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ESA 3 4 3, Airc r aft Aerodyn amuc

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Group Qutz

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26 September 2072

Instructions:
1. This is a S0-minutes

2.
3.

quiz. Each group member can bring his/her own 2-page summary sheet.
The total mark is 20 x 5 = 100. Each member of the group will receive the same mark.
Make sure that you conduct proper discussion within your group; you will also be evaluated
based on how well you conduct your discussion within your group. Groups that do not discuss

among the members will not receive this discussion mark.

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ln a top-secret government laboratory in an undisclosed location somewhere north of the USM


engineering campus, a third year student who cannot be named, and really enjoys learning Airraft
Aqrodynamics for the purposgjflife:lglglglning - mounts afovsteriou{finite str{g!-'fwr g ffiffi
n a wind tunnel. The test sedtion flow velocity isi30.5

S$.;;Jard
\:-/

*n@The
A-

student found that when the wingE


pitched tojl:ngle of alggk_of]2.1/"gliT is measured. Then, when the wing is pitched to an angle of
The wing has a span effectiveness factor of 0.95, but
attack of@ a fit
unfortunately, is made of an unknown airfoil type. Therefore, you must help the student to:
seal-er''er

o@h-Jafil.
-l$r

airfoil.

a)

Calculate the lift slope for the unknown

b)

Compare the lift slope for that unknown airfoil with the myste3-iqus finite wing. Conclude your
%

comparison and explain the reason of the

c)

differences.

(2 marksl

Now, the same student (who will not be named) increases the wind tunnel speed and tests
the wing

d)

(6 marksl

modelr(ffiD

calculate the tift coefficient.

srNO\ss{.,

\&\'

As the student is creative, he has rJO,r,"O the wing

(4 marksl
to be swept at 30o. You have to help the

student to calculate the lift coefficient at an angle attack of

e) And explain the effect of wing sweep on the lift coefficient.

10o

for M* = 0.8.

(6 marksl

(2 marksl

*^"c

?,zxa,

Muo

toggoe)

ESA

g4g, AiruaftAerodynamicfu
'l'c.st

=_^=\{_
:FXn

4 [)occnr['rcr'Zo|Z

-16{.

,{

L *rN *;

D" r^r ot4$

Instructions:

t.

n*l,r

2.

This is an individual test-open ended question with a total mark of 50. You can use your own 1-page
summary sheet and sharing is not allowed.
5 marks will come from the presentation and organization of your answer sheets. Please write, calculate and
organize your solutions properly and clearly. For descriptive solutions, you have to answer in the form of full
and complete sentences. Marks will not be given if the sentences are incomplete. You may include an

3.

You have

appropriate drawing, figure or graph for further elaboration of your answer.


to provide a reasonable and practical assumption of every parameter that you have assumed in
order to solve the problem. Marks will not be given if you fail to justify your assumption or if your
assumption does not make any

sense.
.,

__*.
f<{g-*------

Il*-"

. ft.*
- +o0

Questions:(a|marks,\
1.

The study of aircraft has been inspired by nature like the aerodynamics of soaring sea birds
'Albatrosses'. They ean fly for hours without even flapping their wings. On tl"re other side, birds like
'Flycatcher' have to flap their wing in the forest. Compare the aerodynamic efficiency of these two

birdsandhowtheyarerelatedtot@thatyouhavelearned.lgnorethe
flapping effect.

Figu
2.

re

1:

(a) 'Albatross'

(b) 'Flycatcher'

(10 marks)

Golf balls with dimples (as shown below) tend to fly further cornpared to the smooth ones.
Compare the golf balls features with smooth and dimples surface. Draw the flow if necessary. Why
do you think the dimples one fly further? Do you think it is necessetry for aircraft to have dimples as
well? Justify your answers.
i,:i\

\s

\r*

,i3''
+

Figure 2: Golf ball with dimple,s

(10 marks)

3.

lmagine that you are a pilot of an F-16 aircraft (Figure 3). The weight of your F-16 aircraft is 23,750
pounds and the wing area is 300 ft2 and the aircraft

altitude of 30,000

ft (density = 0'0008907

CL max

= 1".57. You want to maintain a constant

slugs/ft3, temperature = 4l"L.BoR,

\ = r.4, tl = 1716)'

Figure 3: F-16 aircraft

a)

Explain how you are going to rnaintain the constant altitude. Write Iglg"L$!

