V. S. WOLKENSTEIN
PROBLEMS in GENERAL PHYSICS
MIR PUBLISHERS MOSCOW
Problems
GeneralPhysics
in
B. C. BOnbKEHllITEflH
CBOPHI1K 3AJlA4 no OSIUEMY KYPCY <IlH3I1KI1
H3AATEJIbCTBO cHAYKA»
MOCKBA
v. S. WOLKENSTEIN
PROBLEMS IN GENERAL PHYSICS
TRANSLATED FROM THE
RUSSIAN
by
A. TROITSKY
TRANSLA flON
EDITED
by
G. LEIB
MIR PUBLISHERS
· _{M}_{O}_{S}_{C}_{O}_{W}
First published 1971 Second printing 1975 Second edition 1980 Fourth printing 1987
TO TIlE READER
Mir Publishers would be grateful for your comments on the content, translation and design _{o}_{f} this book. _{W}_{e} would also be pleased to receive any other suggestions you may wish to make. OUf address is:
Mir Publishers 2 Pervy Rizhsky Pereulok 1110, GSP, Moscow, 129820
USSR
Ha aHeAU aCICOM Jl3bl1Ce
,
© English trans lation, Mir Publishers, 1971
PREFACE
This collection of problems IS based on the International System
of Units preferred today in all the fields of' science, engineering and economy,
can relevant tables given in this book. Each section is preceded by a brief introduction describing the fundamental laws and formulas which are used to solve the pro blems. The solutions to the problems and the reference data are appended at the end of the book.
to 51 units with the aid of the
Other
units
be converted
Printed in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
CONTENTS
Introduction . . . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
9 

1. International System of Units 
(SI) 
9 

2. Methods of Solving Problems 
. 
11 

PROBLEMS 

Chapter 1. Physical Fundamentals of Mechanic~ . Mechanical . . • • . 
• 
13 13 

Examples of Solutions 
• 
17 

1. Kinematics 
. 
• 
. 
. 
. 
. 
19 

2. Dynamics 
. 
27 

3. Motion of Solids Rotational 
45 

4. Mechanics of 
FIuids 
52 

Chapter 2. Molecular Physics and Thermodynamics 
. 
57 

Thermal Units 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
• 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
• 
• 
• 
. 
. 
• 
• 
• 
• 
. 
57 

Examples of 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
• 
• 
. 
. 
58 
5. Physical Fundamentals of the MolecularKinetic _{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} and Thermo
dynamics 
. 
60 

6. Real Gases 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
• 
• 
86 

7. Saturated Vapours and Liquids 
•••• 
89 

B. Solids 
. 
. . 
. 
100 

Chap ter 3. Electricity and 
Magnetism 
. 
105 

Electrical and Magnetic Units 
105 

Examples of Solutions .•. 
' 
107 

9. Electrostatics 
_{•}_{•}_{.} 
111 

10. Electric Current 
. 
. • . 
129 

11. Electromagnetism 
148 

Chapter 4. Oscillations 
and Waves 
170 

Acoustic Units 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
170 

Examples of 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
• 
. 
171 

12. Harmonic Oscillatory Motion and Waves . 
172 

13. Acoustics . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
181 

14. Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves . 
IS5 

_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} 5. Optics . 
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
191 

. . . . . . Examples of Solutions .••• Light Units .•• . . . . . 
. 
. 
. 
191 192 
_{8}
CONTENTS
15. Geometrical 
Optics 
and 
Photometry 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
193 

16. . 17. Elements of the Theory of Relativity 18. Thermal Radiation. . . . Wave Optics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
. 
202 211 214 

Chapter 6. Atomic and 
Nuclear Physics 
. . 
. 
217 

Units of Radioactivity and 
Ionizing Radiation 
. 
. 
. 
217 

Examples of Solutions 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
218 

19. Quantum Nature of Light and Wave Properties of Particles 
219 

20. Bohr's Atom. 
XRays 
. 
. 
. 
. . . 
. . 
. 
224 

Radioactivity 21. . . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . . 
. 
. 
. . 
229 

22. Nuclear Reactions . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . . 
. 
. 
. 
233 

23. Elementary 
Particles. 
Particle 
Accelerators 
. 
238 

ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS 

Chapter 1. Physical 
Fundamentals of Mechanics 
242 

Chapter 2. Molecular Physics and Thermodynamics 
. 
. 
269 

Chapter 3. Electricity and 
Magnetism 
302 

Chapter 4. Oscillations 
and 
Waves 
. 
. 
. 
. 
325 

Chapter 5. Optics. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
335 

Chapter 6. Atomic and 
Nuclear 
Physics . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
343 

Appendix . . . . . . . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
355 

Induction B versus Intensity H of a Magnetic Field for a Certain Grade of 

Iron. . . Relationship between Rationalized and NonRationalized Equations of an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
355 

Electromagnetic Field Tables: 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
355 

