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ESFR Sprinklers and Obstructions Phase 3 Update

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Advancing the Science of Safety

JENSEN HUGHES
Obstructions and ESFR Sprinklers
Phase 3 Project Update
Presented by:
Garner Palenske, P.E.
Vice President

Advancing the Science of Safety

Sponsored by:
Fire Protection Research Foundation
with support from:
Principle Sponsors:
National Fire Protection Association, Tyco/SimplexGrinnell and Zurich Services
Corporation
Contributing Sponsors:
Property Insurance Research Group, Globe Fire Sprinkler Corporation, IKEA,
National Fire Sprinkler Association, The Viking Corporation, The Reliable
Automatic Sprinkler Co., and Whirlpool
Advancing the Science of Safety

Garner Palenske
P.E., Vice President, Jensen Hughes, Inc.
Garner Palenske is a registered Fire Protection
Engineer with over 29 years of experience in the
industry, including conducting fire protection research,
building code analysis, automatic fire sprinkler system
design and testing, fire alarm system design and
testing, hazardous material analysis, and computer fire
modeling. Specific research projects managed by him
include the FPRF's Fire Safety in Consumer
Fireworks/Storage and Retail Facilities Hazard
Assessment, High Velocity Low Speed Fan Research,
and Fire Protection of Compact Mobile Shelving Test
Program. Prior to joining JENSEN HUGHES, Garner
was the Fire Protection Engineer for the San Diego City
Fire Department. Presently, he serves on the NFPA's
Technical Committee on Automatic Sprinkler System
Correlation and Discharge.

Advancing the Science of Safety

Herewego

Advancing the Science of Safety

Outline
Overview of Phases 1-2
Phase 3
Findings
Questions

Advancing the Science of Safety

Introduction

Develop a tool which can be used to provide a reliable


analysis of the impact of obstructions on ESFR sprinkler
performance- existing data and new fire testing/analysis.
Phase1-3- Understanding of the effect various obstruction
scenarios have on ESFR performance.
Eight full-scale and 40 Actual Delivered Density tests
All testing completed at UL in Northbrook, Illinois

Advancing the Science of Safety

ESFR Sprinkler Design Concept

ADD > RDD= Fire Suppression


Where:
ADD- Actual Delivered Density( gpm/sq.ft.)
RDD- Required Delivered Density ( gpm/sq.ft)

Advancing the Science of Safety

ESFR Sprinkler Design Concept: Spray Pattern and


Obstructions
Spray pattern differs from a standard spray sprinkler
The area within the 2-foot radial distance of sprinkler has
a significantly higher density (Central Core)
Obstructions located near the sprinkler may redirect water
or change the characteristics of the water droplet to the
point that suppression of the fire would not be achieved

Advancing the Science of Safety

6 inch Wide Obstruction

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Phases 1-2
Horizontal separation of obstructions from ESFR
sprinklers was reviewed utilizing Actual Delivered Density
(ADD) and full-scale testing

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Phases 1-2 (Continued)

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Phases 1-2 (Continued)

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Phases 1-2 (Continued)

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Phases 1-2 (Continued)

In-depth review of existing ADD testing data


Identify trends
Completed 22 ADD tests
Select the obstruction parameters for the Phase 2 fullscale testing

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Phases 1-2 ( Continued)

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All Phases
Full-Scale Test Array Details
Standard Group A plastic commodity
30 feet of storage and 40-foot high ceiling
Double-row racks with standard 6-inch transverse and longitudinal flue
spaces provided at rack uprights and between unit loads.
K17 ESFR sprinklers operating at 52 psi and positioned at the ceiling
with 14-inch clearance between the ceiling and the deflector.
4-foot aisles
4 bay target arrays
Sprinkler layout was 10 x 10
Sprinkler spacing was 10 feet x 10 feet
Two - half igniters positioned at the base of the commodity offset on
the center of the transverse flue space in the main array.
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All Phases
Full-Scale Test Array Details

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All Phases
Full-Scale Test Array Details

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All Phases
Close Up Plan View of 4 Bay Test Arrangement with Single Line Obstruction

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All Phases
The following pass/fail criteria were established:
A maximum of eight sprinklers activate
The fire is generally contained to the ignition array
Ceiling gas temperatures are such that exposed structural
steel would not be endangered (peak one minute average
temperatures less than 1,000F)

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Phases 1-2 (Continued)


Fire Test Number

Test 1

Test Date

April 14, 2015


36 inch deep
steel joist,
edge of lower
chord 6 inches
from centerline
of sprinkler

