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DEATH

BYGOVERNMENT
ByR.J.Rummel
NewBrunswick,N.J.:
TransactionPublishers,1994.

Truthwillcometolightmurdercannot
behidlong
Shakespeare,MerchantofVenice

CONTENTS

FiguresandTables
Forward(byIrvingLouisHorowitz)
Preface
Acknowledgments
1.169,202,000Murdered:SummaryandConclusions[20thCenturyDemocide]

IBACKGROUND
2.TheNewConceptofDemocide[DefinitionofDemocide]
3.Over133,147,000Murdered:PreTwentiethCenturyDemocide

II128,168,000VICTIMS:THEDEKAMEGAMURDERERS
4.61,911,000Murdered:TheSovietGulagState
5.35,236,000Murdered:TheCommunistChineseAntHill
6.20,946,000Murdered:TheNaziGenocideState
7.10,214,000Murdered:TheDepravedNationalistRegime

III19,178,000VICTIMS:THELESSERMEGAMURDERERS
8.5,964,000Murdered:Japan'sSavageMilitary
9.2,035,000Murdered:TheKhmerRougeHellState
10.1,883,000Murdered:Turkey'sGenocidalPurges
11.1,670,000Murdered:TheVietnameseWarState
12.1,585,000Murdered:Poland'sEthnicCleansing
13.1,503,000Murdered:ThePakistaniCutthroatState
14.1,072,000Murdered:Tito'sSlaughterhouse

IV4,145,000VICTIMS:SUSPECTEDMEGAMURDERERS
15.1,663,000Murdered?OrwellianNorthKorea
16.1,417,000Murdered?BarbarousMexico
17.1,066,000Murdered?FeudalRussia
References Index
IMPORTANTNOTE:Amongallthedemocideestimatesappearinginthisbook,somehave
beenrevisedupward.IhavechangedthatforMao'sfamine,19581962,fromzeroto
38,000,000.AndthusIhavehadtochangetheoveralldemocideforthePRC(19281987)
from38,702,000to76,702,000.Detailshere.
Ihavechangedmyestimateforcolonialdemocidefrom870,000toanadditional50,000,000.
Detailshere.
Thus,thenewworldtotal:oldtotal19001999=174,000,000.NewWorldtotal=174,000,000
+38,000,000(newforChina)+50,000,000(newforColonies)=262,000,000.
Justtogiveperspectiveonthisincrediblemurderbygovernment,ifallthesebodieswerelaid
headtotoe,withtheaverageheightbeing5',thentheywouldcircletheearthtentimes.Also,
thisdemocidemurdered6timesmorepeoplethandiedincombatinalltheforeignand
internalwarsofthecentury.Finally,givenpopularestimatesofthedeadinamajornuclear
war,thistotaldemocideisasthoughsuchawardidoccur,butwithitsdeadspreadovera
century.

FIGURESANDTABLES
FIGURES
Figure1.1.MegamurderersandTheirAnnualRates
Figure1.2.DemocideLethality
Figure1.3.GolgothaAmongtheLargestStates
Figure1.4.Golgotha'sRacial/EthnicComposition
Figure1.5.RegionalOriginofGolgothians
Figure1.6.DemocideComparedtoWarBattleDead

