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- The Last Battle
- Prince Caspian
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Theory of Death: A Decker/Lazarus Novel

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SOME DEFINITIONS ................................................................................... 4

SEQUENCE OF ARITHMETICAL OPERATIONS ................................................ 4

FACTORS & MULTIPLES ............................................................................. 6

LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE (L.C.M.) ........................................................ 6

HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR (H.C.F.) ......................................................... 6

POWER NUMBERS .................................................................................... 6

SEQUENCES ............................................................................................ 8

FRACTIONS ................................................................................................. 9

VULGAR FRACTIONS ................................................................................. 9

REDUCING A FRACTION TO ITS LOWEST TERMS ........................................... 11

TYPES OF FRACTIONS ............................................................................... 12

LOWEST COMMON DENOMINATOR .............................................................. 14

ADDITION OF FRACTIONS .......................................................................... 15

SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS.................................................................... 17

COMBINED ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION .................................................... 18

MULTIPLICATION ....................................................................................... 19

CANCELLING ............................................................................................ 20

DIVISION OF FRACTIONS ............................................................................ 21

OPERATIONS WITH FRACTIONS .................................................................. 22

DECIMALS ................................................................................................... 24

THE DECIMAL SYSTEM .............................................................................. 24

MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION OF DECIMALS .................................................. 25

LONG MULTIPLICATION .............................................................................. 27

LONG DIVISION ......................................................................................... 28

DECIMAL PLACES...................................................................................... 29

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ............................................................................... 29

ROUGH CHECKS FOR CALCULATIONS ......................................................... 32

FRACTION TO DECIMAL CONVERSION ......................................................... 34

CONVERSION OF DECIMALS TO FRACTIONS................................................. 36

FORMULAE ................................................................................................. 38

EVALUATING FORMULA ............................................................................ 38

TRANSPOSING FORMULAE ........................................................................ 39

WEIGHTS, MEASURES & CONVERSION ................................................... 42

THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS ...................................................... 42

S I BASE UNITS ........................................................................................ 42

FACTORS OF MULTIPLES & SUB - MULTIPLES .............................................. 42

SPACE & TIME .......................................................................................... 43

MECHANICS ............................................................................................. 43

HEAT 43

EXPRESSING SI UNITS .............................................................................. 44

CONVERSION FACTORS ............................................................................. 45

RATIO & PROPORTION .............................................................................. 46

PROPORTIONAL PARTS ............................................................................. 47

1

............................................................................... 49

INVERSE PROPORTION ............................................................................. 51

DIRECT PROPORTION

AVERAGES ................................................................................................. 52

AVERAGE SPEED ...................................................................................... 54

PERCENTAGES .......................................................................................... 57

PERCENTAGE OF A QUANTITY ................................................................... 58

AREAS ......................................................................................................... 61

VOLUMES .................................................................................................... 66

UNIT OF VOLUME ..................................................................................... 66

VOLUMES AND SURFACE AREAS ................................................................ 69

SQUARES & SQUARE ROOTS................................................................... 71

SQUARE NUMBERS ................................................................................... 71

SQUARE ROOTS ....................................................................................... 75

CUBED 79

CUBED ROOTS ......................................................................................... 79

1.2 ALGEBRA ............................................................................................. 80

USE OF SYMBOLS ..................................................................................... 80

SUBSTITUTION ......................................................................................... 81

POWERS ................................................................................................. 83

ADDITION OF ALGEBRAIC TERMS ............................................................... 84

MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION OF ALGEBRAIC QUANTITIES .......................... 84

BRACKETS ............................................................................................... 88

ADDITION & SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS .................................................. 91

GRAPHS OF EQUATION............................................................................. 93

THE MEANING OF M & C IN THE EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE ...... 96

THE MEANING OF M & C IN THE EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE .................... 96

INDICES & POWERS................................................................................... 99

LAWS OF INDICES ..................................................................................... 99

Multiplication............................................................................... 99

Powers 99

Negative indices ......................................................................... 99

Fractional indices........................................................................ 100

Zero index .................................................................................. 100

BINARY SYSTEM ........................................................................................ 102

OTHER NUMBER SCALES .......................................................................... 105

OCTAL 106

HEXIDECIMAL .......................................................................................... 106

SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS ................................................................... 108

ELIMINATION METHOD IN SOLVING SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS ............... 108

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS ..................................................................... 113

LAWS OF INDICES .................................................................................... 113

MULTIPLICATION ...................................................................................... 113

DIVISION ................................................................................................. 113

NEGATIVE INDICES................................................................................... 114

FRACTIONAL INDICES ............................................................................... 114

2

NUMBERS IN STANDARD FORM .................................................................. 115

LOGARITHMS ........................................................................................... 116

ANTI-LOGARITHMS ................................................................................... 117

RULES FOR THE USE OF LOGARITHMS MUTIPLICATION................................. 118

GEOMETRY ................................................................................................. 122

RADIAN MEASURES .................................................................................. 122

RELATION BETWEEN RADIANS AND DEGREES ............................................. 122

TYPE OF ANGLES ..................................................................................... 124

PROPERTIES OF ANGLES AND STRAIGHT LINES ........................................... 124

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION .................................................................. 129

USE OF GRAPHS ...................................................................................... 130

Nomograms ................................................................................ 132

TRIGONOMETRY......................................................................................... 134

THE NOTATION FOR A RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLE ......................................... 134

THE TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS ............................................................... 134

THE SINE OF AN ANGLE ............................................................................ 135

READING THE TABLE OF SINES OF ANGLES ................................................. 135

THE COSINE OF AN ANGLE ........................................................................ 139

THE TANGENT OF AN ANGLE...................................................................... 142

TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS BETWEEN 0 AND 360. .................................. 145

POLAR CO-ORDINATES ............................................................................. 150

SOME DEFINITIONS

The result obtained by adding numbers is called the sum. The sum of 4, 6 and 8

is 4 + 6 + 8 = 18. The order in which numbers are added is not important.

4 + 6 + 8 = 6 + 4 + 8 = 8 + 4 + 6 = 18.

The difference of two numbers is the larger number minus the smaller number.

The difference of 15 and 10 is 15 - 10 = 5. The order in which we subtract is very

important. 7 - 3 is not the same as 3 - 7.

The result obtained by multiplying numbers is called the product. The product of

8 and 7 is 8 7 = 56. The order in which we multiply is not important.

8 7 = 7 8, and

3 4 6 = 4 3 6 = 6 3 4 = 72.

Numbers are often combined in a series of arithmetical operations. When this

happens a definite sequence must be observed.

1. Brackets are used if there is any danger of ambiguity. The contents of the

bracket must be evaluated before performing any other operation. Thus:

2 (7 + 4) = 2 11 = 22

15 - (8 - 3) = 15 - 5 = 10

2. Multiplication and division must be done before addition and

subtraction. Thus:

5 8 + 7 = 40 + 7 = 47 (not 5 15)

8 4 + 9 =

2 + 9

= 11

(not 8 13)

5 4 - 12 3 + 7 = 20 - 4 + 7 = 27 - 4 = 23

So far we have used the standard operations of add, subtract, multiply and

divide.

Find values for the following:

1. 3 + 5 2

2. 3 6 - 8

3. 7 5 - 2 + 4 6

4. 8 2 + 3

5. 7 5 - 12 4 + 3

6. 11 - 9 3 + 7

7. 3 (8 + 6)

8. 2 + 8 (3 + 6)

9. 17 - 2 (5 - 3)

10. 11 - 12 4 + 3 (6 - 2)

If one number divides exactly into a second number the first number is said to be

a factor of the second. Thus:

35

= 5 7

240 = 3 8 10

63

= 3 21 = 7 9

5 is a factor of 35 and so is 7.

3, 8 and 10 are all factors of 240.

63 is said to be a multiple of any of the numbers

3, 7, 9 and 21 because each of them divides

exactly into 63.

Every number has itself a 1 as factors. If a number has no other factors apart

from these, it is said to be prime number. Thus 2, 3, 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19 are

all prime numbers.

The L.C.M. of a set of numbers is the smallest number into which each of the

given numbers will divide. Thus the L.C.M. of 3, 4 and 8 is 24 because 24 is the

smallest number into which the numbers 3, 4 and 8 will divide exactly.

The L.C.M. of a set of numbers can usually be found by inspection.

The H.C.F. of a set of numbers is the greatest number which is a factor of each

of the numbers. Thus 12 is the H.C.F. of 24, 36 and 60. Also 20 is the H.C.F. of

40, 60 and 80.

POWER NUMBERS

The quantity 2 2 2 2 is written 24 and is called the fourth power of 2.

The figure 4, which gives the number of 2's to be multiplied together is called the

index (plural: indices).

55 = 5 5 5 5 5 = 15625

73 = 7 7 7 = 343

Exercise 2 - Level 2

1. What numbers are factors of:

a) 24

b) 56

c) 42

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 18 and 24?

Which of them are multiples of 6?

3. Write down all the multiples of 3 between 10 and 40.

4. Write down the two prime numbers next larger than 19.

5. Find the L.C.M. of the following set of numbers:

a) 8 and 12

b) 3, 4 and 5

c) 2, 6 and 12

d) 3, 6 and 8

e) 2, 8 and 10

f) 20 and 25

g) 20 and 32

h) 10, 15 and 40

i)

j)

a) 25

b) 34

d) 62

e) 83

c) 53

a) 8 and 12

b) 24 and 36

c) 10, 15 and 30

d) 26, 39 and 52

SEQUENCES

A set of numbers, which are connected by some definite law, is called a series or

a sequence of numbers. Each of the numbers in the series is called a term of the

series. Here are some examples:

1, 3, 5, 7

2, 6, 18, 54

Example 1

Write down the next two terms of the following series:

112, 56, 28,

The second term is found by dividing the first term by 2 and the third term is

found by dividing the second term by 2. Hence:

Fourth term

28

= 2 = 14

Fifth term

14

= 2 = 7

Exercise 3 - Level 1

Write down the next two terms of each of the following series of numbers:

1. 3, 12, 48,

2. 1, 4, 7, 10,

3. 5, 11, 17, 23,

4. 162, 54, 18,

5. 6, 12, 24

FRACTIONS

VULGAR FRACTIONS

The circle in the diagram below has been divided into eight equal parts. Each

1

part is called one-eighth of the circle and written as 8 . The number 8 below the

line shows how many equal parts there are and it is called the denominator.

The number above the line shows how many of the equal parts are taken and it is

called the numerator. If five of the eight equal parts are taken then we have

5

taken 8 of the circle.

From what has been said above we see that a fraction is always a part of

something. The number below the line (the denominator) gives the fraction its

name and tells us the number of equal parts into which the whole has been

divided. The top number (the numerator) tells us the number of these equal

3

parts that are to be taken. For example the fraction 4 means that the whole has

been divided into four equal parts and that three of these parts are to be taken.

The value of a fraction is unchanged if we multiply or divide both its

numerator and denominator by the same amount.

3

12

=

5

20

(bottom number) by 4).

2

10

7 = 35

12

3

32 = 8

16

1

64 = 4

Example 1

2

Write down the fraction 7 with a denominator (bottom number) of 28.

In order to make the denominator (bottom number) 28, we must multiply the

original denominator of 7 by 4 because 7 4 = 28. Remembering that to

leave the value of the fraction unchanged we must multiply both numerator (top

number) and denominator (bottom number) by the same amount, then

2

2 4

8

7 = 7 4 = 28

Exercise 4 - Level 1

Write down the following fractions with the denominator (bottom number) stated.

1.

3

with denominator 28

4

3

2. 5 with denominator 20

5

3. 6 with denominator 30

1

4. 9 with denominator 63

2

5. 3 with denominator 12

1

6. 6 with denominator 24

3

7. 8 with denominator 64

5

8. 7 with denominator 35

10

3 7

3

,

and

are said to be in their lowest terms because it is

8 16

52

impossible to find a number which will divide exactly into both top and bottom

9 8

21

numbers. However, fractions like 18 , 12 and 24 are not in their lowest terms

because they can be reduced further by dividing both the top and bottom

numbers by some number which divides exactly into both of them. Thus,

Fractions like

9

1

=

18

2

8

2

=

12

3

21

7

24 = 8

Sometimes we can divide the top and bottom by the same number several times.

Example 2

Reduce

210

336

Hence;

210

to its lowest terms.

336

105

168

35

56

5

8

210

5

336 reduced to its lowest terms is 8 .

Questions 6 - 9 level 2.

1.

8

16

4.

15

25

7.

210

294

2.

9

15

5.

42

48

8.

126

245

3.

8

64

6.

180

240

9.

132

198

10.

210

315

11

TYPES OF FRACTIONS

If the top number of a fraction is less than its bottom number the fraction is called

2 5

3

a proper fraction. Thus, 3 , 8 and 4 are all proper fractions. Note that a

proper fraction has a value which is less than 1.

If the top number of a fraction is greater than its bottom number then the fraction

5 3

9

is called an improper fraction or a top heavy fraction. Thus 4 , 2 and 7 are all

top heavy, or improper fractions. Note that all top heavy fractions have a

value which is greater than 1.

Every top heavy fraction can be expressed as a whole number and a proper

1 1

3

fraction. These are sometimes called mixed numbers. Thus, 12 , 53 and 94

are all mixed numbers. In order to convert a top heavy fraction into a mixed

number it must be remembered that:

top number

top number

bottom number = bottom number

Example 3

15

Express 8 as a mixed number.

15

7

8 = 18 (because 15 8 = 1 and remainder 7).

From Example 3 we see that we convert a top heavy fraction into a mixed

number by dividing the bottom number into the top number. Notice that the

remainder becomes the top number in the fractional part of the mixed number.

To change a mixed number into an improper fraction we multiply the whole

number by the bottom number of the fractional part. To this we add the

numerator of the fractional part and this sum then becomes the top number of the

improper fraction. Its bottom number is the same as the bottom number of the

fractional part of the mixed number.

Example 4

Express 3

5

as a top heavy fraction.

8

5

38 =

(8 3) + 5

8

24 + 5

29

= 8

8

12

Exercise 6

Express each of the following as a mixed number:

1.

