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Advanced Placement

Teacher Resource Guide

AP|Statistics
Jared Derksen

Categorical data
Numerical data
comparing data sets
Probability distribution
inference procedures
commandline statistics

www.casioeducation.com 1-800-582-2763

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Advanced Placement
TEACHER RESOURCE GUIDE

AP|Statistics
AUTHOR:

Jared Derksen
EDITORS:

Amy Chow, Mike Reiners

This workbook is a product of the:


CASIO TEACHER ADVISORY COUNCIL (CTAC)
theyre written By Teachers, For Teachers. CTAC represents an
embodiment of this philosophy and the foundation for which we
generate all CASIO support materials. For more information on CTAC,
our ACE training program or how to get involved email us at
calcworkshops@casio.com
2011 by Casio America, Inc.
570 Mt. Pleasant Avenue
Dover, NJ 07801
The contents of this book can be used by the classroom teacher to make reproductions for student
use. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by an information storage or
retrieval system without permission in writing from CASIO.
Printed in the United States of America.

A P | stat ist i c s | Calcul ator Gu ideb oo k

casio e d u cat ion

he goal of this relatively brief guide


is to enable an AP Statistics student or teacher

to be able to effectively use the Casio Prizm graphing


calculator in the investigation of the majority of the
problems one encounters in an AP Statistics course.
Further information on using the Prizm in statistics
can be found in the Casio-published text Fostering
Statistical Thinking with the Casio PRIZM, and by
watching the AP Statistics webinars

(http://www.casioeducation.com/support/educators).
the author | jared derksen
Jared Derksen has been a classroom mathematics instructor for 20
years. During that time he has taught subjects ranging from general
mathematics to AP Statistics and Calculus. He has been AP Statistics
reader many summers, and has produced a variety of materials for
the AP Statistics community. Jared is a big fan of technology in general
and especially when used for enhancing student learning.

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Table of Contents
Categorical Data................................................................................................................................4
Entering data into lists......................................................................................................................4
Performing operations on data..................................................................................................... 5
Graphing categorical data...............................................................................................................6

Numerical Data................................................................................................................................ 10
Calculating single-variable statistics......................................................................................... 10
Creating a histogram....................................................................................................................... 14
Creating a boxplot.............................................................................................................................18

Comparing Data Sets....................................................................................................................21


Creating scatter plots.......................................................................................................................21
Linear regression...............................................................................................................................23
Calculating and displaying residuals.........................................................................................25

Probability Distributions.........................................................................................................27
Investigating normal distributions..............................................................................................27
Investigating binomial distributions.......................................................................................... 30

Inference Procedures...................................................................................................................32
Constructing confidence intervals for the z distribution...................................................32
Performing a two-tailed z-test.................................................................................................... 34
Constructing confidence intervals for the t distribution.................................................. 36
Performing a two-tailed t-test.................................................................................................... 38
Performing a Chi-squared goodness-of-fit test.................................................................... 41

Command-line Statistics..........................................................................................................47
Performing random experiments................................................................................................47
Using Statistical variables...............................................................................................................51

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Categorical Data
Entering data into lists:

1. From the Main Menu (p),


enter the Statistics module (2).

Suppose that data was collected from a


class of 35 students. They were asked if they
arrived to school in an American-made car,
European-made, Asian-made, or other. The
results are shown in the table below:

2. Begin typing the values from the Frequency


column into List 1.
Press l after each value to store it in the list.

3. Scroll up (B) to the SUB header field, and


enter the title CAR.(LaGf6)
(This is simply an optional reminder as to the
nature of the data set).

Car

Frequency

American

13

European

Asian

12

Other

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Performing operations
on data:

4. Scroll to the List 2 header ($).

5. Store the relative frequencies of the List 1


values into List 2.
(L1M35l)

6. Go to the next page of options (u).

More basic list commands can now be


accessed from this soft menu. You can EDIT,
DELETE, and INSERT individual data points in
a list. The q(TOOL) command will allow you
to sort the elements in a list numerically and
to move quickly to the top or bottom of
a lengthy list.

Categorical Data

Categorical Data

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Graphing categorical data:

7. Return the Statistics mode to its original state


(Ld).

8. Enter the Graph Settings screen (qu).

9. Change the Graph Type setting to Pie (r).

10. Return to the List Editor (d), and create the


pie graph (q).

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Notice that colors are automatically chosen


for the four categories:

11. Return to the List Editor again (d) and


open the FORMAT menu (L5).

12. Select Blue (2) for the American-made


car value.