I. Basic 
Physical 
Quantities. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
359 

II. Astronomic 
Quantities 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
359 

III. Data on the Planets of the Solar System 
360 

IV. Diameters 
of Atoms and 
Molecules 
361 

V. Critical Values of T _{c}_{r} and 
Per 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
361 

VI. Pressure of Water Vapour Saturating a Space at Various Tem 

peratures 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
361 

VII. Specific Heat of Vaporization of Water at Various Temperatures 
361 

VIII. Properties of Some 
Liquids . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
362 

IX. Properties 
of 
Some Solids . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
362 

X. Elastic 
Properties 
of 
Some Solids 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
362 

XI. Thermal 
Conductivity 
of Some 
Solids 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
362 

XII. Dielectric Constant (Relative Permittivity) of Dielectrics 
363 

XIII. Resistivity 
of Conductors 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
363 

XIV. Mobility 
of 
Ions 
in 
Electrolytes 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
363 

XV. Work of 
Exit 
of 
Electrons from 
Metals 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
363 

XVI. Refractive 
Indices 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
363 

XVII. Boundary of K·Seriesof XRays for Various Materials of the Anti 

cathode 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
363 

XVI II. Spectral 
Lines 
of 
Mercury 
Arc 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
363 

XIX. Masses of 
Some 
Isotopes 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
364 

XX. HalfLives of Some 
Radioactive 
Elements 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
364 

XXI. Common 
Logarithms 
. 
. 
. . . 
. 
365 

XXII. Sines and Cosines 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
369 

XXIII. Tangents 
and 
Cotangents 
••• 
•. 
373 
INTRODUCTION
1. International System of Units (51)
Various physical quantities are interrelated by equations which ex press the relation between them. For example, the acceleration a im parted to a body with the mass m. is related to the force F acting upon this body by the equation
F=kma
where k is a factor depending on the units in which F, m and a are mee sured. If the units of mass and acceleration are known, the unit of force can be so selected that the factor k in equation (1) is equal to unity. and thus
F=ma
With this aim, the unit of force should be the force which imparts a unit of acceleration to a unit of mass. By treating any newly introduced quantity in the same mariner, its unit of measurement can be found from the formula which determin es this quantity; thus a system of derived units can be obtained.
Various systems differ from each other by the units taken as the basic ones. This book is based on the International System of Units (SI) adopted
by the
The USSR State Standard GOST 986761 defines the SI system as the
one preferable in all the fields of science. engineering and the national economy, and also in schools and colleges of the USSR. The International System of Units (51) is divided into several inde pendent systems for various fields of measurement, as follows:
_{(}_{1}_{)}
Eleventh General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960.
I. System of mechanical
units
(GOST 766461).
2. System of thermal units (OOST 855061).
3. System of electrical and magnetic units (OOST 803356). 4. System of acoustic units (OOST 884958).
5. System of light units (CJOST 793256).
6. System of radioactivity and ionizing radiation units (OOST
884863).
_{1}_{0}
INTRODUCTION
The basic SI mechanical units are the metre (rn), kilogrammemass (kg) and second (5). Added to these for various fields of measurement are thefollowing basic units: the degree Kelvin for thermal measurements, the ampere for electrical measurements and the candela for luminous intensity. The 51 system also includes two supplementary unitsfor a plane angle and a solid angle. The basic and supplementary 51 units are given in Table 1.
Quantity
length
Mass
Time
Electric current
Thermodynamic
ture
tempera
luminous intensity
TABLE
I
Unit
Basic Units
metre
kilogramme
second
ampere
degree Kelvin
candela
Supplementary Units
Plane angle
Solid angle
I
radian
steradian
Symbol
m
kg
s
A
oK
cd
rad
Sf
51
Table 2 gives the prefixes used to form multiples and fractions of units.
_{P}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{x}
Numerical
value
TABLE
_{S}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l}
_{I}_{I}
2
^{P}^{r}^{e}^{f}^{i}^{x}
Numerical
\ alue
Symbol
_{A}_{t}_{t}_{o}
Femto
Pica
_{N}_{a}_{n}_{o}
Micro
Milli
Centi

