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Journal of Sedimentary Research, 2008, v.

78, 335356
Research Article
DOI: 10.2110/jsr.2008.039

SIGNIFICANT VOLCANIC CONTRIBUTION TO SOME QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES, EAST


JAVA, INDONESIA
HELEN R. SMYTH,* ROBERT HALL, AND GARY J. NICHOLS.
SE Asia Research Group, Department of Geology, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX, U.K.
e-mail: helen.smyth@casp.cam.ac.uk

ABSTRACT: Quartz-rich sedimentary rocks are commonly assumed to be the eroded products of cratons or recycled orogens.
However, active or eroded acidic volcanic regions can also be an important, but commonly overlooked, source of quartz.
Cenozoic sandstones from East Java, Indonesia, illustrate this point. They are rich in quartz, and it has long been assumed that
they are the product of erosion of a continental source. However, new work using a variety of provenance indicators shows that
the sandstones contain a significant, previously overlooked, volcanic component. A number of factors have contributed to their
character: quartz-rich source regions, eruptive volcanic processes, and tropical weathering. Ternary discriminant diagrams,
such as QFL plots which use the ratios of quartz, feldspars, and lithic grains to interpret provenance from cratonic, volcanic,
and recycled orogen hinterland, may mislead, particularly in tropical volcanic settings. The quartz from acidic volcanic sources
is commonly overlooked because it is commonly assumed that quartz has a continental crustal source. Volcanic eruptive
processes can lead to crystal enrichment in rapidly eroded ash and sediments. Intense chemical weathering can have
considerable impact on the composition of sedimentary rocks by selectively removing labile minerals and lithic grains. The
resulting deposits may be texturally immature but compositionally mature, and rich in resistant minerals such as quartz and
zircon. In tropical settings the widely held view that quartz-rich sandstones are mature sediments representing multiple phases
of recycling may in many cases be incorrect.

INTRODUCTION

This paper examines the provenance of tropical, Cenozoic quartz-rich


sediments from East Java, Indonesia. These sandstones have long been of
interest (e.g., Rutten 1925; van Bemmelen 1949), and in particular to the
petroleum industry as several are proven hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g.,
Soetantri et al. 1973; Soeparyono and Lennox 1990; Ardhana 1993).
Therefore their source, geographic distribution, depositional environment, and characteristics are of importance in exploration. The
provenance of these sandstones also provides important information on
the geological evolution of Java and the surrounding region.
If the East Java quartz-rich sandstones are plotted on traditional
discriminant diagrams such as QFL (Quartz, Feldspar, Lithic grains) and
QmFLt (monocrystalline Quartz, Feldspar, total Lithic grains) ternary
plots (Dickinson and Suczek 1979), a cratonic interior provenance is
indicated. However, detailed examination of the quartz grains in these
sandstones, by optical, SEM, and SEM-CL techniques indicates that
there is a variety of types including igneous, volcanic, metamorphic,
hydrothermal vein, chert, and recycled sedimentary quartz. In particular,
the volcanic contribution, which has previously been overlooked, is of
great importance when considering the likely subsurface distributions of
sandstones, and in interpreting the geological development of Java. The
paleoclimatic location of the sediment source regions is also of
importance. The study area is presently located just to the south of the
equator (between 6u and 9u S), and the potential source regions are within
* Present address: CASP, Department of Earth Science, University of
Cambridge, 181a Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB30DH, U.K.

Copyright E 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology)

the equatorial belt, as they were throughout the Cenozoic (Hall 2002).
Therefore, the influence of tropical weathering must be considered
because of its well-documented effects on sandstone composition (e.g.,
Dosseto et al. 2006; Suttner et al. 1981).
This paper briefly summarizes the characteristics that allow different
types of quartz to be distinguished, drawing on published literature (e.g.,
Ingersoll 1984; Basu et al. 1975; Bernet and Basset 2005; Gotte and
Richter 2006) and studies of quartz from different rock types in the region
(Table 1). The Cenozoic quartz-rich sandstones of East Java are then
described. This is followed by a discussion of potential continental,
metamorphic, volcanic, and sedimentary source areas with consideration
of transport mechanisms, transport distances, and paleogeographical
barriers.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY AREA, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

The island of Java is located in a central position within the Indonesian


archipelago (Fig. 1). It is situated on the southeast edge of the Eurasian
Plate, and to the south of the island there has been subduction of the
IndianAustralian Plate along the Java Trench since the middle Eocene
(Hall 2002). The southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate is known as
Sundaland (e.g., van Bemmelen 1949; Hamilton 1979) and is the
Mesozoic continental core of SE Asia. West Java is underlain by
Sundaland continental basement, but the rocks which constitute the
basement of East Java have been interpreted to be accreted slivers of
metamorphosed arc and ophiolitic rocks (Hamilton 1979; Miyazaki et al.
1998). These slivers were accreted to Sundaland during the Cretaceous.
The southern part of East Java is now known to be underlain at depth by

1527-1404/08/078-335/$03.00

Miocene Southern
Mountains

Eocene Southern
Mountains

Setting

Id. Code
i

ii

iii

iv

vi

Type(s)

1 + 3

Jaten

Kresek

Cakaran,
Wungkal-Gamping

Kali Songo, Nanggulan

Sermo, ?Nanggulan?

Lukulo,
Karangsambung

Member, Formation

Latitude,
Longitude

Kali Lukulo river 7.54771S,


section, near to 109.6694E
Karangsambung
Village,
Kebumen,
Central Java

Type Section

South of Gunung 7.76705S,


Pendul, Klaten, 110.67146E
Central Java

Hillside exposure 7.8114S,


on Gunung
110.63121E
Cakaran, Klaten,
Central Java

Kali Songo river 7.72558S,


section,
110.20059E
Nanggulan,
Yogyakarta

Early Miocene
Road cut near to 8.13847S,
19 6 1 Ma (zircon the village of
111.26913E
U-Pb SHRIMP)
Tulukan, Pacitan
District, East
Java Province

?Middle Eocene?

?Middle Eocene?

Middle Eocene
(NP16)

Probably Middle
Sermo Reservoir, 7.826S,
Eocene
Yogyakarta
110.108E
(, 56.1 Ma zircon
U-Pb SHRIMP)

Middle Eocene
(P10-11)

Age

Location Information

Yellow/white, wellsorted and


crystal-rich quartz
sandstones.
Interbedded with
volcanic muds,
lignites, and
pumice-rich
horizons.

A series of
quartz-rich
sandstones and
muddy interbeds,
which overlie basal
polymict
conglomerates. Up
section the
sandstones become
increasingly arkosic.
Quartz-rich, yellow,
laminated,
occasionally
channelized
sandstones.
Interbedded with
organic-rich muds,
containing abundant
plant fragments.
Quartz-rich
sandstones and
conglomerates with
abundant plant
fragments and coal
interbeds.
Granular, yellow,
quartz-rich
sandstones
interbedded with
channelized
polymictic
conglomerates.
Crystal-rich quartz
sandstones with
tuffaceous interbeds.

Outcrop

Environment of
Deposition

Tidal flats or estuary.


Free from input of
fresh volcanic
material.

Thinly laminated
Air fall deposition or
bands of euhedral and
epiclastic
bipyramidal volcanic quartz reworking of
crystals and shards.
volcanic deposits
on a shallow
marine shelf.
Sandstones are
Close to an active
dominated by volcanic
and/or eroding
quartz with pumice,
acidic volcanic
volcaniclithic fragments,
source in a
and plagioclase. Quartz
terrestrial setting
types include faceted
possibly on a
bipyramidal crystals,
floodplain or
skeletal or embayed,
mangrove swamp.
shards, and
Primary air fall and
microcrystalline
epiclastic
aggregates.
reworking.

Quartz arenites to
Terrestrial to deltaic.
sublitharenites rich in
Gradual increase in
metamorphic and volcanic material of
quartz. Abundant fresh
volcanic source up
laths of plagioclase, and
section.
volcanic lithic fragments.
Sublitharenites, composed Terrestrial setting.
of metamorphic and vein
No
quartz and lithic fragments contemporaneous
of chert, basalt, and schist. volcanic activity.

Dominated by
metamorphic and vein
quartz. These are
texturally and
compositionally mature
quartz arenites.

The sandstones are


Clastic shoreline
sublitharenites,
in a terrestrial to
composed of metamorphic shallow marine
and vein quartz and
(intertidal) setting.
lithic fragments of chert,
Sediment supply
basalt, and schist. Up
from a volcanic
section they become rich
source increases up
in plagioclase and volcanic section.
lithic fragments.

Thin section of the


quartz-rich sandstones

Description

TABLE 1.Description of the Cenozoic quartz-rich sandstones of East Java, Indonesia. Type 1 contain metamorphic quartz, Type 2 volcanic quartz, and Type 3 have a mixed-provenance metamorphic,
volcanic and recycled sedimentary quartz (van Bemmelen 1949; Sartono 1964; Sumarso 1975; Ardhana 1993; Lunt et al. 1998; Lelono 2000; Smyth 2005).

