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39 (de) vizualizări53 paginiAP Statistics on the Casio Prizm

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AP Statistics on the Casio Prizm

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39 (de) vizualizări

AP Statistics on the Casio Prizm

© All Rights Reserved

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AP|Statistics

Jared Derksen

Categorical data

Numerical data

comparing data sets

Probability distribution

inference procedures

commandline statistics

www.casioeducation.com 1-800-582-2763

AP_StatCoverFinal_R1.indd 1

10/7/11 2:29 PM

c AS I O e d u catio n C

a s i o

e d u c at i o n

AP | statist

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icsk| Ca

b lculato

o o kr Gu

sideb

e r

ooik eCategorical

s

Data

Advanced Placement

TEACHER RESOURCE GUIDE

AP|Statistics

AUTHOR:

Jared Derksen

EDITORS:

CASIO TEACHER ADVISORY COUNCIL (CTAC)

theyre written By Teachers, For Teachers. CTAC represents an

embodiment of this philosophy and the foundation for which we

generate all CASIO support materials. For more information on CTAC,

our ACE training program or how to get involved email us at

calcworkshops@casio.com

2011 by Casio America, Inc.

570 Mt. Pleasant Avenue

Dover, NJ 07801

The contents of this book can be used by the classroom teacher to make reproductions for student

use. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by an information storage or

retrieval system without permission in writing from CASIO.

Printed in the United States of America.

is to enable an AP Statistics student or teacher

calculator in the investigation of the majority of the

problems one encounters in an AP Statistics course.

Further information on using the Prizm in statistics

can be found in the Casio-published text Fostering

Statistical Thinking with the Casio PRIZM, and by

watching the AP Statistics webinars

(http://www.casioeducation.com/support/educators).

the author | jared derksen

Jared Derksen has been a classroom mathematics instructor for 20

years. During that time he has taught subjects ranging from general

mathematics to AP Statistics and Calculus. He has been AP Statistics

reader many summers, and has produced a variety of materials for

the AP Statistics community. Jared is a big fan of technology in general

and especially when used for enhancing student learning.

c asio e d u c atio n

Table of Contents

Categorical Data................................................................................................................................4

Entering data into lists......................................................................................................................4

Performing operations on data..................................................................................................... 5

Graphing categorical data...............................................................................................................6

Numerical Data................................................................................................................................ 10

Calculating single-variable statistics......................................................................................... 10

Creating a histogram....................................................................................................................... 14

Creating a boxplot.............................................................................................................................18

Creating scatter plots.......................................................................................................................21

Linear regression...............................................................................................................................23

Calculating and displaying residuals.........................................................................................25

Probability Distributions.........................................................................................................27

Investigating normal distributions..............................................................................................27

Investigating binomial distributions.......................................................................................... 30

Inference Procedures...................................................................................................................32

Constructing confidence intervals for the z distribution...................................................32

Performing a two-tailed z-test.................................................................................................... 34

Constructing confidence intervals for the t distribution.................................................. 36

Performing a two-tailed t-test.................................................................................................... 38

Performing a Chi-squared goodness-of-fit test.................................................................... 41

Command-line Statistics..........................................................................................................47

Performing random experiments................................................................................................47

Using Statistical variables...............................................................................................................51

Categorical Data

Entering data into lists:

enter the Statistics module (2).

class of 35 students. They were asked if they

arrived to school in an American-made car,

European-made, Asian-made, or other. The

results are shown in the table below:

column into List 1.

Press l after each value to store it in the list.

enter the title CAR.(LaGf6)

(This is simply an optional reminder as to the

nature of the data set).

Car

Frequency

American

13

European

Asian

12

Other

c AS I O e d u catio n

Performing operations

on data:

values into List 2.

(L1M35l)

accessed from this soft menu. You can EDIT,

DELETE, and INSERT individual data points in

a list. The q(TOOL) command will allow you

to sort the elements in a list numerically and

to move quickly to the top or bottom of

a lengthy list.

Categorical Data

Categorical Data

(Ld).

pie graph (q).

c AS I O e d u catio n

for the four categories:

open the FORMAT menu (L5).

car value.

one at a time, giving each value a different

color using the FORMAT menu.