lOlfJ
10 ^{1} & 10 ^{1}^{3} 10 ^{9} 10 ^{6} 10 ^{3}
10 ^{2}
_{a}
r
p
n
~
rn
c
_{D}_{e}_{c}_{i}
Deca
Hecto
Kilo
Mega
Giga
Tera
_{1}_{0}_{} 1
10·
_{1}_{0} 2
10 ^{3}
_{1}_{0} 6
10 9
io»
_{d}
da
_{h}
_{k}
_{M}
_{G}
_{T}
These prefixes in Table 2 may be attached only to simple quantities (metre, gramme, etc.) and never to such as "kilograrnrne", which al ready contains the prefix "kilo". For the same reason, the unit of mass m= 10' kg= 10 ^{1} ^{2} g, for example, should be called "teragrarnrne" (Tg).
INTRODUCTION
_{1}_{1}
The term "megaton" sometimes applied to this mass is wrong. The
unit of length 1= 10 ^{6} m is generally called a "micron", but the more
proper name would be "rnicrornetre" (urn). The derived SI units are formed from the basic ones as described above. The relationship between the derived and basic units can be found from dimension formulas. If the basic quantities are designated _{b}_{y} _{l} for length, _{m} for mass, t for time, I for electric current, e for temperature and J for luminous intensity, the dimension formula of a certain quantity _{x} may be written in SI units as follows:
[xl = lam~tllaePJI'"
To find the dimension of x, we must determine the exponents 'X,
p, y, 6, p and fl. These exponents may be positive or negative, integers or fractions. Example 1. Find the dimension of work. Proceeding from the relation
W=Fl, we obtain
(W]=l2mt ^{2} •
Example 2. Find the dimension of specific heat. Since c=
[Q)= [Wl, we get
[C]=l2t 2 S 1 •
m~9 and
If the dimension of a physical quantity is known in the SI system, it is easy to find the dimension of its unit in this system. Thus, the unit of work obviously has the dimension m ^{2}^{k}^{g}^{s}^{} ^{2} and the unit of specific heatm ^{2}^{s}^{} ^{2}^{d}^{e}^{g}^{} 1 , etc. Tables of derived SI units are given in the respective sections of the book: mechanical units in Chapter 1, thermal units in Chapter 2, electrical and magnetic units in Chapter 3, etc. The same chapters also contain tables which establish the relationship between the 51 and other units, including nonsystem ones.
2. Methods of Solving Problems
When solving a problem, first of all establish the physical laws which it is based on. Then use the formulas expressing these laws to solve the problem in symbols, and finally substitute the numerical data in one system of units. Besides the International System of Units, other systems and nonsystem units are widely used in practice and literature. For this reason the numerical data are not always given in SI units. The relationships between the SI units, units of other sys tems and nonsystem units are given in tables at the beginning of each chapter. To solve a problem in SI units, all the initial data or data ta ken from reference tables should be converted into SI units. The ans wer, naturally, will also be in these units. Sometimes it is not necessary to express all the data in one system. For example, if a quantity is a factor of both the numerator and the
_{1}_{2}
INTRODUCTION
denominator, this quantity may obviously be expressed in any units provided they are the same (see Example 2 on p. 17). When a numerical answer is obtained, pay attention to the accuracy of the final result, which should never exceed the accuracy of the initi al data. Most of the problems may be solved with sliderule accuracy. In some cases tables of fourplace logarithms should be used. As soon as the numerical data are substituted for the symbols, write the dimension of the answer. If a graph or a diagram is required for solution, select the proper scale and origin of the coordinates, and mark the scale on the graph. The graphs in the answers to some problems are given without a scale, i. e., they show only the qualitative nature of the relationship being sought.
PROBLEMS
Chapter 1
PHYSICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS
MECHANICAL
UNITS
The International System of Units incorporates the MKS system in tended for measuring mechanical quantities (GOST 766461). The basic units in the MKS system are the metre (m), kilograrnrne (kg) and se cond (s). As indicated above, the derived units of this system are formed
from the basic units using the relationship between the relevant phy sical quantities. For example, the unit of velocity can be determined
from
the
relat ion
Al
v=M
Since the unit of length is the metre and that of time the second, the unit of velocity in the MKS system will be 1 m/s. Obviously I the unit of acceleration is 1 mls», Let us establish the unit of force. According to Newton's second law
F=ma The unit of mass is 1 kg and the unit of acceleration 1 miss. Therefore, the unit of force in the MRS system should be the force which imparts an acceleration of 1 m/s! to a body with a mass of 1 kg. This unit of force is known as the newton (N):
kgI
Let us now discuss the relation between the weight and mass of a
1 N=l
mIs'
body. The weight G of a body
is the force with which this body is at
tracted by the Earth, Le., the force which imparts an acceleration of g=9.81 mls» to the body. Thus,
G=mg
As any other force in the MKS system, the weight of a body must be measured in newtons. Sometimes it is measured in kilogrammes
_{J}_{4}
PROBLEMS
But it should always be borne in mind that the unit of weight (kilogramme) is not a unit of the MRS system. To prevent confusion, different syrnbols will be used for these two utterly different physical quantities: a kilogramme of mass will be denoted kg, and one of weight (force)kgf. Let us find the relation between a kilogramme of weight and a newton. A weight of 1 kgf is defined as the weight of a body whose mass is equal to I kg, Le.,
On
the
other
Therefore
hand
I kgf=l
N=l
kg·9.BI
rn/s"
kgI mIs'
1 kgf=9.81
N
The definition of a kilogramme of weight shows that the numerical value of the weight of a body expressed in kgf is equal to the mass of this body in kg. For example, if the mass of a body is 2 kg, its weight is 2 kgf. The weight of a body in kilogramrnes must be converted into newtons. Example. The mass of a body is 4 kg. Find the weight of the body in kgf and in newtons. Answer: 0=4 kgf (not in the MKS system) and 0=4 X 9.81 N (in the MKS system). The unit of work is determined from the relation
W=Fl
The unit of work is obviously the work performed by a force of 1 N over a distance of 1 metre. This unit of work is known as the joule (J):
IJ=lN·lm
Power is determined by the formula
p=~ _{t}
Therefore the unit of power in the MK.S system is the power of a me chanism which performs work of 1 J per second. This unit is known as the watt (W). The same method can be used to determine the derived unit of any physical quantity in the MKS system. Table 3 gives the basic and the most important derived units for mea suring mechanical quantities in the MKSsystem according to GDST
766461.
Table 4 contains the relationships between certain mechanical SI units, and units of other systems and nonsystem units permitted by
GOST 766461.
,
PHYSICAL
FUNDAMENTALS OF
MECHANICS
15
_{Q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l}
_{F}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{u} _{l}_{a}
TABLE
3
_{U}_{n}_{i}_{t}
I Symbol of IDlmensio,n
unit
I.
of quanti
tv
Length l
Mass m
Time t
Area A
Volume V
Frequency 'V
Angular velocity CJ)
Angular acceleration a
Linear velocity v
Linear acceleration a
Density p
Force F, weight Q
Specific weight V
Pressure _{p}
Momentum p
Moment of inertia /
Work Wand
energy
E
Power P
Dynamic viscosity '1
Kinematic viscosity 'V
Basic units
I
metre
kilograrnrne
second
Derived units
A =
[2
V = 1 ^{3}
1
v= _{T}
l\cp
0)= l\t
l\ro
(X,=
l\t
l\l
^{u}^{=}^{}
l\t
l\v
a=
~t
m
P=v
F=ma
a
V=v
F
P=jf
P = m I1v=
=F ~t
I
= ml ^{2}
W = Fl
square metre
cubic metre
hertz
radian per second
radian per second per second
metre per second
metre per second per
second
kilogramme per cubic metre
newton
cubic
newton
per
metre
newton
metre
per
square
kilogrammemetre
per second
kilogrammesquare
metre
joule
p = IlW
~t
F
III
Y) = AXV'"
V= 2L
p
watt
newtonseeon _{d}
square
square
second
metre
metre
per
m 
I 
kg 
m 
s 
t 
Hz 
ll 
rad/s
rad/s'}.
m/s
N
N/m ^{3}
N/m'l.
kg·m/s
J
w
N :s/m ^{2}
c
t
It 1
tt 3
I 3 m
tmt :»
i 2 mt 1
tmt r)
16
Quantity
PROBLEMS
TABLE
4
Unit and Its conversion factor
to
51 units
Length 
1 centimetre (em)= 102 m 