336
H.R. SMYTH ET AL.

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Lodan Quarry,
6.834272S,
Rembang Hills, 111.67713E
East Java
Middle Miocene
(N8-9)

Yellow quartz and


Quartz is dominated by
Unstable (slumping
bioclastic rich
metamorphic grains with
and dewatering)
sandstones overlying significant proportions of
shallow marine
basal channelized
volcanic and recycled
slope near to a
conglomerates.
sedimentary quartz. The
fluvial source.
Sandstones are
sandstones contain
overlain by laminated abundant reworked
siltstones, mudstones, Eocene and Oligocene
and volcaniclastic
bioclasts.
rocks.
Brilliant white to
Quartz arenites dominated Terrestrial to margin
yellow, apparently
by metamorphic quartz
marine possibly at
mature, clean quartz- with a significant
a river mouth.
rich sandstones,
proportion of volcanic
interbedded with
quartz: melt inclusions,
quartz-rich siltstones, shard shape. Abundant
claystones, coal,and elongate euhedral zircons.
thin shallow marine
limestones.
7.12241S,
110.15894E
Kali Lutut river
section,
Semarang,
Central Java
Early-Middle
Miocene N5-N7,
NN4,
19.5 6 1.5 Ma
(zircon U-Pb
SHRIMP)

viii
3
Miocene Shelf Edge

Ngrayong

vii
3
Miocene Kendeng
Depocentre

Lutut

Thin section of the


quartz-rich sandstones
Latitude,
Longitude
Type Section
Age
Id. Code
Type(s)

Member, Formation

337

a sliver of Gondwana continental crust (Smyth et al. 2007; Smyth et al.


2008) but there is no evidence to suggest that this fragment was exposed
at the surface or available for erosion during the Cenozoic. The Cenozoic
volcanic and sedimentary rocks exposed on land in East Java were
deposited on this accreted basement.
Java is a volcanic island and contains the products of modern and older
Cenozoic igneous activity. The volcanoes of the modern Sunda Arc are
distributed along the length of the island (Fig. 1). A second older arc is
exposed in the Southern Mountains of East Java and runs broadly
parallel to, and south of, the modern arc (Fig. 1). This volcanic arc, here
named the Southern Mountains Arc, was active from the Eocene to the
early Miocene (Smyth 2005). During much of the Cenozoic there was a
deep basin, the Kendeng Basin (Fig. 1), located to the north of, and
behind, the Southern Mountains Arc (de Genevraye and Samuel 1972;
Smyth 2005). From gravity calculations the depocenter is believed to
contain more than 10 km of sedimentary rocks (Waltham et al. 2008; C.J.
Ebinger, personal communication 2005), which are locally exposed at the
surface in a fold thrust belt. A shallow marine clastic and carbonate shelf,
the Sunda Shelf, formed the northern limit to the Kendeng Basin (Fig. 1).
In the Cenozoic sequences of East Java there are several quartz-rich
sandstones (ranging from litharenites to quartz arenites) of middle to late
Eocene and early to middle Miocene age (Fig. 2, Table 1). They appear to
be compositionally mature, in as much as they are rich in quartz, but they
are texturally immature, in that many of the grains are angular or
euhedral. The sandstones also contain abundant zircons, of which many
are euhedral elongate prisms, a grain form which is typical of volcanic
zircons (Mange and Maurer 1992). The origin and provenance of these
quartz-rich sandstones was one aim of this study.
Rutten (1925) discussed early differences in views about the source of
material in Neogene sedimentary rocks of Java. Despite long-lived
volcanic activity, the contribution of volcanic material to the older
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of East Java has previously been considered
to be relatively unimportant. However, during the course of this study it
became clear that many rocks considered to be terrigenous siliciclastic
rocks (e.g., de Genevraye and Samuel 1972; Lunt et al. 1998) have a
significant volcanic component (Smyth 2005). To assess the importance of
the volcanic contribution and identify possible source regions it was
necessary to evaluate the compositions and characters of the East Java
quartz-rich sandstones, and consider the processes which may have
formed them.
FORMATION OF QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES

Setting

Location Information

TABLE 1. Continued.

Outcrop

Description

Environment of
Deposition

ORIGIN OF SOME QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

Quartz-rich sandstones, and in particular quartz arenites (in which


quartz exceeds 95%), are the subject of considerable, in many cases
conflicting, discussion in the literature (e.g., Chandler 1988; Dott 2003;
Johnsson et al. 1991; Potter 1978; Suttner et al. 1981; and references
therein). The discussion of Dott (2003) addresses many of the common
myths and misconceptions surrounding the formation of quartz arenites.
Dott (2003) recalls the conventional wisdom of the mid-twentieth century
which emphasized the importance of multiple sedimentary cycles in the
production of quartz-rich sandstones. In compositionally and texturally
mature sandstones, the polycyclic selective removal of less stable minerals
by processes of abrasion was commonly thought to be the ultimate cause
of maturation. However, during the later part of the twentieth century
detailed investigations illustrated that quartz arenites could be the
product of single sedimentary cycles and/or postdepositional diagenesis.
Today, we know that there are numerous, potentially interlinked,
factors which may contribute to the formation of quartz-rich sandstones,
including source-area characteristics, chemical weathering, climate,
topography and orogenesis, multicycling, sediment transport and storage
pathways, and diagenesis and/or leaching (e.g., Akhtar and Ahmad 1991;
Avigad et al. 2005; Dott 2003; Folk 1974; Johnsson 1990; Johnsson et al.

338

JSR

H.R. SMYTH ET AL.

FIG. 1. Simplified geological map of East Java, showing the main geological subdivisions and stratigraphic units (adapted from Smyth 2005). Inset shows current
plate-tectonic setting and location of Sundaland.

1988; Johnsson et al. 1991; Suttner et al. 1981). The following section
provides an overview of some of the most important processes; the reader
is referred to the references cited for more detailed discussion.
Chemical Weathering
Sediment maturity is mainly acquired through chemical weathering, as
chemically unstable minerals are eliminated (e.g., Salano-Acosta and
Dutta 2005). Therefore, in most cases the daughter product of recycled
sandstone should be mineralogically more mature than its parent source
rock. In a few rare cases the daughter sediment may be mineralogically
less mature owing to the breakdown (physical or chemical) of lithic
fragments or large unstable grains (Friis 1978; Solano-Acosta and Dutta
2005). There are a number of important controls on rates of chemical
weathering, such as residence time, climate, and presence and thickness of
a soil profile. It is generally accepted that tropical climatic settings have
higher rates of chemical disaggregation of source rocks and the resultant
daughter sediment than high-latitude settings.
Topographic Relief and Single-Cycle Sediments
Johnsson et al. (1991) describe the impact that topographic relief can
have on the sediment produced by chemical weathering based on a case
study from the Orinoco River drainage basin. In this example, sediments
produced within areas of high, often steep, relief, such as orogenic
terranes or parts of the elevated shield, are not as compositionally mature
as sediments produced in areas of low, flat-lying topography. Johnsson et
al. (1991) explain this in terms of sediment residence time and
transportation efficiency. In the areas of high relief, sediment transpor-

tation processes can remove weathered material as rapidly as it is


produced. In these areas the soil profile is commonly very thin or absent.
The sediments produced closely resemble the parent rock, because the
chemical weathering process is incomplete and the unstable minerals and
lithics remain. In contrast, in the low-relief areas and flat upland
erosional surfaces of the Guyana Shield the weathering process is more
prolonged. Here the weathering rate exceeds the rate at which sediment is
removed and a thick soil profile is common. As a consequence, there is a
long soil residence time, there is destruction of unstable grains, and the
resulting sediments are rich in quartz and have little resemblance to their
parent rocks.
Diagenesis
Diagenesis and deep leaching can lead to development of secondary
porosity and contribute to quartz enrichment. Franca et al. (2003) suggest
a number of factors are required to produce secondary porosity. These
include uplift of at least one basin margin to produce a hydraulic head,
down-dip fluid escape route to remove water, abundant rainfall to
recharge meteoric waters, and long-term tectonic stability. Dissolution by
acid formation waters is also known to lead to enrichment of quartz
within sandstones by leaching. In the Middle Jurassic Brent Sandstones of
northwest Europe nearly all the feldspar was dissolved from the
sandstone without leaving a trace (Harris 1989).
Volcanic Processes
Volcanic processes are often overlooked in discussion of quartz-rich
sandstones. In acid arc settings, crystal-rich deposits are common because

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ORIGIN OF SOME QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

339

FIG. 2.Stratigraphy of East Java showing the distribution of quartz-rich sandstones (adapted from Smyth 2005); inset map shows the geographic locations. Codes (i
to viii) are explained in Table 2.