Categorical Data

Categorical Data

Color Link setting On (q).

create GRAPH1 again (q).

linked to the color formatting of the values

from the List Editor screen. The icon in the

upper right corner of the screen indicates that

the Color Link feature is controlling the color

choices.

screen (d) and open the Graph Settings

(u).

c AS I O e d u catio n

next page of options (u).

change it to Horizontal (w).

the bar graph (q).

Up to three categorical variables can be

graphed with a side-by-side bar chart. (e.g.,

store data on staff and administration cars in

Lists 2 and 3.)

9

Categorical Data

Numerical Data

Calculating single-variable

statistics:

1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the

Statistics module (2).

from any open menus (Ld), go to the

second page of options (u), and DELETE

ALL entries in the unwanted list (r). Press

q to confirm the deletion.

(Note that the List itself is not destroyed; its

data is simply cleared.)

from 15 children, recording their ages and

their shoe sizes:

10

Name

Age (years)

Shoe Size

Harry

10

Ryan

14

10

Kareem

12

David

Samuel

Charles

11

Justin

Jeff

Pattie

13

Nicole

11

Shannon

12

Paulina

5.5

Jasmine

10

Allison

14

Sarah

c asio e d u c atio n

Size data into List 2.

and input AGE for List 1 and SHOE

for List 2. (Lafzjl)

(Lamx9jl)

open the CALCULATE sub-menu (w), and

perform a 1-VARIABLE summary.

in List 1 (the childrens ages).

11

Numerical Data

Numerical Data

the Calculation Settings (u).

(q2l)

12

c asio e d u c atio n

Numerical Data

1-VARiable summary (q).

the data in List 2.

lists for comparison, to the List Editor screen

and perform a 2-VARiable summary (w).

11. The List 1 data relates to the x statistics, while the List 2 data relates to y.

13

Numerical Data

Creating a histogram:

scroll to the bottom of List 2, and input NBA

star Shaquille ONeals shoe size: 26.

the Graph Settings (u).

next page of options (u).

14

c asio e d u c atio n

to List2 (q2l).

it Off (e).

histogram (q).

histogram should start on the x-axis and how

wide the bars should be. For now, press l to

accept the defaults.

15

Numerical Data

Numerical Data

d from the graph, re-create it (q), and

this time change the Width to 1 (1l).

lets make the axis labeling more relevant to

our primarily whole-numbered shoe sizes.

whole numbers.

(Suggested: 2 for Xscale, 1 for Yscale)

16

c asio e d u c atio n

re-draw the graph (ql).

17

Numerical Data

Numerical Data

Creating a boxplot:

The Casio Prizm features 3 different graph

pre-set slots. We will use the GRAPH2 slot to

create the median boxplot of the shoe size data.

24. QUIT to the initial Statistics screen (Ld),

open the GRAPH soft menu (q), and go to

the Graph Settings (u).

second page of options (u), and select

MedBox (w).

(q2l).

18

c asio e d u c atio n

On (q).

boxplot (w).

Notice that the 1-variable summary command

is conveniently located above q.

display different values amongst the

five-number summary and/or any outliers.

19

Numerical Data

Numerical Data

Set up GRAPH1, GRAPH2, and or GRAPH3 as the MedBox Graph Type.

From the GRAPH soft menu, press r(SELECT); q(On) for StatGraph1, StatGraph2,

and/or StatGraph3; then u(DRAW).

20

c asio e d u c atio n

Numerical Data

Creating scatterplots:

1. From the Main Menu (p), enter the

Statistics module (2).

the 15 children.

of List 2, delete it by highlighting the value

and pressing P.)

21

Name

Age (years)

Shoe Size

Harry

10

Ryan

14

10

Kareem

12

David

Samuel

Charles

11

Justin

Jeff

Pattie

13

Nicole

11

Shannon

12

Paulina

5.5

Jasmine

10

Allison

14

Sarah

StatGraph settings (u).

(q).

(Make sure XList and YList are set to List1 and

List2, respectively.)

scatterplot (q).

(Lq).

Use the left and right arrows (!$) to

move among the data points.

(Notice that the points trace in the order they

appear in the Lists.)