1 mlcrometre (micron); 1 micron < 10 ^{0} m >= 

Mass 
1 angstrom (A) = 10 10 m I gramme (g) = 10 8 kg 
Plane angle
Area
Volume
Force
1
1 centner (q) = 10' kg
1 atomic unit of mass (a.u.m.) = 1.66X 10 27 kg
ton (t) =
lOS
kg
n
I degree (0)= 180 rad
minute
n
(') = 108X 10 ^{2} rad
second (·)=~8XIOS rad
1 revolution (rev)=2n rad
1
1 heetare (ha) = lOt m 2
1 litre (1)= 1.000028 X 10 ^{3} m ^{3}
I dyne (dyn) = 10 ^{6} N
1 kilogrammeforee (kgf) = 9.81 N
I tonforce (toni) = 9.BI X lOS N
are
(a) =
100 m ^{l}
Pressure 
1 dyn/cml=O.1 N/m' 

1 kgf/m ^{l} = 9.81 N/m ^{l} 

1 millimetre of 
mercury 
column (mm Hg) = 133.0 N/m l 

1 millimetre of water column (mm H,O) = 9.81 N/m ^{l} 

I technical atmosphere (at) = 1 kgf/cm ^{l} = 0.981 X 10' 
N/m t 

1 physical atmosphere (atm) = I.OI3x 10' N/m ^{l} (this 
nonsystem 

unit 
is not listed in GOST 766461) 

Work, 
ener I 10 7 J erg = 
gy. amount
of heat
1 kgfm
= 9.81 J
1 watthour (Wh) = 3.6 X loa J
1 electronvolt (eV) = 1.6X 10 18
I calorie (cal) = 4.19 J
1 kilocalorie (I kcal) = 4.19X lOS J
1 physical IItreatmosphere (1·atm) = 1.0I X 10 ^{2} J
1 technical litreatmosphere (1.at) = 98.1 J
J
Power 
1 erg/s = 10 1 
W 
1 kilogrammeforce metre per second (kgfrn/s) == 9.81 W 

