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CHAPTER 5

Transformer
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Contents of this chapter


5.1 Introduction
5.2 Transformer Construction
5.3 Principal Action
5.4 EMF Equation
5.5 Transformer Ratings
5.6 Equivalent Circuit of Practical Transformer
5.7 Losses
5.8 Efficiency
5.9 Voltage Regulation
5.10 Open & SC Test
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5.1 INTRODUCTION
What is Transformer?
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical
energy from one circuit to another through inductively
coupled conductors.

It can raise or lower (step up or step down) the


voltage in a circuit but with a corresponding decrease
or increase in current.
Transformers are used for many electrical devices
and come in a wide variety of sizes.
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In brief, a transformer is a device that:


Transfers electric power from one circuit to another
It does so without a change of frequency
It does so without a change in forms of energy
It construction has core that could be either:
Iron core
Air-core
Ferrite-core
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5.2 TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION

TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION

IRON CORE TRANSFORMERS: THE IDEAL MODEL


Several assumptions for the transformer to be ideal:
1. Neglect the winding resistance of its coils
2. Neglect its core loss
3. Assume all flux is confined to its core no leakage at
all

Means The efficiency is 100% !!!


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5.3 PRINCIPAL ACTION


When current
increases

Magnetic field
produced increases
around winding

Induced voltage at
the secondary

When current decreases Magnetic field collapses


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TURNS, VOLTAGE & CURRENT RATIO


I1

I2

V1

V2
N1 : N2

V2 N 2 I1

V1 N1 I 2
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PROOF: TURNS, VOLTAGE & CURRENT RATIO


Total e.m. f . induced in sec ondary N 2 e.m. f . per turn N 2

Total e.m. f . induced in primary


N1 e.m. f . per turn N1

V2 N 2

V1 N1
Since it is ideal, the efficiency is 100%, means Pprimary = PSecondary
I1V1 x pf = I2V2 x pf

I1 V2

I 2 V1
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Example

If Eg = 120 V 0, the turns ratio being 5:1, and ZL = 4


30. Find;
a) the load voltage
b) the load current
c) the power to the load
d) the power output by the generator
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Solution

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5.4 EMF Equation

E1=4.44N1f m volts

E2=4.44N2f m volts

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Derivation of EMF Equation

= instantaneous value of flux in webers = m sin 2ft


Therefore the instantaneous value of induced e.m.f. per turn, = d /dt
e = d /dt = 2f m x cos 2ft volts
Maximum value of induced e.m.f. per turn = 2f m
RMS value of induced e.m.f. per turn = 0.707 x 2f m
E1 = 4.44 N1 f m Volts
E2 = 4.44 N2 f m Volts
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Example
A 100 kVA, 4000V/ 200V, 50 Hz single-phase transformer
has 100 secondary turns.
Determine:
a) The primary and secondary current
b) The number of primary turns
c) The maximum value of the flux

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Solution
a) Sprimary = V1I1 ; 100k = 4000 x I1; I1 = 25 A
Ideal tranf., S1=S2; I2 = 100k/200 = 500A

b) N1 = (V1/V2) x N2 = (4000/200) x 100 = 2000 turns


c) E1 = 4.44 N1 f m
4000 = 4.44 x 2000 x 50 x m

m = 9.009 mWb
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Voltage polarity and current direction


Ip

Is

Dot Convention/standard:

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1.

If the primary voltage is positive at the dotted end of winding with


respect to undotted end, then the secondary voltage will be positive at
the dotted end also. Voltage polarities are the same with respect to the
dots on each of the core

2.

If primary current of the transformer flows into the dotted end of the
primary winding, the secondary current will flow out the dotted end of
the secondary winding
UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

10/28/2015

Voltage polarity and current direction


The direction of the windings determines the
polarity of the voltage across the secondary
winding with respect to the voltage across the
primary. Phase dots are sometimes used to
indicate polarities.

In phase

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UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

Out of phase

10/28/2015

5.5 Transformer Ratings


A transformer is usually described in ratings (volts) and
sometimes in apparent power (kVA) in which the
transformer can function without overheating
Example:

A transformer rated 2400/120 volt, 48kVA.