7

2

3.

22

10

2.

8

4

4.

12

11

5.

21

8

6.

3

28

8.

2

83

7.

1

510

9.

7

620

10.

3

47

Remember (L.C.M.)

The L.C.M. of a set of numbers is the smallest number into which each of the

given numbers will divide. Thus, the L.C.M. of 4, 5 and 10 is 20 because 20 is

the smallest number into which the number 4,5 and 10 will divide exactly.

The L.C.M. of a set of numbers can usually be found by inspection.

Exercise 7 - Questions 1 - 7 level 1.

Questions 8 - 10 level 2.

1.

4 and 6

6.

20 and 25

2.

2, 6 and 10

7.

10 and 32

3.

2, 4 and 12

8.

5, 15 and 40

4.

3, 4 and 8

9.

6, 42, 60 and 70

5.

4, 8 and 10

10.

13

When we wish to compare the values of two or more fractions the easiest way is

to express the fractions with the same bottom number. This common

denominator should be the L.C.M. of the denominators of the fractions to be

compared and it is called the lowest common denominator.

Example 5

3 5 7

11

Arrange the fractions 4 , 8 , 10 and 20 in order of size starting with the smallest.

The lowest common denominator of 4, 8, 10 and 20 is 40. Expressing each of

the given fractions with a bottom number of 40 gives:

3

3 10

30

4 = 4 10 = 40

5

5 5

25

8 = 8 5 = 40

7

7 4

28

10 = 10 4 = 40

11

11 2

22

20 = 20 2 = 40

22 25 28 30

40, 40, 40, 40

11 5 7

3

20, 8, 10 and 4

or

Arrange the following sets of fractions in order of size, beginning with the

smallest:

1.

1

2

5

6

2

3

2.

9

10

3

4

3.

13

16

11

20

7

12

4.

3

4

7

8

5.

11

16

6.

3

8

6

7

7

10

3

5

5

8

3

5

7

10

4

7

13

20

9

14

5

9

3

4

2

5

14

ADDITION OF FRACTIONS

The steps when adding fractions are as follows:

1. Find the lowest common denominator of the fractions to be added.

2. Express each of the fractions with this common denominator.

3. Add the numerators of the new fractions to give the numerator of the answer.

The denominator of the answer is the lowest common denominator found in

(1).

Example 6

Find the sum of

2

3

and .

7

4

First find the lowest common denominator (this is the L.C.M. of 7 and 4).

2

3

It is 28. Now express 7 and 4 with a bottom number of 28.

2

2 4

8

7 = 7 4 = 28

3

3 7 21

4 = 4 7 = 28

2

3

8

21

29

1

+

=

+

=

= 1

7

4

28

28

28

28

A better way of setting out the work is as follows:

2

3

2 4 + 3 7

8 + 21

29

1

+

=

=

=

=

1

7

4

28

28

28

28

Example 7

3

2

7

Simplify 4 + 3 + 10 .

The L.C.M. of the bottom numbers 4, 3 and 10 is 60.

3

2

7

3 15 + 2 20 + 7 6

+

+

=

4

3

10

60

45 + 40 + 42

60

127

7

=

2

60

60

15

Example 8

1 2

2

Add together 52, 23 and 35

First add the whole numbers together, 5 + 2 + 3 = 10. Then add the

fractional parts in the usual way. The L.C.M. of 2,3 and 5 is 30.

1

2

2

15 1 + 10 2 + 6 2

52 + 23 + 35 = 10 +

30

= 10 +

15 + 20 + 12

30

= 10 +

47

17

= 10 + 1

30

30

17

= 11

30

Exercise 9 - All level 1

Add together:

1.

1

1

+

2

3

7.

3

9

1 + 3

8

16

2.

2

9

5 + 10

8.

2

3

73 + 65

3.

3

3

+

4

8

9.

3

2

3

3 + 5 + 4

8

7

4

4.

3

1

10 + 4

10.

1

5

1

42 + 36 + 23

5.

1

3

7

2 + 4 + 8

11.

3

3

7

5

78 + 24 + 8 + 16

6.

1

2

3

8 + 3 + 5

12.

2

2

3

1

73 + 5 + 10 + 22

16

SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS

The method is similar to that in addition. Find the common denominator of the

fractions and after expressing each fraction with this common denominator,

subtract.

Example 9

5 2

Simplify 8 - 5

The L.C.M. of the bottom numbers is 40.

5 2

5 5 - 8 2

25 - 16

9

=

=

=

8 5

40

40

40

When mixed numbers have to be subtracted the best way is to turn the mixed

numbers into top heavy fractions and then proceed in the way shown in

Example 9.

Example 10

7

3

Simplify 3

- 2

10

4

7

3

37 11

37 2 - 11 5

3

- 2 =

=

10

4

10

4

20

74 - 55

19

= 20

20

Example 11

2

7

Simplify 5 - 3

5

8

2

7

55 - 38

27 31

27 8 - 31 5

5 - 8 =

40

216 - 155

61

21

= 40 = 140

40

17

Exercise 10

1.

1 1

2 - 3

5.

7 5

8 - 6

9.

3

9

58 - 210

2.

1 1

3 - 5

6.

1

3

34 - 28

10.

7

9

432 - 310

3.

2 1

3 - 2

7.

5

3 - 7

11.

5

4

116 - 5

4.

7 3

8 8

8.

4

5 - 3

5

Example 12

3

1

1

7

Simplify 58 - 14 + 22 - 16

3

1

1

7

43 5

5

7

5 - 1 + 2 =

+

8

4

2 16

8

4

2 16

43 2 - 5 4 + 5 8 - 7 1

16

86 - 20 + 40 - 7

16

16

126 - 27

99

3

= 16 = 616

16

Simplify the following:

1.

1

1

3

22 + 34 - 48

6.

7

1

3

1

1210 - 58 + 320 + 12

2.

1

1

1

510 - 32 - 14

7.

3

3

5

3

216 - 210 + 8 + 14

3.

3

1

48 - 22 + 5

8.

3

7

21

13

124 - 68 + 532 - 216

4.

1

1

1

3

62 - 36 + 212 - 44

9.

9

3

7

3

320 + 18 - 210 + 14

5.

3

2

3

5

116 - 25 + 34 + 58

10.

9

4

7

3

225 + 35 - 210 - 20

18

MULTIPLICATION

When multiplying together two or more fractions we first multiply all the top

numbers together and then we multiply all the bottom numbers together. Mixed

numbers must always be converted into top heavy fractions.

Example 13

5

3

Simplify 8 7

5

3

5 3

15

8 7 = 8 7 = 56

Example 14

Simplify

2

2

3

5

3

2

2 2 11 2 11 22

7

3

1

5

3 5 3

5 3 15

15

Example 15

3

1

Simplify 18 14

3

1

11

5

11 5

55

23

18 14 = 8 4 =

= 32 = 132

8 4

Exercise 12 - All level 1

Simplify the following:

1.

2

4

3 5

4.

5

11

9 4

7.

2

2

19 15

2.

3

5

4 7

5.

2

1

15 32

8.

7

4

18 17

3.

2

2

9 13

6.

1

2

22 23

19

CANCELLING

Example 16

2

7

Simplify 3 18

2

7

2

15

2 15

30

5

1

3 18 = 3 8 = 3 8 = 24 = 4 = 14

30

The step to reduce 24 to its lowest terms has been done by dividing 6 into both

the top and bottom numbers.

The work can be made easier by cancelling before multiplication as shown

below.

2/1

15

/ 5

1 5

5

1

3/1

8/4 = 1 4 = 4 = 14

We have divided 2 into 2 ( a top number) and 8 (a bottom number) and also we

have divided 3 into 15 (a top number) and 3 (a bottom number). You will see that

we have divided the top numbers and the bottom numbers by the same amount.

Notice carefully that we can only cancel between a top number and a

bottom number.

Example 17

Simplify

16 7 35

20 8 4

1 6 1 7 3 5 7 1 7 7 49

9

4

2 5 5 8 1 4 2

5 1 2 10

10

Sometimes in calculations with fractions the word 'of' appears. It should always

be taken as meaning multiply. Thus:

4

4

20

/ 4

4 4

of

20

=

5

5/1

1 = 1 1

16

= 16

1

20

1.

3

7

1

4

9

7.

3

3

1

34 15 18

2.

1

10

55 13

8.

15

8

1

32 11 245

3.

5

7

1

8

26

9.

3

of 16

4

4.

1

2

1

12 5 22

10.

5

7 of 140

5.

5

7

2

8 10 21

11.

2

1

3 of 42

6.

1

1

2 1 1

2

3

12.

4

1

of 2

5

2

DIVISION OF FRACTIONS

To divide by a fraction, all we have to do is to invert it (i.e. turn it upside down)

and multiply. Thus:

3

2

3

7

3 7

21

1

5 7 = 5 2 = 5 2 = 10 = 210

Example 18

4

1

Divide 15 by 23

4

1

9

7

9

3

27

15 23 = 5 3 = 5 7 = 35

Exercise 14 - All level 1

1.

4

1

5 13

5.

1

3

22 34

2.

1

2 4

6.

1

5 55

3.

5

15

8

32

7.

1

5

315 29

4.

3

1

34 22

8.

3

3

210 5

21

The sequence of operations when dealing with fractions is the same as those

used with whole numbers. They are, in order:

1st.

nd

3rd

Example 19

Simplify

1

1

1

5

2

3

1

1

1

2

1

1

5 3 2 = 5 3 1

1

2

1

3

3

= 5 3 = 5 2 = 10

Example 20

4

1

+ 1

5

4

5

Simplify

- 16 .

3

35

2

4

1

16 + 5

21

1

25 + 14 = 3 20

= 320 = 420

1

420

81

18

81

5

9

3 = 20 5 = 20 18 = 8

35

9

5

18 - 5

13

= 16

8 - 16 =

16

22

1.

3

1

7

314 149 10

6.

2

2

4

33 3 + 5

2.

1

9

1

4 8 10

7.

3

1

2

55 - 32 3

1

2

3

3.

2

3

9

1

3

10

5

8.

2

2 1

1

- +

5

2

3 4

4.

17 22 - 32

5

3

8

9.

9

4

316 9

1

1

2 + 6 1

4

5

5.

2

1

23 + 15

4

55

10.

5

7

9 - 15

5

7

1 - 9 15

23

DECIMALS

THE DECIMAL SYSTEM

The decimal system is an extension of our ordinary number system. When we

write the number 666 we mean 600 + 60 + 6. Reading from left to right each

figure 6 is ten times the value of the next one.

We now have to decide how to deal with fractional quantities, that is, quantities

whose values are less than one. If we regard 666.666 as meaning

6

6

6

600 + 60 + 6 + 10 + 100 + 1000 then the dot, called the decimal point,

separates the whole numbers from the fractional parts. Notice that with the

fractional, or decimal parts, e.g. .666, each figure 6 is ten times the value of the

6

6

following one, reading from left to right. Thus 10 is ten times as great as 100 ,

6

6

and 100 is ten times as great as 1000 , and so on.

Decimals then are fractions, which have denominators of 10, 100, 1000 and so

on, according to the position of the figure after the decimal point.

If we have to write six hundred and five we write 605; the zero keeps the place for

3

5

the missing tens. In the same way if we want to write 10 + 1000 we write .305;

6

7

the zero keeps the place for the missing hundredths. Also 100 + 1000 would

be written .067; the zero in this case keeps the place for the missing tenths.

When there are no whole numbers it is usual to insert a zero in front of the

decimal point so that, for instance, .35 would be written 0.35.

Exercise 16 - All level 1

Read off as decimals:

1.

7

10

5.

3

100

2.

3

7

10 + 100

6.

1

7

100 + 1000

3.

5

8

9

+

+

10

100

1000

7.

8 +

4.

9

1000

8.

2

9

24 + 100 + 10 000

9.

8

50 + 1000

6

100

24

Write down the values of:

1.

2.375 + 0.625

2.

4.25 + 7.25

3.

4.

5.

6.

12.48 - 8.36

7.

19.215 - 3.599

8.

2.237 - 1.898

9.

0.876 - 0.064

10.

5.48 - 0.0691

One of the advantages of decimals is the ease with which they may be multiplied

or divided by 10, 100, 100, etc.

Example 3

Find the value of 1.4 10.

1.4 10 = 1 10 + 0.4 10

4

= 10 + 10 10 = 10 + 4 = 14

Example 4

Find the value of 27.532 10.

27.532 10

5

3

2

= 270 + 10 10 + 100 10 + 1000 10

3

2

= 270 + 5 + 10 + 100

= 275.32

In both of the above examples you will notice that the figures have not been

changed by the multiplication; only the positions of the figures have been

changed. Thus in Example 3, 1.4 10 = 14, that is the decimal point has

been moved one place to the right. In example 4, 27.532 10 = 275.32;

again the decimal point has been moved one place to the right.

To multiply by 10, then, is the same as shifting the decimal point one place

to the right. In the same way to multiply by 100 means shifting the decimal

point two places to the right and so on.

25

Example 5

17.369 100 = 1736.9

The decimal point has been moved two places to the right.

Example 6

0.07895 1000 = 78.95

The decimal point has been moved three places to the right.

Exercise 18 - All level 1

Multiply each of the numbers in questions 1 to 6 by 10, 100 and 1000.

1.

4.1

6.

0.001753

2.

2.42

7.

0.4853 100

3.

0.046

8.

0.009 1000

4.

0.35

9.

170.06 10

5.

0.1486

10.

0.56396 10000

When dividing by 10 the decimal point is moved one place to the left, by 100, two

places to the left and so on. Thus:

154.26 10 = 15.426

The decimal point has been moved one place to the left.

9.432 100 = 0.09432

The decimal point has been moved two places to the left.

35 1000 = 0.035

The decimal point has been moved three places to the left.

In the above examples note carefully that use has been made of zeros following

the decimal point to keep the places for the missing tenths.

26

Exercise 19

Divide each of the numbers in questions 1 to 5 by 10, 100 and 1000.

1.

3.6

6.

5.4 100

2.

64.198

7.

2.05 1000

3.

0.07

8.

0.04 10

4.

510.4

9.