340

H.R. SMYTH ET AL.

of the character of the erupted material and the sorting efficiency of the
eruption mechanism. Quartz-rich ash deposits formed by Plinian
eruptions may be abundant even at considerable distances from the
erupting volcano (e.g., Rose and Chesner 1987; Carey and Sigurdsson
2000). They are unstable and rapidly eroded (unwelded loose deposits
which commonly lack vegetation cover), and the non-quartzose material
is rapidly destroyed by weathering and transport. Thus, volcanism can
lead to the formation of quartz-rich sandstones during a single cycle by
providing a volumetrically significant source in a very short time.
It is clear that a number of processes could have contributed to the
formation of the tropical quartz-rich sandstones of East Java. However,
characteristics of the grains, such as shape, internal structure, and
alteration would be expected to be distinctive and aid discrimination
between them. In order to assess the sources and processes that formed
the sandstones it is therefore important to identify the types of quartz
they contain. The following section summarizes the basis for distinguishing different quartz types.
VARITIES OF QUARTZ

There are numerous varieties of quartz. Those discussed here include


igneous (separated into plutonic, hypabyssal, and volcanic), metamorphic, hydrothermal vein, chert, and recycled sedimentary (Fig. 3). Early
work by Folk (1956, 1974), Basu et al. (1975), and Donaldson and
Henderson (1988) showed that each of these quartz varieties has
distinctive characteristics (Table 2) that allow them to be distinguished
optically and using SEM-CL (scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence). In more recent years comprehensive discussions of quartz
CL characteristics have been published which adds greatly to the data
collected by optical examination alone (e.g., Demars et al. 1996;
Seyedolali et al. 1997; Hickel et al. 2000; Bernet and Bassett 2005; and
references therein).
Grain Shapes, Types, Crystal Units, and Undulosity
The shape of detrital quartz grains ranges from euhedral forms with
clear, well-defined crystal faces to anhedral grains without crystal faces.
The grain shape may be changed during burial diagenesis and pressure
solution, producing concave, convex, and sutured contacts, and quartz
overgrowths. The grains can be monocrystalline, polycrystalline or
composite. The number of crystal units (Basu et al. 1975) that make up
a polycrystalline grain depends on its origin. Grains from low-grade
metamorphic rocks (Fig. 4) have the most numerous crystal units, highgrade metamorphic rocks have fewer, and plutonic rocks generally have
only two or three crystal units per grain (Basu et al. 1975). Polycrystalline
grains from a metamorphic source are generally composed of small,
similar sized crystal units which often show similar orientations.
Composite grains, which can form in sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic,
and metamorphic settings, usually have more random crystal orientations
and are variable in size. Suturing can result in composite grains, and in
some examples other minerals such as feldspar are present. Distinction
between composite and polycrystalline grains can therefore be made on
the basis of composition, contacts, orientation of the crystal units within
the grains, and extinction angles. Undulose extinction is caused by
imperfections in the crystal lattice resulting from strain or impurities. The
angle of undulose extinction (Basu et al. 1975) is typically less than 5u in
plutonic quartz but increases to over 5u in metamorphic rocks (Fig. 4).
Igneous Quartz
There are two polymorphs of quartz (Deer et al. 1998) but only one, a
or low-temperature quartz, with trigonal symmetry, is stable at surface
temperatures (, 573uC). At temperatures greater than 573uC, the stable
form is the high-temperature b quartz polymorph, which has hexagonal

JSR

symmetry (Deer et al. 1998). When b quartz cools it inverts to a quartz,


and when cooling occurs rapidly, as in volcanic settings, the quartz may
retain the hexagonal form of the high-temperature polymorph. The
resulting grain shape is often bipyramidal, but some additional trigonal
faces may be added during cooling. Conversely, when cooling occurs
slowly, as in plutonic settings, the grains have the trigonal form of a
quartz.
Plutonic Quartz.Plutonic quartz is milky white to translucent in hand
specimen, and can have an anhedral (Fig. 3A) or euhedral shape with
trigonal form. Plutonic grains often have straighter grain boundaries than
those of metamorphic quartz, and the crystals may, rarely, be zoned when
observed using cathodoluminescence, recording the history of growth or
crystallization from the melt. Polycrystalline grains are uncommon, and
those that do exist generally have fewer than three crystal units per grain
(Basu et al. 1975). Healed fractures filled with silica are common in
plutonic quartz (Seyedolali et al. 1997; Bernet and Bassett 2005) and may
link along their length to open fractures. These fractures are uncommon
in metamorphic quartz and are very rare in volcanic quartz (Seyedolali et
al. 1997). In panchromatic images plutonic quartz appears light gray, and
its microcracks and healed fractures are easily distinguished (Bernet and
Bassett 2005). In many granitic rocks quartz is a late-stage mineral which
infills the gaps between other minerals, and therefore is irregular in shape.
The grains eroded from such rocks have an anhedral shape and may be
composite. Fluid inclusions are especially common in quartz from
granitic rocks (Shepherd et al. 1985) forming thin strings throughout the
grains (Fig. 3A). The simultaneous growth of two minerals such as quartz
and alkali feldspar producing a granophyric texture is a feature of
plutonic origin. Such textures may be found in composite grains in
sedimentary rocks but often cannot be recognized unless the section is
stained for feldspar.
Hypabyssal.Quartz crystallized in high-level intrusions may have
some characteristics similar to both plutonic and volcanic quartz. If the
intrusion is very close to the surface, the grains may form large euhedral
phenocrysts (Fig. 3B), and the hexagonal shape of b quartz may be
preserved but is likely to be accompanied by additional trigonal faces.
More commonly the grains have a trigonal form. The grains are typically
clear and bright in thin section and are free from fluid inclusions, and
commonly show signs of melt reaction (see below).
Volcanic.Volcanic quartz (Fig. 3C) can be very distinctive when fresh
because it is commonly monocrystalline, and clear and bright in thin
section (Leeder 1982). In some cases the hexagonal form of b quartz is
retained after inversion to a quartz and the grains may have a
bipyramidal form. Composite grains may occur and owing to their
microcrystalline nature can easily be confused with authigenic chert (see
below). The growth of microcrystalline or fibrous quartzo-feldspathic
grains from a crystalline core, known as ocelli or an ocellar texture, is also
a common feature of volcanic quartz (Fig. 3C.7). Volcanic quartz grain
shapes include euhedral, rounded, or embayed forms, and shards
may also occur with a distinct cuspate shape, formed by breakup of a
pumice bubble wall or shattering of a fractured crystal (Fig. 3C.8).
Rapid cooling usually results in clear, non-undulose quartz, but
explosive eruption may lead to strain, causing lattice imperfections and
undulose extinction. Volcanic quartz may have a well-developed
zonation, visible using cathodoluminescence (Fig. 3C.6), and curved
fracture patterns, which have the appearance of a cracked-tile, are also a
common feature.
Melt reaction features, including rounding, and formation of embayments (Fig. 3C.5) and skeletal grains, are common in both hypabyssal
and volcanic quartz. Rounding of crystal edges is due to resorption
(Donaldson and Henderson 1988), which is a consequence of a lack of

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ORIGIN OF SOME QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

equilibrium between the crystal and the melt (McPhie et al. 1993). As a
quartz phenocryst bearing magma rises, SiO2 solubility in the melt
increases as pressure decreases and quartz that was previously in
equilibrium with the melt is partially resorbed (McPhie et al. 1993).
Embayments are due to unstable growth, dissolution in the melt, or gas
bubble drilling, which is a reaction with the melt as gas bubbles
approach the crystal (Donaldson and Henderson 1988). Embayments are
distinguished by their rounded shape from etching caused by corrosive
formation waters or pitting because of transportation. Volcanic quartz
grains may also develop a skeletal shape if the crystal edges form first,
generating a framework or skeleton outline (Spry 1969); the faces between
the edges form more slowly and in some cases are infilled by other
minerals or can remain as voids.
Melt inclusions are diagnostic of a volcanic origin and can readily be
distinguished from fluid inclusions (Fig. 3C.9). Fluid inclusions are
commonly small, , 5 mm (Shepherd et al. 1985), and form strings
parallel to fractures within the grains. Melt inclusions, however, form at
the time of mineral growth, can be much larger, up to 200 mm (Shepherd
et al. 1985), and may be arranged along growing faces so that they are
parallel to zonation in the crystal.
Metamorphic Quartz
Quartz of metamorphic origin (Fig. 3D) has several diagnostic
characteristics including undulose extinction angles, healed fractures,
indistinct mottling under cathodoluminescence, strings of fluid inclusions
(often needle-like), and anhedral, sutured or irregular grain shapes and
contacts (Basu et al. 1975; Donaldson and Henderson 1988; Demars et al.
1996; Peppard et al. 2001; Boggs et al. 2002). Metamorphic quartz is more
commonly polycrystalline than plutonic quartz and the straining of the
lattice during metamorphism and deformation results in higher angles of
undulose extinction (. 5u) compared to plutonic quartz (Fig. 3D).
Impurities and abundant fluid inclusions may cause metamorphic quartz
to be milky white. Mortar texture, in which large strained quartz grains
are surrounded by finely crystalline new quartz (Spry 1969), is commonly
observed in quartz from metamorphic rocks. SEM-CL images of
metamorphic grains are commonly mottled or patchy (Table 2). Shearing
during metamorphism results in the alignment of crystal units and the
development of foliation in polycrystalline or composite quartz grains.
Pressure fringes, commonly composed of fibrous quartz, calcite, chlorite,
or muscovite, are abundant in low-grade metamorphic rocks, and their
shape is related to the original crystal around which they formed. Fringes
may resemble the ocellar texture common in volcanic rocks but are rarely
preserved after erosion and transportation (Spry 1969).
Hydrothermal Vein Quartz
Vein quartz commonly has a milky white color due to fluid inclusions
(e.g., Tucker 2001). The crystal faces may be clear but can be
distinguished from volcanic quartz by the abundance of fluid inclusions