Figure1.7a.PowerCurveofTotalDemocide
Figure1.7b.PowerCurveofWarBattleDead
Figure1.7c.PowerCurveofDemocideIntensity
Figure1.7d.PowerCurveofWarIntensity(Killed)
Figure1.8.DemocideVersusWarBattleDeadDemocraciesVersusNondemocracies
Figure1.9.RangeofDemocideEstimatesforRegimes
Figure4.1SovietDemocideComponentsandWar/RebellionKilled19171987
Figure4.2.SovietDemocideandAnnualRatebyPeriod.
Figure5.1.PRCDemocideandAnnualRatebyPeriod
Figure5.2.PRCDemocidebySource
Figure5.3.PRCDemocide,Famine,andWar/RevolutionDeathsbyPeriod
Figure6.1.NaziDemocideComparedtoThatofOthers
Figure7.1.NationalistVersusCommunistDemocide
Figure8.1.ComponentsofJapaneseDemocideinWorldWarII
Figure9.1.EstimatedCambodianPopulationVersusPredicted
Figure9.2..EstimatedRegimeEffectsontheCambodianPopulation
Figure9.3.SourcesofUnnaturalCambodianDeaths
Figure9.4.PerpetratorsofCambodianDemocide
Figure9.5.CambodianDemocideRatesComparedtoOthers
Figure10.1.DeathsFromTurkey'sGenocide,War,andFamine19001923
Figure11.1.ComparisonofVietnamWarandPostWarDeathsinVietnam,Laos,and
Cambodia19541987
Figure14.1.DemocideAnnualRates:YugoslaviaComparedtoOthers

TABLES
Table1.1.DemocraticVersusNondemocraticWars18161991
Table1.2.20thCenturyDemocide
Table1.3.FifteenMostLethalRegimes
Table1.4.ThisCentury'sBloodiestDictators
Table1.5.SomeMajorEpisodesandCasesofDemocide
Table1.6.DemocideandPower
Table2.1.SourcesofMassDeath
Table3.1.Selectedpre20thCenturyDemocideandTotals
Table4.1.OverviewofSovietDemocide
Table5.1..PRCDemocide19491987
Table6.1.SelectedNaziDemocideandEuropeanWarDead
Table6.2.NaziDemocideRates
Table6.3..ComparisonofNaziDemocidetoThatofOtherRegimes
Table7.1.China'sDemocide,Famine,WarandRebellionDead,19281949
Table7.2.PeriodandAnnualDemocideRates%
Table8.1.JapaneseDemocideinWWII
Table9.1.CambodianDead19671978

Table9.2.ConditionsofLifeUndertheKhmerRouge
Table9.3.CambodianDemocideRatesComparedtoOthers
Table10.1.Turkey'sDead19001923
Table10.2.Turkey'sArmenianandGreekGenocide
Table11.1.Vietnam'sWarDeadandDemocide19451987
Table11.2.VietnamWarandPostWarDead19541987
Table11.3.Vietnam:ComparativeDemocideRates
Table12.1.GermanExpulsionDemocide
Table12.2.GermanExpulsionDemocideRates
Table13.1.PakistanDeadMarchtoDecember1971
Table14.1.DemocideinYugoslavia
Table14.2.ComparisonofYugoslavianDemocideandDemocideRates
Table15.1.NorthKoreanDemocide19481987
Table16.1.MexicanDemocide19001920
Table17.1.RussianDemocide19001917

PREFACE*
Thisismyfourthbookinaseriesongenocideandgovernmentmassmurder,whatIcall
democide.Thepreviousworksconcentratedonthefourregimesthathavecommittedthe
mostdemocide,specificallytheSovietUnion,NationalistChinaunderChiangKaishek,
communistChina,andNaziGermany.1Thisstudyincludesthecoreresultsofthoseworksin
additiontoallothercasesofdemocideinthiscenturyupto1987.2
Giventheextentanddetailofthesebooks,thereadermaybesurprisedthattheprimary
purposewasnottodescribedemocideitself,buttodetermineitsnatureandamountinorder
totestthetheorythatdemocraciesareinherentlynonviolent.Theyshouldhavenowars
betweenthem,theleastforeignviolenceandgovernmentrelatedordirecteddomestic
violence(revolutions,coups,guerrillawar,andthelike),andrelativelylittledomestic
democide.Ihavesubstantiatedthewar,foreign,anddomesticviolencepartsofthistheoryin
previousworks3andtookuptheresearchassociatedwiththisbookanditsthree
predecessorsinordertotestthedemocidecomponent.Aswillbeseen,theresultshere
clearlyanddecisivelyshowthatdemocraciescommitlessdemocidethanotherregimes.
Theseresultsalsowellillustratetheprincipleunderlyingallmyfindingsonwar,collective
violence,anddemocide,whichisthatthelessfreedompeoplehavethemoreviolence,the
morefreedomthelessviolence.IputthishereasthePowerPrinciple:powerkills,absolute
powerkillsabsolutely.
Indevelopingthestatisticsforthisandthepreviousthreevolumes,almost8,200estimatesof
war,domesticviolence,genocide,massmurder,andotherrelevantdata,wererecordedfrom
overathousandsources.Ithendidover4,200consolidationsandcalculationsonthese
estimatesandorganizedeverythingintotablesofestimates,calculations,andsourcestotaling
morethan18,100rows.Myintentistobeasexplicitandpublicaspossiblesothatotherscan
evaluate,correct,andbuildonthiswork.IgivetheappendicesfortheSoviet,Chinese,and