1 horsepower (hp) = 75 kgfm/s=736 W 

Dynamic 
1 poise (P)=O.1 N.s/m' =0.1 kg/m·s 
viscosity
Kinematic
viscosity
1 stokes (St) = 10· mils
,
PHYSICAL
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS
_{1}_{7}
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTIONS
Example 1. A stone weighing 1.05 kgf and sliding on icewith a velo city of 2.44 m/s is stopped by friction in 10 seconds. Find the force of friction, assuming it to be constant. Solution. From Newton's second law we have
F~t = mv _{l} _{}
mV _{I}
where F is the force of friction under the action of which the velocity of a body with the mass m changes from VI to V2 during the time ~t. In our case V _{2} = 0, and
F=_mVt
~t
The minus sign shows that the force of friction F is directed opposite to the velocity Vi. In the MKS system m = 1.05 kg, VI = 2.44 mls and ~t = 10 s.
Hence
F = 
1.05~2.44N = 0.256 N
Since the initial data are accurate to the 3rd decimal place, the answer should be given to the same accuracy with the aid of a slide rule. By using Table 4, we can express the answer obtained in other units
IFI = 0.256 N
=
2.56x 10 ^{4}
dyn = 0.0261
kgf
Example 2. A man and a cart move towards each other. The man weighs 64 kgf and the cart 32 kgf. The velocity of the man is 5.4 km/h and of the·cart 1.8 km/h. When the man approaches the cart he jumps onto it. Find the velocity of the cart carrying the man. Solution. According to the law of conservation of momentum
p~+ p,,= m1vl+ m2V2= (m _{1}_{+}_{m}_{2}_{)} v
where m, =
V _{1} =
mass of the
man's
man
velocity before the jump
m'},= mass of the cart
(1)
V _{2} = velocity of the cart before the man jumps onto it v = common velocity of the cart and man after the jump. From formula (1)
(2)
Since formula (2) is homogeneous, the masses m, and m, may be writt en in any units provided they are the same. Formula (2) also shows that since the units of the masses will be cancelled out, the unit of the velocity v will be the same as that of the velocities VI and VI. For this reason it is not necessary to convert all the data to MI(S units.
23574
_{1}_{8}
PROBLEMS
The initial velocities of the cart and man were opposite in direction,
and therefore their signs were different. Taking the velocity of the man
to be positive, we
ml= 64 kg and m _{2} = 32 kg. By inserting these data into formula (2), we obtain
have VI = 5.4 km/h
and
v _{2} =
1.8 km/h. Besides,

v
64XS.432X 64+32 1.8 k
fil
/h =
3 0
•
k
/h
m
The velocity v > o. Thus, after the man jumps onto it, the cart will begin to move in the direction in which the man was walking. Example 3. Water is pumped out of a well 20 metres deep by means of a pump with a motor rated at 5 hp. Find the efficiency of the motor if 3.8 X 10 ^{5} litres of water are pumped out during 7 hours of operation. Solution. The power of the motor P is related to the work W which the motor performs during the time t by the expression
w
P=Tri
(1)
where 11 is the efficiency of the pump. The work required to raise a mass m of water to a height h is
W =
rngh
(2)
The mass m of the water occupies the volume
whence
V=~ _{p}
m
=
Vp
(3)
where p is the density of water. Substitution of Vp for m in for mula (2) and the resulting expression for W in formula (1) gives
whence
p =
Vpgh
tl)
Vpgh
T)=pt
(4)
Let us use Table 4 to convert the data of the example to the MKS
system. It is expedient to calculate the arithmetic values in the final
formula. In our case, V=3.8 x 10 ^{5} 1=3.8 X 10&x 10 3
rn", p=
10
3
=1 g/cm ^{8} = 10 _{6} kg/rn,
P=5 hp=5 x 736 W,
t=7 X 3,600
s,
9.81 mIst and h = 20 m. Substituting these data in formula (4), we finally get
g =
3.8x lQ6X IO3x 10 3 x 9 . 81 x20
'1=
lO6x5x736x7x3,600
Q
8=80
per cent
PHYSICAL
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS
1. Kinematics
In the general case, the velocity of rectilinear motion
and the acceleration
a =
ds
V= dt
dv
d ^{2}^{s}
dt = dji"
In uniform rectilinear motion
and
V=
;
= const
a=O
is
19
In uniformly var.iable rectilinear motion
s::::;vot+ at" 2
v=vo+ at
a=const In these equations the acceleration a is positive in uniformly accele rated motion and negative in uniformly retarded motion. In curvilinear motion the total acceleration is equal to a= V~a1+a~ where at is the tangential acceleration and .a _{n} the normal (centripetal) acceleration:
dv
a =
t
dt
and a
= v ^{2}
n
r
where v=velocity of motion
r=radius
of
curvature of the trajectory at the given point.
In the general case of rotational motion
the angular velocity
is
(I) 
= 
dcp 