341

and lack of concentric zoning. The crystals are in many cases elongate
and columnar, in as much as they grow from a fixed point, often a
fracture wall, into an open space or vug, a texture known as comb
structure (Spry 1969). Crystal terminations at either end of the column
are different, and if there is limited space within the fracture, the quartz
may form equant crystals.
Chert
Chert is cryptocrystalline or microcrystalline quartz formed either by
siliceous organisms such as radiolaria, diatoms, and sponges, or by
secondary replacement, usually of limestones (Adams et al. 1984). In
radiolarian and other biogenic cherts spherical and elongate skeletons can
sometimes be distinguished, which allows easy identification (Fig. 3E).
However, when the chert is fine grained or cryptocrystalline and does not
contain any visible biogenic structures, it may be difficult to determine the
original nature of the grain. When the chert forms as secondary
replacement, it commonly has a radial fibrous growth texture,
chalcedonic quartz (Adams et al. 1984), which may be very similar to
spherulites which form in devitrified siliceous volcanic glass (Fig. 3E, F).
The spherulites are radiating arrays of crystal fibers (McPhie et al.
1993), which consist of feldspar and quartz, and the staining of thin
sections for feldspar and examination using SEM can assist with the
distinction of from other varieties of quartz.
Recycled Sedimentary Quartz
Detrital quartz that has been through multiple cycles of erosion is
commonly rounded and pitted, and may have brown corrosion rims
(Fig. 3H). The grains usually lack the crystal faces common in hypabyssal
and volcanic quartz. They may have quartz overgrowths, or a fringe of
other minerals such as calcite. Fractures which formed during transportation are likely to be angular or irregular, and are open, in contrast to the
curved fractures which occur in volcanic quartz or the healed fractures in
plutonic quartz. Diagenetic quartz formed as overgrowths on grains may
contain fluid inclusions which are very small, , 5 mm (Shepherd et al.
1985), and are readily distinguishable from the much larger melt
inclusions found within volcanic quartz.
CHARACTER OF THE QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES OF EAST JAVA

The Eocene and Miocene quartz-rich sandstones from East Java in this
study plot within the recycled orogen field on a standard Dickinson
plot. They have been reexamined and subdivided on the basis of the types
of quartz that they contain (Tables 1, 3). Fine to coarse sandstones were
selected for point counting using the Gazzi-Dickinson method (Gazzi
1966; Dickinson 1970; Ingersoll et al. 1984), and the quartz types were
identified using the criteria discussed above. A minimum of 300 grains
were counted from each sample. Where the quartz variety could not be
determined the grains were assigned to an unknown category (up to 2%

R
FIG. 3.Characteristics of quartz types commonly found in sedimentary rocks. Examples selected from Sumatra and Java, Indonesia, Tasmania, and Luzon. The scale
bar is 1 mm unless stated otherwise. A) Plutonic: 1. Anhedral grain with melt inclusion, strings of fluid inclusions, and slightly undulose extinction. 2. Large late-stage
filling grain with healed fractures. 3. The individual crystals within this composite grain have variable size, orientation, and extinction. B) Hypabyssal: euhedral quartz
phenocrysts from a high level intrusion. C) Volcanic: 1. Top left and right sketches of bipyramidal quartz. Lower sketch, bipyramidal grain with additional trigonal faces
formed during cooling. 2. Photograph of a bipyramidal quartz. 3. SEM image of bipyramidal quartz. 4. Bipyramidal grains in a crystal-rich dacitic ash. 5. SEM image of
embayed quartz. 6. SEM-CL image showing concentric zoning within a large quartz phenocryst. 7. Ocelli texture and rounded fractures. 8. SEM image of a shard of
quartz. 9. Melt inclusions in quartz. D) Metamorphic and sheared: 1. Polycrystalline grains with numerous crystal units, and monocrystalline grains with undulose
extinction and strings of fluid inclusions. 2. Sheared quartz. E) Chert: 1. Radiolarian chert. 2. Authigenic chert with radial fibrous growth pattern. F) Volcanic sphericules
(McPhie et al. 1993) formed in devitrified siliceous volcanic glass. G) Volcanic quartz aggregates easily confused with chert in thin section. The grains in the
photomicrograph of the left appear chert-like, but examination under SEM on the right shows the grains are aggregates of bipyramidal quartz grains. H) Recycled
sedimentary: rounded grains, with etched surfaces and alteration halos. The grains contain numerous strings of fluid inclusions.

342

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ORIGIN OF SOME QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

343

Chert

Hydrothermal

Metamorphic

Volcanic

Plutonic
(Hypabyssal)

Plutonic

Quartz type

Colour

Polycrystalline
Undulosity is
weak, , 5u

Undulosity

Inclusions

Zoning

Fracture

SEM-CL textures
(and panchromatic
colors)
Symmetry

Other common
textures

Fluid
Well
Healed
Blue-red,
Randomly
Trigonal
Mineral inclusions,
inclusions developed fractures
may overlap oriented
melt reaction
common
with
microcracks or
textures,
volcanic
healed cracks
granophyric
are observed in
growth with
all types of
feldspar.
plutonic quartz.
Light gray CL.
Rare zoning.
weak, , 5u to
May be
Common Healed
Blue
Trigonal
Melt reaction, will
nonundulose
free
fractures
(potential
depend upon depth
from
preservation and cooling
inclusions
of hexagonal history.
symmetry)
Euhedral,
Clear
Microcrystalline
Commonly
Melt
Present
Curved
Blue
Concentric
Hexagonal
Skeletal grains, melt
monocrystalline,
aggregates may
nonundulose and inclusions
leading to
zoning is very
with possible reactions leading to
composite and
appear to be
clear. Grains
are
crackedcommon in
addition of rounding of crystal
aggregate grains also
polycrystalline
may have strong diagnostic
tile pattern
volcanic quartz. trigonal
faces, melt
present, as are shards
undulosity in
Homogeneous
faces during embayments,
with a distinctive
case of lattice
CL is also
cooling
ocellular texture
cuspate shape.
imperfection.
commonly
and bipyramidal
obseverd in
grain shape.
volcanic quartz.
CL light gray to
black.
Anhedral, sutured or
Milky white to . 3 crystal units
Undulosity is
Fluid
Absent
Angular
Blue-brown, Inhomogeneous
____
Mortar texture,
irregular.
translucent
per grain. Most
. 5u
inclusions
healed and may overlap patchy or
pressure fringes,
abundant in lowcommon,
open
with
mottled CL
foliations in
grade metamorphic
often
fractures
plutonic
polycrystalline and
rocks
needlecomposite grains.
like.
Euhedral
Milky white to
___
Undulose
Fluid
Not
May be
Variable in
Trigonal
Grains are commonly
translucent
inclusions concentric present
some case
elongate, comb
common
green
texture.
Commonly rounded or Variable
___
___
___
___
___
May be non- Black CL not
___
If radiolarian,
anhedral in form. The
luminescent easily identified
spherical and
quartz can be
using SEM-CL
elongate skeleton
cryptocrystalline,
may be visible.
microcrystalline, or
Radial fibrous
fibrous
growth. May be
confused with
volcanic
sphericules or
microcrystalline
aggregates of
bipyramidal
quartz.

Anhedral (space
Milky white to , 3 crystal units
filling) + euhedral.
translucent
per grain
Can be mono-,
polycrystalline, or
composite. Grain
boundaries generally
straighter than in
metamorphic rocks
Euhedral,
Clear
Not
monocrystalline grains
common

Grains

SEM-CL
colours

TABLE 2.Types of quartz found in sedimentary rocks and their distinguishing characteristics (Spry 1969; Basu et al. 1975; Leeder 1982; Adams et al. 1984; Roedder 1984; Shepherd et al. 1985;
Donaldson and Henderson 1988; McPhie et al. 1993; Demars et al. 1996; Seyedolali et al. 1997; Peppard et al. 2001; Boggs et al. 2002; Bernet and Bassett 2005).

344
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Etching + surface
alteration is a
common feature of
recycled grains. Pits
can easily be
distinguished from
melt embayments.
___
Undulose with
Strings of Lost due to Commonly Variable, can Grain
variable angles
very small diagenetic seen and
be nonshattering
depending on
fluid
overprint are
luminescent
history
inclusions
angular or if diagenetic
, 5 mm
irregular
common
open
fractures
Rounded, pitted
Brown corrosion Depends on
overgrowths may be
rim
original source
observed. Lack of
preserved crystal faces.

345

of grains counted). In addition to thin-section analyses, SEM examination was used was used to identify unknown minerals and grain surface
textures. Additional analysis of polished thin sections by panchromatic
SEM-CL and back-scatter imaging was also undertaken which aided the
identification of grains by optical techniques.
There are three types of sandstone:

Recycled
sedimentary

Inclusions
Undulosity
Polycrystalline
Colour
Grains
Quartz type

TABLE 2. Continued.