Nazidemocideinmybooksonthem.Theappendicesforthisbookweretoomassiveto
includehere(oneappendixtablealoneamountstoover50pages)andaregivenina
supplementaryvolumetitledStatisticsofDemocide.Ialsoincludethereinthedetailsand
resultsofvariouskindsofmultivariateanalysisofthisdemocideandrelateddata.
Thenwhatiscoveredhere?Thisbookpresentstheprimaryresults,tables,andfigures,and
mostimportant,anhistoricalsketchofthemajorcasesofdemocidethoseinwhich1,000,000
ormorepeoplewerekilledbyaregime.Thefirstchapteristhesummaryandconclusionof
thisworkondemocide,andunderlinestherolesofdemocracyandpower.Followingthis,
chapter2inPart1introducesthenewconceptofdemocide.Itdefinesandelaboratesit,
showsthatdemocidesubsumesgenocidalkilling,aswellastheconceptsofpoliticideand
massmurder,andthentriestoanticipatequestionsthattheconceptmayarouse.Itargues
thatdemocideisforthekillingbygovernmentdefinitionallysimilartothedomesticcrimeof
murderbyindividuals,andthatmurdererisanappropriatelabelforthoseregimesthatcommit
democide.Readersthataresatisfiedwiththethumbnaildefinitionofdemocideasmurderby
government,includinggenocidalkilling,4canignorethischapter.Itisessential,however,for
thosewithaprofessionalinterestintheresultsorwishtoquestiontheconclusions.
Followingthischapterisaroughsketchofdemocidebeforethe20thcentury.Althoughhardly
anyhistoricalaccountinghasbeendoneforgenocideandmassmurder,asforthe
AmerindiansslaughteredbyEuropeancolonistsorEuropeansmassacredduringtheThirty
YearsWar,anumberofspecificdemocidaleventsandepisodescanbedescribedwithsome
historicalaccuracyandadescriptionoftheseprovidesperspectiveon20thcenturydemocide.
IhaveinmindparticularlythehumandevastationwroughtbytheMongols,thejourneyof
deathbyslavesfromcapturethroughtransportationtotheOldandNewWorlds,the
incrediblebloodlettingoftheTaipingRebellion,andtheinfamousParisexecutionsand
relativelyunknowngenocideoftheFrenchRevolution.Theupshotofthischapteristoshow
thatdemocidehasbeenverymuchapartofhumanhistoryandthatinsomecases,even
withoutthebenefitofmodernkillingtechnologyandimplementingbureaucracy,peoplewere
beheaded,stabbed,orslicedtodeathbythehundredsofthousandswithinashortduration.
InsomecitiescapturedbytheMongols,forexample,theyallegedlymassacredover
1,000,000men,women,andchildren.
Parts2to4presentalltheregimesmurdering1,000,000ormorepeopleinthiscentury,a
chapteroneach.Thesearewrittensoastoshowwhichregimecommittedwhatdemocide,
howandwhy.Theemphasisisontheconnectionbetweenaregime,itsintentions,andits
democide.Althougheachofthecasestudiesdrivestowardsomefinalaccountingofthe
democide,thespecificsofsuchfiguresandthenatureandproblemsinthestatisticsare
ignored.Theseareratherdealtwithineachappendixtoacasestudy(giveninStatisticsof
Democide),whereeachtableofestimates,sources,andcalculationsisprecededbya
detaileddiscussionoftheestimatesandthemannerinwhichthetotalsweredetermined.The
historicaldescriptionofacasegivenhereisonlymeanttoprovideanunderstandingofthe
democide.Forthisreasonmanyspecificexampleswillbegivenofthekindandnatureofa
regime'skilling.Ihavegenerallyavoided,however,talesofbrutaltortureandsavagekilling
unlesssuchwereusefultoillustrateanaspectofthedemocide.