0.0086 1000

5.

0.352

10.

627.428 10000

LONG MULTIPLICATION

Example 7

Find the value of 36.5 3.504.

First disregard the decimal points and multiply 365 by 3504.

365

3504

1095000

182500

1460

1278960

Now count up the total number of figures following the decimal points in both

numbers (i.e. 1 + 3 = 4). In the answer to the multiplication (the product), count

this total number of figures from the right and insert the decimal point. The

product is then 127.8960 or 127.896 since the zero does not mean anything.

Exercise 20 - All level 1

Find the values of the following:

1.

25.42 29.23

4.

3.025 2.45

2.

0.3618 2.63

5.

0.043 0.032

3.

0.76 0.38

27

LONG DIVISION

Example 8

Find the value of 19.24 2.6.

First convert the divisor (2.6) into a whole number by multiplying it by 10. To

compensate multiply the dividend (19.24) by 10 also so that we now have

192.4 26. Now proceed as in ordinary division.

26)192.4(7.4

- this line 26 7

182

10 4

10 4

.. .

Notice carefully how the decimal point was obtained. The 4 brought down from

the dividend lies to the right of the decimal point. Before bringing this down put

a decimal point immediately following the 7.

The division in this case is exact (i.e. there is no remainder) and the answer is

7.4. Now let us see what happens when there is a remainder.

Example 9

Find the value of 15.187 3.57.

As before make the divisor into a whole number by multiplying it by 100 so that it

becomes 357. To compensate multiply the dividend also by 100 so that it

becomes 1518.7. Now divide.

357)1518.7(4.25406

- this line 357 4

1428

907

714

1930

decimal point.

1930

1785

1450

1428

2200

2142

58

the divisor will not go into 220 so bring down

another zero.

The answer to 5 decimal places is 4.25406. This is not the correct answer

because there is a remainder. The division can be continued in the way shown to

give as many decimal places as desired, or until there is no remainder.

28

DECIMAL PLACES

It is important to realise what is meant by an answer given to so many decimal

places. It is the number of figures which follow the decimal point which give the

number of decimal places. If the first figure to be discarded is 5 or more then the

previous figure is increased by 1.

Thus:

85.7684

= 85.77 correct to 2 decimal places

= 85.768 correct to 3 decimal places

0.007362 = 0.007 correct to 3 decimal places

= 0.01 correct to 2 decimal places

7.601

= 7.6 correct to 1 decimal place.

continued to 4 decimal places and the answer correct to 3 decimal places.

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES

Instead of using the number of decimal places to express the accuracy of an

answer, significant figures can be used. The number 39.38 is correct to 2

decimal places but it is also correct to 4 significant figures since the number

contains four figures. The rules regarding significant figures are as follows:

1. If the first figure to be discarded is 5 or more the previous figure is

increased by 1.

8.1925

= 8.19 correct to 3 significant figures.

= 8.2 correct to 2 significant figures.

29

1.

18.89 14.2

2.

0.036 2.51

3.

7.21 0.038

4.

13.059 3.18

5.

0.1383 0.0032

30

Zeros must be kept to show the position of the decimal point, or to indicate that

the zero is a significant figure.

24392

= 24400 correct to 3 significant figures.

0.0858

425.804

= 426 correct to 3 significant figures.

Write down the following numbers correct to the number of significant figures

stated:

1.

24.865 82

(i) to 6

(ii) to 4

(iii) to 2

2.

0.008 357 1

(i) to 4

(ii) to 3

(iii) to 2

3.

4.978 48

(i) to 5

(ii) to 3

(iii) to 1

4.

21.987 to 2

5.

35.603 to 4

6.

28 387 617

(i) to 5

(ii) to 2

7.

4.149 76

(i) to 5

(ii) to 4

8.

9.204 8 to 3

(iii) to 3

31

The worst mistake that can be made in a calculation is that of misplacing the

decimal point. To place it wrongly, even by one place, makes the answer ten

times too large or ten times too small. To prevent this occurring it is always worth

while doing a rough check by using approximate numbers. When doing these

rough checks always try to select numbers which are easy to multiply or which

will cancel.

Example 10

1.

0.23 0.56

For a rough check we will take 0.2 0.6.

Product roughly = 0.2 0.6 = 0.12.

Correct product

= 0.1288.

(The rough check shows that the answer is 0.1288 not 1.288 or 0.01288.)

2.

173.3 27.8.

For a rough check we will take 180 30.

Answer roughly = 6

Correct answer = 6.23.

3.

.

6.52 3.58 0.823

Answer roughly =

Correct answer

8 20 30 0.2

= 40.

6 4 1

= 50.94

(Although there is a big difference between the rough answer and the

correct answer, the rough check shows that the answer 50.94 and not

509.4.)

32

1.

223.6 0.004 8

2.

32.7 0.259

3.

4.

78.41 23.78

5.

0.059 0.002 68

6.

7.

0.728 0.006 25

0.028 1

8.

27.5 30.52

11.3 2.73

33

We found, when doing fractions, that the line separating the numerator and the

denominator of a fraction takes the place of a division sign. Thus:

17

80 is the same as 17 80.

Therefore to convert a fraction into a decimal we divide the denominator into the

numerator.

Example 11

27

Convert 32 to decimals.

27

32 = 27 32

32)27.0(0.843 75

25 6

1 40

1 28

120

96

240

224

160

160

...

27

Therefore 32 = 0.843 75.

Example 12

9

Convert 216 into decimals.

When we have a mixed number to convert into decimals we need only deal with

9

the fractional part. Thus to convert 2

into decimals we only have t deal with

16

9

16 .

9

= 9 16

16

16)9.0(0.562 5

80

1 00

96

9

hence 216 = 2.562 5.

40

32

9

= 0.562 5 and

16

as shown in Example 13.

80

80

34

Example 13

1

Convert 3 to decimals.

1

3 = 1 3

3)1.0(0.333

9

10

9

10

9

1

It is clear that all we shall get from the division is a succession of threes.

This is an example of a recurring decimal and in order to prevent endless

1

repetition the result is written 0.3 Therefore

= 0.3.

3

Further examples of recurring decimals are:

2

3 = 0.6

6 = 0.16

11 = 0.45

For all practical purposes we never need recurring decimals; what we need is an

answer given to so many significant figures or decimal places. Thus:

2

= 0.67

3

5

11 = 0.455

35

Convert the following to decimals correcting the answers, where necessary, to 4

decimal places:

1.

1

4

5.

1

2

9.

5

16

2.

3

4

6.

2

3

10.

7

216

3.

3

9

7.

21

32

4.

11

16

8.

29

64

Convert the following to three decimal places:

11. 0.3

15. 0.35

12.

0.7

16.

13.

0.13

0.18

17.

0.2 3

0.5 2

18.

0.3 6

14.

19.

20.

0.3 28

0.5 671

We know that decimals are fractions with denominators 10, 100, 1000, etc.

Using this fact we can always convert a decimal to a fraction.

Example 14

Convert 0.32 to a fraction.

32

8

0.32 = 100 = 25

When comparing decimals and fractions it is best to convert the fraction into a

decimal.

Example 15

3

Find the difference between 116 and 1.163 2.

3

116 = 1.187 5

3

116 - 1.163 2

= 1.187 5 - 1.163 2

= 0.024 3

36

Convert the following to fractions in their lowest terms:

1.

0.2

3.

0.312 5

5.

0.007 5

2.

0.45

4.

2.55

6.

2.125

7.

9

What is the difference between 0.281 35 and 32 ?

8.

19

What is the difference between 64 and 0.295?

37

FORMULAE

EVALUATING FORMULA

A formula is an equation, which describes the relationship between two or more

quantities. The statement that I PRT is a formula for I in terms of P, R and T .

The value of I may be found by substituting the values of P, R and T . The value

of I may be found by substituting the values of P, R and T .

Example 1

(a) If I = PRT find the value of I when P =20, R =2 and T =5.

Substituting the given values of P, R and T and remembering that multiplication

signs are omitted in formulae, we have

= 20 x 2 x 5

=200

a =3 and t =2.

=8+3x2

=8+6

= 14

1.

2.

The formula P

3.

4.

The formula V

RT

is used in connection with the expansion of gases.

V

Find the value of P when R =25, T =230 and V =5

g 9.8 and h 7 .

5. Calculate d from the formula d

2( S an)

when S 12, a 2, n 5 and

n( n p )

p 3.

38

TRANSPOSING FORMULAE

The formula y ax b has y as is subject. By rearranging this formula we

could make x the subject.

The rules for transforming a formula are:

(1) Remove square roots or other roots

(2) Get rid of brackets

(3) Clear brackets

(4) Collect together the terms containing the required subject

(5) Factorise if necessary

(6) Isolate the required subject

These steps should be performed in the order given.

Example 2

(a) Transpose the formula V

2R

to make R the subject.

Rr

Step 1 Since there are no roots get rid of the fraction by multiplying both sides of

the equation by ( R r )

V ( R r ) 2R

Step 2 Clear the bracket

VR Vr 2R

Step 3 Collect the terms containing R on the LHS.

VR 2R Vr

Step 4 Factorise the LHS.

R(V 2) Vr

Step 5 Isolate R by dividing both sides of the equation by (V 2).

Vr

V 2

Although we used five steps to obtain the required subject, in very many cases

far fewer steps are needed. Nevertheless, you should work through the steps in

order given.

(b) Transpose d

2

d 2hr

Step 2 Since there are no fractions or brackets and factorisation is not needed we

can now isolate h by dividing both sides of the equation by 2r

2

2r

2hr

39

Transpose each of the following formulae:

1. C ad for d. 2. PV=c for P.

3. x =

b

for y.

y

4. I

5. S =

ta

for a.

p

6. a =b + 8 for b.

7. y =

7

for x.

4x

E

for E.

R

8. 3k = kx + 5 for k.

9. E = mv for m.

10. y =ms + c for x.

11. v = u + at for t.

12. V =

abh

for h.

3

13. M = 5 (x + y) for y.

14. C =

N n

for n.

2p

16. t = a + (n - 1)d for n.

17. A = 3(x y) for y.

2

18. d= v + k for k.

200

19. 6x + 2y = 8 for y.

20. y =

2 - 5x

for x.

2 3x

21. k =

3n 2

f or n.

n3

R H

for R.

g

22. T + 2

23. a =

b

for b.

bc

2

24. K = mv for v.

2g

25. r =

26. q =

A

for k.

4

m

for p.

27. x = (x - a) (x + b) for a.

40

28. y +

ax

for x.

5 bx

29. x =

5 4y

for y.

3y 2

2

30. T = 2 k h

gh

41

THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS

Together with major metric countries Britain has adapted the International

System of Units known worldwide as the S I Units.

(Systme International d' Unit). The effect of this system is to introduce standard

units for many of the quantities for which a multitude of units exist as present.

S I BASE UNITS

Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Length

metre

Mass

kilogram

kg

Time

second

Electric Current

Ampere

Thermodynamic

Temperature

Kelvin

Plain Angles

Radians

Rad

brilliance)

candela

cd.

Multiple

Prefix

Symbol

106

Mega

103

kilo

10

milli

10-6

micro

10-9

nano

pico

-3

10-

12

There are others extending beyond this range both greater and smaller.

42

Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Area

square metre

m2

Volume

cubic metre

m3

Velocity

m/s

Acceleration

m/s2

Angular Velocity

rad/s

Angular Acceleration

rad/s2

Frequency

Herts

Hz = 1/s

MECHANICS

Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Density

kg/m3

Momentum

kg m/s

Force

Newton

N = kgm/s2

Newton metre

N m

Energy, work

Joule

J = Nm

Power

watt

W = J/s

Pascal

N/m2 = Pa

HEAT

Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Celsius temperature

Degrees Celsius

43

EXPRESSING SI UNITS

The symbol for SI units and the conventions which govern their use should be

strictly followed.

1.

2.

Kilogram or kilometre not kilo.

Millimetre or millilitre not mil.

3.

4.

Always put a zero before a decimal quantity less than Unit, e.g. 0.705 m.

When two units are multiplied together use a small space between the

symbols as the multiplier, e.g.

Kilogram metre squared kg m2.

Newton metre N m.

5.

denominator.

e.g. metre per second

Joule per second

6.

7.

m/s

J/s

Use a space as a thousands marker not the comma. The comma is used

as a decimal marker in most countries using the metric system and its use as a

thousand marker will cause confusion. Up to four figures may be blocked

together but five or more figures should be grouped in threes, e.g.

1000 mm

1m

1 000 000 J

1 MJ (MegaJoule)

1 ns (nanosecond).

44

CONVERSION FACTORS

The units which it is thought most likely you will be required to know are set out

below with appropriate conversion factors.

To go from the first quantity into the second multiply by the number given.

Inches

Millimetres

25.4

Inches

39.37

Pounds

Kilograms

0.4536

Kilograms

Pounds

2.205

Imp. Galls

Litres

4.546

bar

p.s.i.

14.5

p.s.i.

Pa (Pascal)

6895

bar

Pa

105

N/m2

Pa

1bf

N (Newton)

4.45

horsepower

W (Watt)

746

B.Th.U.

KJ

1.055

ft 1bf

J (Joule)

1.356

Knot

0.5148 m/s

Knot

Knot

1.15 MPH.

Relative Density =

Density of a Substance

Density of Water (at the same temperature)

Density

Mass

Volume

Density of water is

(Units: kg/m3)

800 kg/m3

1000 kg/m3

= 0.8

R.D. = S.G.

45

A ratio is a comparison between two similar quantities. If the length of a certain

aircraft is 20 metres and a model of it is 1 metre long then the length of the model

1

is 20 th of the length of the aircraft. In making the model the dimensions of the

aircraft are all reduced in the ratio of 1 to 20. The ratio 1 to 20 is usually written

1 : 20.

As indicated above a ratio may be expressed as a fraction and all ratios may be

2

looked upon as fractions. Thus the ratio 2 : 5 = 5 . The two terms of a ratio

may be multiplied or divided without altering the value of the ratio.

1

Hence 6:36 = 1:6 = . Again, 1:5 = 0.20.