13. Scroll through the remaining values in List 1,


one at a time, giving each value a different
color using the FORMAT menu.

Categorical Data

Categorical Data

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14. Open the Graph Settings (u) and turn the


Color Link setting On (q).

15. Return to the List Editor screen (d) and


create GRAPH1 again (q).

This time, the colors used in the graph are


linked to the color formatting of the values
from the List Editor screen. The icon in the
upper right corner of the screen indicates that
the Color Link feature is controlling the color
choices.

16. Lets try a bar graph. Return to the List Editor


screen (d) and open the Graph Settings
(u).

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17. Highlight the Graph Type setting and view the


next page of options (u).

18. Select the Bar graph type (e).

19. Scroll down to the Stick Style setting and


change it to Horizontal (w).

20. d out of the Graph Settings, and create


the bar graph (q).
Up to three categorical variables can be
graphed with a side-by-side bar chart. (e.g.,
store data on staff and administration cars in
Lists 2 and 3.)
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Categorical Data

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Numerical Data
Calculating single-variable
statistics:
1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the
Statistics module (2).

2. If there is existing data in any of the lists, QUIT


from any open menus (Ld), go to the
second page of options (u), and DELETE
ALL entries in the unwanted list (r). Press
q to confirm the deletion.
(Note that the List itself is not destroyed; its
data is simply cleared.)

Lets suppose we have collected data


from 15 children, recording their ages and
their shoe sizes:

10

Name

Age (years)

Shoe Size

Harry

10

Ryan

14

10

Kareem

12

David

Samuel

Charles

11

Justin

Jeff

Pattie

13

Nicole

11

Shannon

12

Paulina

5.5

Jasmine

10

Allison

14

Sarah

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3. Enter the Age data into List 1, and the Shoe


Size data into List 2.

4. Scroll up to the SUB header fields,


and input AGE for List 1 and SHOE
for List 2. (Lafzjl)
(Lamx9jl)

5. Return to the original soft menu (uu),


open the CALCULATE sub-menu (w), and
perform a 1-VARIABLE summary.

By default, the summary shown is for the data


in List 1 (the childrens ages).

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Numerical Data

Numerical Data

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6. Scroll down to see the five-number summary...

...and the mode statistic.

7. d from the List 1 summary and open


the Calculation Settings (u).

8. Change the 1Var XList setting to List 2.


(q2l)

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Numerical Data

9. d the Calculation Settings and perform a


1-VARiable summary (q).

This time, the summary reflects


the data in List 2.

10. To display some of the statistics from both


lists for comparison, to the List Editor screen
and perform a 2-VARiable summary (w).

11. The List 1 data relates to the x statistics, while the List 2 data relates to y.

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Numerical Data

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Creating a histogram:

12. QUIT to the initial Statistics screen (Ld),


scroll to the bottom of List 2, and input NBA
star Shaquille ONeals shoe size: 26.

13. Open the GRAPH soft menu (q), and go to


the Graph Settings (u).

14. Highlight the Graph Type setting and view the


next page of options (u).

15. Select the Histogram graph type (q).

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16. Move down to the XList setting, and change it


to List2 (q2l).

17. Move down to the Color Link setting, and turn


it Off (e).

18. d the StatGraph Settings and create the


histogram (q).

19. A dialog box appears, asking where the


histogram should start on the x-axis and how
wide the bars should be. For now, press l to
accept the defaults.

15

Numerical Data

Numerical Data

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20. We would like to make our bar width smaller.


d from the graph, re-create it (q), and
this time change the Width to 1 (1l).

The number of classes is acceptable, but now


lets make the axis labeling more relevant to
our primarily whole-numbered shoe sizes.

21. Open the View Window settings (Le).

22. Change the Xscale and Yscale values to


whole numbers.
(Suggested: 2 for Xscale, 1 for Yscale)

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23. d the View Window settings and


re-draw the graph (ql).

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Numerical Data

Numerical Data

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Creating a boxplot:
The Casio Prizm features 3 different graph
pre-set slots. We will use the GRAPH2 slot to
create the median boxplot of the shoe size data.
24. QUIT to the initial Statistics screen (Ld),
open the GRAPH soft menu (q), and go to
the Graph Settings (u).

25. Display GRAPH2s settings (w).

26. Highlight the Graph Type setting, go to the


second page of options (u), and select
MedBox (w).

27. Change the XList setting to List2


(q2l).

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28. Scroll down to the Outliers setting, and turn it


On (q).

29. d the StatGraph settings, and create the


boxplot (w).
Notice that the 1-variable summary command
is conveniently located above q.