Test Results
Test 2

Test 3

Test 4
April 22, 2015

Test 5
April 24, 2015

April 16, 2015


30 inch deep
steel joist, edge
of lower chord 3
inches from
centerline of
sprinkler

April 20, 2015


36 inch deep
steel joist, edge
of lower chord 6
inches from
centerline of
sprinkler

36 inch deep
steel joist, edge
of lower chord 6
inches from
centerline of
sprinkler

None

1-1/2 inch by 11/2 inch bridging


member; 1-1/2
inch away from
sprinkler

1-1/2 inch by 11/2 inch bridging


member;
Centered below
sprinkler

Length of Test (minutes)

31

32

32

32

22 inch deep
steel joist, edge
of lower chord 6
inches from
centerline of
sprinkler
1-1/2 inch by 11/2 inch
bridging
member;
Centered below
sprinkler
32

First Sprinkler Operation Time (min: sec)

0:56

1:42

1:19

1:11

1:01

Last Sprinkler Operation Time (min: sec)

6:08

7:37

1:19

1:11

6:42

Number of Operated Sprinklers

12

23

Peak Gas Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition (F)
Maximum 1 minute Average Gas
Temperature at Ceiling Above Ignition (F)
Peak Steel Temperature at Ceiling Above
Ignition (F)
Maximum 1 minute Average Steel
Temperature at Ceiling Above Ignition (F)

294

406

238

250

1264

129

256*

114

115

979

128

157*

86

84

248

126

157*

85

83

246

Ignition Time of Target Array (min: sec)

3:36
(North Target)

3:24
(North Target)

N/A

N/A

2:26
(North Target)

Fire Travel to Extremities of Test Array

No

No

No

No

Yes
(North Target)

Primary Obstruction

Secondary Obstruction

Advancing the Science of Safety

None

22

Phases 1-2 (Continued)


Outcome Structural member horizontally offset from the
centerline of the sprinkler by 6 inches produced
acceptable results

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Phase 3

Analyze vertical obstruction separation


Consider obstruction width and shape
Expand the understanding of miscellaneous obstructions
ADD testing completed June 23, 2016
Full scale testing completed August 8-17, 2016

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
In-depth review of ADD testing data
Identify trends -better understanding of the relationship
between vertical and horizontal obstruction offset, as well
as obstruction width sensitivity
Select the obstruction parameters for the Phase 3 ADD
testing and ultimately the full-scale testing

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
Sprinkler A ADD Testing Results Bar Joist Depth Comparison
Horizontal Offset: 6-inch offset
Center 4 Pans

Center 16 Pans

North 4 Pans

North 8 Pans

Bar Joist
Depth

Baseline OBST % Diff Baseline OBST % Diff Baseline OBST % Diff Baseline OBST % Diff

22-inch

1.24

1.37

11%

0.84

0.71

-15%

1.07

0.78 -27%

0.80

0.45

-44%

30-inch

1.24

1.42

15%

0.84

0.72

-14%

1.07

0.74 -31%

0.80

0.42

-48%

36-inch

1.24

0.98

-21%

0.84

0.62

-26%

1.07

0.33 -69%

0.80

0.24

-70%

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6 inch Wide Obstruction

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1 Inch Wide Obstruction

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3 inch Wide Obstruction

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6 Inch Wide Obstruction

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
The following assumptions were used to establish boundary
conditions for the Phase 3 testing:
For small width obstructions (i.e. 1.5 inches wide) acceptable
sprinkler performance is likely to occur 12 inches below the
sprinkler with no horizontal offset.
For medium width obstructions (i.e. > 1.5 to 6 inches wide)
acceptable sprinkler performance is likely to occur 8 inches below
the sprinkler with 6-inch horizontal offset.
For large width obstructions (i.e. > 6 to 12 inches wide) ADD
data should be gathered.
For obstructions of various shapes (i.e. round) ADD data should
be gathered.

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
Summary of the 20 ADD tests
Horizontal Offset from Centerline of
Sprinkler to Tip of the Obstruction (inch)

Vertical Offset below


Sprinkler (inch)

Width (inch) and Shape


of Obstruction

3F, 6F, 3R, and 6R

12

3F, 6F, 3R, and 6R

16

3F, 6F, 12F, 3R, and 6R

20

3F, 6F, 12F, 3R, and 6R

12

1.5BM

16

1.5BM

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
Bridging Member

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
Shape Variation

3 and 6 inch Round

3, 6, and 12 inch Flat


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Phase 3 ( Continued)
Flat Dimensions
Flat
Obstruction
Nominal
Width

Width A,
in.

Depth
B,
in.

Upper Chord
Thickness C,
in.