dt 

and the 
angular acceleration 

d<J> 
d ^{2} <p 
a=dt~ dti
In uniform rotational motion the angular velocity is
q>
2n
(I) = "T = T
= 2nv
where T=period of rotation
v=frequency
of
rotation, i.e., the number of revolutions in
a unit of time.
_{2}_{0}
^{P}^{R}^{O}^{B}^{L}^{E}^{M}^{S}
11. 1  1.'
The angular velocity (a) is related to the linear velocity v by the ex pression
v = ro,
In rotational motion, the tangential and normal accelerations can be expressed as
Table 5 compares the equations for translational and rotational mo
tion.
Translational motion
s=vt
u=const
a==O
TABLE
5
Uniform
Uniformly variable
s=v _{o} t+
at l
2
v = tlo +at
a = const
s = f (I)
ds
v= dl
a =
do
diS
df= dll
Nonuniform
Rotational motion
q> =
wt
w = const
a=O
CP=CJ)ot+
at ^{l}
T
(0= 6)0 +at
a = const
1.1. A car travels at a velocity of 80 km/h during the first half of
its funning time and at 40 km/h during the other half. Find the average
velocity of the car.
1.2. A car covers half a distance at a velocity of 80 km/h and the
other at 40 km/h. What is the average velocity of the car?
B at vl=IO km/h and from B to A at
~2=16 km/h. Find: (I) the average velocity of the ship, and (2) the velocity of the river current.
.
1.3. A ship goes from A to
1.4. Determine the velocity with respect to the river bank of: (1)
a boat going downstream, (2) a boat going~pstream, and (3) a boat
_{1}_{.}_{5}_{}_{1}_{.}_{1}_{4}_{)}
PHYSICAL
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS
_{2}_{1}
traveling at an angle of a=90° to the current. The velocity of the cur
rent V1 = 1 mIs,
the velocity of the boat with respect to the water v.=
1.5. An airplane is flying with the velocity of VI = BOO km/h rela
tive to the air. A wind with a velocity of V _{1} = 15° mls is blowing from west to east. What is the velocity of the airplane with respect to the Earth, and what should the angle with the meridian be to fly the air plane: (1) southward, (2) northward, (3) westward and (4) eastward?
=2 m/s.
1.6. An airplane flies from A to B at a distance of 300 km eastward.
Find the duration of the flight if: (1) there is no wind, (2) the wind
blows from south to north, and (3) the wind blows from west to east. The velocity of the wind VI =20 mls and that of the airplane with respect to the air [1,=600 km/h.
1.7. A boat moves perpendicular to the bank with a velocity of
7.2 km/h. The current carries it 150 m downstream. Find: (1) the velo city of the current, (2) the time required to cross the river. The river is 0.5 km wide. 1.8. A body thrown vertically upward returns to the Earth in 3 se conds. (1) What was the initial velocity of the body.? (2) What height did the body reach? Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.9. A stone is thrown upward to a height of 10 metres. (1) After
what time will it fall onto the Earth? (2) What height .can be reached
bl the stone if its initial velocity is doubled? Disregard the resistance
o the air.
1.10. A stone is dropped from,8 balloon at an altitude of 300 metres.
How much time is required for the stone to reach the Earth if: (I) the
balloon is ascending with a velocity of 5 mIs, (2) the balloon is des cending with a velocity of 5 mIs, (3) the balloon is stationary? Dis regard the resistance of the air.
1.11. Draw a diagram showing the relationship between the height
n, velocity v and time t for a body thrown vertically upward with an
initial velocity of 9.8 m/s. Plot the diagram for the time interval from 0 to 2 seconds, i.e., for ~t~2 s after every 0.2 s. Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.12. A body falls vertically from the height h= 19.6 metres with
the initial velocity equal to zero. What distance will be traveled by the body: (I) during the first 0.1 second of motion, (2) during the last 0.1 second of motion? Disregard the resistance of theair.
t.13. A body falls vertically from the height h=19.6 metres with its initial velocity equal to zero. What time will it take the body to travel: (1) the first metre, (2) the last metre? Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.14. During the last second of its free fall a body covers half of
the total distance traveled. Find: (1) the height h from which the body
falls, (2) the duration of falling.
_{2}_{2}
PROBLEMS
(1.151.23
1.15. A body A is thrown vertically upward with the initial velocity
VI; a body B falls from the height h with the initial velocity V _{2} =0. Find how the distance x between the bodies A and B depends on the time t if the bodies began to move simultaneously.
1.16. The distance between two underground stations is 1.5 kilo
metres. The first half of the distance is covered by a train with a uni formly accelerated speed, and the second half with a uniformly retar
ded speed. The maximum speed of the train Is 50 km/h. Find: (1) the acceleration, taking it to be numerically equal to the retardation, (2) the time the train travels between the stations.
1.17. A train is funning at a speed of 36 km/h. If the supply of cur
rent to the traction motors is stopped, the train, moving with a uni formly retarded speed. will stop in 20 seconds. Find: (1) the negative
acceleration of the train, (2) the distance from the station at which the current should be switched off.
1.18. Braking uniformly reduces the speed of a train from 40 km/h
to 28 km/h during one minute. Find: (1) the negative acceleration of
the train, (2) the distance traveled by the train during the time the brakes are applied.
1.19. A car runs at a uniformly retarded speed with a negative acce
leration of 0.5 m/s>, The initial velocity of the car is 54 km/h.
In how much time and how far from the initial point will the car
stop?
1.20. A body A begins to move with the initial velocity v; and con tinues to move with the constant acceleration at. A body B begins to move at the same time as the body A with the initial velocity v~ and
