instrument with
anywhere from 4 to 18 strings, usually having 6. The sound is projected either
acoustically or through electrical amplification (for an acoustic guitar or an electric
guitar, respectively). It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the
right hand while fretting (or pressing against the frets) the strings with the fingers of
the left hand. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood
and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other
chordophones by its construction and tuning. The modern guitar was preceded by
the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, and the fivecourse baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern sixstring instrument.
There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar (nylonstring guitar), the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the arch top guitar. The tone of an
acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the body of the
guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber. The classical guitar is often played as
a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique. The term "fingerpicking" can also refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues, bluegrass, and country
guitar playing in the United States.
Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier that can electronically
manipulate and shape the tone. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but a
solid body was eventually found more suitable, as it was less prone to feedback.
Electric guitars have had a continuing profound influence on popular culture.
The guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a
primary instrument in genres such
as blues, bluegrass,country, flamenco, folk, jazz, jota, mariachi, metal, punk, reggae,
rock, soul, and many forms of pop.

The harp is a stringed musical instrument which has a number
of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard, which
are plucked with the fingers. Harps have been known since
antiquity in Asia, Africa, and Europe, dating back at least as
early as 3500 BC. The instrument had great popularity in Europe
during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, where it evolved into
a wide variety of variants with new technologies, and was
disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity
in Latin America. While some ancient members of the harp
family died out in the Near East and South Asia, descendants of
early harps are still played in Burma and in Sub-Saharan Africa,
while other defunct variants in Europe and Asia have been
revived by musicians in the modern era.
Harps vary globally in many ways. In terms of size, many
smaller harps can be played on the lap, while larger harps are
quite heavy and rest on the floor. Different harps may use
strings of catgut or nylon, or of metal, or some combination.
While all harps have a neck, resonator, and strings, "frame
harps" have a pillar at their long end to support the strings, while
"open harps", such as arch or bow harps, do not. Modern harps
also vary in techniques used to extend the range and
chromaticity of the strings, such as adjusting a string's note midperformance with levers or pedals which modify the pitch.

The octavina or Philippine octavina is
a guitar-shaped Filipino instrument with a
tuning similar to the lad. Originally a
Spanish instrument, the octavina was soon
incorporated into other cultures, notably
including Filipino culture.

mandolin (Italian: mandolino pronounced [mandolino];
literally "small mandola") is a musical instrument in
the lute family and is usually plucked with a plectrum or
"pick". It commonly has four courses of doubled
metal strings tuned in unison (8 strings), although five (10
strings) and six (12 strings) course versions also exist. The
courses are normally tuned in a succession of perfect fifths.
It is the soprano member of a family that includes the
mandola, octave mandolin, mando cello and mando bass.
There are many styles of mandolin, but three are common, the Neapolitan or roundbacked mandolin, the carved-top mandolin and the flat-backed mandolin. The round-back
has a deep bottom, constructed of strips of wood, glued together into a bowl. The carvedtop or arch-top mandolin has a much shallower, arched back, and an arched topboth
carved out of wood. The flat-backed mandolin uses thin sheets of wood for the body,
braced on the inside for strength in a similar manner to a guitar. Each style of instrument
has its own sound quality and is associated with particular forms of music. Neapolitan
mandolins feature prominently in European classical music and traditional music. Carvedtop instruments are common in American folk music and blue grass music. Flat-backed
instruments are commonly used in Irish, British and Brazilian folk music. Some modern
Brazilian instruments feature an extra fifth course tuned a fifth lower than the standard
fourth course.
Other mandolin varieties differ primarily in the number of strings and include four-string
models (tuned in fifths) such as the Brescian and Cremonese, six-string types (tuned in
fourths) such as the Milanese, Lombard and the Sicilian and 6 course instruments of 12
strings (two strings per course) such as the Genoese. There has also been a twelve-string
(three strings per course) type and an instrument with sixteen-strings (four strings per
Much of mandolin development revolved around the soundboard (the top). Pre-mandolin
instruments were quiet instruments, strung with as many as six courses of gut strings, and
were plucked with the fingers or with a quill. However, modern instruments are louder
using four courses of metal strings, which exert more pressure than the gut strings. The
modern soundboard is designed to withstand the pressure of metal strings that would break
earlier instruments. The soundboard comes in many shapesbut generally round or
teardrop-shaped, sometimes with scrolls or other projections. There is usually one or
more sound holes in the soundboard, either round, oval, or shaped like a calligraphic F (fhole). A round or oval sound hole may be covered or bordered with decorative rosettes or