Zoning

Fracture

SEM-CL
colours

SEM-CL textures
(and panchromatic
colors)

Symmetry

Other common
textures

ORIGIN OF SOME QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

N
N

Type 1: Quartz and other fractions (minerals, lithics, and matrix clays)
are almost entirely metamorphic.
Type 2: Quartz and other fractions are entirely volcanic.
Type 3: Quartz and other fractions have a mixed provenance. These
sandstones are essentially a mix of Types 1 and 2, with the addition of
varying volumes of recycled sedimentary and plutonic quartz. A
proportion of the plutonic quartz is considered to be hypabyssal.

The principal features of the Eocene and Miocene quartz-rich sandstones


are listed in Table 1. They are subdivided into four groups by area and age,
and further subdivided into eight categories corresponding to specific
locations identified by roman numerals in the text (i to viii).
Type 1 Metamorphic Quartz-Rich Sedimentary Rocks
Pre-middle Eocene sandstones (i, ii, iv) are the oldest sediments
exposed on land in East Java. They are restricted to the western part of
the study area, where they rest directly on the basement (Table 1, Figs. 1,
2, 5). They are terrestrial deposits (Smyth 2005), but they lack
palynomorphs or any other fossils and so cannot be directly dated.
However, they are overlain by a succession of well-dated middle Eocene
strata (Lelono 2000). The pre-middle Eocene sandstones are dominated
by material of metamorphic origin, lack fresh intermediate to acidic
volcanic material, and are the only deposits identified in East Java that
contain no evidence of contemporaneous volcanic activity.
In the Type 1 sandstones quartz constitutes 44 to 87% of the total QFL
count. These rocks are composed almost entirely of grains of vein quartz
(Fig. 5) and polycrystalline quartz grains with numerous crystal units,
suggesting a low-grade metamorphic origin. The remaining quartz is
dominated by chert. Weathered laths of plagioclase feldspar and a few
grains of very altered microcline feldspar form between 1 and 8% of the
grains counted. The sandstones and conglomerates also contain lithic
clasts of chert, basalt, quartzmica schist, and phyllite, and fragments of
quartzose vein material, all of which are lithologies that are typical of
rocks found in basement exposures in East and Central Java (Wakita and
Munasri 1994; Miyazaki et al. 1998). In addition, the clay mineralogy
(serpentinite, illite, and chlorite) of cements, and clay interbeds also
suggests erosion of such basement rocks (Smyth 2005).
Type 2 Volcanic Quartz-Rich Sandstones
The Type 2 sandstones containing only volcanic material are restricted
to lower to middle Miocene strata of the Southern Mountains. These
quartz-rich deposits are found in close proximity to the acid volcanic
centers of the Eocene to lower Miocene Southern Mountains Arc. The
best-exposed example is the Jaten Formation (vi), located near Pacitan
(Table 1, Figs. 1, 2, 6). The presence of lignite, channel structures, and
abundant rootlets, and the lack of marine fauna, indicate a terrestrial
depositional setting, probably on the flanks of a volcanic center.
In the Type 2 sandstones quartz constitutes 82.5 to 95% of the total QFL
count (Table 3). The sandstones contain concentrations of coarse,
bipyramidal quartz grains measuring up to 10 mm (Fig. 6). Other grains
have distinctive volcanic features including perfect crystal faces, large melt
embayments, skeletal grains, negative crystals, rounded fractures, CL
zonation, and melt inclusions. The sandstones contain volcanic lithic
fragments and laths of plagioclase feldspar which have volcanic textures
such as melt inclusions and embayments. The heavy-mineral fraction of the

346

H.R. SMYTH ET AL.

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FIG. 4.Methods of distinguishing plutonic and metamorphic quartz. A) Classification of source by examining polycrystallinity and undulosity (redrawn from Basu et
al. 1975). B) Distribution of true angles of undulosity in detrital quartz from plutonic and low-rank metamorphic sources (redrawn from Basu et al. 1975).

Jaten Formation sandstones contains abundant fresh zircon grains which


are elongate and have length-to-breadth ratios greater than 5, a feature
which is common in grains of pyroclastic origin (Mange and Maurer 1992).
These sandstones are interpreted to have formed from the products of a
Plinian eruption of crystal-rich magma that deposited ash, which was
sorted during flow or fall, or subsequently reworked by epiclastic processes.
Several red siliceous beds crop out to the north of Pacitan in the
Watupatok Formation. Previously these red beds were interpreted as
deep-water sediments because they resemble cherts. In thin section some
grains appear chert-like but do not contain radiolaria. SEM examination
shows that the grains are composed of microcrystals of bipyramidal
volcanic quartz held together with strings of silica (Fig. 3G.).
Type 3 Mixed-Provenance Quartz-Rich Sandstones
Middle Eocene and Miocene sandstones of mixed metamorphic,
volcanic, recycled sedimentary, and plutonic provenance are distributed
widely in East Java.
Middle Eocene Quartz-Rich Sandstones of the Southern Mountains.
Directly above the oldest sedimentary rocks that include the Type 1
sandstones, there is a thick unit, which may exceed 500 m in thickness, of
quartz-rich sandstones. These form the lower part of a well-dated
sequence (Lelono 2000) of middle Eocene to lower Oligocene rocks (iii)
known as the Nanggulan Formation (Table 1, Figs. 1, 2, 7). At the base
the quartz-rich sandstones are fluvial to shallow marine deposits, and
they pass upwards into a series of arkosic arenites which form the upper
part of the formation and are fully marine turbidites (Lelono 2000; Smyth
2005).
The quartz-rich sandstones in the lower part of the Nanggulan
Formation are moderately sorted sublitharenites (Table 3) and have a
mixed provenance with components of metamorphic, volcanic, plutonic,
and detrital quartz. In these Type 3 sandstones quartz constitutes 54 to
81% of the total QFL count. A significant proportion (up to 47%) of the
quartz is monocrystalline metamorphic grains, which are subrounded,
with abundant strings of fluid inclusions, and undulose extinction. Quartz

grains with a clear volcanic origin are also present, and their abundance
increases up section from 14 to 35%. There are also some volcanic lithic
grains that contain quartz. CL imaging confirms that many of the quartz
grains are fragments of much larger zoned volcanic grains (Fig. 7G). In
addition to these quartz types plutonic and detrital grains with quartz
overgrowths have been identified using SEM-CL images, but these are
present only in the lowermost parts of the formation. The sandstones also
contain feldspar, predominantly fresh plagioclase with a small number of
altered microcline grains. Schists make up the majority of the lithic
grains; they are commonly small (, 0.5 mm) and well rounded.
Zircons are the most common heavy mineral. The zircon population
includes fresh euhedral grains, elongated prisms, and broken prisms with
sharp terminations. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of grains yielded ages of
41.7 6 1 Ma and 42 6 0.9 Ma (P.J. Hamilton, personal communication 2005), similar to the middle Eocene (49 to 37 Ma) biostratigraphic
age for the formation. The remaining zircon grains are anhedral and
rounded with some evidence of zoning; these grains yielded much older
U-Pb SHRIMP ages. This indicates reworking of some older igneous
material but shows that at least some of the volcanic material was erupted
contemporaneously.
The identification of quartz types and the other provenance techniques
indicate that the middle Eocene quartz-rich sandstones of the Southern
Mountains contain predominantly two types of material: an older
metamorphic component and a contemporaneous volcanic component.
There is a clear increase up section in the percentage of volcanic quartz as
metamorphic quartz decreases (Table 3, Fig. 8), indicating a change in
the sediment supply. In addition there is igneous and recycled
sedimentary material (average 31%).
Miocene Quartz-Rich Sandstones of the Kendeng Basin.The Miocene
quartz-rich sandstones of the Lutut Beds (vii), Semarang (Fig. 1), are not
shown on the geological map for the area (Thaden et al. 1975) because
they are exposed only in small outcrops. They are interpreted to have
been deposited on the southern margin of the Kendeng Basin, and have
subsequently been deformed and moved northwards to their present-day
position by thrusting (Smyth 2005).