6

Before a ratio can be stated the units must be the same. We can state the ratio

between 7 pence and 2 provided both sums of money are brought to the same

units. Thus if we convert 2 to 200p the ratio between the two amounts of money

is 7 : 200.

Example 1

Express the ratio 20p to 4 in its simplest form.

4

= 4 100p = 400p

20 : 400 =

20

1

=

400

20

Example 2

Express the ratio 4 :

1

in its lowest terms.

4

1

1

4:4 = 4 4

4

= 4 1

16

1

1

4 : 4 = 16:1

Example 3

Two lengths are in the ratio 8:5. If the first length is 120 metres, what is the

second length?

5

5

The second length = 8 of the first length = 8 120 = 75 metres.

Example 4

Two amounts of money are in the ratio of 12 : 7. If the second amount is 21

what is the first amount?

12

First amount = 7 21 = 36.

46

Express the following ratios as fractions in their lowest terms:

1.

8:3

4.

9 : 15

2.

4:6

5.

8 : 12

3.

12 : 4

6.

7.

8.

Two lengths are in the ratio 7 : 5. If the first length is 210 metres, what is

the second length?

9.

Two lengths of money are in the ratio 8 : 5. If the second is 120, what is

the first amount?

10.

1

Express 3 : 2 in its lowest terms.

PROPORTIONAL PARTS

The following diagram shows a line AB whose length is 16 centimetres divided

into two parts in the ratio 3 : 5. As can be seen in the diagram the line has been

divided into a total of 8 parts.

The length AC contains 3 parts and the length BC contains 5 parts.

Each part is

16

= 2 centimetres long; hence AC is

8

3 2 = 6 centimetres long, and BC is

5 2 = 10 centimetres long.

47

Total number of parts = 3 + 5 = 8 parts.

16

= 8 = 2 centimetres.

Length of AC

= 3 2 = 6 centimetres.

Length of BC

= 5 2 = 10 centimetres.

Example 5

Divide 1100 into two parts in the ratio 7:3.

Total number of parts

= 7 + 3 = 10

= 7 110 = 770

= 3 110 = 330

1100

10 = 110

Example 6

An aircraft carries 2880 litres of fuel distributed in three tanks in the ratio 3 : 5 : 4.

Find the quantity in each tank.

Total number of parts = 3 + 5 + 4 = 12.

2880

12

= 240 litres.

Amount of 3 parts

Amount of 4 parts

Amount of 5 parts

48

1.

2.

3.

4.

A sum of money is divided into two parts in the ratio 5 : 7. If the smaller

amount is 200, find the larger amount.

5.

A alloy consists of copper, zinc and tin in the ratios 2 : 3 : 5. Find the

amount of each metal in 75 kilograms of the alloy.

6.

A line is to be divided into three parts in the ratios 2 : 7 : 11. If the line is

840 millimetres long, calculate the length of each part.

7.

Two plane maintenance hangers have a work force of 336 and 240

respectively. The two hangers are to share a bonus of 10 728 in

proportion to their work force. Calculate how much each hanger will

receive.

8.

ratio of 2 : 4 : 5 : 7. If the largest amount contributed is 1.40, calculate the

total amount contributed by the four people.

DIRECT PROPORTION

Two quantities are said to vary directly, or be in direct proportion, if they

increase or decrease at the same rate. Thus the quantity of fuel used and the

distance travelled by an aircraft are in direct proportion. Again if a company buys

sorbsil at 20 pence for 2 kilograms then we expect to pay 40 p for 4 kilograms

and 10 p for 1 kilogram. That is if we double the amount bought then we double

the cost; if we halve the amount bought we halve the cost.

In solving problems on direct proportion we can use either the unitary method or

the fractional method.

Example 7

If 25 kilograms of dry powder fire extinguishant cost 17, how much does 8

kilograms cost?

1.

25 kilograms cost 17 or 1700 pence.

1 kilograms cost

1700

25 = 68 pence.

8 kilograms cost 8 68

= 544 pence or 5.44.

49

2.

Cost of 8 kilograms.

8

8 1700

= 25 1700 =

25

= 544 pence or 5.44

Example 8

A recipe for Beef Stroganoff quotes the following amounts to serve four people:

450 grams of rump steak, 3 tablespoons flour, 4 tablespoons butter, 50 grams of

onion, 75 grams of mushrooms, 140 grams of sour cream. What amounts should

be used for six people?

The quantities required and the number of people are in direct proportion. Hence

the amounts must be increased in the ratio of 6 : 4 or 3 : 2.

3

450

2

Amount of flour.

3

= 2 3

Amount of butter.

Amount of onion.

3

= 2 50

= 75 grams.

Amount of mushrooms.

3

= 2 75

1

= 1122 grams.

3

= 2 140

= 210 grams.

3

4

2

= 675 grams.

1

= 42 tablespoons.

= 6 tablespoons.

1.

2.

3.

If 40 cost rivets cost 35, how much does 1 cost? What is the cost of 55

rivets.

4.

Split pins cost 70 p per 10. How much will 25 split pins cost?

5.

petrol is need for a journey of 35 kilometres.

50

6.

If 9 metres of asbestos tape cost 21, how much will 96 metres cost?

7.

complete a journey of 3500 kilometres?

INVERSE PROPORTION

Suppose that 8 fitters working on an aircraft 'C' check takes 10 days to complete

it. If we double the number of men then we should halve the time taken. If we

halve the number of men then the job will probably take twice as long. This is an

example of inverse proportion.

Example 9

20 men working at BA, Filton produce 3000 components in 12 working days.

How long will it take 15 men to produce the 3000 components.

15

3

The number of men is reduced in the ratio 20 = 4 .

Since this is an example of inverse proportion the number of days required must

4

be increased in the ratio 3 .

4

12.

3

= 16 days.

Exercise 32 - All level 1

1.

Bristol Flying Centre employs 12 builders to extend the hanger. They take

9 days to do the job. If they had employed 8 men how long would it have

taken them?

2.

10 men produce 500 composite panels in 5 working days. How long would

it take 15 men to produce the same amount?

3.

Two gear wheels mesh together. One has 40 teeth and the other has 25

teeth. If the larger wheel makes 100 revolutions per minute how many

revolutions per minute does the smaller wheel make?

4.

required to do the work in 6 hours?

51

AVERAGES

To find the average of a set of quantities, ass the quantities together and divide

by the number of quantities in the set. Thus,

sum of the quantities

Average = number of quantities

Example 1

1.

A student falls asleep in every lesson, the following number of times: 8, 20,

3, 0, 5, 9, 15 and 12. What is his average per lesson?

Average score

2.

8 + 20 + 3 + 0 + 5 + 9 + 15 + 12

8

72

8 = 9

1

A 2 Taper Lock Fastners in a box have a mass of 4680 gm. If the

average mass of one fastners is 97.5 gm find the number of fastners in the

box.

Total mass = average mass of an fastner

number of fastners in the box.

Number of fastners in the box =

3.

4680

= 48

97.5

Find the average age of a team of boys given that four of them are each 15

years 4 months old and the other three boys are each 14 years 9 months

old.

Total age of 4 boys at 15 years 4 months

= 61 years 4 months.

Total age of 3 boys at 14 years 9 months

= 44 years 3 months.

Total age of all 7 boys

= 105 years 7 months.

Average age

7

= 15 years 1 month.

52

4.

the average age of the lecturers in the faculty is 39 years and their total age

is 1170 years, whereas the pupils whose average age is 14 years have a

total age 6580 years. Find the average age of all the people in the faculty.

The first step is to find the number of teachers:

Number of teachers:

= average age of the teachers

1170

39

= 30

6580

14

= 470

Total age of all the people in the faculty:

= 1170 + 6580 = 7750 years

Total number of people in the faculty:

= 30 + 470 = 500

Average age of all the people in the faculty:

7750

500

= 15.5 years

53

1.

Find the average of the following readings: 22.3 mm, 22.5 mm, 22.6 mm,

21.8 mm and 22.0 mm.

2.

Find the average mass of 22 boxes if 9 boxes each have a mass of 12 kg,

1

3

8 boxes each have a mass of 122 kg and 5 have a mass of 114 kg.

3.

per kg. What is the average price per kg?

4.

30 litres of Mogas costing 8 p per litre is mixed with 40 litres costing 9 p per

litre. Find the average price of the mixture.

5.

The average of nine numbers is 72 and the average of four of them is 40.

What is the average of the other five?

6.

Find the average age of a team of men if 5 of them are each 25 years old

and 6 of them are 24 years 1 month old.

7.

the average mark would have been if one candidate, who scored 88, had

been absent.

8.

The average of three numbers is 58. The average of two them is 49. Find

the third number.

AVERAGE SPEED

The average speed is defined as total distance travelled divided by the total

time taken. The unit of speed depends on the unit of distance and the unit of

time. For instance, if the distance travelled is in kilometres (km) and the time

taken is in hours (h) then the speed will be stated in kilometres per hour (km/h).

If the distance is given in metre (m) and the time in seconds (s) then the speed is

in metres per second (m/s).

Example 2

1.

speed?

Average speed =

distance travelled

time taken

200

4

= 50 km/h

2.

speed.

Time taken to travel 30 km at 30 km/h.

30

= 30

= 1 hour

30

40

= 0.75 hour

54

= 30 + 30 = 60 km.

3.

Average speed

60

= 1.75

= 34.3 km/h

A train travels for 4 hours at an average speed of 64 km/h. For the first 2

hours its average speed is 50 km/h. What is its average speed for the last

2 hours

Total distance travelled in 4 hours

= average speed time taken = 64 4

= 256 km

Distance travelled in first two hours

= 50 2 = 100 km

Distance travelled in last two hours

= 256 - 100 = 156 km

Average speed for the last two hours

distance travelled

156

= 2

time taken

= 78 km/h

1.

2.

take?

3.

If a car travels for 5 hours at an average speed of 70 km/h how far has it

gone?

4.

For the first 1 hours of a 91 km journey the average speed was 30 km/h.

If the average speed for the remainder of the journey was 23 km/h,

calculate the average speed for the entire journey.

5.

motorway in 25 minutes. After a speed limit is imposed he finds that, when

travelling at the maximum speed allowed he takes 5 minutes longer than

before to cover the same section. Calculate the speed limit.

55

6.

In winter a train travels between two towns 264 km apart at an

average speed of 72 km/h. In summer the journey takes 22 minutes less than in

the winter. Find the average speed in summer.

7.

A train travels between two towns 135 km apart in 4 hours. If on the

return journey the average speed is reduced by 3 km/h, calculate the time taken

for the return journey.

8.

A car travels 272 km at an average speed of 32 km/h. On the return

journey the average speed is increased to 48 km/h. Calculate the average speed

over the whole journey.

56

PERCENTAGES

When comparing fractions it is often convenient to express them with a

denominator of a hundred. Thus:

1

50

2 = 100

2

40

=

5

100

Fractions with a denominator of 100 are called percentages. Thus:

1

4

25

= 100

= 25 per cent

3

30

10 = 100

= 30 per cent

To convert a fraction into a percentage we multiply it by 100.

Example 1

3

4

3

= 4

100 = 75

17

17

=

20

20 100 = 85

Exercise 34 - All type A

Convert the following fractions to percentages:

1.

7

10

4.

4

5

7.

7

10

2.

11

20

5.

31

50

8.

19

20

3.

9

25

6.

1

4

Decimal numbers may be converted into percentages by using the same rule.

Thus:

0.3 =

3

3

=

100 = 30%

10

10

The same rule result is produced if we omit the intermediate step of turning 0.3

into vulgar fraction and just multiply 0.3 by 100. Thus:

0.3 = 0.3 100 = 30

57

Exercise 35 - level 1

Convert the following decimal numbers into percentages:

1.

0.7

4.

0.813

2.

0.73

5.

0.927

3.

0.68

6.

0.333

7.

0.819

Example 3

45%

45

= 100

3.9

3.9% = 100

= 0.45

= 0.039

Note that all we have done is to move the decimal point 2 places to the left.

Exercise 36 - Level 1

Convert the following percentages into decimal fractions:

1.

32%

5.

31.5%

9.

3.95%

2.

78%

6.

48.2%

10.

20.1%

3.

6%

7.

2.5%

4.

24%

8.

1.25%

PERCENTAGE OF A QUANTITY

It is easy to find the percentage of a quantity if we first express the percentage as

a fraction.

Example 4

1.

Expressing 10% as a fraction it is

10

and the problem then becomes:

100

10

what is 100 of 40?

10% of 40

10

= 100 40

= 4

58

2.

25

= 100 50

25% of 50

3.

= 12.50

length?

55

1% of the length = 22 cm = 2.5 cm

now the complete length will be 100%, hence:

Complete length = 100 2.5 cm = 250 cm

Alternatively,

22% of the length

= 55 cm

Complete length

4.

100 55

22

100

22 55

= 250 cm

5 significant figures.

Percentage

37

100

264

37 100

264

= 14.015%

59

1.

2.

What is:

a.

20% of 50

d.

12% of 20

b.

30% of 80

e.

20.3% of 105

c.

5% of 120

f.

3.7% of 68

a.

25 of 200

d.

29 of 178

b.

30 of 150

e.

15 of 33

c.

25 of 150

3.

percentage mark? If the percentage needed to pass the examination is

75% how many marks are needed to pass?

4.

5.

Given that 13.3 cm is 15% of a certain length, what is the complete length?

6.

What is:

7.

a.

9% of 80

b.

12% of 110

c.

75% of 250

a.

b.

c.

8.

was 29 336 which represents 74% of the total number of children attending

school. Calculate the total number of children attending school in that

country.

9.

bananas. How many kilograms were there in the consignment?

10.

12% are faulty. How many faulty pens are there?

60

AREAS

We are already familiar with the concept of length, e.g. the distance between 2

points, we express length in some chosen unit, e.g. in meters, and if I want to fit a

picture - rail along a wall, all I need to known is the length of the wall, so that I

can order sufficient rail. But if I wish to fit a carpet to the room floor, the length of

the room is insufficient. I obviously need to know the width. This 2-dimensional

concept of size is termed Area.

equal squares, each measuring 1m by 1m. Each square has an area of 1 square

meter. Hence, the total area is 12 square meters (usually written as 12m2 for

convenience). So, to calculate the area of a rectangle, multiply length of 1 side

by the length of the other side.

