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# Linear Time Invariant Systems - GATE

## Study Material in PDF

In the previous articles, we discussed the basics and types of time systems. In these free
GATE Notes, we will discuss one particular type of system in detail Linear Time
Invariant Systems. Linearity and Time Invariance play very important role in analysing
the system. The details of these two properties have been discussed in the previous
article. We will now deal with the mathematical representation and the properties of
these systems.
These study material covers everything useful you will need for GATE EC and GATE EE
as well as other exams like ISRO, IES, BARC, BSNL, DRDO etc. These notes can also be
You should probably go through the basics covered in previous articles, before starting
off with this module.

Laplace Transforms
Limits, Continuity & Differentiability
Mean Value Theorems
Differentiation
Partial Differentiation
Maxima and Minima
Methods of Integration & Standard Integrals
Vector Calculus
Vector Integration
Time Signals & Signal Transformation
Standard Time Signals
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Signal Classification
Types of Time Systems

A discrete time LTI system can be represented in form of sum of scaled and shifted
impulses.
x[n ] ; n = n0
x[n] [n n0 ] = { 0
0
; n n0
= x[n0 ] [n n0 ]
i. e. x[0] [n] = {

x[0] ;
n=0
0
; otherwise

x[1] [n 1] = {

x[1] ;
n=0
0
; otherwise

x[1] ;
n = 1
x[1] [n + 1] = {
0
; otherwise
Therefore, we can write x[n] as the sum of scaled and shifted impulses.
x[n] = + x[4] [n + 4] + x[3] [n + 3] + x[2] [n + 2] + x[1] [n + 1] +
x[0] [n] + x[1] [n 1] + x[2] [n 2] + x[3] [n 3] + .
We can write this sum as
x[n] =
k= x[k] [n k]
Now if we apply the input to as LTI system.

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## The output can be written as

y[n] = + x[2]h2 [n] + x[1]h1 [n] + x[0]h0 [n] + x[1]h1 [n] + x[2]h2 [n] +

Where h-2[n] response of LTI system having system response h[n] to the shifted
impulse [n+2]
Similarly, h+1[n] response of LTI system to the [n-1]
y(n) can also be written as y[n] =
k= x[k]hk [n]
Where hk[n]is the response of LTI system having system response h[n]to the shifted
impulse [n-k]
Since the system is time invariant and their response hk[n] to time shifted unit impulses
are time shifted version of each other.
y[n] =
k= x[k]h[n k]
This result is known as the convolution sum or superposition sum. Symbolically
convolution is represented as
y[n] = x[n] * h[n]
Similar procedure can be followed in continuous time systems, for which

## y(t) = x()h(t )dt

This corresponds to convolution integral or superposition integral.
Symbolically convolution is represented as
y(t) = x(t) * h(t)

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Now we will proceed with an example to understand the LTI systems better.

Example 1:
Obtain convolution sum of the following signals
(1) x[n] = (a)n u[n],

h[n] = u[n];

o<a<1

## (2) x(t) = u(t) + (t), h(t) = e-3t u(t)

Solution:
1) y[n] = x[n]* h[n]
=
x(k) h (n k)
k
=
a u(k). u (n k)

1 ;k 0
k
=
0 a . 1. u (n k) (since u(k) = {
0 ;k < 0
1 ;k n
and u[n k] = {
0 ;k > n
Case (i): n > 0
y[n] = nk=0 ak . 1.1. = nk=0 ak
y[n] =

1an+1
1a

;a < 1

## Case (ii): n < 0

u[n k] = 0 ; for k > 0
y[n] = 0 ; for n < 0
0
y[n] = x[n] h[n] = {

; n<0
1an+1
1a

;n 0

h(t) = e3t u(t)

u(t) = {

1 ; 0
0 ; < 0

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u(t ) = {

1 ; t
0 ; > t

t

t

Therefore,
t

0

## = e3t . 3 [e3t 1] + e3t = 3 [1 e3t ] + e3t

1

y(t) = 3 + 3 e3t
Case (i): t < 0
y(t) = 0
Therefore y(t) =

1
3

(1 + 2e3t ) u(t)

This concludes the introduction to the LTI systems. In next article, we will discuss the
properties of these systems.

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## Properties of LTI Systems

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