JSR

ORIGIN OF SOME QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

347

TABLE 3. Summary of the average percentages of each quartz type found within the quartz-rich sandstones of East Java.
ID
Sample
QFL

Q (% of QFL total)
F (% of QFL total)
L (% of QFL total)
Quartz counts QMNU nof
QMU nof
QM , 5%
QM . 5%
PC , 4
PC . 4
Chert
Volcanic*
Detrital
VolLithic
Metalithic
SedLithic
Unknown**
Number
Quartz types
Metamorphic
from optical, Volcanic
SEM, and
Recycled sedimentary
SEM-CL
Plutonic
imaging
Unknown
Quartz
Metamorphic
categories
Volcanic
chosen (%)
Recycled sedimentary and
plutonic
ID
Sample
QFL

Q (% of QFL total)
F (% of QFL total)
L (% of QFL total)
Quartz counts QMNU nof
optical (300 QMU nof
were possible) QM , 5%
QM . 5%
PC , 4
PC . 4
Chert
Volcanic*
Detrital
VolLithic
Metalithic
SedLithic
Unknown**
Quartz types
Metamorphic
from optical, Volcanic
SEM, and
Recycled sedimentary
SEM-CL
Plutonic
imaging
Unknown
Quartz
Metamorphic
categories
Volcanic
chosen (%)
Recycled sedimentary and
plutonic

I
Jhs2KK2

I
Jhs2KW1

I
Jhs2KW2

I
Jhs2KK38

71.0
4.1
24.9
5
0
6
101
5
57
49
3
3
0
70
1
0
300
76.0
2.7
17.7
3.7
0.0
76.0
2.7
21.3

77.5
6.9
15.6
2
0
1
93
5
59
86
3
11
0
9
31
0
300
53.7
1.7
42.7
2.0
0.0
53.7
1.7
44.7

44.1
39.9
16.0
2
0
0
110
4
92
73
0
3
1
7
8
0
300
69.7
1.0
28.0
1.3
0.0
69.7
1.0
29.3

68.9
7.6
23.5
26
0
13
7
6
1
2
59
0
34
2
1
0
151
6.6
78.8
2.0
12.6
0.0
6.6
78.8
14.6

87.4
3.8
8.8
12
1
15
114
10
54
4
0
7
0
83
0
0
300
84.0
4.0
3.7
8.3
0.0
84.0
4.0
12.0

81.1
8.7
10.9
31
0
11
46
7
96
60
11
13
2
6
17
0
300
49.3
14.7
30.0
6.0
0.0
49.3
14.7
36.0

56.5
19.7
23.8
57
2
39
111
11
22
16
14
5
1
20
2
0
300
51.7
24.0
7.7
16.7
0.0
51.7
24.0
24.3

54
19
23
39
0
56
42
7
13
12
35
35
31
19
11
0
300
24.7
35.0
19.3
21.0
0.0
24.7
35.0
40.3

78.5
0.5
21
1
0
1
37
4
122
65
0
10
0
19
41
0
300
59.3
0.3
38.7
1.7
0.0
59.3
0.3
40.3

VI
Jhs2Pac21

VII
Jhs2Lutut11

VIII
Jhs1-012

VIII
Jhs1-006

VIII
Jhs1-008

VIII
Jhs2Ngr5

82.5
10.5
7
2
0
0
0
0
7
0
219
0
69
0
0
0
2.4
97.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.4
97.6
0.0

64.6
0
35.4
22
0
10
99
16
47
26
13
9
10
20
28
0
55.3
15.0
21.0
8.7
0.0
55.3
15.0
29.7

83.2
13.1
3.7
64
3
61
74
12
10
2
16
17
0
4
1
0
34.5
30.3
7.6
27.7
0.0
34.5
30.3
35.2

81.7
10.1
8.2
19
1
14
59
34
82
9
22
37
0
16
7
0
52.7
13.7
17.7
16.0
0.0
52.7
13.7
33.7

96
1
2
53
1
20
77
20
60
9
9
33
0
15
3
0
51.0
20.7
15.0
13.3
0.0
51.0
20.7
28.3

95.5
2.2
2.3
29
0
35
42
14
81
9
12
32
0
30
16
0
51.0
13.7
19.0
16.3
0.0
51.0
13.7
35.3

IV
V
VI
Jhs2Pendul1 Jhs2Kresek Jhs2Pac17A
81.1
0.5
18.4
16
0
23
79
19
69
10
1
6
3
72
1
1
73.3
6.7
5.7
14.0
0.3
73.6
6.7
19.7

40.4
53.4
5.6
32
97
0
0
2
1
0
162
0
1
0
0
5
32.7
65.0
0.0
0.7
1.7
33.2
66.1
0.7

95
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
20
0
214
0
66
0
0
0
6.7
93.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.7
93.3
0.0

II
III
III
III
IV
Jhs2Sermo1 Jhs2NKS10 Jhs2NKS17 Jhs2NKS26 Jhs2JC5

Q (Quartz), F (feldspar), L (lithics), QMNU (quartz, monocrystalline, non-undulose extinction, no other features), QMU (quartz monocrystalline, undulose
extinction, no other features and angle of extinction cannot be measured), QM , 5% (quartz monocrystalline , 5% undulose extinction), QM . 5% (quartz
monocrystalline . 5% undulose extinction), QPC , 4 (quartz, polycrystalline , 4 crystal units), QPC . 4 (quartz, polycrystalline , 4 crystal units).

In these Type 3 sandstones quartz constitutes 65% of the total QFL


count. The quartz types within the sandstones include metamorphic,
volcanic, recycled sedimentary, and plutonic (Table 3). The metamorphic
quartz (55%) has undulose extinction, and both polycrystalline and
monocrystalline types have been identified. The volcanic quartz (15%) is
euhedral, contains melt inclusions, and appears clear and bright. The
lithic fragments are diverse and include metamorphic, sedimentary,

bioclastic, and abundant volcanic rocks (Fig. 7). The bioclastic lithic
clasts contain fragments of reworked Eocene and Oligocene fossils.
These sandstones contain three components: recycled Cenozoic
sedimentary rocks, fresh contemporaneous acid volcanic rocks, and
metamorphic rocks. These are the only quartz-rich sandstones on land in
East Java which contain clear evidence of reworking of older Cenozoic
sedimentary sequences (Smyth 2005).

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ORIGIN OF SOME QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

Miocene Quartz-Rich Sandstones of North East Java.The Miocene


quartz-rich sandstones of the Ngrayong Formation (viii), Rembang
(Fig. 1), are well exposed in quarry sections along the flanks of the Lodan
Anticline. The sandstones were deposited on the southern edge of the
Sunda Shelf and pass onto the northern slopes of the Kendeng Basin (e.g.,
Ardhana 1993). The sandstones have been described as compositionally
mature, clean, and quartz-rich and have previously been interpreted to be
cratonic in origin and derived from Sundaland (e.g., Ardhana 1993;
Sharaf et al. 2005).
In these Type 3 sandstones quartz constitutes 82 to 96% of the total
QFL count. Lithic grains are rare in these sandstones and range from 2 to
8% of the total QFL count. These sandstones are unconsolidated and lack
clays, cement, and/or matrix. The sandstones are composed nearly
entirely of well-sorted, often angular quartz grains. Because these
sandstones are so rich in quartz they are commonly referred to as glass
sands, and they are used extensively by the local ceramic industry.
Thin-section and SEM-CL examination shows that between 13 and
30% of the quartz grains are very angular, are euhedral, and have melt
inclusions and weak concentric zoning indicating a volcanic origin. The
predominant metamorphic quartz (up to 55%) includes anhedral,
polycrystalline and monocrystalline types with undulose extinction and
strings of fluid inclusions. In addition, quartz grains of plutonic origin (up
to 28%) and recycled sedimentary quartz (up to 19%) are also present.
Feldspar is uncommon in the Ngrayong Formation; plagioclase is absent
but a few grains of extremely weathered microcline feldspar have been
identified. Zircon grains (Fig. 7) are abundant, and there are significant
proportions of elongate prisms (43%), typical of pyroclastic zircons, or
equant euhedral grains (25%), with the remaining 32% being moderately
to well-rounded grains. The preservation of crystal faces in 68% of the
zircons indicates that they were not significantly reworked.
The presence of fresh volcanic quartz, angular but well-sorted grains,
and pristine volcanic zircons raises questions about previous interpretations that these sandstones were derived solely from continental Sundaland (e.g., Ardhana 1993; Sharaf et al. 2005).
SOURCES OF QUARTZ FOR EAST JAVA SANDSTONES

This study indicates that there were three main sources of quartz for the
Cenozoic quartz-rich sandstones of East Java: metamorphic rocks, acid
volcanic material, and recycled sedimentary rocks. There were also
contributions from plutonic sources.
Metamorphic Source Rocks
The most likely source areas of metamorphic material are the (1) Upper
Cretaceous and older basement of East Java and (2) basement rocks on
the edge of Sundaland such as those exposed in southeast Kalimantan
and along the Karimunjawa Arch (van Bemmelen 1949).
In East Java the basement rocks are observed only in small exposures
in the western part of the study area at Karangsambung and Jiwo
(Fig. 1). At these locations the lithologies exposed include mica and
quartz-mica schists, basalts, cherts, serpentinites, metasediments, and a
range of high pressure low temperature metamorphic rocks including
eclogites, garnet amphibolites, and jadeitequartzglaucophane rocks
(Wakita and Munasri 1994; Miyazaki et al. 1998). The rocks are thought
to be the metamorphosed equivalents of ophiolites and arc rocks (Wakita
and Munasri 1994; Miyazaki et al. 1998) accreted during Cretaceous