30. Begin tracing the boxplot (Lq).

Use the left and right arrows (!$) to


display different values amongst the
five-number summary and/or any outliers.

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Numerical Data

Numerical Data

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Note: To display two or three boxplots in the same window:


Set up GRAPH1, GRAPH2, and or GRAPH3 as the MedBox Graph Type.
From the GRAPH soft menu, press r(SELECT); q(On) for StatGraph1, StatGraph2,
and/or StatGraph3; then u(DRAW).

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Numerical Data

Comparing Data Sets


Creating scatterplots:
1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the
Statistics module (2).

2. Input the Age and Shoe Size data again for


the 15 children.

(If there is still an outlier of 26 at the bottom


of List 2, delete it by highlighting the value
and pressing P.)

21

Name

Age (years)

Shoe Size

Harry

10

Ryan

14

10

Kareem

12

David

Samuel

Charles

11

Justin

Jeff

Pattie

13

Nicole

11

Shannon

12

Paulina

5.5

Jasmine

10

Allison

14

Sarah

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3. From the GRAPH soft-menu (q), open the


StatGraph settings (u).

4. Change the Graph Type setting to Scatter


(q).
(Make sure XList and YList are set to List1 and
List2, respectively.)

5. d the StatGraph settings, and create the


scatterplot (q).

6. Experiment with tracing the scatterplot points


(Lq).
Use the left and right arrows (!$) to
move among the data points.
(Notice that the points trace in the order they
appear in the Lists.)
7. Turn off Trace mode (q).

22

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Linear regression:
8. Open the CALCulate menu (q).

9. There are many different types of regressions


listed here (and on the next two pages of
menu options). Select the linear (X) regression
option (w).

10. There are two options shown for the form of


the linear regression equation.
Select the form a + bx (w), which is closest
to that used by CollegeBoard.

11. The linear regression statistics are displayed,


including the coefficients of the regression
equation, the correlation coefficient, the
coefficient of determination, and the meansquared error. DRAW the regression line (u).

23

Comparing Data Sets

Comparing Data Sets

AP | stat isti cs | Ca lculato r Gu ideb oo k

12. Press w to return to the regression statistics.

13. This time, COPY (y) the regression equation


into the Graph module.

14. Scroll to any function line, and paste the


regression equation there (l).
This allows the regression line to be
studied in more depth later.
(If there is an existing function in that line,
it will be overwritten.)

24

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Calculating and
displaying residuals:
15. d the regression statistics and go
into Statistics SET UP (Lp).

16. Change the Resid List setting to List3


(w3l).

17. d to the List Editor screen, and re-draw the


scatterplot (q).

18. Perform the linear regression again


(qww).

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Comparing Data Sets

Comparing Data Sets

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19. d back to the List Editor screen.


The residuals are now shown in List 3.

20. Open the StatGraph settings (u) and change


the YList to List3 (q3l).

21. d the StatGraph settings and draw the


residual plot (q).

26

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Probability Distributions
Investigating normal distributions:
Suppose that the lifespan of a compact florescent life bulb
is roughly normally distributed with a mean of 10,000 hours
and a standard deviation of 1,300 hours. What percentage
of life bulbs will have between 12,000 and 15,000 hours of usage?

1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the


Statistics module (2).

2. Open the DISTribution soft menu (y).

3. Select the NORMal distribution soft


menu (q).

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casio e d u cat ion

4. Choose the Normal cumulative


distribution (w).

5. The soft menu at the bottom of the screen


gives the options of providing the normal
distribution data either from a List (q) or
through Variables (w).
In this case, we are provided with specific
values, so press w.

6. Input the Lower bound (12,000), Upper bound


(15,000), and the given values of the standard
deviation (1,300) and the mean (10,000).

7. Scroll down to the word Execute,


and DRAW the normal curve (u).

28

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The z-scores of the upper and lower bounds


are shown, as well as the area under the curve,
which represents the desired cumulative
probability.

29

Probability Distribution

Probability Distribution

AP | stat isti cs | Ca lculator Gu ideb oo k

Investigating binomial distributions:


Suppose that a basketball player shoots free
throws with 72% accuracy. Assuming that his
shots are independent of each other, what is the
probability he makes nine of his next ten shots?
8. QUIT back to the initial Statistics screen
(Ld), and open the DISTribution soft
menu (y).

9. Select the BINOMIAL sub-menu (y).

10. Choose the Binomial probability distribution


(q).

