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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 02 | August 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Realization of Multiplier Architecture Based on


VHBCSE Algorithm for Reconfigurable FIR
Filter using Verilog HDL
Yasmeen
PG Student
Department of VLSI Design & Embedded Systems
P.A College of Engineering, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Litty Mathew
Associate Professor
Department of VLSI Design & Embedded Systems
P.A College of Engineering, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Abstract
FIR filter with reconfigurability is the significant component in the advanced SDR (software defined radio) application.
Complexity and power consumptions are the two factors that must be consider while designing re-configurable fir filter.
Proposed VHBCSE algorithm searches for 2-bit CSE vertically across adjacent coefficients at first. Then variable 4bit and 8 bit
CSE is applied horizontally within the each coefficient. The VHBCSE algorithm based multiplier design reduces number of
adders and switching activity of the multiplier adder block. A 4 tap FIR filter is implemented and the design shows that
VHBCSE algorithm based multiplier gives better performance and reduced power consumption and area compared to that of
existing fixed 2bit and 3 bit BCSE technique. The design for reconfigurable fir filter based on VHBCSE algorithm is coded in
Verilog, synthesized and simulated in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.7 tool.
Keywords: BCSE algorithm, Reconfigurable FIR Filter, SDR system, Shift and add technique, VLSI design
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
I.

INTRODUCTION

Digital filters play an essential role in analog and digital communication. The purpose of using fir filter is to eliminate unwanted
signal and providing better quality of signal component at the output. FIR filters are widely used in wireless communication as
channel equalization and it is the fundamental component in biomedical and in image device as it is used as the noise
suppression. In literature many algorithms have been proposed to implement efficient, low cost, low complexity multiplier
architecture for FIR filter.
The earlier proposed algorithms are divided into graph based technique and common sub expression technique. Though these
two approaches provide efficient multiplier architecture by running these algorithms on a fixed set of coefficients for a fixed
amount of time on a highly computing platform but it is not applicable for application like SDR whose filter coefficients
vigorously changes based on the specification of different standard in a computing platform. Thus many researchers have
contributed towards realizing fir filter with reconfigurability and binary common sub expression elimination (BCSE) is one of
those algorithms. BCSE method is used for designing multiplier which is applicable for reconfigurable fir filter with reduced
hardware. This method eliminates the redundant patterns that are present in the binary representation of filter coefficients. The
length of the BCSs is the main factor that needs to be considered because as the length of BCSs increases adder step as well as
hardware cost also increases, which makes the filter design inefficiency.

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Realization of Multiplier Architecture Based on VHBCSE Algorithm for Reconfigurable FIR Filter using Verilog HDL
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 02 / 005)

II. EXISTING METHOD

Fig. 1: Reconfigurable constant multiplier using 2-bit BCSE algorithm

The existing fixed BCSE algorithms eliminate the redundant computation vertically by considering 3-bit or 2-bit binary common
sub expression present across the adjacent coefficients. Horizontal BCSE algorithm utilizes CSs occurring within each
coefficient to get rid of redundant computations, while vertical BCSE uses CSs found across adjacent coefficients to eliminate
redundant computations. Designing a reconfigurable fir filter based on existing method i.e. fixed length (2 bit and 3 bit) BCSE
faces several problems they are; BCSE algorithm follows signed magnitude format for input and coefficients of the filter,
whereas most of the system supports signed decimal format for representation which got wide range of application. Also the
convention method completely ignores the optimization of multiplier adder tree (MAT) in the filter design. Also in the
convention method BCSE algorithm is applied only in the 1 st layer thus adders are used to add up the partial products this leads
to increase in hardware also power consumption. Though BCSE technique reduces the redundant computation and improves the
performance, this method consumes large area and power.
III. PROPOSED METHOD
The figure 2 shows the work flow of a multiplier design using VH-BCSE algorithm. Here the multiplier design takes input length
as 16bit and length of the filter coefficient as 17 bit where 17 th bit indicates the sign. The final result i.e. output length is
considered to be 16 bit. The inputs which are sampled are loaded to the register whereas in LUT the filter coefficients are stored.
As shown in figure 2 at first coefficients are given to the sign conversion unit based on the MSB bit of the coefficients, this
block produces either inverted or original multiplexed coefficient (MC). These multiplexed coefficients are then given to the
partial product generator (PPG) unit to which input is also given. The PPG unit produces partial product which are summed up in
the following layer. The data which is obtained from the partial product generator block is appropriately chosen by the
multiplexer unit. Control logic generator block which gives control signals and these signals are given to the layer 2 and 3 where
additions of the PPs are performed in a controllable manner. And the final multiplication result is obtained from the layer 4 and it
is given to sign conversion block which gives either complemented or original result based on MSB bit. Finally in the register
the result of the multiplication is stored.

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41

Realization of Multiplier Architecture Based on VHBCSE Algorithm for Reconfigurable FIR Filter using Verilog HDL
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 02 / 005)

Fig. 2: Work flow chart of constant multiplier based on VH-BCSE algorithm

Steps Involved in the VHBCSE Algorithm:

Get the input of 16-bits (X [15:0]).


Store coefficients of 17-bits (H [16:0]) in LUT.
Take 1's complement of the 16-bits (except the MSB) coefficient (H'[15:0]).
If the MSB, the 17th bit (H [16]) of the coefficient is 1, then choose the complemented version of coefficient
Partition the multiplexed coefficient (MC) (Hm[15:0]) into fixed groups of 2 bits each
Partition the MC into groups of 4 bits each based on the control signal obtained from the control logic generator unit
compare the result
Partition the MC into fixed group of 8-bit and compare the result based on the control signal.
Obtain the final addition result by performing 1-bit right shift on the output
Take 2's complement of the output, if the MSB the 17th bit (H [16]) of the coefficient is 1, then choose the complemented
version.
Multiplication is completed. Store this result, H*X, in the register.

Fig. 3: Block diagram of proposed multiplier design with reconfigurability

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Realization of Multiplier Architecture Based on VHBCSE Algorithm for Reconfigurable FIR Filter using Verilog HDL
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 02 / 005)

IV. FIR FILTER ARCHITECTURE


The FIR filters performance is defined by its multipliers hence in any fir filter, multipliers plays a crucial role. To improve the
performance of the fir filter one must concentrate on the multiplier architecture design because it consumes more area as well as
power. VHBCSE algorithm based multiplier gives better performance and less power consumption compared to the other
existing method. A 4 tap fir filter is implemented based on VHBCSE technique. Figure 4 shows a 4 tap fir filter with coefficients
h0, h1, h2, h3 each of 16bit length and a variable input X of 16 bit length.

Fig. 5: A 4 tap fir filter design

V. RESULT

Fig. 5: RTL schematic of VHBCSE based Multiplier design

Fig. 6: RTL schematic of 4 tap fir filter based on VHBCSE algorithm

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Realization of Multiplier Architecture Based on VHBCSE Algorithm for Reconfigurable FIR Filter using Verilog HDL
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 02 / 005)

Fig. 7: Simulation result of FIR filter architecture

VI. CONCLUSION
The multiplier architecture based on proposed algorithm is far better than that existing fixed bit algorithm in terms of area and
power utilization. The hardware circuitry is reduced due to the reduced switching activity of multiplier adder block compared to
existing method. Also a 4 tap fir filter based on VH-BCSE algorithm multiplier is implemented. This implementation result
shows that vertical horizontal based multiplier architecture is best substitute in terms of efficiency for higher and lower order fir
filter design.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Thanks to Mrs. Litty Mathew for their valuable guidance.
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