continues to move with the constant negative acceleration a _{z} _{•} What
time is required for the motion has begun?
1.21. A body A begins to move with the initial velocity v~=2 m/s
and continues to move at a constant acceleration a. In L\t= 10seconds
after the body A begins to move, a body B departs from the same point with the initial velocity v;= 12 m/s and moves with the same accele ration a. What is the maximum acceleration a at which the body B can overtake the body A?
1.22. The relationship between the distance s traveled by a body and
the time t is given by the equation s=A tB t'+Ct ^{3} _{,} where A = =2 mis, B=3 rn/s! and C=4 m/s'. Find: (I) how the velocity v and acceleration a depend on the time t, (2) the distance traveled by
the body. the velocity and acceleration of the body in 2 seconds after motion has begun. Plot a diagram showing the distance, velocity and acceleration for O~t~3 s after every 0.5 s.
1.23. The relationship between the distance s traveled by a body and
the time t is expressed by the equation
A=6 m, B=3 mls and C=2 rn/ss. Detesmine the average velo
two bodies to acquire the same velocity after
s=ABt+Ct 2 , where
_{1}_{.}_{2}_{4}_{}_{1}_{.}_{3}_{2}_{J}
PHYSICAL
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS
_{2}_{3}
city and the average acceleration of the body within the time interval from 1to 4 seconds. Plot the diagram of the distance, velocity and ac celeration for O~t~5 seconds after every second.
1.24. The relationship between the distance s traveled by a body and
the time t is described by the equation s=A+Bt+Ct', where A= =3 m, 8=2 mls and C= 1 miss. Determine the average velocity and the average acceleration of the body during the first, second and third seconds of motion.
1.25. The relationship between the distance s traveled by a body
and the time t is described by the equation s=AfBt+Ctl+Dt3, whereC=O.14 m/s! and D=O.OI misS. (1) In what time after motion
begins will the acceleration of the body be equal to 1 m/s'? (2) What
is the average acceleration the body acquires
during this time?
1.26. A stone is thrown horizontally with the velocity Vo= 15 mls
from a tower with a height of H=25 metres. Find: (1) the time during which the stone is in motion, (2) the distance Sx from the tower base to where the stone will drop onto the ground, (3) the velocity v with which
it will touch the ground, (4) the angle q> formed by the trajectory of the stone with the horizontal at the point where it reaches the ground. Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.27. A stone thrown horizontally fell onto the ground after 0.5 se
cond at a distance of 5 metres from where it was thrown. (1) From
height h was the stone thrown? (2) What was the initial velocity
Vo of the stone? (3) What velocity v did the stone touch the ground with? (4) What angle q> was formed by the trajectory of the stone with
the horizontal at the point where it reached the ground? Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.28. A ball thrown horizontally strikes a wall 5 metres away. The
height of the point struck by the ball is 1 metre lower than the height which it was thrown from. (1) What velocity Vo was the ball thrown with? (2) At what angle q> did the ball reach the wall? Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.29. A stone is thrown horizontally. In 0.5 second after the stone
what
began to move, the numerical value of its velocity was 1.5 times its initial velocity. Find the initial velocity of the stone. Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.30. A stone is thrown
horizontally with the
velocity V _{x} = 15 m/s.
Determine the normal and tangential accelerations of the stone in 1se cond after it begins to move. Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.31. A stone is thrown horizontally with the velocity 10 m/s.
Find the radius Qf curvature of its trajectory in 3 seconds after the mo
tion began. Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.32. A ball is thrown with the velocity Vo= 10 m/s at an angle of
a=40° to the horizon. Find: (1) the height Sy which the ball will rise
to, (2) the distance Sx from the point of throwing to where the ball
_{2}_{4}
PROBLEMS
(1.331.41
will drop onto the ground, (3) the time during which the ball will be in motion. Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.33. An athlete puts a shot 16 m 20 em iu Leningrad. What distance
will be covered by an identical throw in Tashkent,assuming that the
initial velocity and angle to the horizon are the same? The acceleration
of gravity
is 981.9 cm/s! in Leningrad and 980.1 em/s ^{l} in Tashkent.
1.34. A body is thrown with the velocity Vo at an angle to the hori
zon, The duration of motion t==2.2 seconds. Find the maximum height reached by the body. Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.35. A stone thrown with the velocity Vo= 12 m/s at an angle of
(%=45° to the horizon dropped to the ground at the distance s from the point where it was thrown. From what height h should the stone be
thrown in a horizontal direction with the same initial velocity Vo for it to fall at the same spot?
1.38. A body is thrown with the velocity Vo= 14.7 m/s at an angle
of (%=30 ^{0} to the horizon. Find the normal
ons of the body in t= 1.25 s after it began sistance of the air.
and tangential accelerati to move. Disregard the re
1.37. A body is thrown with the velocity 00= 10 m/s at an angle
ofa=45 0 to the horizon. Find the radius of curvature of its trajectory
in t= 1 s after the body began to move. Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.38. A body is thrown with the velocity Vo at an angle of ex to the
horizon. Determine Vo ande if the maximum height which the body rea ches is h=3 m and the radius of curvature at the upper point of its trajectory R=3 m. Disregard the resistance of the air. t.39. A stone is thrown from a tower with a height of H=25 m at