Thesechaptersareorderedfromthegreatestofthesekillerstothelesserones,asonecan
seefromthetableofcontents.Part2presentsthefourdekamegamurderers,beginningwith
achapterontheSovietUnion'snear61,000,000murdered,thenincludingchapterson
CommunistChinaandNaziGermany,andendingwithachapteronthenowvirtually
unrememberedkillingoftheChineseNationalistregime.Sincethesefourregimeswerethe
subjectsofthepreviousthreevolumes,5thefourchapterssimplysummarizethedemocide
andconclusions.IhopeIwillbeexcusedforusingGreekprefixesforlabelingtheseregimes
(dekameanstenortensmegameansmillion),butweneedconceptsforthevariouslevels
ofgovernmentmurderandthereisnocomparableEnglishterm("murdereroftensofmillions"
isclumsy).
Part3presentsinorderthelessermegamurders,thosethathavekilled1,000,000toless
than10,000,000citizensandforeigners.Achapteralsoisdevotedtoeach.Insomecases,as
forPoland'smurderofethnicGermansandReichdeutsch,awholeseriesofeventsspanning
severalcountrieswascovered.InthiscasePoland'streatmentoftheseGermanswaspartof
apatternofexpulsionfromEasternEuropeafterWorldWarII.Insomecasesalso,several
successiveregimesforthesamecountryhadcommitteddemocideandtheseweretherefore
treatedtogether,asfortheSihanouk,LonNol,PolPot,andSamrimregimesofCambodia.
TherewerethreeregimesthoseoftheCzarinRussia,NorthKorea's,andMexico'sfrom
1900to1920forwhichtheestimateswerenotsufficientinnumberorqualitytomakeafinal
determinationoftheirdemocide.Whatestimatesthereweretotalover1,000,000murdered,
butItreatthistotalasonlyanindictmentformurder.ThesethreearedescribedinPart4as
suspectedmegamurders.
Insummarychapter1andineachofthecasestudiesIpresentdemocidetotalsofonesortor
another.Withtheexceptionofthosethataredirectlycitedfromotherworks,howhaveI
determinedthesefigures,suchasthatKhmerRougeregimelikelymurdered2,000,000
Cambodians?Thepriorquestionis:howshouldthesedemocidefiguresIgive,totalsor
otherwise,bylookedat?As,withlittledoubt,wrong!Iwouldbeamazediffuturearchival,
historicalresearch,andconfessionsoftheperpetratorscameupwiththisfigureoronewithin
10percentofit.Regimesandtheiragentsoftendonotrecordalltheirmurdersandwhatthey
dorecordwillbesecret.Even,however,whensucharchivesareavailable,suchasafter
defeatinwar,andtheyarekeptbythemosttechnologicallyadvancedofregimeswitha
culturalpropensityforrecordkeepingandobediencetoauthority,andabureaucratic
apparatusdoingthemurderssystematically,thetotalnumberofvictimscannotbeagreed
upon.Considerthatevenafteralltheeffortoverfortyfiveyearsbythebestscholarsofthe
HolocausttocounthowmanyJewswerekilledbytheNazis,evenwithtotalaccessto
survivingdocumentsintheNaziarchivesandthefirsthandreportsofsurvivorsand
participants,thedifferencebetweenthelowestandhighestofthebestestimatesisstill41
percent.6
Allthetotalsandfiguresinthisbookshouldthereforebeviewedasroughapproximations,as
suggestiveofanorderofmagnitude.Thisgrossuncertaintythencreatesarhetoricalproblem.
Howdoesoneassertconsistentlyandthroughoutabooksuchasthisthateachdemocide
figure,asoftheKhmerRoughhavingkilled2,000,000Cambodians,isreallyanumerical
hazethatwedonotknowthetruetotalandthatitmaybeinstead600,000oreven3,000,000