3
6
12

3.00
6.00
12.00

1.51
2.10
3.10

0.245
0.350
0.400

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
Typical ADD Testing Configuration

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
Typical ADD Testing Configuration

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
Flat vs Round ADD Data
3 inch wide Flat vs Round Obstruction with 6 inch offset
Center 4 Pans
Vertical
Offset

Center 16 Pans

North 4 Pans
3 inch flat
obstruction
3 inch round

North 8 Pans
3 inch flat
obstruction
3 inch round

Width

3 inch flat

3 inch round

% Diff

3 inch flat

3 inch round

% Diff

1.60

1.69

6%

0.95

0.94

-1%

1.25

1.20

-4%

12

1.65

1.72

4%

0.89

0.89

0%

1.18

1.13

-4%

16

1.51

1.58

4%

0.80

0.82

2%

0.94

0.97

3%

20

1.42

1.46

3%

0.79

0.82

4%

0.87

0.90

4%

0.71

% Diff

0.96

% Diff

0.94

-2%

0.86

0.84

-2%

0.72

0.75

5%

0.75

5%

6 inch wide Flat vs Round Obstruction with 6 inch offset

Width

Center 4 Pans
6 inch flat
6 inch round
obstruction
obstruction

% Diff

Center 16 Pans
6 inch flat
6 inch round
obstruction
obstructionn

% Diff

North 4 Pans
6 inch flat
6 inch round
obstruction
obstruction

% Diff

North 8 Pans
6 inch flat
6 inch round
obstruction
obstruction

% Diff

1.76

1.73

-2%

0.93

0.92

-1%

1.22

1.00

-18%

0.94

0.84

-11%

12

1.64

1.72

5%

0.82

0.87

6%

1.04

0.94

-10%

0.77

0.72

-6%

16

1.48

1.50

1%

0.77

0.78

1%

0.86

0.73

-15%

0.66

0.60

-9%

20

1.35

1.49

10%

0.73

0.79

8%

0.71

0.71

0%

0.59

0.59

0%

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Phase 3 ( Continued)

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Phase 3 ( Continued)

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Phase 3 ( Continued)

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
Droplet Behavior

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Phase 3 (Continued)
PHASE 3 Full Scale Testing
Test Number
Primary
Obstruction

1
1-1/2 inch by 1-1/2 inch
bridging member, directly
under sprinkler, 12 inches
down from deflector

Secondary
Obstruction

Advancing the Science of Safety

None

6 inch wide, 2 inch


12 inch wide, 3 inch
deep structural C
deep structural C
shape; 6 inch offset
shape; 6 inch offset
from primary sprinkler; from primary sprinkler;
20 inches below
20 inches below
deflector
deflector

None

None

43

All Phases
Full-Scale Test Array Details
Standard Group A plastic commodity
30 feet of storage and 40-foot high ceiling
Double-row racks with standard 6-inch transverse and longitudinal flue
spaces provided at rack uprights and between unit loads.
K17 ESFR sprinklers operating at 52 psi and positioned at the ceiling
with 14-inch clearance between the ceiling and the deflector.
4-foot aisles
4 bay target arrays
Sprinkler layout was 10 x 10
Sprinkler spacing was 10 feet x 10 feet
Two - half igniters positioned at the base of the commodity offset on
the center of the transverse flue space in the main array.
Advancing the Science of Safety

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All Phases
The following pass/fail criteria were established:
A maximum of eight sprinklers activate
The fire is generally contained to the ignition array
Ceiling gas temperatures are such that exposed structural steel would
not be endangered (peak one minute average temperatures less than
1,000F)

Advancing the Science of Safety

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 1- 1-1/2 inch by 1-1/2 inch Bridging Member, Directly
Under Sprinkler, 12 inches Below Deflector

Advancing the Science of Safety

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 1- 1-1/2 inch by 1-1/2 inch Bridging Member, Directly Under Sprinkler,
12 inches Below Deflector

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 1- 1-1/2 inch by 1-1/2 inch Bridging Member, Directly Under Sprinkler,
12 inches Below Deflector
Length of Test, minutes

32

First Sprinkler Operation Time, min:sec

1:18

Last Sprinkler Operation Time, min:sec

1:18

Number of Operated Sprinklers

Peak Gas Temperature at Ceiling Above Ignition, F

242

Maximum 1 minute Average Gas Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition, F

143

Peak Steel Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition, F

157*

Maximum 1 minute Average Steel Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition, F

92

Ignition Time of Target Array, min:sec

No

Fire Travel to Extremities of Test Array

No

Advancing the Science of Safety

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 1- Prior to Sprinkler Operation( From East)

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 2- 12 inch Wide, C Shape; 6 inch Horizontal Offset, 20
Inches Below Deflector