7. Turn off Trace mode (q).

22

c asio e d u c atio n

Linear regression:

8. Open the CALCulate menu (q).

listed here (and on the next two pages of

menu options). Select the linear (X) regression

option (w).

the linear regression equation.

Select the form a + bx (w), which is closest

to that used by CollegeBoard.

including the coefficients of the regression

equation, the correlation coefficient, the

coefficient of determination, and the meansquared error. DRAW the regression line (u).

23

into the Graph module.

regression equation there (l).

This allows the regression line to be

studied in more depth later.

(If there is an existing function in that line,

it will be overwritten.)

24

c asio e d u c atio n

Calculating and

displaying residuals:

15. d the regression statistics and go

into Statistics SET UP (Lp).

(w3l).

scatterplot (q).

(qww).

25

The residuals are now shown in List 3.

the YList to List3 (q3l).

residual plot (q).

26

c asio e d u c atio n

Probability Distributions

Investigating normal distributions:

Suppose that the lifespan of a compact florescent life bulb

is roughly normally distributed with a mean of 10,000 hours

and a standard deviation of 1,300 hours. What percentage

of life bulbs will have between 12,000 and 15,000 hours of usage?

Statistics module (2).

menu (q).

27

distribution (w).

gives the options of providing the normal

distribution data either from a List (q) or

through Variables (w).

In this case, we are provided with specific

values, so press w.

(15,000), and the given values of the standard

deviation (1,300) and the mean (10,000).

and DRAW the normal curve (u).

28

c asio e d u c atio n

are shown, as well as the area under the curve,

which represents the desired cumulative

probability.

29

Probability Distribution

Probability Distribution

Suppose that a basketball player shoots free

throws with 72% accuracy. Assuming that his

shots are independent of each other, what is the

probability he makes nine of his next ten shots?

8. QUIT back to the initial Statistics screen

(Ld), and open the DISTribution soft

menu (y).

(q).

Variable. Input 9 as the number of successes,

10 as the number of trials, and 0.72 as the

probability.

30

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

c asio e d u c atio n

and CALCulate the probability (q).

31

Probability Distribution

Probability Distribution

Inference Procedures

Constructing confidence intervals

for the z distribution:

Suppose that a commercial for a new cereal is measuring its level

of brand name recognition. 200 people are surveyed and 42 of them

are familiar with the product. Construct a 95% confidence interval

for the proportion of people for whom the commercial succeeded.

module (2).

32

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

c asio e d u c atio n

the number of successes and 200 for the

number of trials. (The confidence level is set to

95% by default.)

the confidence interval (q).

upper bounds of the confidence interval,

as well as the mean proportion of success 42 = 0.21.

200

33

Inference Procedures

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

Later the cereal company is going to test a new commercial that they hope

will achieve a greater visibility. While the old commercial had 42 out of 200 people

recognize the product, the new commercial resulted in 58 out of 250 people

surveyed recognizing the cereal. Is this evidence that the new commercial was

more successful?

(Ld), and open the TEST soft menu

(e).

34

c asio e d u c atio n

Inference Procedures

250 for n2.

(Note that the previous values for x1 and n1

are still stored.)

and DRAW the test result (u).

13. At this point, you could either display the test statistic z (q) or the probability p of

random occurrence of that test statistic (w).

35

Inference Procedures

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

Again using the shoe size data for 15 students (shown to the left), suppose that we wish

to find a 90% confidence interval for the average shoe size of students at the school.

Name

Age (years)

Shoe Size

Harry

10

Ryan

14

10

Kareem

12

David

Samuel

Charles

11

Justin

Jeff

Pattie

13

Nicole

11

Shannon

12

Paulina

5.5

Jasmine

10

Allison

14

Sarah

Statistics module (2).

above) into List 1.

36

c asio e d u c atio n

0.9 as the Confidence Level.

Be sure List1 is the List being used for the

test.

and CALCulate the t-Test data (q).

We are shown the lower and upper bounds of

the confidence interval, as well as the mean

and standard deviation of the student shoe

size sample means for n = 15.