Primary side

48000 VA
20 A
2400 V

Secondary side

48000 VA
400 A
120 V

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5.6 Practical Iron-Core Transformers


3 situations that not taken into account in the previous ideal
transformer:

Flux Leakage

Winding
resistance

Core Loss

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Practical Iron-Core Transformers


Modeling the winding resistance (copper losses)
Modeling the
flux leakage

Modeling the
Core Loss
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Primary Side
I1=Primary supply current
I2=Primary winding current
I0=no-load current
Ic=core current
Im=magnetizing current
R1=primary winding resistance

Secondary Side
I2=Secondary winding current
R2=secondary winding resistance
X2=secondary winding leakage reactance
E2=secondary winding voltage
V2=secondary terminal (load) voltage

X1=primary winding leakage reactance


Rc=core resistance
Xm=magnetizing reactance
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E1=primary winding voltage


V1=primary supply voltage

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Equivalent circuit referred to the primary side:


E2 V2 Z2I 2 .. 1

Equation from an ideal transformer:

E1 I 2 N1

E 2 I '2 N 2
N
I 2 I '2 1 .. 3
N2

N
E 2 E1 2 .. 2
N1
2&31
N2
N
V2 Z 2 I '2 1
E1
N1
N2
2

N
N
E1 1 V2 Z 2 1 I '2 aV2 Z 2a 2I '2
N2
N2

Where a =

N1
N2

V2' Z'2I'2
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N1

R 2
N2

N1

X 2
N2

Equivalent Circuit Referred to Primary Side


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Rc and Xm can be moved to the left with very little loss of accuracy. R 1 and X1
can thus be combined with R2 and X2 to form Re1 and Xe1 as shown below:
2

N
R 1 1 R 2
N2

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N
X1 1 X 2
N2

Equivalent Circuit Referred to Primary Side,


Impedance summed

5.7 TRANSFORMER LOSSES


2 types of losses Core/Iron loss
Piron V0I 0cos0

From OC test

Copper loss
2
2
Pcop I1 R1 I 2 R 2
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5.8 EFFICIENCY

Poutput
Pinput

Pinput losses
Pinput

x100% 1

losses
x100%
Pinput

For practical transformer, efficiency is maximum when


Variable copper loss = constant core (iron) loss
Pcore(iron) = n2 Pcopper
n = fraction of full load kVA at
which the efficiency is at maximum

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Example
A 500kVA transformer has a full load copper loss of
4kW and iron loss of 2.5kW. Find:
a) kVA output which the transformers efficiency is at
maximum
b) Maximum efficiency , taking the load power factor
as 0.75

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Solution
a) At maximum efficiency,
4n2 = 2.5
n = 0.791
output kVA at maximum efficiency =
0.791 x 500 kVA = 395.5 kVA
b) Total loss at maximum efficiency = 2.5kW + 2.5 kW = 5kW
Output power = 395.5 kVA x 0.75 = 296.625 kW
Input power = Output power + total loss = 301.625kW
Maximum efficiency = (1 losses/input power) x 100 %
= (1 5/301.625) = 98.34 %

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EFFICIENCY
Efficiency on full load,

full load S x pf
x100%
full load S x pf POC / CORE PSC / COPPER

Efficiency on fraction of full load,

n full load S x pf
x100%
n full load S x pf POC / CORE n 2 PSC / COPPER

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Example
A 400kVA transformer has a primary winding resistance
of 0.5 & secondary winding resistance 0.001. The
iron loss is 2.5kW and the primary and secondary
voltages are 5kV and 320 respectively. If the pf of the
load is 0.85, determine the efficiency of the transformer:
a) On full load
b) On half load
Answer: a) 97.91%, b) 97.88%
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5.9 VOLTAGE REGULATION


Regulation =
E V
no load secondary voltage terminal voltage on load

100% 2 2 100%
no
load
secondary
voltage

E2

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Example
A 5kVA, 200V/400V, single-phase transformer has a
secondary terminal voltage of 387.6 V when loaded.
Determine the regulation of the transformer

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Solution

400 387.6
100% 3.1%
400

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5.10 Open-Circuit (OC) & ShortCircuit (SC) TESTS


Purpose of these two test:

To obtain the equivalent circuit parameters from OC and SC


tests
Magnetizing impedance (Rc, Xm)
Winding impedances (Re, Xe)

To estimate efficiency and voltage regulation at various loads.


Enable the efficiency and the voltage regulation to be
calculated without actually loading the transformer and
with an accuracy far higher than is possible by direct
measurement of input and output powers and voltages.
The power required to carry out these tests is very small
compared with the full-load output of the transformer.

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OC Test (core)

I0

P0

V1

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V1/Vopen circuit
Ic
Calculating magnetizing Impedances

Rc1

V1

Ic

P0

I m I 02 I c2

Io

Im

V1
Rc1

X m1

V1
Im

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SC Test (windings)
ISC

PSC

VSC

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Z e1
Re1

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Vsc
I sc
Psc

I sc 2
2
2
X e1 Z e1 Re1

Calculation of efficiency from OC and


SC tests
Poc = input power in watts on the open-circuit test

= core loss
Psc =input power in watts on the short-circuit test with full-load
currents
= total 2 loss on full load
Total loss on full load = Poc + Psc
=


Sfull load +

Or any load equal to n x full load


=


nSfull load +2

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