11. Make sure the Data source is still listed as


Variable. Input 9 as the number of successes,
10 as the number of trials, and 0.72 as the
probability.

30

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12. Scroll down to the word Execute,


and CALCulate the probability (q).

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Probability Distribution

Probability Distribution

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Inference Procedures
Constructing confidence intervals
for the z distribution:
Suppose that a commercial for a new cereal is measuring its level
of brand name recognition. 200 people are surveyed and 42 of them
are familiar with the product. Construct a 95% confidence interval
for the proportion of people for whom the commercial succeeded.

1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the Statistics


module (2).

2. Open the INTeRval soft menu (r).

3. Select the Z-distribution sub-menu (q).

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4. Choose the 1-PROPortion option (e).

5. Move down one line (N), then input 42 for


the number of successes and 200 for the
number of trials. (The confidence level is set to
95% by default.)

6. Highlight the word Execute, and CALCulate


the confidence interval (q).

We are shown the lower and


upper bounds of the confidence interval,
as well as the mean proportion of success 42 = 0.21.
200

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Inference Procedures

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CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

Performing a two-tailed z-test:


Later the cereal company is going to test a new commercial that they hope
will achieve a greater visibility. While the old commercial had 42 out of 200 people
recognize the product, the new commercial resulted in 58 out of 250 people
surveyed recognizing the cereal. Is this evidence that the new commercial was
more successful?

7. QUIT back to the initial Statistics screen


(Ld), and open the TEST soft menu
(e).

8. Select the Z-test sub-menu (q).

9. Choose the 2-PROPortion option (r).

34

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Inference Procedures

10. Change the test type to p1 < p2 (w).

11. Scroll down and input 58 for x2 and


250 for n2.
(Note that the previous values for x1 and n1
are still stored.)

12. Scroll down to the word Execute,


and DRAW the test result (u).

13. At this point, you could either display the test statistic z (q) or the probability p of
random occurrence of that test statistic (w).

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CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

Constructing confidence intervals for the t distribution:


Again using the shoe size data for 15 students (shown to the left), suppose that we wish
to find a 90% confidence interval for the average shoe size of students at the school.
Name

Age (years)

Shoe Size

Harry

10

Ryan

14

10

Kareem

12

David

Samuel

Charles

11

Justin

Jeff

Pattie

13

Nicole

11

Shannon

12

Paulina

5.5

Jasmine

10

Allison

14

Sarah

1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the


Statistics module (2).

2. Input the Shoe Size data (from the table


above) into List 1.

3. Open the INTeRval soft menu (r).

36

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4. Select the t-Test sub-menu (w).

5. Choose a 1-SAMPLE t-Test (q).

6. Change the Data source to List, then input


0.9 as the Confidence Level.
Be sure List1 is the List being used for the
test.

7. Scroll down to the word Execute,


and CALCulate the t-Test data (q).
We are shown the lower and upper bounds of
the confidence interval, as well as the mean
and standard deviation of the student shoe
size sample means for n = 15.
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Inference Procedures

Inference Procedures

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CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

Performing a two-tailed t-test:


Suppose that a school calculates the average GPA for its 120 college-bound seniors
to be 3.25 with a standard deviation of 0.8. Its rival high school has 110 college-bound
seniors with a GPA of 3.33 and standard deviation of 1.1. Is there evidence of a
statistically-significant difference between the two schools?

1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the


Statistics module (2).

2. Open the TEST soft menu (e).

3. Select the t-Test soft menu (w).

38

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4. Choose a 2-SAMPLE t-Test (w).

5. Change the Data source to Variable,


and change the test type to 1 2.

6. Input the following values:


x1 = 3.25
x2 = 3.33

sx1 = 0.8
sx2 = 1.1

n1 = 120
n2 = 110

7. Scroll down to the word Execute,


and DRAW the t-Test results (u).

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Inference Procedures

Inference Procedures

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Once again, we can display either the test statistic t (q) or the
probability p of random occurrence of that test statistic (w).

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Inference Procedures

Performing a Chi-squared
goodness-of-fit test:
Consider again the data regarding the continent
of manufacture for the cars of 35 students:

Suppose that actual student car manufacturing


is nationally distributed according to the
following percentages:

1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the


Statistics module (2).

2. Input the observed data (from the Frequency


table above) into List 1, and the expected
percentages (from the Relative Frequency
table) into List 2.