thattheykilled?Exceptincaseswhereitisdifficulttoassertwithoutqualificationaspecific
figure(asinthechaptertitles),orspaceandformdonotallowaconstantrepetitionofranges,
asinthesummarychapter,Iwillgivetheprobablerangeofdemocideandthenasserta"most
likely"(or"probable"or"conservative")midestimate.Thus,Iwillconcludeinchapter9that
theKhmerRougelikelykilledfrom600,000to3,000,000oftheirpeople,probably2,000,000
(thismidvalueissimplyasubjectiveprobabilityandwillbediscussedshortly).Allthe
appendiceswilldevelopanddiscusssucharange.Forsubtotalsinthehistoricaldescription
ofacaseIusuallysimplymentionthemidvalue,qualifiedasmentioned.
Thehowandwhyofanallegeddemociderangetheniscriticalanditisnotdetermined
casually.Now,IhaveelsewherepublishedthemethodsthatIuse7toassessthedemocideof
aregime,andshouldpointoutheresummarilythatthisisanattempttobrackettheunknown
andpreciselyunknowabledemocidebyseekingavarietyofpublishedestimates,andmost
important,thehighestandlowestonesfromproandantigovernmentsources.8Ithen
consolidatedthesefordifferentaspectsofaregime'sdemocide,suchasforsummary
executions,prisondeaths,ordisappearances,intolowtohighranges.Togetanoverallrange
foraregime,asofthatfortheKhmerRouge,Ithensumalltheconsolidatedlowstogetan
overalllowdemocide,theconsolidatedhighstogetanoverallhigh.
Thevalueofthisapproachliesinthegreatimprobabilitythatthesumofallthelowest
estimatesforaregimewouldbeabovethetruetotalorthatthesumofallthehighswouldbe
belowit.Thefundamentalmethodologicalhypothesishereisthenthatthelowandhighsums
(orthelowestlowandhighesthighwheresuchsumscannotbecalculated)brackettheactual
democide.Thisofcoursemaybewrongforsomeevents(likeamassacre),anepisode(like
landreform),oraninstitution(likereeducationcamps),butacrosstheyearsandthemany
differentkindsofdemocidecommittedbyaregime,theactualdemocideshouldbebracketed.
Withinthisrangeofpossibledemocide,Ialwaysseekamidrangeprudentorconservative
estimate.Thisisbasedonmyreadingoftheeventsinvolved,thenatureofthedifferent
estimates,andtheestimatesofprofessionalswhohavelongstudiedthecountryor
governmentinvolved.IhavesoughtineachcasethebestworksinEnglishontherelevant
eventssothatIwouldnotonlyhavetheirestimatesalongwiththeothers,butthattheirwork
wouldguidemychoiceofaprudentoverallestimate.Thedetailsofthiseffortforeachcaseis
givenintherelevantappendixintherelatedvolume,StatisticsofDemocide.
GivenmyadmissionthatIcanonlycomewithinsomerangeofanactualdemocide,arange
thatmayvaryfromlowtohighbythousandsofpercent,whythenwillIsopreciselyspecifya
democide?Forexample,inthechapterforcommunistChinaIwillgivetherangeofits
democideas5,999,000to102,671,000,mostlikely35,236,000peoplekilled.Whysuch
apparentandmisleadingaccuracy?Whynotsimplymaketherange5,000,000to
105,000,000,withamidvalueof35,000,000?ThisIwouldliketodo(andhavebeenurgedby
colleaguestodo),butformanycasesthedemocidefiguresresultfromcalculationsonor
consolidationsofavarietyofestimatesfordifferentkindsofdemocide(suchasfor"land
reform,"laborcamps,andthe"CulturalRevolution").Whenallcalculationsorconsolidations
areaddedtogetherthesumcomesoutwithsuchapparentprecision.Thatis,thelowandhigh
and35,236,000middemocideforcommunistChina'sdemocidearesums.Tothengiveother