37

Inference Procedures

Inference Procedures

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

Suppose that a school calculates the average GPA for its 120 college-bound seniors

to be 3.25 with a standard deviation of 0.8. Its rival high school has 110 college-bound

seniors with a GPA of 3.33 and standard deviation of 1.1. Is there evidence of a

statistically-significant difference between the two schools?

Statistics module (2).

38

c asio e d u c atio n

and change the test type to 1 2.

x1 = 3.25

x2 = 3.33

sx1 = 0.8

sx2 = 1.1

n1 = 120

n2 = 110

and DRAW the t-Test results (u).

39

Inference Procedures

Inference Procedures

Once again, we can display either the test statistic t (q) or the

probability p of random occurrence of that test statistic (w).

40

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

c asio e d u c atio n

Inference Procedures

Performing a Chi-squared

goodness-of-fit test:

Consider again the data regarding the continent

of manufacture for the cars of 35 students:

is nationally distributed according to the

following percentages:

Statistics module (2).

table above) into List 1, and the expected

percentages (from the Relative Frequency

table) into List 2.

41

Car

Frequency

American

13

European

Asian

12

Other

Car

Relative Frequency

American

40%

European

20%

Asian

35%

Other

5%

Inference Procedures

($BB) and generate the list of

expected car frequencies by manufacturer

(35mL1(List)2l)

42

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

c asio e d u c atio n

Inference Procedures

set it to List3. Then change the degrees of

freedom to 3, and the CoNTRiButions output

to List4.

and DRAW the t-Test results (u).

Once again, we can display either the test statistic (q) or the probability p of random

occurrence of that test statistic (w).

43

Inference Procedures

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

(Ld).

The statistical contributions to the

Chi-squared GOF test are shown in List 4.

breakfast choices sorted by gender:

We wish to know if there is an association

between choice and gender:

No need to exit the Stats Editor to enter a

matrix! Simply navigate to the Chi-squared

two-way table test and the matrix can be

edited from the test menu.

44

Fruit

Bread

Protein

Male

23

35

46

Female

57

36

33

c asio e d u c atio n

as a 2 x 3 matrix (2l3ll).

45

Inference Procedures

Inference Procedures

choices.

Press l to store each value.

scroll down to the word Execute, and DRAW

the test results (u).

statistic (q) or the probability p of random

occurrence of that test statistic (w).

46

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

Fruit

Bread

Protein

Male

23

35

46

Female

57

36

33

c asio e d u c atio n

Command-line

Statistics

Performing random experiments:

While you will spend most of your time doing statistics in the

Statistics Mode, there are some commands that you need to operate

from the Run-Matrix home screen.

enter the Run-Matrix module (1).

The i button is next to the L button.

and select the PROBability sub-menu (e).

47

Inference Procedures

Inference Procedures

number between 0 and 1.

(One of the great features of the Prizm is that

soft menus stay accessible at the bottom of

the screen for as long as they are needed.)

Press l multiple times to generate many

random integers.

Suppose we wish to generate 10 random

heights of women, assuming that female

height is normally distributed with a mean of

64 and a standard deviation of 2.5.

from a normal distribution.

(The syntax is <standard deviation>, <mean>,

<# of values desired>.)

48

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

c asio e d u c atio n

outputted list and press l.

store the 10 values into a Statistics list.

(bL1(List)1l)

Statistics module (2).

values are now sitting in List 1!

49

Command-Time Statistics

Run-Matrix module (1).

Suppose we wish to simulate a call center

that randomly dials phone numbers and

counts on a 20% success rate in the calls

being answered. Simulate the number of

successes they expect to have out of 10 calls:

a binomial distribution.

(The syntax is <number of binomial trials>,

<probability of success>.)

binomial values.

50

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

c asio e d u c atio n

Finally, there are a large set of statistical commands that

can be accessed from the home screen. Most of the time it is

convenient to simply run these functions from Statistics Mode,

but here is one example:

Run-Matrix module (1).

51

Command-Time Statistics

Command-Time Statistics

(r).

normal distribution values that were stored in

List 1 in the previous section

(L1(List) 1)l).

Other statistical values that would otherwise

be calculated in the Statistics module can

also be displayed in the Run-Matrix module in

this way.

52

CAS I O EDUCAT I ON

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