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 2- 12 inch Wide, C Shape; 6 inch Horizontal Offset, 20
Inches Below Deflector

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 2- 12 inch Wide, C Shape; 6 inch Horizontal Offset, 20 Inches Below
Deflector
Length of Test, minutes

32:00

First Sprinkler Operation Time, min:sec

1:22

Last Sprinkler Operation Time, min:sec

7:06

Number of Operated Sprinklers

10

Peak Gas Temperature at Ceiling Above Ignition, F

217

Maximum 1 minute Average Gas Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition, F

142

Peak Steel Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition, F

138

Maximum 1 minute Average Steel Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition, F

137

Ignition Time of Target Array, min:sec

No

Fire Travel to Extremities of Test Array

No

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 2- 12 inch Wide, C Shape; 6 inch Horizontal Offset, 20 Inches Below
Deflector

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 2- Prior to Sprinkler Operation( From East)

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 2- After Sprinkler Operation( From East)

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 2- Ignition of Target Array( From West)

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 3- 6 inch Wide, C Shape; 6 inch Horizontal Offset, 20 Inches
Below Deflector

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 3- 6 inch Wide, C Shape; 6 inch Horizontal Offset, 20 Inches
Below Deflector

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 3- 6 inch Wide, C Shape; 6 inch Horizontal Offset; 20 inches below
deflector
Length of Test, minutes

32:00

First Sprinkler Operation Time, min:sec

1:11

Last Sprinkler Operation Time, min:sec

1:11

Number of Operated Sprinklers

Peak Gas Temperature at Ceiling Above Ignition, F

240

Maximum 1 minute Average Gas Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition, F

122

Peak Steel Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition, F

94

Maximum 1 minute Average Steel Temperature at Ceiling Above


Ignition, F

94

Ignition Time of Target Array, min:sec

No

Fire Travel to Extremities of Test Array

No

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 3- 6 inch Wide, C Shape; 6 inch Horizontal Offset; 20 inches below
deflector

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Test 3 After Sprinkler Activation( From East)

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Fire Damage

Test 2 North Main Array Damage

Advancing the Science of Safety

Test 3 North Main Array Damage

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Phase 3 ( Continued)
6 inch Wide vs 12 inch Wide ADD Comparison
Horizontal Offset: 6-inch offset, 20-inch below
Center 4 Pans

Center 16 Pans

North 4 Pans

North 8 Pans

Width

Baseline OBST % Diff Baseline OBST % Diff Baseline OBST % Diff Baseline OBST % Diff

6-inch

1.36

1.35

0%

0.84

0.73

-15%

1.035

0.71

-31%

0.78

0.59

-24%

12-inch

1.36

1.42

5%

0.84

0.78

-14%

1.035

0.74

-29%

0.78

0.60

-23%

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Phase 3 (Continued)

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Phase 3 (Continued)
Why the Performance Difference Between Test 2 and Test 3 ?

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Phase 3- Test 2 Sprinkler Operation Sequence

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Phase 3(Continued)
Hypothesis- There exists a relationship between
obstruction width and sprinkler skipping for the obstruction
widths and other conditions of this test series.
ADD should not be used as the only indication of sprinkler
performance.

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Findings
Bridging member 1.5 x 1.5 inches located 12 inches directly
below the sprinkler produced acceptable results.
Bar joists 26 36 inches deep, 6 inches horizontally offset from
the sprinkler with a 1.5 x 1.5 inch bridging members located
directly under the sprinkler the sprinkler produced acceptable
results.

Flat obstruction 6 inches wide located 6 inches horizontally


offset and 20 inches below the sprinkler produced acceptable
results.

Flat obstruction 12 inches wide located 6 inches horizontally


offset and 20 inches below the sprinkler activated 10 sprinklers,
2 sprinklers more than that stated in the pass/fail criteria
( reduction in safety factor from 1.5 to 1.2 based upon 12
sprinkler design).

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Obstruction Tool Progress

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Path Going Forward


Phase 4 will explore miscellaneous obstructions in greater
detail, including sprinkler skipping phenomena.
Provide data for the NFPA 13 committee for code change.

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Questions and Answers

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QUESTIONS?
Contact
Garner Palenske, P.E.
+1 619-448-9810
gpalenske@jensenhughes.com
For More Information Visit
jensenhughes.com

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FPRF Website:
www.nfpa.org/Foundation

Questions, Comments
custserv@nfpa.org
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On behalf of our sponsors, The Fire


Protection Research Foundation, The
National Fire Protection Association,
Garner, and myself:
Thank you for joining us today!
Advancing the Science of Safety