Note. 4m x 3m = 12m2 (Don't forget the m2).

Example: An office 8.5m by 6.3m is to be fitted with a carpet, so as to leave

surround 600mm wide around the carpet. What is the area of the

surround?

With a problem like this, it is often helpful to sketch a diagram.

=

53.55

- (7.3) (5.1)

53.55

- 37.23

16.32m2

Note that 600mm had to be converted to 0.6m. Don't forget to include units in the

answer e.g. m2.

61

The following table shows the formulaes for the more common shapes. Students

will require a knowledge of these formulae and attain a JAR 66 Level 2 in this

topic.

or d

or d x

0

360

62

Area of trapezium

= x 40 x (30 + 50)

= x 40 x 80

= 1600 mm

2). A hollow shaft has an outside diameter of 2.5cm. Calculate the cross-sectional

area of the shaft.

Area of cross-section

= area of outside circle area of inside circle

= x 1.626 - x 1.25

= (1.625 - 1.25)

= 3.142 x (2.640 1.563)

= 3.142 x 1.077

=3.388cm

(3) Calculate:

(a) the length of arc of a circle whose radius is 8m and which subtends an

angle of 56 at the centre, and

(b) the area of the sector so formed.

Length of arc = 2r x 0

360

63

=2xx8x

56

360

= 31.28 m

Exercise 1-3 Level 1 Level 2 remainder

1) The area of a rectangle is 220mm. If its width is 25mm find its length.

2) A sheet metal plate has a length of 147.5mm and a width of 86.5mm find its

length to the nearest four decimal places.

3) Find the areas of the sections shown in

4)Find the area of a triangle whose base is 7.5cm and whose altitude is 5.9cm.

5) Find the area of a trapezium whose parallel sides are 75mm and 82mm long

respectively and whose vertical height is 39mm.

6) The parallel sides of a trapezium are 12cm and 16cm long. If its area is

220cm, what is its altitude?

7) Find the areas of the shaded portions in each of the diagrams.

64

(a) 3.5mm

(b) 13.8mm

(c) 4.2cm

9) Find the diameter of a circle whose circumference is 34.4mm.

10) How many revolutions will a wheel make in travelling 2km if its diameter is

700mm?

11) If r is the radius and 0 is the angle subtended at the centre by an arc find the

length of arc when:

(a) r = 2cm, 0 =30

65

VOLUMES

The concept and calculation of volume in the logical extension of length and

area.

Instead of squares, we now consider cubes. This is a 3-dimensional concept and

the typical units of volume are cubic metres (m3).

If we have a box, length 4m, width 3m and height 2m, we see that the total

volume=24 cubic metres (24m3).

Each layer contains

4 x 3 = 12 cubes.

There are 2 layers.

Hence the volume is

12 x 2 = 24m3.

dimensions, at 90 to each other, and then multiply them together. For a box type shape, multiplying length x width x height = volume.

UNIT OF VOLUME

The volume of a solid figure is measured by seeing how many cubic units it

contains. A cubic metre is the volume inside a cube which has a side of 1 metre.

Similarly a cubic centimetre is the volume inside a cube which has a side of 1

centimetre. The standard abbreviations for units of volume are:

cubic metre

cubic centimetre cm

cubic millimetre mm

Example

(1) How many cubic centimetres are contained in 1 cubic metre?

1m = 10 cm

6

1m = (10 cm) = 10 cm

= 1 000 000 cm

66

UNIT OF CAPACITY

The capacity of a container is usually measured in litres ( ), such that

1 litre = 1000cm

Example

A tank contains 30 000 litres of liquid. How many cubic metres does it contain?

30 000 litres = 30 000 x 1 000 cm

= 3 x 107 cm

1cm = 102 m

1cm = (102 m) = 106 m3

3 107 cm3 = 3 107 106 m2

= 3 x 10 = 30m

Exercise- All Level 1

Convert the following volumes into the units stated:

1) 5 m into cm

2) 0.08 m into mm

3) 18 m into mm

4) 830 000 cm into m

5) 850 000 mm into m

6) 78 500 cm into m

7) A tank contains 5000 litres of petrol. How many cubic metres of petrol does

it contain?

8) A small vessel contains 2500mm of oil. How many litres does it contain?

9) A tank holds, when full, 827m of water. How many litres does it hold?

10) A container holds 8275cm when full. How many litres does it hold?

Example

A steel section has the cross-section shown. If it is 9m long calculate its volume

and total surface area.

Area of cross- section

67

= x 75 + 100 x 150

= 23 836 mm

=

23836 mm

2

= 0.023 836 m

(1000)

Volume of solid

= 0.023 836 x 9

= 0.214 5m

To find the surface area:

Perimeter of cross-section

= x 75 + 2 x 100 +150

=585.5mm

=

585.5

= 0.585 5m

1000

=0.585 5 x 9 = 5.270 m

Surface area of ends

= 2 x 0.024 = 0.048 m

Total surface area

= 5.270 + 0.048

= 5.318 m

68

The following table gives volumes and surface areas of some simple solids

69

1) A steel ingot whose volume is 2 m is rolled into a plate 15mm thick and 1.75m

wide. Calculate the length of the plate in m.

2) A block of lead 2.0 m x 1m x 0.72m is hammered out to make a square sheet

10mm thick. What are the dimensions of the square?

3) The volume of a small cylinder is 180 cm. If the radius of the cross-section is

25mm find its height.

4)A cone has a diameter of 28mm and a height of 66mm. What is its volume?

5) Calculate the diameter of a cylinder whose height is the same as its diameter

and whose volume is 220 cm.

6) An ingot whose volume is 12320 mm is to be made into ball bearings whose

diameters are 12mm. How many ball bearings will be produced from the ingot?

7) A water tank with vertical sides has a horizontal base in the shape of a

rectangle with semi-circular ends as illustrated in Fig. 26.14. The total inside

length of the tank is 7m, its width 4m and its height 2m.

Calculate:

(a) the surface area of the vertical walls of the tank in m

(b) the area of the base in m

(c) the number of litres of water in the tank when the depth of water is 1.56m.

70

SQUARE NUMBERS

When a number is multiplied by itself the result is called the square of the

number. The square of 9 is 9 9 = 81. Instead of writing 9 9, it is usual to

write 92 which is read as the square of 9. Thus;

122

= 12 12 = 144

The square of any number can be found by multiplication but a great deal of time

and effort is saved by using printed tables. Either three or four figure table may

be used. In the three figure tables the squares of numbers are given correct to

three significant figures, but in the four figure tables the square are given correct

to four significant figures. Hence the four figure table are more accurate.

Although the tables only give the squares of numbers from 1 to 10 they can be

used to find the squares of numbers outside this range. The method is shown in

the examples which follows.

Example 1

Find (168.8)2.

(168.8)2

= 168.8 168.8

or

= 1.688 100 1.688 100

or

= (1.688)2 1002

(1.688)2

= 2.848

Hence

(168.8)2

71

Example 2

Find (0.2388)2.

(0.2388)2

1

1

= 2.388 10 2.388 10

1

= (2.388)2 100

= (2.388)2 100

(2.388)2

= 5.702

Hence

(0.2388)2

= 5.702 100

= 0.057 02

Example 3

Find the value of

.

0.9

0.15

0 .9

0.15

6 2 36

Find the square of the following numbers.

1.

1.5

11.

23

2.

2.1

12.

40.6

3.

8.6

13.

3093

4.

3.15

14.

112.3

5.

7.68

15.

98.12

6.

5.23

16.

0.019

7.

4.263

17.

0.729 2

8.

7.916

18.

0.004 219

9.

8.017

19.

0.283 4

10.

8.704

20.

0.000 578 4

72

21.

22.

a.

0.75

0.15

b.

0 .8

0 .2

c.

0.25

0.36

d.

73

74

SQUARE ROOTS

The square roots of a number is the number whose square equals the given

number. Thus since 52 = 25, the square root of 25 = 5.

is used to denote a square root and hence we write 25 5 .

The sign

81 9 .

The square root of a number can usually be found with sufficient accuracy by

using the printed tables of square roots. There are two of these tables. One

gives the square roots of numbers 1 to 10 and the other gives the square roots of

numbers from 10 to 100. The reason for having two tables is as follows:

2.5 1.581

25

Thus there are two square roots for the same figures, depending upon the

position of the decimal point. The square root tables are used in the same way

as the tables of squares.

Example 4

1.

2.748 1.657

2.

92.65 9.626

3.

To find

836.3 .

Mark off the figures in pairs to the left of the decimal point. Each pair of

figures is called a period. Thus 836.3 becomes 8'36.3. The first period is 8

so we use the table of square roots from 1 to 10 and look up

8.363 2.892 . To position the decimal point in the answer remember

that for each period to the left of the decimal point in the original number

there will be one figure less to the left of the decimal point in the answer.

Thus:

836.3 28.92

4.

To find

point. One less is two figures hence 2.892 is 28.92

173 900 .

Marking off in periods 173 900 becomes 17'39'00. The first period is 17 so

we use the table of square roots from 10 to 100 and look up.

17.39 4.17

173900 is four figures to the left of the decimal

point. One less is three so the answer will be

417.0

173 900 417.0

75

5.

To find

0.000 094 31 .

In the case of numbers less than 1 mark off the periods to the right of the

decimal point. 0.000 094 31 becomes 0.00'00'94'31. Apart from the zero

pairs the first period is 94 so we use the tables from 10 to 100 to look up

94.31 9.712. For each zero pair in the original number there will be

one zero following the decimal point in the answer. Thus:

0. 0 0 9 712

0.00'00'94'31

0.000 094 31 0.009 712

6.

To find

0.07365 .

Marking off in periods to the right of the decimal point 0.073 65 becomes

07'36'50. Since the first period is 07 we use the tables between 1 and 10

and look up 0.07365 2.714 .

Exercise - Questions 1 - 12, level 1. Questions 13 - 23, level 2.

Find the square root of the following numbers.

1.

3.4

13.

900

2.

8.19

14.

725.3

3.

5.264

15.

7142

4.

9.239

16.

89 000

5.

7.015

17.

3945

6.

3.009

18.

7.

35

19.

0.153 7

8.

89.2

20.

0.001 698

9.

53.17

21.

0.039 47

10.

82.99

22.

0.000 783 1

11.

79.23

23.

0.001 978

12.

50.01

76

77

78

CUBED

When a number is multiplied by itself , i.e. 3 3 = 9, it is usual to write it as 32

or 3 squared. We can take this a stage further and multiply by another 3, i.e.

3 3 3 = 27, it is usual to write it as 33 or 3 cubed.

CUBED ROOTS

The cubed root of a number is the number which cubed equals the number. E.g.

the cubed root of 64 = 4 (4 4 4).

The sign

64 4 .

79

1.2 ALGEBRA

The methods of Algebra are an extension of those used in arithmetic. In algebra

we use letters and symbols as well as numbers to represent quantities. When we

write that a sum of money is 50 we are making a particular statement but if we

write that a sum of money is P we are making a general statement. This

general statement will cover any number we care to substitute for P.

USE OF SYMBOLS

The following examples will show how verbal statements can be translated into

algebraic symbols. Notice that we can chose any symbol we like to represent the

quantities concerned.

1.

Let the two numbers be x and y.

Sum of the two numbers = x + y.

2.

Let the number be N.

Three times the number = 3 N.

3.

Let one number be a and the other number be b.

4.

a

b

Let the two numbers be m and n.

5 times the product of the two numbers = 5 m n.

80

Translate the following into algebraic symbols:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Half of a number, x.

6.

7.

8.

SUBSTITUTION

The process of finding the numerical value of an algebraic expression for given

values of the symbols that appear in it is called substitution.

Example 1

If x = 3, y = 4 and z = 5, find the values of:

a.

2y + 4

d.

y

x

b.

3y + 5z

e.

3y + 2z

x + z

c.

8 - x

Note that multiplication signs are often missed out when writing algebraic

expressions so that, for instance, 2y means 2 y. These missed multiplication

signs must reappear when the numbers are substituted for the symbols.

a.

2y + 4 = 2 4 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

b.

3y + 5z = 3 4 + 5 5

c.

8 - x = 8 - 3 = 5

81

d.

y

x

e.

3y + 2z

x + z

4

3

1

= 1

3

3 4 + 2 5

3 + 5

12 + 10

8

22

8

3

= 24

If a = 2, b = 3 and c = 5, find the values of the following:

1.

9 + 7

10.

4c + 6b

2.

c - 2

11.

8c - 7

3.

6 - b

12.

a + 2b + 5c

4.

6b

13.

8c - 4b

5.

9c

14.

2 a

6.

ab

15.

ab

8

7.

3bc

16.

abc

6

8.

abc

17.

2c

a

9.

5c - 2

18.

5a + 9b + 8c

a+b+c

82

POWERS

The quantity a a a or aaa is usually written as a3. a3 is called the third power

of a. The number 3 which indicates the number of a's to be multiplied together is

called the index (plural: indices).

24

= 2 2 2 2 = 16

y5

= y y y y y

Example 2

Find the value of b3 when b = 5.

b3

= 53 = 5 5 5 = 125

When dealing with expressions like 8mn4 note that it is only the symbol n which

is raised to the fourth power. Thus:

8mn4 = 8 m n n n n

Example 3

Find the value of 7p2q3 when p = 5 and q = 4.

7p2q3

= 7 52 43 = 7 25 64

= 11 200

If a = 2, b = 3 and c = 4 find the values of the followings:

1.

a2

5.

ab2c3

9.

3a4

c2

2.

b4

6.

5a2 + 6b2

10.

c5

ab3

3.

ab3

7.

a2 + c2

4.

2a2c

8.

7b3c2

83

Like terms are numerical multiplies of the same algebraic quantity. Thus:

7x, 5x and -3x

are three like terms.

An expression consisting of like terms can be reduced to a single term by adding the

numerical coefficients together. Thus:

7x - 5x + 3x

= (7 - 5 + 3)x = 5x

3b2 + 7b2

= (3 + 7)b2 = 10b2

-3y - 5y

q - 3q

= (1 - 3)q = -2q

containing three unlike terms and it cannot be simplified any further.