Sgyat1_o

n if

n e ce

ssa

ry.

(4 marl<s)
{t^d qttd (uroffi d^? , ttryl
minimum flight speed.
the
lf the F-l-r6 slows do'wn,ncalculate
dq(c$..f{

b)
c)

kl^-t

(4 marks)

Calculate the corresponding Mach number at minimum speed where the angle of attack = 27 '5'.
Then calculate the corresponding Mach numbers and CL values by using the graph in Figure 4 if the
angle of attack decreases. (Use your own engineering judgment in this case)
(6 marks)

d)

Plot a graph of the arrgle of attack as a tunction of the atr speed as your F-16 alrcraft decelerates
(3 marks)
until it reaches its rninimum flight speed.

e)

Explain tLre correlation between the andg*pj-a,ttack and the

y"*:i!y :1.x"::.j.* aircraft. S*etch

the aircriaft position with respect to the angle of attack in the


attack behavior with respect to the lift coefficient.

sa

me

gra ph. Discuss

fu{,,,

Figure 4: Trinrmed lift coefficient as a function of the angle of attack for the F-16.

the angle of
(B rna rks)

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Aircreft Aerodynannics
Test

22 October 2012

estion
Anunknownflyingobject,alsol<nownas'UFO'isflyingatsea-levelcondition

(p=I.ZZSkg/m'andp=

1.789 x tO-s kg/ms). The UFO is flying at V = 2.55 m/s. An aerodynamics :;tudent who saw the strange

object recorded (with his new iPhone) the UFO diameter, D = 2 m. As the student l'las Jearned on how
to use a wind tunnel, he is keen to manufacture and test a new UFO model in the wind tunnel.
Unfortunately, the new USM wind tunnel test section can only fit a model that is less than 1 m size.
Assuming there is zero blockage correction in the test section:

\0-

/ t{l a)

Compare the new UFO model with the real one. What would the studenl: consider
sure that the flow is dynamically similar? Explain and prove your answer.

to

make

(7 morks)

b)

What is another parameter that

is

dynamically? Should you consider this parameter?

Qugs, tion

to identify the similarity of the flow


(4 morks)
Explain your answer.

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2:
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ft

lmagine that you are an engineer, working on a top-secret project in the Ministry

of

ilrcil := fil-S

Defense. Your

task is to design a finless missile that can fly at V = 660 ft/s at sea-level (p = 3.74xto-7 slug/fts, p =
0.OO2377 slugs/ft3). The body of your missile looks almost similar like a cylinder, has a length of 20 ft
and a diameter of 2.4 ft, while the nqse has a cone-like shape, with a height of 3 ft. The reference area
of the missile is equivalent to the.cross-sectional area of the missile. To complete your task, you have
\-.---"=-----;

to:

a)

Calculate the

total wetted area for the finless missile.

(5 marks)

b) As this is a very important project, you have to make sure that your estimation is as accurate
as possible. Now, estimate the skin friction drag coefficient. Explain: What factor influences
the skin friction drag? How can you reduce the skin friction drag?
(8 morks)

c)

Next, estimate the parasite drag coefficient.

(5 marks)

d)

Finallv, estimate the total drag for the finless missile.

(5 marks)

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b

You are an engineer, working in a big Aerospace company called 'The AeroSoc'. Your customer, a
billionaire MrTonyStark, has brought a mysterious delta wing airplane with a reference-area of 60 m2
and a leading edge sweep angle of 600 as shown in Figure 2. your task is to:
a

Formulate an expression for the aspect ratio of a delta wing in terms of the teading edge
sweep angle ( IlLpl. (Hint: You don't have to substitute the given
(5 morks)

value)

b)

Estimate the aspect ratio of the delta plane.

(3 marks)

c)

Estimate the wing span of the delta plane.

(3 rnarks)

d)

ln your calculation previously, you have assumed that the aspect ratio of a delta wing was

developed in terms of the leading edge sweep angle. Now, formulate an expression for the
aspect ratio in terms of the quarter chord sweep angle ( Lcnl.
(5 m arks)