41

Car

Frequency

American

13

European

Asian

12

Other

Car

Relative Frequency

American

40%

European

20%

Asian

35%

Other

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Inference Procedures

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3. Highlight the header of List 3


($BB) and generate the list of
expected car frequencies by manufacturer
(35mL1(List)2l)

4. Open the TEST soft menu (e).

5. Select the CHI-squared test sub-menu (e).

6. Choose the Goodness-Of-Fit test (q).

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Inference Procedures

7. Move down to the Expected data source and


set it to List3. Then change the degrees of
freedom to 3, and the CoNTRiButions output
to List4.

8. Scroll down to the word Execute,


and DRAW the t-Test results (u).

Once again, we can display either the test statistic (q) or the probability p of random
occurrence of that test statistic (w).

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Inference Procedures

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CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

9. QUIT back to the initial Statistics screen


(Ld).
The statistical contributions to the
Chi-squared GOF test are shown in List 4.

Suppose we have the distribution of student


breakfast choices sorted by gender:
We wish to know if there is an association
between choice and gender:
No need to exit the Stats Editor to enter a
matrix! Simply navigate to the Chi-squared
two-way table test and the matrix can be
edited from the test menu.

10. Open the TEST soft menu (e).

11. Select the CHI-squared test sub-menu (e).

44

Fruit

Bread

Protein

Male

23

35

46

Female

57

36

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12. Choose the 2-WAY test (w).

13. Enter the Matrix Editor (w).

14. Press l, and format Matrix A


as a 2 x 3 matrix (2l3ll).

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Inference Procedures

Inference Procedures

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15. Input the values from the student breakfast


choices.
Press l to store each value.

16. Press d twice to return to the test screen,


scroll down to the word Execute, and DRAW
the test results (u).

Once again, we can display either the test


statistic (q) or the probability p of random
occurrence of that test statistic (w).

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CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

Fruit

Bread

Protein

Male

23

35

46

Female

57

36

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Command-line
Statistics
Performing random experiments:
While you will spend most of your time doing statistics in the
Statistics Mode, there are some commands that you need to operate
from the Run-Matrix home screen.

1. From the Main Menu (p),


enter the Run-Matrix module (1).

2. Open the OPTION menu (i).


The i button is next to the L button.

3. Go to the next page of menu options (u),


and select the PROBability sub-menu (e).

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Inference Procedures

Inference Procedures

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4. Select the RANDom number sub-menu (r).

5. Use q(Ran#)l to generate a random


number between 0 and 1.
(One of the great features of the Prizm is that
soft menus stay accessible at the bottom of
the screen for as long as they are needed.)

6. Use w(Int) to generate random integers.


Press l multiple times to generate many
random integers.
Suppose we wish to generate 10 random
heights of women, assuming that female
height is normally distributed with a mean of
64 and a standard deviation of 2.5.

7. Use e(Norm) to generate random values


from a normal distribution.
(The syntax is <standard deviation>, <mean>,
<# of values desired>.)

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8. To see all 10 values, move up (B) to the


outputted list and press l.

9. d the List output screen and


store the 10 values into a Statistics list.
(bL1(List)1l)

10. From the Main Menu (p), enter the


Statistics module (2).

Notice that the 10 random normal distribution


values are now sitting in List 1!

49

Command-Time Statistics

AP | stat isti cs | Ca lculator Gu ideb oo k

11. Go to the Main Menu (p) and return to the


Run-Matrix module (1).

(Notice that this module is exactly as we left it!)


Suppose we wish to simulate a call center
that randomly dials phone numbers and
counts on a 20% success rate in the calls
being answered. Simulate the number of
successes they expect to have out of 10 calls:

12. Use r(Bin) to generate random values from


a binomial distribution.
(The syntax is <number of binomial trials>,
<probability of success>.)

13. Again, press l repeatedly for more random


binomial values.

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CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

c asio e d u c atio n

AP | statistic s | Ca lculator Gu ideb oo k

Using statistical variables:


Finally, there are a large set of statistical commands that
can be accessed from the home screen. Most of the time it is
convenient to simply run these functions from Statistics Mode,
but here is one example:

1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the


Run-Matrix module (1).

2. Open the OPTION menu (i).

3. Select the STATistics sub-menu (y).

51

Command-Time Statistics

Command-Time Statistics

AP | stat isti cs | Ca lculator Gu ideb oo k

4. Choose the Standard Deviation command


(r).

5. Find the standard deviation of the 10 random


normal distribution values that were stored in
List 1 in the previous section
(L1(List) 1)l).
Other statistical values that would otherwise
be calculated in the Statistics module can
also be displayed in the Run-Matrix module in
this way.

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CAS I O EDUCAT I ON