Similarly with 8a2b + 7ab3 + 6a2b2 which are all unlike terms.

It is possible to have several sets of like terms in an expression and each set can then be

simplified.

8x + 3y - 4z - 5x + 7z - 2y + 2z

= (8 - 5)x + (3 - 2)y + (-4 + 7 + 2)z

= 3x + y + 5z

The rules are exactly the same as those used with directed numbers:

(+ x)(+ y)

= + (xy) = + xy = xy

5x 3y

= 5 3 x y = 15xy

(x)(-y)

= - (xy) = - xy

(2x)(- 3y)

= - (2x)(3y) = -6xy

(- 4x)(2y)

= - (4x)(2y) = 8xy

(- 3x)(- 2y)

= + (3x)(2y) = 6xy

+x

+y

x

= +y

x

= y

84

- 3x

2y

3x

= - 2y

- 5x

- 6y

5x

= + 6y

4x

- 3y

4x

= - 3y

5x

= 6y

When multiplying expressions containing the same symbols, indices are used:

m m = m2

3m 5m = 3 m 5 m = 15 m2

(- m) m2 = (- m) m m = - m

5m2n 3mn3

= 5 m m n 3 m n n n

= 15m3n4

3mn (-2n2)

= 3 m n (- 2) n n = - 6mn3

When dividing algebraic expressions, cancellation between numerator and

denominator is often possible. Cancelling is equivalent to dividing both

numerator and denominator by the same quantity:

pq

p q

q

p

p

3p 2 q 3 p p q

3p

p

6pq 2

6 p q q

6q

2q

2

18x 2 y z

18 x x y y z

3xy

6 xyz

6 x y z

85

Simplify the following:

1.

7x + 11x

2.

7x - 5x

3.

3x -6x

4.

- 2x - 4x

5.

- 8x + 3x

6.

- 2x + 7x

7.

8a - 6a - 7a

8.

5m + 13m - 6m

9.

10.

11.

12.

- 5x + 7x - 3x - 2x

13.

- 4x2 - 3x2 + x2

14.

3x - 2y + 4z - 2x2 - 3y + 5z + 6x + 2y - 3z

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

2x 5y

20.

3a 4b

21.

3 4m

22.

1

4 q 16p

86

23.

x (- y)

24.

(- 3a) (- 2b)

25.

8m (- 3n)

26.

(- 4a) 3b

27.

8p (- q) (- 3r)

28.

3a (- 4b) (- c) 5d

29.

12x 6

30.

4a (- 7b)

31.

(- 5a) 8b

32.

(- 3a) (- 3b)

33.

4a 2b

34.

4ab 2a

35.

12x2yz2 4xz2

36.

(- 12a2b) 6a

37.

8a2bc2 4ac2

38.

7a2b2 3ab

39.

a a

40.

b (- b)

41.

(- m) m

42.

(- p) (- p)

43.

3a 2a

44.

5X X

45.

5q (- 3q)

87

46.

3m (- 3m)

47.

(- 3pq) (- 3q)

48.

8mn (- 3m2n3)

49.

7ab (- 3a2)

50.

2q3r4 5qr2

51.

(- 3m) 2n (- 5p)

52.

53.

BRACKETS

Brackets are used for convenience in grouping terms together. When removing

brackets each term within the bracket is multiplied by the quantity outside the

bracket:

3(x + y) = 3x + 3y

5(2x + 3y) = 5 2x + 5 3y = 10x + 15y

4(a - 2b) = 4 a - 4 2b = 4a - 8b

m(a + b) = ma + mb

3x(2p + 3q) = 3x 2p + 3x 3q = 6px + 9qx

4a(2a + b) = 4a 2a + 4a b = 8a2 + 4ab

When a bracket has a minus sign in front of it, the signs of all the terms inside the

bracket are changed when the bracket is removed. The reason for this rule may

be seen from the following example:

- 3(2x - 5y)

= (- 3) 2x + (- 3) (- 5y)

= - 6x + 15y

- (m + n) = - m - n

- (p - q) = -p + q

- 2(p + 3q) = - 2p - 6q

88

When simplifying expressions containing brackets first remove the brackets and

then add the like terms together:

(3x + 7y) - (4x + 3y)

= 3x + 7y - 4x - 3y

= - x + 4y

= 6x + 9y - x - 5y

= 5x + 4y

= ax + bx - ax - 3bx

= - 2bx

= 10a + 6b + 3a - 6b

= 13a

1.

3(x + 4)

9.

- (3p - 3q)

2.

2(a + b)

10.

- (7m - 6)

3.

3(3x + 2y)

11.

- 4(x + 5)

4.

1

(x - 1)

2

12.

- 2(2x - 5)

5.

5(2p - 3q)

13.

- 5(4 - 3x)

6.

7(a - 3m)

14.

2k(k - 5)

7.

- (a + b)

15.

- 3y(3x + 4)

8.

- (a - 2b)

16.

a(p - q - r)

17.

4xy(ab - ac + d)

18.

19.

- 7P(2P2 - P + 1)

20.

- 2m(- 1 + 3m - 2n)

89

21.

3(x + 1) + 2(x + 4)

22.

5(2a + 4) - 3(4a + 2)

23.

3(x + 4) - (2x + 5)

24.

25.

26.

1

1

2 (y - 1) + 3 (2y - 3)

27.

28.

29.

30.

90

The method for algebraic fractions is the same as for arithmetical fraction, that is:

Example 3

1.

a

b c

Simplify 2 + 3 - 4 .

The L.C.M. of 2,3 and 4 is 12.

a

b c

2 + 3 - 4

6a

4b 3c

= 12 + 12 - 12

2.

Simplify

6a + 4b - 3c

12

2

3

4

+

+

.

x

2x

3x

2

3

4

x + 2x + 3x

12 + 9 + 8

6x

29

= 6x

The sign in front of a fraction applies to the fraction as a whole. The line which

separates the numerator and denominator acts as a bracket.

Example 4

m

2m + n m - 2n

Simplify 12 +

.

4

3

The L.C.M. of 12, 4 and 3 is 12.

m

2m + n m - 2n

+

12

4

3

12

m + 6m + 3n - 4m + 8n

12

3m + 11n

12

91

Simplify the following:

1.

x

x

x

+

+

3

4

5

8.

2x

x

1 - 5 + 8

2.

5a 7a

12 - 18

9.

3m -

3.

2

3

q - 2q

10.

3a + 5b a - 3b

4

2

4.

3

5

4

y - 3y + 5y

11.

3m - 5n 3m - 7n

6

2

5.

3

2

5p 3q

12.

x - 2

2

+

4

5

6.

3x 5y

2y - 6x

13.

x - 5 x - 2

3

4

2m + n

7

92

GRAPHS OF EQUATION

One of the most important applications of the straight-line equation is the

determination of an equation connecting two quantities when values have been

obtained from an experiment.

Example

In an experiment carried out with a lifting machine the effort E and the load W

were found to have the values given in the table below:

W (kg)

15

25

40

50

60

E (kg)

2.75

3.80

5.75

7.00

8.20

Plot these results and obtain the equation connecting E and W which is thought

to be of the type E = aW + b.

If E and W are connected by an equation of the type E = aW + b then the

graph must be a straight line. Note that when plotting the graph, W is the

independent variable and must be plotted on the horizontal axis. E is the

dependent variable and must be plotted on the vertical axis.

On plotting the points (see diagram below) it will be noticed that they deviate only

slightly from a straight line. Since the data are experimental we must expect

errors in measurement and observation and hence slight deviations from a

straight line must be expected. Although the straight line will not pass through

some of the points an attempt must be made to ensure an even spread of the

points above and below the line.

To determine the equation we choose two points which lie on the straight line.

Do not use any of the experimental results from the table unless they happen to

lie exactly on the line. Choose the points as far apart as is convenient because

this will help the accuracy of your result.

The point W = 55, E = 7.5 lies on the line. Hence,

7.5

= 55a + b

[1]

3.3

= 20a + b

[2]

93

4.2

= 35a

= 0.12

3.3

b

= 20 0.12 + b

= 0.9

E

= 0.12W + 0.9

Draw graphs of the following simple equations:

1.

2.

3.

4.

The following equations represent straight lines. State in each case the gradient

of the line and the intercept on the y-axis.

5.

Y = x + 3

7.

Y = -5x - 2

6.

Y = -3x + 4

8.

Y = 4x - 3

9.

through the point (-2,5) and has a gradient of 4.

10.

through the point (3,4) and the intercept on the y-axis is -2.

passes though the given points:

11.

12.

13.

14.

94

15.

16.

equation of the type y = ax + b. Plot the graph and from it find the

values of a and b.

17.

18.

19.

10

12

10

16

22

28

34

40

the linear equation P = aQ + b, but there are experimental errors. Find

by plotting the graph the most probably values of a and b.

Q

2.5

3.5

4.4

5.8

13.6

17.6

22.2

28.0

7.5

9.6

12.0

15.1

35.5

47.4

56.1

74.6

In an experiment carried out with a machine the effort E and the load W

were found to have the values given in the table below. The equation

connecting E = aw + b. By plotting the graph check if this is so and

hence find a and b.

W (kg)

10

30

50

60

80

100

E (kg)

8.9

19.1

29

33

45

54

(R ohms) at various voltages (V volts).

V

62

75

89

100

120

100

117

135

149

175

R = mV + c where m and c are constants. Test this by drawing the

graph and find suitable values for m and c.

20.

obtained.

E (volts)

1.0

2.0

2.5

3.7

I (amperes)

0.24

0.5

0.63

0.92

E (volts)

4.1

5.9

6.8

8.0

I (amperes)

1.05

1.48

1.70

2.05

Plot these values with I horizontal and find the equation connecting

E and I.

95

STRAIGHT LINE

Every linear equation may be written in the STANDARD FORM:

Y = mx + c

Hence y = 2x - 5 is in the standard form with m = 2 and c = -5.

The equation y = 4 - 3x is in standard form, if we rearrange it to give

y = -3x + 4. We then see that m = -3 and c = 4.

The point B is any point on the straight line shown in the diagram below, and it

has the co-ordinates x and y. Point A is where the line cuts the y-axis and it

has co-ordinates x = 0 and y = c.

BC

AC is called the gradient of the line,

now

BC

BC

= AC AC = AC gradient of the line

= BC + CD = BC + AO

= AC gradient of the line + AO

= x gradient of the line + c

96

But

y = mx + c

m

The diagram below shows the difference between positive and negative

gradients.

Example 1

Find the law of the straight line shown in the following diagram.

Since the origin is at the intersection of the axes, c is the intercept on the y axis.

From the diagram it will be seen that c = - 4. We now have to find m. Since this

is the gradient of the line we draw

QPN making the sides reasonably long

since a small triangle will give very inaccurate results. Using the scales of x and

y we see that QP = 2 units and PN = 10 units.

NP

= QP

10

2

= 5

97

Example 2

Find the values of m and c if a the straight line y = mx + c passes through the

point (-1,3) and has a gradient of 6.

Since the gradient is 6 we have m = 6.

y = 6x + c

Since the line passes through the point (-1,3) we have y = 3 when x = -1. By

substitution,

3 = 6 (-1) + c

3 = -6 + c

c = 9

Hence

y = 6x + 9

98

LAWS OF INDICES

The laws of indices are as shown below.

MULTIPLICATION

When multiplying powers of the same quantity together add the indices.

x5

x2

a3 a4 a8

a5 a7

= x5-2 = x3

a3 + 4 + 8

a5 + 7

a15

= a12

3y2 2y5 5y4

6y3 4y4

= a15 - 12 = a3

30y2 + 5 + 4

24y3 + 4

30y11

5y11 - 7

5y4

=

=

7

24y

4

4

POWERS

When raising the power of a quantity to a power multiply the indices together.

(3x)3

= 31 3 x1 3 = 33x3 = 27x3

(a2b3c4)2

3m 3

5n 2

32m3 2

52n2 2

9m6

25n4

NEGATIVE INDICES

A negative index indicates the reciprocal of the quantity.

a-1

5x-3

a2b-2c-3

1

a

5

= x3

a2

= b2c3

99

FRACTIONAL INDICES

The numerator of a fractional index indicates the power to which the quantity

must be raised; the denominator indicates the root which is to be taken.

2

x3

3

ab 4

1

a2

x2

b3

(Note that for square roots the number indicating the root is usually omitted.)

64a 6

64a 6

1

2

1

2

8 2 a6

1

2

1

2

8a 3

ZERO INDEX

Any quantity raised to the power of zero is equal to 1.

a0 1

x

y

Example 1

1

1.

3

14

3 4

2.

42

3.

9x 2

81

5

2 2

25

44

14

21

5

2

32

3 x

2

1

2 2

31

1

2

x1

1

2

31 x 1 3 x

100

Example 2

If 3p + 4 = 9p - 2 find the value of p.

3p + 4 = (32)p - 2

3p + 4 = 32p - 4

Since (p + 4) and (2p - 4) are both powers of 3, they must be equal.

p + 4

p

= 2p - 4

= 8

Exercise - Questions 1 - 7

Simplify the following:

1.

35 32 37

2.

b2 b4 b5 b8

3.

57

52

4.

23 24 27

22 25

5.

(72)3

6.

(3x2y3)4

7.

(a2b3c)5

101

BINARY SYSTEM

In the ordinary decimal system the digits 0 to 9 are used.

Consider the number 23. It means:

2 10 + 3 1 = 23

Now remembering that 100 = 1, 101 = 10.

We may write 23 as follows, using decimal to base 10.

2 101 + 3 100

Now lets consider 5623 to the base 10.

5623

Thus:

80, 321 = 8 104 + 0 103 + 3 102 + 2 101 + 1 100

It is perfectly possible to have a number system which works on the powers of

any number. The most popular of these systems is the Binary (Bi means two),

which operates with the powers of 2 instead of 10 as in the decimal system.

It will be noticed in the decimal system that the greatest digit used is 9 which is

one less than 10. Thus, in the binary system the greatest digit that can be used

is 1 which is one less than 2.