thanthesesumscancreateconfusionbetweenthediscussionofthecasesandthe
appendicesinwhichtheestimatesandcalculationsaregivenindetail.
Ihandlethispresentationprobleminthisway.Wherespecificationofthefinaldemocide
figurescalculatedinanappendixisnecessary,asinatable,Igivethemwithalltheirseeming
exactitude.Where,however,suchisunnecessary,Iwillthenroundofftothefirstorsecond
digitandusesomeadjectivesuchas"near"or"around"or"about."Thus,communistChina's
democidewasabout35,000,000.
Aftereightyearsandalmostdailyreadingandrecordingofmen,women,andchildrenbythe
tensofmillionsbeingtorturedorbeatentodeath,hung,shot,andburiedalive,burnedor
starvedtodeath,stabbedorchoppedintopieces,andmurderedinalltheotherwayscreative
andimaginativehumanbeingscandevise,Ihaveneverbeensohappytoconcludeaproject.
Ihavenotfounditeasytoreadtimeandtimeagainaboutthehorrorsinnocentpeoplehave
beenforcedtosuffer.Whathaskeptmeatthiswasthebelief,aspreliminaryresearch
seemedtosuggest,thattherewasapositivesolutiontoallthiskillingandaclearcourseof
politicalactionandpolicytoendit.Andtheresultsverifythis.TheproblemisPower.The
solutionisdemocracy.Thecourseofactionistofosterfreedom.

NOTES
*Thisisaprepublishereditedversionofthe"Preface"inR.J.Rummel'sDeathBy
Government,NewBrunswick,NJ:TransactionPublishers,1994
1.Rummel(1990,1991,1992).
2.Istartedthisresearchin1986andthecutoffyearforthecollectionofdatawasmade1987.
Forconsistencyincomparingdifferentcasesandtoavoidconstantlyhavingtochangetotal
figuresasnewdemocidesoccurred,Ihavestucktothe1987cutoff.Thismeansthat
post1987democidesbyIraq,Iran,Burundi,SerbiaandBosnianSerbs,Bosnia,Croatia,
Sudan,Somalia,theKhmerRougeguerrillas,Armenia,Azerbaijan,andothershavenotbeen
included.
Istartthe20thcenturywithyear1900.Irealizethatbyourcalendarthe20thcenturyreally
beginswithyear1901.However,Iwasuncomfortablewithincluding1900intheprevious
century.
3.SeeRummel(UnderstandingConflictandWar,197581"LibertarianismandInternational
Violence,"1983"Libertarianism,ViolenceWithinStates,andthePolarityPrinciple,"1984
"LibertarianPropositionsonViolenceWithinandBetweenNations:ATestAgainstPublished
ResearchResults,"1985).Whilethatdemocraciesdon'tmakewaroneachotherhasbeen
verifiedbyothersandwellexceptedbystudentsofinternationalrelations,thatdemocracies
havetheleastforeignviolencehasbeencontroversialandanumberofstudiesallegethey
findnodifferencebetweenregimesonthis.Butthishasbeenduetodifferentandinmyview
inappropriatemethods.Iarguethatthemoredemocratic(libertarian)aregime,themorethe
inhibitiontowarorforeignviolence.Thisthereforeshouldbetestedintermsofwar's
severitybythenumberofpeoplekilledeitherintotalorasaproportionofthepopulation.
However,other'shavetestedthisbycorrelatingtypeofregimewiththenumberofwarsithas

