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Ingenium (Latin)- used to describe those who had the ability to

invent/operate weapons of war

In early 80s, there were only civil and mining engineers

Engineering teams involve individuals with widely different abilities, interests

and education who cooperate to advance the project

Engineers provide key link between theory and practical applications

In Canada, the title Professional engineer is restricted by law

PEO and other provincial/territorial associations rely on CAEB(Canadian

Engineering Accreditation Board) to evaluate and accredit engineering

programs in Canada

All Carleton engineering programs accredited for maximum available time (6

years)

To conform to CEAB, graduate from an accredited program, practical

experience (4 years), professional practice examination, character attested to

by reference.

Three years ago, it was required to be a Canadian citizen or permanent

resident

Technologist works under the direction of engineers. A technologist, needs to

complete three year technology program from a community college.

The difference between engineers and technologist, engineering education

provides greater theoretical depth, while technology diploma usually provides

more hands-on experience

Technician works under engineer or technologist.

Skilled worker has great expertise acquired through formal apprenticeships

and/or years of experience

Memorize, Canadian engineering accomplishments.

report, scope of work and technical detail

Qualities of good engineering report clear statement, concise details, logical

development of data and ideas, organized layout, no spelling or grammar

error.

Engineering report must contain Title page, abstract, table of contents,

introduction, method, results and discussion, conclusion

Data tables, graphs and drawings are not required to directly understand

results, analysis, discussion or conclusion

Abstract has to be less 200 words

Drawing, tables, and graphs should be attached to the reports as appendices

Forms of technical writing clarity, conciseness, accuracy, and courtesy.

A measurement consists of two parts A numerical magnitude

standard

Derived unit in terms of base units. E.g. 1 Newton = (Kg m/s2)

Base unit- Fundamental units from which all other units are derived.

Since 1983 the metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum

during the time interval of 1/299792458 of a second.

There are 7 units of measure as base set from which all other SI units are

derived:

i.

Metre for length

ii.

Kilogram for mass

iii.

Seconds for time

iv.

Ampere for electric current

v.

Kelvin for temperature

vi.

Candela for luminous intensity

vii.

Mole foe the amount of substance

Newton (m*kg/s2)

Joule- N*m = m2 * kg * s-2

Watt J/s = m2 * kg * s-3

Pascal- N/m2 = m * kg * s-2

Hertz s-1

invoked by F=ma.

FPS unit system is gravitational system.

Practice on how to convert.

Rules

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Scientific notation 3.014x104

Engineering notation Exponent of 10 is a multiple of 3 to correspond to SI

prefixes e.g. 30.14x103

Dimensional Homogeneity: The dimension on either side of an equation must

be the same

Measurement Error = True value Measured Value

Consistent deviation from the true value is also called a bias or an offset

There are three systematic errors- Natural Error (i.e. from environmental

affects), Instrument Error (also called offset cause due imperfections in

adjustment or construction of instrument), Personal error caused due to lack

of training

Always space between numeric value and unit

Unit symbols are not modified with subscripts

Unit symbols not missed with unit names in sentences

Long number, written in groups of 3, the groups should be separated

by a non-breaking half space rather than a comma or period

They produce both positive and negative errors with zero mean value

Precision- repeatability.

i.

Precise measurements have small random error

Accuracy accurate measurements are close to true value, accurate

measurement has little bias

Uncertainty may be given in either absolute or relative form

Significant digits are identified as follows:

i.

All non-zeros are significant

ii.

All zeroes between significant digits are significant

iii.

Leading zeroes are not significant

iv.

Trailing zeros are significant in fractional part of number

In engineering notation, all digits except leading zeros are significant

Practice solving questions with uncertainty

Advantages of graphical communications clear, concise, efficient and

reduced ambiguity

The earliest form of written communication were pictorial

Three common types- perspective, oblique and isometric

In perspective projection the projectors intersect at finite point, called the

vanishing point(VP)

Perspective projection is used to describe the external appearance of an

object

One point Perspective: The projection plane is parallel to two principal axes. It

is gives the illusion of looking into the room

Two point perspective: If the projection plane intersects exactly two principal

axes, a two point perspective projection occurs.

Three point perspective: Projection plane is not parallel to any principal axes.

Oblique Projection- Front face is parallel to the viewer, projection lines do not

converge at a vanishing point

Isometric Projection- parallel lines remain parallel and do not converge to a

vanishing point

- Axes are each 120 apart

- Viewed so as to reveal more than one side

- Uses parallel projectors and but it shows more than one face

of the object

Orthographic projection most important graphical drawing method, 2D

representation of a 3D object.

Third Angle Projection The object is placed in the third quadrant and then

viewed from the first quadrant. The top view is placed over the front view;

the right side view is to the right of the front view

First angle projection The object is placed in the first quadrant and viewed

from the first quadrant. The top view is placed below the front view. The right

side view is to the left of the front view

of an imaginary rectangular glass box

The projectors in any view are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the

projection planes

6 principal views can be drawn in orthographic projection

The most descriptive view is the front view

The remaining views are selected such that they contain the fewest hidden

lines

lines to establish which is visible

i.

Visible object line

ii.

Hidden lines and cutting plane lines

iii.

Centre lines

iv.

Extension and leader lines

Object line indicates all the visible edges of an object.

Hidden lines shows objects that are hidden from view

Cutting line indicates edge view of imaginary cutting plane

Centre line: indicates centres of holes and symmetrical features of an object

Dimension from visible lines, not hidden features

A nomograph is also called an alignment chart, is a calculating chart with

scales that contains values of three or more mathematical variables

Computer Aided Drafting, is used for creating electronic drawings. Can be

used to create pictorial perspective, isometric, oblique and orthographic

drawing.

Enables modification to be made with ease

Advantages increase accuracy, speed, better design analysis, better

presentation, improved filing

The major areas of computer graphics are:

i.

CAD: Computer Aided Design

ii.

CADD: Computer-Aided Design Drafting= to generate engineering

drawings and technical documents

iii.

CAD/CAM: Computer Aided Design/ Computer-Aided Manufacturing

iv.

CIM- Computer-Integrated Manufacturing = coordinates and operates

all stages of manufacturing from design to finished products

Solid Modeling A software where an entire prototype can be built and tested

in a virtual environment before machining a single part

Virtual objects appear as axonometric projections

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