Conch, or conque, also known as a "seashell horn" or
"shell trumpet", is a musical instrument, a wind
instrument that is made from a seashell, the shell of
several different kinds of very large sea snails.
The shells of large marine gastropods are prepared by
cutting a hole in the spire of the shell near the apex, and
then blowing into the shell as if it were a trumpet, as
in blowing horn. Sometimes a mouthpiece is used, but
some shell trumpets are blown without one.
Various species of large marine gastropod shells can be
turned into "blowing shells", but some of the best-known
species are: the sacred chank or shankha Turbinella
pyrum; the "Triton's trumpet" Charonia tritonis; and
the Queen Conch Strombus gigas.

The drum is a member of the percussion group of
musical instruments. In the HornbostelSachs classification system, it is a membranophone.
Drums consist of at least one membrane, called
a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell
and struck, either directly with the player's hands, or
with a drum stick, to produce sound. There is usually
a resonance head on the underside of the drum,
typically tuned to a slightly lower pitch than the top
drumhead. Other techniques have been used to cause
drums to make sound, such as the thumb roll. Drums
are the world's oldest and most ubiquitous musical
instruments, and the basic design has remained
virtually unchanged for thousands of years. [1]
Drums may be played individually, with the player using
a single drum, and some drums such as the djembe are
almost always played in this way. Others are normally
played in a set of two or more, all played by the one
player, such as bongo drums and timpani. A number of
different drums together with cymbals form the basic
modern drum kit.

The piano is a musical instrument played using
a keyboard, which is a row of keys (small levers) that the
performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and
thumbs of both hands. Invented in about 1700 (the exact
date is uncertain), the piano is widely employed
in classical, jazz, traditional and popular music for solo
and ensemble performances, accompaniment, and for
composing and rehearsal. Although the piano is not
portable and is often expensive, its versatility, wide
range, ability to play chords, ability to play louder or
softer, the large number of musicians trained in playing it
and its ubiquity in performance venues and rehearsal
spaces have made it one of the Western world's most
familiar musical instruments.
An acoustic piano usually has a protective wooden case surrounding the sound board and
metal strings, and a row of 88 black and white keys (52 white keys for the note of the C
Major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are higher than the white keys, for the
"accidental" notes, which are the sharp and flat notes needed to play in all 12 keys). The
strings are sounded when the keys are pressed or struck, and silenced by a damper when
the keys are released. The notes can be sustained, even when the keys are released, by
the use of pedals at the base of the instrument. Unlike two of the major keyboard
instruments that preceded the piano, the pipe organ and the harpsichord, the weight or
force with which a performer presses or strikes the keys changes the dynamics and tone
of the instrument.
Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer (often
padded with firm felt) to strike the strings. The hammer rebounds from the strings, and the
strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted
through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic
energy to the air. When the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending
the sound. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is usually classified as a percussion
instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than
plucked (as with a harpsichord or spinet); in the Hornbostel-Sachs system of instrument
classification, pianos are considered chordophones. With technological advances, Electric
pianos(1929), electronic (1970s), and digital pianos (1980s) have also been developed.
The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz
fusion and rock music.
The word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the instrument,
which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian
musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" respectively, in this context
referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch on the keys:
the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the
strings, and the louder the sound of the note produced.