Vo= 15 mls and an angle cx=3O° to the horizon. Find: (1) the time during which the stone will be in motion, (2) the distance from the to wer base to where the stone will drop onto the ground. (3) the velocity with which the stone will fall to the ground, (4) the angle q> formed by the trajectory of the stone with the horizon at the point of fall. Disre gard the resistance of the air.
1.40. A boy throws a ball with the velocity Vo= 10 m/s at an angle
of cx=45° to the horizon. The ball strikes a wall at a distance of s= =3 m from the boy. (1) When will the ball strike the wall (when the ball ascends or descends)? (2) Find the height y at which the ball will strike the wall (counting from the height which the ball was thrown
from). (3) Determine the velocity of the ball at the moment of impact. Disregard the resistance of the air.
1.41. Find the angular velocities of: (1) daily rotation of the
Earth) (2) a watch hour hand, (3) a watch minute hand, (4) an artifi cial satellite of the Earth rotating along a circular orbit with the period
~f .revolution T=88 min, (5) the linear velocity of this satellite If Its orbit is at a distance of 200 km from "the Earth's surface.
_{1}_{.}_{4}_{2}_{}_{1}_{.}_{5}_{3}_{]}
PHYSICAL
FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS
_{2}_{5}
1.42. Determine the linear velocity of revolution of points on the Earth's surface at a latitude of 60°.
1.43. What should the velocity of an airplane flying from east to
west be on the equator for the passengers to see the Sun motionless in the sky?
1.44. An axle with two disks mounted at a distance of 1=0.5 m from
each other rotates with an angular velocity whlch corresponds to the frequency ,,~1,600 rpm. A bullet flying along the axle pierces both disks. The hole in the second disk is displaced with respect to that
in the first one by the angle q>= 12°. Find the velocity of the bullet.
1.45. Find the radius of a rotating wheel if the linear velocity VI
of a point on the rim is 2.5 times greater than the linear velocity V _{2} of a point 5 centimetres closer to the wheel axle.
t .46. A uniformly accelerated wheel reaches the angular velocity 00=20 rad/s in N=10 revolutions after rotation begins. Determine the angular acceleration of the wheel.
1.47. In t= 1 minute after it begins to rotate a flywheel acquires
a velocity corresponding to v=720 rpm. Find the angular accelera
tion of the wheel and the number of its revolutions per minute. The
motion is uniformly accelerated.
1.48. When braked, a uniformly retarded wheel reduces its velocity
from 300 rpm to 180 rpm during one minute. Find the angular accele ration of the wheel and the number of revolutions it completes in this time.
1.49. A fan rotates with a .velocity corresponding to 8 frequency of
900 revImin. When its motor is switched off, the fan uniformly slows
down and performs 75 revolutions before it comes to a stop. How much
time elapsed from the moment the fan was switched offto the moment it
stopped?
1.50. A shaft rotates at a constant velocity corresponding to the
frequency 180 revImin. At a certain moment the shaft is braked and
begins to slow down uniformly with an angular acceleration numeri cally equal to 3 rad/s>. (1) In how much time will the shaft stop? (2) What number of revolutions will it perform before stopping?
1.51. A point moves along a circle having a radius of r=2O cm with
a constant tangential acceleration of Gt=5 cm/s, How much time is
needed after motion begins for the normal acceleration an of the point
to be: (1)equal to the tangential acceleration, (2) double the tangential
acceleration?
1.52. A point moves along a circle having a radius of r= 10 cm
with a constant tangential acceleration CIt. Find the tangential accele
ration at of the point if its velocity is v=79.2 cm/s at the end of the fifth revolution after motion has begun.
1.53. A point moves along a circle having a radius of r= 10 em with
a constant tangential acceleration at. Find the normal acceleration a"
_{2}_{6}
PROBLEMS
(1.541.61
of the point in t=20 seconds after motion begins if the linear velo city of the point is V= 10 cm/s at the end of the fifth revolution after motion has begun.
1.54. It may be assumed to a first approximation that an electron
moves in an atom of hydrogen along a circular orbit with the constant velocity v. Find the angular velocity of electron rotation around the nucleus and its normal acceleration. The radius of the orbit r=O.5x
X 
10 ^{1}^{0} m and the velocity 
of the electron along this ' orbit 
v=2.2 X 
x 
10 ^{8} m/s, 
1.55. A wheel having a
radius r= 10 em rotates with a constant
angular acceleration a=3.14 rad/s>. Find for points on the wheel rim at the end of the first second after motion has begun: (I) the angular velocity, (2) the linear velocity, (3) the tangential acceleration, (4) the normal acceleration, (5) the total acceleration, and (6) the angle
formed by the direction of the total acceleration with the wheel radius.
moves along a circle with a radius of r=2 cm.
The relationship between the distance and the time is given by the equation x=Ct ^{8} , where C=O.l em/st. Find the normal and tangen tial accelerations of the point at the moment when its linear velocity
1.56. A point
v=O.3 
rn/s. 
1.57. 
A point moves along a circle with the relationship between the 
distance and the time conforming to the equation s=A+Bt+Ct ^{2} , where B= 2 m/s and C= 1 mist. Find the linear velocity of the
point, and its tangential, normal and total accelerations in
t=3 se
conds after motion begins if the normal acceleration of the point when /'=2 seconds is a~=O.5 m/ss,
1.58. Find the angular acceleration of a wheel if the vector of the
total acceleration of a point on the rim forms an angle of 60 ^{0} with
the
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