349

subduction along the Sunda margin. A subduction setting is supported by


the occurrence of high pressure low temperature jadeitequartz
glaucophane-bearing rocks within the Karangsambung Basement Complex (Miyazaki et al. 1998). These rocks were subsequently uplifted in the
Late Cretaceous.
The Cretaceous basement and the Eocene sedimentary sequence are
separated by a regional angular unconformity. Based on the youngest
ages of the cherts in the Karangsambung Basement Complex (Wakita
2000) and the ages of the oldest Eocene sedimentary rocks above the
unconformity (Lelono 2000; Smyth 2005) the basement of East Java may
have been uplifted and available for erosion for a period of around
30 My. The almost complete absence of Paleocene sedimentary rocks
from Java and Sumatra suggests that southern Sundaland was an elevated
region following Late Cretaceous collision of a continental fragment with
the Sundaland margins (Smyth et al. 2008). This long period of
weathering and erosion could have resulted in enrichment of resistant
minerals such as quartz and zircons.
The Karimunjawa Arch is an area within the shallow marine shelf
north of Java (Fig. 8), which was elevated throughout most of the
Cenozoic and was therefore a potential source of sediment (e.g., Cater
1981). The Karimunjawa Islands, which are found along the arch, are
reported to contain exposures of pre-Cenozoic quartz sandstones and
conglomerates, schist, and shale (van Bemmelen 1949) but the character
of the basement in this region is not well known. The location of the
Karimunjawa Arch immediately to the northwest of East Java means that
material could have been transported a relatively short distance across the
shelf into the Kendeng Basin. To the east of this drainage divide lie the
Meratus Mountains of southeast Kalimantan. The rocks exposed in these
areas are similar to those described from Java; they range in age from the
Middle Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous and comprise chert, siliceous
shale, limestone, basalt, ultramafic rocks, schists, and sedimentary
volcanic rocks (Wakita et al. 1998). However, it is not clear whether
these rocks were available for erosion during the early Cenozoic.
Volcanic Source Rocks
The Southern Mountains Arc in East Java is the closest and most likely
source of acid volcanic material. The arc was active from the middle
Eocene until the early Miocene (42 to 18 Ma) and formed the southern
margin of the Kendeng Basin (Smyth 2005). Throughout the late
Oligocene and early Miocene the volcanic activity in the Southern
Mountains Arc was extensive, and produced by explosive Plinian-style
eruptions. The deposits range from andesite to rhyolite, with an average
SiO2 content of 67 wt% (Smyth 2005), and include thick mantling tuffs,
crystal-rich tuffs, block and ash flows, pumicelithic breccias, andesitic
breccias, and silicic lava domes and lava flows. In the Southern
Mountains Arc, there is a record of a major eruption towards the end
of the period of arc activity. Extensive deposits of this eruption are
widespread to the east of Yogyakarta; these were deposited in a short
period, possibly during one eruptive phase, between 21 and 19 Ma
(Smyth 2005). Due to its position at the southern margin of the basin, the
arc would have supplied volcanic debris, including volcanic quartz, to the
basin by pyroclastic flows, air fall from erupted ash columns and clouds,
and epiclastic reworking. Ash-fall from large eruptions would have been
distributed over an extensive area including the shelf area to the north of
the Kendeng Basin.

r
FIG. 5.Character of Type 1 quartz-rich sandstones. A) Photomicrograph of metamorphic grains from iv (Cakaran Member of the WungkalGamping Formation)
(scale: 1 mm). B) Photomicrograph showing metamorphic grains from basal i (Lukulo Member, Karangsambung Formation) (scale: 1 mm). C, D) BS (back scatter) and
CL images of polycrystalline grains (Cakaran Member of the WungkalGamping Formation) (scale: 200 mm). E) QFL plot showing the Type 1 sandstones. F) Triangular
plot showing metamorphic, volcanic, and recycled sedimentary and plutonic quartz of the Type 1 sandstones.

350

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ORIGIN OF SOME QUARTZ-RICH SANDSTONES, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

Volcanic processes are extremely efficient sorting mechanisms (e.g.,


Walker 1972; Cas and Wright 1987). Crystal-rich, well-sorted deposits
can be produced by single volcanic events, and by subsequent epiclastic
processes. Concentration of crystals can occur in the magma chamber,
during dome collapse, in the eruption column, or by reworking and
weathering of tuffs, ash falls, and pyroclastic debris (Cas and Wright
1987). Examples of quartz-rich and other crystal-rich volcanic deposits
include sediments in the Lower Permian Collio Basin of the Italian Alps
(Breitkreuz et al. 2001) and in the marine Paleozoic basins of the Sarrabus
region, SE Sardinia, Italy (Gimeno 1994).
Ash particles within an eruption cloud fall out at different distances
from the vent. This is dependent upon the terminal velocity of particles,
which is determined by density and aerodynamic factors. Heavy lithic
particles reach their terminal velocity and fall out close to the vent, but
crystals and pumice are transported greater distances until they reach
their terminal velocity and descend. This leads to increased proportions
of crystals further from the vent (Cas and Wright 1987). This
phenomenon is noted in the air-fall deposits of the Fogo A, Azores,
and the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruptions (Cas and Wright 1987; Fisher
and Schmincke 1984; Fisher et al. 1998; Kaminski and Jaupart 1998;
Veitch and Woods 2001).
Air-fall material is distributed over a wide area, it is commonly rapidly
deposited and rapidly reworked from land into sea, and it is very likely to
be mixed with sediment from other sources and redeposited. After
eruptions in the tropics, lahars commonly carry large volumes of material
downslope and mix ash and crystals with preexisting sediments. Due to
post-eruptive reworking, mixing, and transportation, the paleocurrent
indicators in sedimentary rocks in which this material is finally deposited
may not necessarily provide information on the ultimate source of the
material. For example, the quartz-rich Ngrayong Formation was
deposited in a terrestrial to shallow marine setting on the edge of the
Sunda Shelf and has numerous indicators of north-to-south sediment
transport, including channels, cross-bedding, and the regional change in
facies from terrestrial in the north to subsurface marine fans in the south
(Ardhana 1993). The sediment is therefore interpreted to have been
transported southwards from the shelf onto the shelf edge, and the source
for this sediment has been assumed to be the continental rocks of
Sundaland farther to the north (e.g., Ardhana 1993; M. Adams, personal
communication 2001). The new provenance data suggest that the volcanic
material, including quartz, zircons, and clays, in these sandstones were
the result of ash-fall onto the Sunda Shelf. A significant component of
this air-fall is now thought to be associated with the major eruption which
occurred in the Southern Mountains Arc at around 20 Ma (Smyth et al.
2005; Smyth et al. 2007; Smyth et al. 2008). The air-fall deposits on the
shelf were subsequently reworked, mixed with metamorphic and recycled
sedimentary material, and redeposited on the shelf edge. This illustrates
the importance of mixing and reworking of multiple sources of sediment,
and indicates that the ultimate source for a significant proportion of the
sediment was not only the Sundaland continent to the north but also the
Southern Mountains Arc to the south.
Recycled Sedimentary Source Rocks
The Cretaceous and older basement of East Java is the closest source
for recycled sedimentary material. In addition there are several other
potential sources:

351

A. Karimunjawa Arch.As discussed above, the Karimunjawa Arch


was elevated throughout most of the Cenozoic and was therefore a
potential source of sediment. Pre-Cenozoic quartz sandstones and
conglomerates (van Bemmelen 1949) now exposed on Karimunjawa
Island north of Java could have provided a source for abundant recycled
sedimentary quartz. It is also possible that quartz-rich sandstones were
deposited on the arch in the early Cenozoic and were subsequently
removed.
B. Eocene sedimentary rocks on land, East Java.The Miocene Lutut
Beds, described above, contain a reworked Eocene and Oligocene fauna,
sedimentary lithic grains, and recycled sedimentary quartz. In addition,
they contain fresh contemporaneous volcanic and metamorphic material.
The abundance of volcanic material strongly suggests that these
sandstones are the product of Miocene uplift and erosion of lower
Cenozoic volcanogenic rocks and older basement rocks in the Southern
Mountains Arc.
Plutonic Source Rocks
Plutonic quartz does not occur in abundance in the sedimentary rocks
of East Java, contributing only 9% of the total quartz in all of the quartzrich sandstones analyzed in this study. The closest granitic rocks to East
Java exposed at the surface are the Cretaceous granites of the Schwaner
Mountains of SW Borneo. These granites are known (van Hattum 2005;
van Hattum et al. 2006) to have been elevated between the late Eocene
and the early Miocene, providing material to the sedimentary rocks of
northern Borneo. The Schwaner Mountains granites have yielded a small
and distinctive range of isotopic ages including U-Pb ages from zircons
(van Hattum 2005). Similar age populations of zircons are recognized in
northern Borneo sedimentary rocks (van Hattum et al. 2006), but are not
seen in the zircons of East Java (Smyth 2005; Smyth et al. 2007; Smyth et
al. 2008).
Other granites are located much farther away and include the Tin Belt
of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, and the Tin Islands of the Sunda
Shelf: Bangka, Billiton, and Belitung. Sediment produced by the erosion
of these granites would require lengthy transportation by river systems,
which in the case of Malay Peninsula or Sumatra would have exceeded
1500 km. During the Cenozoic there were also paleogeographic barriers
in the Java Sea, including two elongate elevated ridges, the Karimunjawa
and Bawean Arches (Fig. 8), which were emergent throughout most of
the Cenozoic (e.g., Bishop 1980; Cater 1981). The Karimunjawa Arch
separates the East and West Java Seas: to the east of the arch lower
Miocene to Oligocene sedimentary rocks are marine but to the west most
of the lower Miocene and all of the Oligocene sedimentary rocks are
nonmarine (Cater 1981). These arches, and the narrow basins which
flanked them, could have acted as sediment traps or barriers preventing
detritus from Sundaland entering the East Java system. In addition a
number of basins in the West Java Sea, such as the Billiton and Arjuna
Basins, could have been sediment traps.
INFLUENCE OF TROPICAL WEATHERING AND USE OF
DISCRIMINANT DIAGRAMS

Today, and throughout the Cenozoic, the source regions that provided
sediment to East Java were located close to the equator (Hall 2002) and as

r
FIG. 6.Character of Type 2 sandstones. A) Bipyramidal grain (scale: 1 mm). B) Photomicrograph showing poorly sorted sandstone of v (Kresek Member, Wungkal
Gamping Formation). Note the two large clear, euhedral grains in the top right of the image (scale each box: 1 mm). C) Photomicrograph showing melt embayments from
vi (Jaten Formation) (scale: 500 mm). D) Quartz shard (scale: 1 mm). E, F) SEM-BS and SEM-CL images of a grain showing melt embayments and concentric zoning
(Jaten Formation) (scale: 700 mm). G) QFL plot showing the Type 2 sandstones. H) Triangular plot showing metamorphic, volcanic, and recycled sedimentary and
plutonic quartz of the Type 2 sandstones.