The Las Pias Bamboo Organ in St. Joseph Parish
Church in Las Pias City,Philippines, is a 19th-century church
organ with unique organ pipes; they are made almost entirely
of bamboo. It was completed in 1824 by Father Diego Cera,
the builder of the town's stone church and its first
resident Catholic parish priest.
After age and numerous disasters had rendered the musical
instrumentunplayable for a long time, in 1972, the national
government and the local community joined together to have
the organ shipped to Germany for restoration. For its
anticipated return in 1975, the home church of the bamboo
organ and the surrounding buildings were restored to their
19th-century state by Architect Francisco Maosa and partner
Ludwig Alvarez in time for its scheduled return. The
annual International Bamboo Organ Festival, a music
festival of classical music was started to celebrate the music of
the reborn instrument and its unique sound.
Since 1992, Prof. Armando Salarza has been the
titular organist of the Bamboo Organ. He is also the Artistic
Director of the International Bamboo Organ Festival, now the
longest-running annual international music festival held in the
The organ was declared a National Cultural Treasure of the
Philippines in 2003. The St. Joseph Parish Church, the church
museum at the old convent house, and the famous organ is a
popular tourist destination for Filipinos and foreign visitors alike
in Las Pias.

The violin is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. It is the smallest and highestpitched instrument in the family in regular use. [1] The violin typically has four strings tuned
in perfect fifths, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it
can also be played by plucking the strings (pizzicato). Violins are important instruments in a
wide variety of musical genres. They are most prominent in the Western classical tradition
and in many varieties of folk music. However, violins are also frequently used in jazz, in
some forms of rock music, and genres of folk including country music and bluegrass music.
Further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures,
including Indian music and Iranian music. The violin is sometimes informally called a fiddle,
regardless of the type of music played on it.
The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in
the 18th and 19th centuries. In Europe it served as the basis for stringed instruments used in
western classical music, the viola and the violin. [2][3][4] Violinists and collectors particularly
prize the instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to
the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. According to their
reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this
belief is disputed.[5][6] Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of "lesser"
makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins"
coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony, Bohemia, and Mirecourt. Many of
these trade instruments were formerly sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass
A person who makes or repairs violins is called a luthier. The parts of a violin are usually
made from different types of wood (although electric violins may not be made of wood at all,
since their sound may not be dependent on specific acoustic characteristics of the
instrument's construction), and it is usually strung with gut, Perlon or other synthetic, or steel

1. ABSENCE MAKES THE HEART GROW FONDER Our love for the loved ones
grows more with the distance.
The two brothers deeply wish to meet as they havent seen each other since 10 years.
After all, absence makes the heart grow fonder.
can happen with anybody.
You need to be extremely cautious with electricity The accidents will happen in the
best regulated families.
3. ACTIONS SPEAK LOUDER THAN WORDS What people do shows more about
them than what they just say.
Hearing about her friends illness, she directly reached the hospital with a cheque of
50,000 Rs/-. Her concern was evident after all, actions speak louder than words.
4. APPEARANCES ARE DECEPTIVE Internal truth of a person is usually different
from what is visible outside.
You should not believe strangers immediately. Appearances can be deceptive.
5. NEVER JUDGE BY APPEARANCES Dont use looks as the criteria to assess
I saw the CEO of a big blue chip company hanging out with his friends at a local market
in casual attire. Its true that you cant judge someone by their appearance.
6. AN APPLE A DAY KEEPS THE DOCTOR AWAY An apple eaten everyday keeps
you in good health.
My father has always stayed in a good health with his habit of eating an apple everyday.
For him, An apple a day keeps the doctor away has worked well.
7. ART IS LONG, LIFE IS SHORT. Life is too short to learn all the art in this world.
She always complained of getting bored. I advised her to learn some music or painting.
After all, Art is long, life is short.
away good things with bad while cleaning.
She deleted some useful files also along with the useless ones while cleaning her
computer. I had advised her to be careful and not throw the baby out with the

9. YOU SCRATCH MY BACK, ILL SCRATCH YOURS If you help me, Ill help you.
America is pushing the Indian government for FDI in retail. Indian government will get
the foreign currency while America gets a big market for its goods. The principle is
simple You scratch my back, Ill scratch yours.
looking woman may not necessarily be good by character.
My daughter-in-law is very beautiful but very cunning Beauty is only skin deep.