fought.Oneshouldnotbesurprised,therefore,thattheyfindhardlyanycorrelationbetween
regimeandwar,sincetheyaretreatingallwarsasalike,whereeventhetinydemocraticwars
suchastheAmericaninvasionofGrenadaandPanamaortheBritishFalklandIslandsWar
aregiventhesameweightasWorldWarIorIIforGermanyortheSovietUnion.Inanycase,
oneofthesideresultsofthisstudyistofurthersubstantiatethatdemocracieshavetheleast
foreignviolence,i.e.,thateveninwardemocraciessufferfarfewerdeathsthanotherregimes
(seeTable1.6andFigures1.6,1.7b,1.7d,and1.8).
4.BytheGenocideConvention,genocidecanrefertootherthankilling,suchastryingto
destroyagroupinwholeorinpartbytakingawayitschildren.
5.SeeNote1.
6.Rummel(1992,p.5).
7.SeeRummel(1990,AppendixA1991,pp309316).
8.Thishascausedsomemisunderstandingamongreaders.ThatIusebiasedorideological
sources,asofcommunistpublicationsonAmericanatrocitiesinVietnamorofficialIraq
statisticsforthedeathtollamongKurdsduringthecivilwar,ispartofmyattempttogetatthe
lowestorhighestdemocideorwardeadestimates.Therearethereforemanyitemsinmy
referencesthatnoselfrespectingscholarwouldlistnormally.IincludethembecauseIuse
theirestimatesandnotbecauseIbelievethemobjectiveorofhighquality.Moreover,the
omissionofaparticularworkfromthereferencesdoesnotmeanthatIhavenotusedit.I
haveconsulted,read,orstudiedforthisworkmanytimesmorepublicationsthanthe
referenceslisthere.IhaveonlyincludedthoseIhavecitedinwritingachapterorthosefrom
whichIhavetakentheestimateslistedintheappendixtables.Thosereferenceslistedinthe
Soviet,China,andNazidemocidebooksarenotrepeatedhereunlesstheyalsohavebeen
citedinthisbook.

ForcitationsseetheDeathByGovernmentREFERENCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Manycolleagues,students,andreadersofpreviousdraftscontributedtothiseffortthrough
theirideas,commentsandsuggestions,recommendationofsources,estimates,ormaterial
theypassedontome.InparticularIwanttothankRoubenAdalian,BelindaAquino,Dean
Babst,YehudaBauer,DouglasBond,IsraelCharny,WilliamEckhardt,WayneElliott,Helen
Fein,IrvingLouisHorowitz,HuaShiping,B.R.Immerzeel,BenedictKerkvliet,Milton
Leitenberg,GuenterLewy,HeathLowry,JohnNortonMoore,J.C.Ramaer,RheeSangWoo,
MaxSinger,SpencerWeart,ChristineWhite,andJ.A.Willinge.Iamespeciallyindebtedto
mycolleaguesManfredHenningsenandGeorgeKentfortheirhelpandsupportthroughout
thiswork.IhastentoaddthatIaloneamresponsibleforanyerrorsormisconceptionsthat
appearhere.

IalsoamindebtedtotheUnitedStatesInstituteofPeaceforagranttomyprojecton
comparativegenocide,ofwhichthisbookisapart.Theviewsexpressedherearethoseofthe
authoranddonotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheInstituteoritsofficers.
Finallyandnotleast,myabilitytocompletethisworkandtheformittookowesmuchtomy
wifeGrace,muchmorethansheknows.Thankssweetheart.