A number written in binary consists only at the digits 0 and 1.

The number

10111

means

1 24 + 0 23 + 1 22 + 1 21 + 1 20

16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 23 in decimal 10

102

To convert from a Base 10 system to Binary the following method may be used.

To convert 23 to Binary:

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

64

32

16

23

1

- Binary

Step 1.

Look for the largest number that is equal to or just under the

decimal number you want to convert. In this case 16.

Step 2.

Step 3.

Step 4.

Look for the largest number that is equal to or just under 7. In this

case 4.

Step 5.

Step 6.

Take 7 from 4.

Step 7.

Look for the largest number that is equal to or just under 3. In this

case 2.

Step 8.

Step 9.

Take 3 from 2.

Step 10.

Look for the largest number that is equal to or just number 3. In this

case 1.

Step 11.

Put 1 in the box below. This final step finishes the conversion. All

gaps between the digit 1 and the extreme left are filled in with 0.

23 - 16 = 7

7 - 4 = 3

3 - 2 = 1

Note: The above conversion is not limited to 64, there is no limit. The next

number would be 128, the next 256, the next 512 etc.

103

Example

The following decimal numbers have been converted to binary:

Decimal

Binary

1)

18

10010

2)

32

100000

3)

40

101000

4)

43

101011

Exercise

Convert the following decimal numbers into binary.

1.

11

2.

29

3.

30

4.

111

5.

90

6.

7.

48

8.

61

9.

119

10.

127

decimal fractions in Binary but this will be covered in Module 5.

The binary system is used on computers and other calculating machines. Since

only the digits 0 and 1 are used in thee system this is equivalent to a two-state

system. For instance if a device is off it represents an 0 and if it is on a 1 is

represented. The figure shows how the number 10110 can be represented by 5

electric light bulbs.

104

In the scale of 5, powers of 5 are used. Only the digits 0,1,2,3, and 4 are

available because the greatest digits used must be one less than 5. If you are

told that the number 3412 is in the scale of 5 it means that the number is based

upon the powers of 5. To show that this is so we write 34125 . The suffix 5

indicates that the number of 5 is being used. The number scale is called the

BASE. We say 34125 is to the BASE 5.

Example 1

34125 = (3 x 53) (4 52) (1 52) (2 50)

= (3 125) (4 25) (1 5) (2 1)

= 375 + 100 + 5 + 2

= 48210.

Example 2:

4638 is a number of BASE 8.

2

1

0

4638 = (4 8 ) (6 8 ) (3 8 )

= (4 64) (6 8) (3 1)

= 256 + 48 + 3

= 30710

Converting from a number in BASE 10 to a number in any other BASE use the

table shown below

ExampleConvert 41310 into BASE 8

BASE 10

BY BASE

REMAINDER

POWERS OF 8

413

= 51

51

=6

8

105

=0

Bottom up

635

Hence 41310

635 8

Check:

6358 (6 82) (3 81) (5 80)

= 384 + 24 + 5

= 41310

Exercise:

Convert the following numbers to BASE 8

a) 390

b) 495

c) 1102

d) 80

e) 772

OCTAL

As well as Binary (Base 2) Base 8 OCTAL and Hexidecimal Base 16 is also used

in computer technology, though OCTAL and Hexidecimal would ultimately be

converted to Binary as all internal computer operations are binary. JAR 66

Module 5 will cover more on this topic.

HEXIDECIMAL

As previously mentioned the hexidecimal is to Base 16. It differs from other

systems in using a combination of both numbers and letters. The rules for

manipulation of the arithmetic are similar to those for decimal. The chart that

follows is only an introduction. Conversions and arithmetic calculations will be

practised in Module 5.

106

107

SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS

Consider the two equations:

2x + 3y = 13

[1]

3x + 2y = 12

[2]

Each equation contains the unknown quantities x and y. The solutions of the

equations are the value if x and y which satisfy both equations. Equations

such as these are called simultaneous equations.

The method will be shown by considering the following examples.

Example 1

1.

3x + 4y

= 11

[1]

x + 7y

= 15

[2]

equations:

3x + 21y = 45

[3]

3x + 21y = 45

[3]

3x + 4y

= 11

[1]

17y

= 34

y = 2

To find x we substitute for y = 2 in either of the original equations. Thus,

substituting for y = 2 in equation [1],

3x + 4 2

= 11

3x + 8

= 11

3x

= 11 - 8

3x

= 3

= 1

x = 1 and y = 2

Hence the solutions are correct since the L.H.S. and R.H.S. are equal.

108

2.

5x + 3y

= 29

[1]

4x + 7y

= 37

[2]

equation [1] is multiplied by 4 (the coefficient of x in equation

[2]) and equation [2] is multiplied by 5 (the coefficient of x in

equation [1]).

Multiply equation [1] by 4,

20x + 12y

= 116

[3]

20x + 35y

= 185

[4]

23y = 69

y = 3

Substituting for y = 3 in equation [1],

5x + 3 3 = 29

5x + 9 = 29

5x = 20

x = 4

Hence the solutions are:

y = 3 and x = 4

Check in equation [2],

L.H.S. = 4 4 + 7 3

= 16 + 21 = 37 = R.H.S.

109

3.

7x + 4y

= 41

[1]

4x - 2y

= 2

[2]

can be obtained in both equations by multiplying equation [2] by 2.

Multiplying equation [2] by 2,

8x - 4y

= 4

[3]

15x

x

= 45

= 3

7 3 + 4y = 41

21 + 4y = 41

4y = 20

y = 5

Hence the solutions are:

x = 3 and y = 5

Check in equation [2],

L.H.S. = 4 3 - 2 5

= 12 - 10 = 2 = R.H.S.

110

4.

2x y

7

=

3

4

12

[1]

3x 2y

3

4 - 5 = 10

[2]

solve.

In equation [1] the L.C.M. of the denominators is 12. Hence by

multiplying equation [1]by 12,

8x - 3y

= 7

[3]

multiplying equation [2] by 20,

15x - 8y

= 6

[4]

8,

64x - 24y = 56

[5]

45x - 24y = 18

[6]

19x = 38

x = 2

Substituting for x = 2 in equation [3],

8 2 - 3y = 7

16 - 3y = 7

- 3y = -9

y = 3

Hence the solutions are:

x = 2 and y = 3

111

Solve the following equations for x and y and check the solutions:

1.

2.

3.

3x + 2y

= 7

x + y

= 3

x - 3y

= 1

x + 3y

= 19

x + 3y

= 7

2x - 2y

= 6

4.

5.

7x - 4y

= 37

6x + 3y

= 51

4x - 6y

= -2.5

7x - 5y

= -0.25

112

LAWS OF INDICES

The laws of indices are shown below.

MULTIPLICATION

When multiplying power of the same quality together add the indices.

x6 x7 x67 x13

y2 y3 y4 y5 y23 45 y14

DIVISION

When dividing powers of the same quantity subtract the index of the denominator

(bottom part) from the index of the numerator (top part).

x 5 x 5 2 x 3

a3 a4 a8 a3 48

a5 a7

a5 7

15

a12 a1512 a3

a

3y2 2y5 5y 4

3

6y 4y

30y 25 4

24y

3 4

11 7

11

30y

7

24y

5y

5y

POWERS

When raising the power of a quantity to a power multiply the indices together.

3

(3x) 313 x 33 27x 3

3m

5n

3

2 32

3 2m22 9m 4

5 n

25n

6

113

NEGATIVE INDICES

A negative index indicates the reciprocal of the quantity

1

1

a a

5

3

5x x 3

a2

2 2 3

a b c b2 c 3

FRACTIONAL INDICES

The numerator of a fractional index indicates the power to which the quantity

must be raised; the denominator indicates the root which is to be taken.

2

3

3

x x

3

4

4

ab a b

1

2

a a

(Note that for square roots the number indicating the root is usually omitted).

1

6 2

1

6 2

64a (64a ) (8 a )

2

1

2

1

2

8a

ZERO INDEX

Any quantity raised to the value of zero is equal to 1.

a 1

0

x

1

y

Example 1

4

(1) 1 1 4 34 81

3

3

1

(2)

4

5

2 5

2 2

1

4 2 2

25 32

(3)

9x 3 x

2

1

2 2

2 1

31

2 1

1 2

31 x1 3x

114

Example 2

If 3p 4 9p2 find the value of p.

p2

p 4

p 4

32p 4

3

3

p + 4=2p 4

p=8

Exercise- Questions 1-7 Level 1

Simplify the following:

1) 35 32 37

2) b2 b4 b5 b8

7

3) 52

5

3 4 7

4) 2 2 2

2

5

2 2

5)

7

2

6) 3x 2 y3

7)

a b c

2

n,

and n is an integer is said to be in standard form.

Example 3

4

50 000 5 10 000 5 10

0.003

3

3

3

1000 10

Exercise- Level 1

Express each of the following in standard form:

1) 8000

5) 0.0035

2) 92 500

6) 0.7

3) 893

7) 0.000 365

4) 5 600 000

8) 0.007 12

115

LOGARITHMS

Any positive number can be expressed as a power of 10. For instance:

3

1000 10

1.869 2

74 10

logarithm

That is:

number= 10

The log tables at the end of this book give the logarithms of numbers between

1 and 10.

Thus,

log 5.176=0.714 0

To find out the logarithms of numbers outside this range we make use of

numbers in standard form and the multiplication law of indices. For example:

2

324.3 3.243 10

log 3.243 0.5109

0.5109

324.3 10

10

2.5109

10

(1) A whole number part called the characteristic.

(2) A decimal part called the mantissa which is found directly from the log

tables

For a number, 10 or greater, the characteristic is found by subtracting 1 from

the number of figures to the left of the decimal point in the given number.

In the number 825.7 the characteristic is 2.

NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS

0.632 0 6.321 10

0.632 1 100.800 8 101

1010.800 0

116

1+0.800 0 for the logarithm of 0.632 1 would be awkward and we therefore write:

log 0.632 1 1.8008

Note that the minus sign has been written above the characteristic but it must be

clearly understood that

and

2.735 6 2 0.735 6

4.067 3 4 0.067 3

All numbers between 0 and 1 have negative characteristics which are found by

adding 1 to the number of zeros following the decimal point.

In the number 0.073 58 the characteristic is 2 .

ANTI-LOGARITHMS

The table of antilogs at the end of this book contains the numbers which

correspond to the given logarithms. In using these tables remember that only the

decimal part of the log is used.

Example 4

(1)To find the number whose log is 2.531 2. Using the mantissa .531 2, we find

3398 as the number corresponding. Since the characteristic is 2 the number

must be 339.8.

(Note the log 339.8=2.531 2.)

(2)To find the number whose log is 3.617 8. Using the mantissa .617 8 we find

4148 as the number corresponding. Since the characteristic is 3 the number

must be 0.004 148.

(Note that log 0.004 148 3.617 8. )

Exercise 106- Level 1

Write down the following numbers:

1) 7.263

7) 70.01

2) 8.197

8) 176 300

3) 63.25

9) 0.178 6

4) 716.4

5)1823

11) 0.068 91

6) 78 640

13) 2.618 3

17) 1.234 5

14) 1.735 8

18) 2.600 8

15) 0.628 8

19) 4.631 8

117

16) 3.105 8

20) 3.555 7

Find the logs of the numbers and add them together. The antilog of the sum

gives the required answer.

Example 5

19.63 x 0.067 34 x 0.918 7

number

logarithm

19.63

1.292 9

0.067 34

2.828 3

0.918 7

1.963 2

Answ er 1.215

DIVISION

0.084

Find the log of each number. Then subtract the log of the denominator (bottom

number) from the log of the numerator (top number).

Example 6

17.63

0.038 62

number

logarithm

17.63

1.246 3

0.038 62

2.586 8

Answ er 456.6

2.659 5

Example 7

0.617 8 20.31

136.5 0.092 73

In problems where there is multiplication and division a table layout like the one

below is helpful.

Numerator

number

Denominato r

logarithm

number

logarithm

1.790 8

136.5

2.135 1

1.307 7

0.097 73

numerator

1.098 5

denominato r 1.102 3

denominator

1.102 3

0.617 8

20.31

Answ er 0.991 3

2.967 2

1.996 2

118

119

120

121

GEOMETRY

RADIAN MEASURES

We have seen that an angle is measured in degrees. There is however a second

way of measuring an angle. In this second system the unit is known as the

radian. Refering to

If we make the arc AB equal to a semi-circle then,

= r

Length of arc

Angle in radians =

r

r

But the angle at the centre subtended by a semi-circle is 180 and hence

radians 180

0

0 180 radians

60 3 radians

45 4 radians

90 2 radians

30 6 radians

Example 4

(1) Find the angle in radians subtended by an arc 12.9 cm long whose radius is

4.6 cm.

122

Angle in radians

length of arc

radius of circle

12.9

(2) Express an angle of 1.26 radians in

4.6

2.804 radians

Angle in deg rees

180 1.26

72.18

Now

Angle in radians

angle in deg rees

180

104

180

1.815 radians

Exercise- Level 1

(1) Find the angle in radians subtended by the following arcs:

(a) arc = 10.9cm, radius = 3.4cm

(b) arc = 7.2m, radius = 2.3m

(2) Express the following angles in degrees and minutes:

(a) 5 radians

(b) 1.73 radians

(c) 0.159 radians

(4)Express the following angles in radians:

(a) 83

(b) 189

(c) 295

(d) 5.21

123

TYPE OF ANGLES

A reflex angle is greater than 180.

Complementary angles are angles whose sum is 90.

Supplementary angles are angles whose sum is 180

(1)The total angle on a straight line is 180. The angles A and B are called

adjacent angles. They are also supplementary.

opposite angles are equal. The angles A and C are called the vertically opposite

angles. Similarly the angles B and D are also vertically opposite angles.

(a) The corresponding angles are equal a=1; b=m; c=p;d=q.

(b) The alternate angles are equal d=m; c=l.

(d) The interior angles are supplementary d + l = 180; c + m= 180.

124

Conversely if the two straight lines are cut by a transversal the lines are parallel if

any one of the following is true:

(a) Two corresponding angels are equal.