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353

FIG. 8. Potential source areas for the quartz-rich sandstones.

a result had a tropical climate. Tropical weathering can have a significant


impact on the composition of sediment, and weathering processes can
occur during erosion of the source rock, during transportation of
sediment, after deposition, and/or when the resulting sedimentary rock is
exposed at the surface.

increase in quartz (Schulz and White 1999). This enrichment is the result
of the selective removal of kaolinite. Unconsolidated volcanic deposits
and sediments which are subject to tropical weathering are expected to
break down much more rapidly than in lithified sediments or in granitic
rocks.

Tropical Weathering

Discriminant Diagrams

Tropical environments with high temperature and precipitation are


sites of rapid weathering and erosion (e.g., White and Blum 1995; Dosseto
et al. 2006). There are a number of well documented examples of the
impact of tropical weathering on rocks in both the ancient and the
modern record. In the Narmada Basin in India (Akhtar and Ahmad 1991)
the Lower Cretaceous Nimar Sandstone, a quartz arenite, was produced
by single-cycle weathering of a cratonic source. The quartz was enriched
relative to feldspar and other labile constituents by the humid tropical
climate and a long residence time in the soil horizon (Akhtar and
Ahmad 1991). The resulting sediment is compositionally mature but
texturally immature. In a modern example from the Guaba Ridge in the
Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, Schulz and White (1999) recorded an
increase in quartz concentration in the soil profile developing above
granitoid rocks. In the upper meter of the soil profile there is a 30%

In tropical environments traditional assessments of maturity and


provenance from discriminant plots such as those of Dickinson and
Suczek (1979) that focus on the proportions of quartz, feldspar, and lithic
fragments may be misleading. In these settings rapid, intense, and deep
weathering break down any labile minerals, mineral aggregates, and
many lithic fragments. The resulting sediment is rich in resistant minerals
such as quartz and heavy minerals like zircon. As the unstable or weak
fraction is removed the quartz content is enriched and the resulting sands
contain a higher proportion of quartz than the source rock. Datasets on
the composition of arc-related sediments (e.g., Dickinson and Suczek
1979; Marsaglia and Ingersoll 1992) do not include modern tropical
environments, because there is a gap in samples collected around the
equator between latitudes of 9.7u N and 16.5u S. Up to now few
provenance studies have been published from tropical SE Asia and little

r
FIG. 7.Character of Type 3 sandstones. A) Photomicrograph showing a bipyramidal quartz grain in the center bottom left (scale: 1 mm). B) Photomicrograph of the
angular, clear quartz grains and opaque mineral grains (scale: 500 mm). C) Elongate volcanic zircons from viii (Ngrayong Formation) (scale: 100 mm). D) Quartz lithics
from the vii (Lutut Formation) (scale: 1 mm). E) Weathered volcanic lithics from vii (Lutut Formation) (scale: 1 mm). F, G) SEM-BS and SEM-CL images of a quartz
grain exhibiting incomplete concentric zoning, indicating that it is a fragment of a much larger grain (200 mm) (Nanggulan Formation). H) QFL plot showing the Type 3
sandstones. I) Triangular plot showing metamorphic, volcanic, and recycled sedimentary and plutonic quartz of the Type 3 sandstones.

354

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H.R. SMYTH ET AL.

information from Indonesia, despite the size and the high sediment yields
of this region at present (e.g., Milliman and Syvitski 1992; Milliman et al.
1999), and its importance as a region of abundant volcanic and tectonic
activity throughout the Cenozoic (e.g., Hall and Smyth 2008). The
abundance of volcanic quartz in East Java suggests that more data are
needed from tectonically and volcanically active tropical regions such as
Indonesia, and that discriminant plots should be considered in the light of
climate at the time the sediment was eroded and deposited, as well as the
present day.
CONCLUSIONS

Quartz can provide valuable provenance information. There are


numerous potential sources of quartz in sedimentary rocks, and the
middle Eocene to lower Miocene sandstones of East Java contain igneous
(plutonic, hypabyssal, and volcanic), metamorphic, hydrothermal vein,
chert, and recycled sedimentary quartz. However, each quartz type has
distinctive characteristics which allow them to be distinguished, and
combined with other provenance information, can provide critical
information in interpreting sources, sediment pathways, and regional
geological history.
In East Java, at the base of the Cenozoic succession, immediately above
the basement, the oldest sandstones are dominated by quartz of
metamorphic origin, but this gradually decreases up section, through
the middle Eocene, as volcanic quartz becomes more abundant. The
increase in volcanic material records the initiation of volcanism in the
Southern Mountains Arc and the early stages of arc growth from the
middle Eocene to the early Oligocene. This early Cenozoic period of arc
activity has previously been largely overlooked (e.g., Rutten 1925; van
Bemmelen 1949; Hamilton 1988), partly because of the abundance of
younger and more obvious volcanic products such as the Old Andesites
(van Bemmelen 1949) and because its acid character means that the
volcanic products produced by explosive eruptions are preserved mainly
in sedimentary rocks. First-cycle volcanic quartz arenites are preserved
only within or close to the arc. These quartz-rich sands were transported
away from the arc and mixed with quartz derived from multi-stage
erosion of local and more distant basement rocks. Farther away from arc,
volcanic particles are interpreted to have fallen as ash onto the Sunda
Shelf and into the Kendeng Basin. On the shelf the material would
subsequently have been reworked, enriched in quartz, and mixed with
material derived from uplifted basement blocks in the East Java Sea
(Bishop 1980; van Bemmelen 1949) and redeposited on the edge of the
Sunda Shelf. The sedimentary rocks of East Java are dominated by
material eroded from (1) the basement, distributed by fluvial systems, and
(2) from the Southern Mountains Arc, distributed by volcanic processes
and subsequent epiclastic reworking.
Quartz-rich sandstones are not necessarily the result of erosion of a
cratonic or recycled continental crust in orogenic source regions. Active
volcanism or eroded acid volcanic rocks may be an important but
overlooked source of quartz. Volcanism can distribute quartz over a large
area during explosive eruptions. Quartz may be concentrated by a variety
of volcanic processes, and further enriched by reworking after eruption.
In tropical settings weathering may further enrich sediments in quartz.
The mixture of such quartz-rich material with the other sediment in
terrestrial settings, elevated highs, or shallow marine settings may mean
that the volcanic contribution is overlooked. The proportions of quartz
types in sandstones may change within a sedimentary succession and can
provide valuable information to aid interpretation of provenance and the
geological evolution of an area. In tropical environments it is possible to
rapidly enrich the quartz content of the sediment by the removal of labile
minerals, lithic fragments, and clays. In such settings standard QFL
discriminant diagrams may provide a misleading indication of provenance.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The SE Asia Research Group at Royal Holloway University of London


funded this project. Financial assistance for SHRIMP U-Pb analyses was
provided by a grant from the University of London Central Research Fund
and by CSIRO, Australia. U-Pb SHRIMP dating was undertaken by Joseph
Hamilton and Pete Kinny (Curtin University of Technology, Perth,
Australia). The samples of granitic rocks were collected by Imtihanah in
2000. We appreciate the field work support provided by LIPI (Lembaga Ilmu
Pengetahuan Indonesia) and Eko Budi Lelono of LEMIGAS. We are grateful
to Terry Williams and Anton Kearsley of the Natural History Museum,
London, for access to the SEM-CL and assistance with imaging. We also
thank Colin Macpherson, Heather Handley, Peter Lunt, Kevin DSouza, Ben
Clements, Cindy Ebinger, Marco van Hattum, Han van Gorsel, Simon
Suggate, and Dave Waltham. We also are grateful to William Heins, Kitty
Milliken, M.J. Johnsson, and an anonymous reviewer for their comments,
which greatly improved this manuscript.
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Received 8 May 2007; accepted 21 October 2007.