(b)Two alternate angles are equal.

(c) Two interior angles are supplementary .

Example

(1)Find the angle A shown in Fig.

B 180 138 42

B A corresponding angles

A 42

(2) In Fig. the line BF bisects ABC. Find the value of the angle .

because they lie at right-angles to the line XY.

125

c b alternate angles : BZ || EY

b 38 since

c 38

a d alternate angles :

d 80 sin ce a 80

XD || BZ

ABC b d 80 38 118

FBC 118 2 59 sin ce BF bi sec ts ABC

b 59

38 59

59 38 21

Exercise-All Level 1

1) Find x in Fig.

2) Find A in Fig.

3) Find x in Fig.

126

6) Find x in Fig.

a less than 90

b greater than 90

c greater than 180

d equal to 180

a complementary angles

b alternate angles

c supplementary angles

d corresponding angles

9) In Fig. find A

127

12) In Fig. the lines AB, CD and EF are parallel. Find the values of x and y.

13) In Fig.

a q=p + r

b p + q + r = 360

cq=rp

d q = 360 p r

128

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

Charts and Graphs are pictorial representations of date. They enable you to

quickly visualise certain relationships, completer complex calculations and predict

trends. Furthermore, charts allow you to see the rate and magnitude of changes.

Information is presented graphically in many different forms. Graphs are often

found in the form of bar charts, pictographs, broken line graphs (or continuous

curve graphs) and the circular or pie chart. Another type of graph that you will

meet in aircraft maintenance if the nomogram.

Many of the graphs that you will meet will conform to a standard layout of two

variables displayed on adjacent axes, normally vertical and horizontal. This

layout is described as Cartesian and usually has the two axes, labelled x and y

which intersect at the zero point.

129

USE OF GRAPHS

You will find many graphs also produce a straight line, which may, or may not

pass through the origin. A graph of this type is formed when load is plotted

against extension for an elastic material subjected to a tensile test.

For such a graph, it is evident that the load value is directly proportional to the

extension that the load produces.

If you plot a graph, which represents the compression of a gas in a close d

cylinder, it takes the form as shown. If the temperature of the gas remains

constant during the compression, then P x volume = constant, produces a curve

known as a Hyperbola.

130

131

Alternating voltages and currents are often represented by sine and cosine

waves. These are the result of plotting the path of a rotating output along a

straight axis.

The only difference between them is that the sine wave always has its zero value

at the start and completion of each rotation. The cosine wave however,

begins and finishes its rotation with the output at its maximum value.

Nomograms

The need to show how two or more variables affect a value is common in the

maintenance of aircraft. Nomograms also known as an alignment chart, are a

special type of graph that enables you to solve complex problems involving more

than one variable.

Most nomogram charts contain a great deal of information and require the use of

scales on three sides of the chart, as well as diagonal lines. In fact, some

charts contain so much information, that it can be very important for you to

carefully read the instructions before using the chart and to show care

when reading information from the chart itself.

Illustrated below is a graph of three variables, distance, speed and time, the

resulting distance can be extracted from the graph at the point where these

two dashed lines meet. A speed of 375 knots for 2.5 hours would result in

a distance of approximately 950 nautical miles.

132

133

TRIGONOMETRY

THE NOTATION FOR A RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLE

The sides of a right-angled triangle are given special names. The side AB lies

opposite the right-angle and it is called the hypotenuse. The side BC lies

opposite to the angle A and it is called the side oppostite to A. The side AC is

called the side adjacent to A.

When we consider the angle B the side AB is still the hypotenuse but AC is now

the side opposite to B and BC is te side adjacent to B.

Consider any angle 0 which is bounded by the lines OA and OB as shown. Take

any point P on the boundary line OB. From P draw line PM perpendicular to OA

to meet it at the point M. Then

the ratio

MP

is called the sine of AOB

OP

the ratio

OM

is called the cosine of AOB

OP

and

the ratio

MP

is called the tangent of AOB

OM

134

The abbreviation sin is usually used for sine. In any right-angled triangle the

sine of an angle

hypotenuse

BC

AC

AB

sin C

AC

sin A

Example 1

Find by drawing a suitable triangle the value of sine 30.

Draw the lines AX and AY which intersect at A so that the angle YAX 30 as

shown. Along AY measure off AC equal to 1 unit (say 10cm) and from C draw

CB perpendicular to AX. Measure CB which will be found to be 0.5 units (5cm in

this case).

Therefore sin 30

5

0.5.

10

inconvienient and not very accurate. Tables of sines have been calculated which

allow us to find the sine of any angle. Part of this table is reproduced below and

in full, with the other trigonometrical tables, at the end of the book.

(1) To find sin 12. The sine of an angle with an exact number of degrees is

shown in the column headed 0. Thus sin 12=0.2079.

(2) To find sin 1236. The value will be found under the column headed 36.

Thus sin 12= 0.2181.

(3) To find sin 1240. If the number of minutes is not an exact multiple of 6

we use the table of mean differences. Now 1236=0.2181 and 40 is 4

more than 36. Looking in the mean difference headed 4 we find the

135

value 11. This is added on to the sine of 1236 and we have sin

1240=0.2181 + 0.0011= 0.219 2.

(4) To find the angle whose sine is 0.1711. Look in the table of sines to find

the nearest to find the nearest number lower than 0.1711. This is found to

be 0.1702 which corresponds to an angle of 948. Now 0.1702 is 0.000 9

less than 0.1711 so we look in the mean difference table in the row

marked 9 and find 9 in the column headed 3. The angle whose sine is

0.1711 is then 948 + 3 =951 or sin 951 = 0.1711.

Example 2

(1) Find the length of AB.

right angle.

Therefore

136

AB

sin 22

BC

AB BC sin 22 80 0.3746

29.97 mm

BC

sin 23 35'

AB

BC

60

AB

150 mm

(3) Find the angles CAB and ABC in ABC which is shown below..

AC 20

0.333 3

AB 60

From the sine tables

'

B 19 28

sin B

A 90 19 28' 70 32'

1)Find, by drawing, the sines of the following angles:

(a) 30

(b)45

(c)68

(a)

1

3

(b)

3

4

(c) 0.72

(a) 0.156 4 (b) sin 1812

(c) sin 7442

137

4)Use the tables to write down the angles whose sines are:

(a) 0.156 4 (b) 0.913 5 (c) 0.988 0

(d) 0.080 2 (e) 0.981 4 (f) 0.739 5

(g) 0.050 0 (h) 0.270 0

5)Find the lengths of the sides marked x

8) In ABC, B=90, A=6728 and AC=0.86 m. Find BC.

138

In any right-angled triangle the cosine of an angle

hypotenuse

AB

AC

BC

cos C

AC

cos A

The cosine of an angle may be found by drawing, the construction being similar

to that used for the sine of an angle. However, tables of cosines are available

and these are used in a similar way to the table of sines except that the mean

differences are now subtracted.

Example

Find the length of the side BC

BC

cos 38

AC

94.56mm

139

Therefore

AB

cos 60

AC

AB

28

AC

56 cm

0.5000

cos 60

Since ABC is isosceles the perpendicular AD bisects the base BC and hence

BD=15mm.

cos 0

BD 15

0.3

AB 50

0 72 32'

1) Use the tables to write down the values of:

(a) cos 15

2) Use the tables to write down the angles whose cosine are:

(a) 0.913 5 (b) 0.342 0 (c) 0.967 3

(d) 0.428 9 (e) 0.958 6 (f) 0.008 4

(g) 0.261 1 (h) 0.470 0

140

5) An isosceles triangle has a base of 3.4cm and the equal sides are each 4.2cm

long. Find the angles of the triangle and also its altitude.

6)In ABC, C=90, B=33 and BC-2.4cm. Find AB.

7) In ABC, =90, A=6245 and AC=4.3cm. Find AB.

8) Calculate BAC and the length BC.

141

In any right-angled triangle

the tangent of an angle

side adjacent to the angle

BC

AB

AB

tan C

BC

tan A

The abbreviation tan is usually used for tangent. From the table of tangents the

tangents of angles from 0 to 90 can be read directly.

For example:

tan 37 0.753 6

and

Example 4

(1) Find the length of the side AB

AB

tan C

AC

AB

tan 42

AC

AB AC tan 42 40 0.9004

36.02 mm

142

(a)

AB

AB

tan 38 or BC

BC

tan 38

Therefore BC

32

40.96 mm

0.781 3

(b) Since C 38

A 90 38 52

now

BC

tan A or BC AB tan A

AB

BC 32 1.280 40.96 mm

Both methods produce the same answer but method (b) is better because it is

quicker and more convenient to multiply than divide. Whenever possible the ratio

should be arranged so that the quantity to be found is the numerator of the ratio.

Exercise- All Level 1

1)

(a) tan 18

2)

(d) 0.397 7 (e) 0.356 8 (f) 0.826 3

(g) 1.925 1 (h) 0.016 3

3)

Find the lengths of the sides marked y in the triangles being right-angled.

143

4)

5)

An isosceles triangle has a base 10cm long and the two equal angles are

each 57. Calculate the altitude of the triangle.

6) In ABC, B=90,C=49 and AB=3.2cm. Find BC.

7) In ABC, A=1223, B=90 and BC=7.31cm. Find AB.

8) Calculate the distance x

144

Previously the definitions for the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle between 0

and 90 were given. In this chapter we show how to deal with angles between 0

and 360.

In Fig., the axes XOX and YOY, have the four quadrants In each of these four

quadrants we make use of the sign convention used when drawing graphs.

OX and an angle is formed by rotating a line (such as OP) in an anti-clockwise

direction. It is convenient to make the length of OP equal to 1 unit. Referring to

Fig. we see

In the first quadrant,

sin 0 P1M1 P1 M1

OP1

y co ordinate of P1

cos 01 OM1 OM1

OP1

x co ordinate of P1

tan 01

P1M 1

OM1

y co ordinate of P

x co ordinate of P

145

Hence in the first quadrant all the trigonometrical ratios are positive.

In the second quadrant

sin 02

P2M 2

P2 M2

OP 2

y co ordinate of P2

The y co-ordinate of P2 is positive and hence in the second quadrant the sine of

an angle is positive.

Op 2

x co ordinate of P2

The x co-ordinate of P2 is negative, and hence in the second quadrant the cosine

y co ordinate of P2

of an angle is negative. tan 02 P2M 2

But the y co-ordinate

OM2

x co ordinate of P2

angle in the second quadrant is negative.

146

The trigonometrical tables usually give values of the trigonometrical ratios for

angles between 0 and 90. In order to use these tables for angles greater than

90 we make use of the triangle OP 2M 2

,

P2M

y co ordinate of P2

x co ordinate of P2

But

P2 M2 sin 02

Also

OM2 OP 2 cos (18002 )

- cos (180 02 )

Similarily

tan 02 tan(180 02 )

cos 03 cos (03 180 )

tan 03 tan (03 180 )

sin 04 sin (360 04 )

cos 04 cos (3600 04 )

tan 04 tan (360 04 )

147

Example

Find the values of sin 158, cos 158 and tan 158. Referring to Fig.

sin 158

MP

sin POM

OP

sin 22 0.3746

OM

cos 158 OP cosPOM

cos 22 0.9272

MP

tan 158 OM tan POM

tan 22 0.4040

148

Example

(1) Find the sine and cosine of the following angles:

(a) 171

(b) 216

(c) 289

= 0.1564

cos 171 = -cos (180-171)

= -cos 9 = - 0.9877

(b) sin 216 = -sin (216 - 180)

= - sin 36 = - 0.5878

cos 216 = - cos (216-180)

= - cos 36= -0.8090

(c) sin 289 = - sin (360-289)

= - sin 71= -0.9455

cos 289 = cos(360-289)

= cos 71 = 0.3256

(2) Find all the angles between 0 and 180:

(a) whose sine is 0.4676;

(b)whose cosine is 0.357 2.

(3) Is sin A

3

find the values of cos A .

5

2

OM 4

cos A

4

OM 2

5

M 2P2

sin

cos

tan

108

163

207

320

134

168

225

286

300

95

149

POLAR CO-ORDINATES

It was shown that a point on a graph may be positioned by using rectangular coordinates (sometimes called Cartesian co-ordinates). Hence if P is the point (3,4)

its position is as shown in Fig.

However, the position of P may also be indicated by stating the length OP and

the angle . Thus in Fig.

Op 3 2 4 2 25 5

(by u sin g Pythagoras ' theorem )

tan 0

and

4

1.333

3

0 53 7 '

P is then said to have the polar co-ordinates (5,537). The angle may be

expressed in degrees or in radians. If Q is the point 7, the angle is

3

radians or 60.

Example

(1) A point P has Cartesian co-ordianates (5, -7). State the polar co-ordinates of

P.

150

From Fig.

OP 52 72 74 8.602

7

tan 1.4

5

5428'

360 54 28' 305 32'

Hence the polar co ordinates of P are

(8.602,305 32')

(2) A point A has the polar co ordinates

5

8,

. Determine the Cartesian co ordinates

of A.

In Fig.

5

5 180

radians

150

6

6

180 150 30

AB OA sin 30 8 0.5000 4

Hence the Cartesian co ordiantes of A

are ( 6.928,4).

Exercise-All Level 2

1)Calculate the polar co-ordinates for the following points:

(a) (3,2)

(b) (5,8)

(c) (-4,8)

(d) (-3,-5)

(e) (6,-4)

(f) (-4,-6)

(g) (8,-7)

(h) (-1,3)

(a) (5,30)

(b) (7,65)

(c) (2,112)

(d) (4,148)

(e) (7,198)

(f) (3,265)

(g) (5,297)

(h) (3,330)

151

(a) 5,

3

(b) 4,

2

3

(c) 6,

4

5

(d) 10,

3

4)Calculate the polar co-ordinates for the following points, stating the angle in

radian measure:

(a) (2,1)

(b) (-3,5)

(c) (-2,-4)

(d) (4,-2)

5)In Fig., with origin O, the polar co-ordinates of the point X are (5,40). YXP is

a straight line parallel to the x-axis.

Find:

(a)the polar co-ordinates of Y

(b)the polar co-ordinates of P

152

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