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Census of India 2011 ANDHRA PRADESH SERIES-29 PART XII-B DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK KRISHNA VILLAGE AND

Census of India 2011

ANDHRA PRADESH

SERIES-29

PART XII-B

DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK

KRISHNA

VILLAGE AND TOWN WISE PRIMARY CENSUS ABSTRACT (PCA)

HANDBOOK KRISHNA VILLAGE AND TOWN WISE PRIMARY CENSUS ABSTRACT (PCA) DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS ANDHRA PRADESH
DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS

DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS

DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS ANDHRA PRADESH

ANDHRA PRADESH

DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS ANDHRA PRADESH
DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS ANDHRA PRADESH
CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 ANDHRA PRADESH SERIES-29 PART XII - B DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK KRISHNA

CENSUS OF INDIA 2011

ANDHRA PRADESH

SERIES-29

PART XII - B

DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK

KRISHNA

VILLAGE AND TOWN WISE PRIMARY CENSUS ABSTRACT (PCA)

HANDBOOK KRISHNA VILLAGE AND TOWN WISE PRIMARY CENSUS ABSTRACT (PCA) Directorate of Census Operations ANDHRA PRADESH

Directorate of Census Operations ANDHRA PRADESH

MOTIF

MOTIF Kondapalli Toys Kondapalli a village at about 15 Kms. distance from Vijayawada city is reputed

Kondapalli Toys

Kondapalli a village at about 15 Kms. distance from Vijayawada city is reputed world wide for its exquisite wooden toys known as Kondapally Toys. The Toys are as old as the human race. From his inception man has been enchanted by the splendid manifestations of the nature unfolded before him and his elated soul longed to express the experiences and emotions in some form of art or craft. Toy carving is one such art evolved through the inspiration from nature and social environment.

Toy making flourished here mainly due to the abundant availability of raw material, a soft variety of wood called “Tella-Ponuku”. These toys depict mainly the folk traditions and cultures like Dasavatarams, Mahout mounted elephant, Toddy tapper, Gopika Krishna, Cow and Calf, Band of musicians, Birds and Animals, Craftsmen at work etc.

Andhra Pradesh Handicrafts Development Corporation has been marketing these toys through their nation wide network of Lepakshi Emporiums and also exporting to other countries.

1 Foreword

2

Preface

3 Acknowledgement

Contents

4 History and Scope of the District Census Handbook

5 Brief History of the District

6 Administrative Setup

7 District Highlights - 2011 Census

8 Important Statistics

9 Section - I

Primary Census Abstract (PCA)

(i) Brief note on Primary Census Abstract

(ii) District Primary Census Abstract

(iii)

Appendix to District Primary Census Abstract Total, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Population - Urban Block wise

(iv) Primary Census Abstract for Scheduled Castes (SC)

(v) Primary Census Abstract for Scheduled Tribes (ST)

(vi) Rural PCA-C.D. blocks wise Village Primary Census Abstract

(vii) Urban PCA-Town wise Primary Census Abstract

10 Section II

(i)

Table -1:

Tables based on Households Amenities and Assets (Rural /Urban) at District and Sub-District level.

Households by Ownership status and by Number of Dwelling rooms occupied in the District, 2011

Pages

1

3

5

7

9

16

18

20

24

29

55

143

169

195

491

525

(ii)

Table -2:

(iii)

Table -3:

(iv)

Table -4:

(v)

Table -5:

(vi)

Table -6:

(vii)

Table -7:

(viii)

Table -8:

(ix)

Table -9:

Percentage distribution of Households living in Permanent, Semi permanent and Temporary houses, 2011

Number and Percentage of Households by main source of Drinking water, 2011

Number and Percentage of Households by main source of Lighting, 2011

Number and Percentage of Households by type of Latrine facility, 2011

Number and Percentage of Households by type of Drainage connectivity for waste water outlet, 2011

Number and Percentage of Households by availability of Kitchen facility, 2011

Number and Percentage of Households by type of fuel used for Cooking, 2011

Number and Percentage of Households availing Banking

services and number of Households having each of the specified Assets, 2011

526

530

538

546

554

558

562

570

FOREWORD

The District Census Handbook (DCHB) is an important publication of the Census Organization since 1951. It contains both Census and non Census data of urban and rural areas for each District. The Census data provide information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics of population at the lowest administrative unit i.e. of each Village and Town and ward of the District. The Primary Census Abstract (PCA) part of this publication contains Census data including data on household amenities collected during 1 st .phase of the Census i.e. House Listing and Housing Census. The non Census data presented in the DCHB is in the form of Village Directory and Town Directory contain information on various infrastructure facilities available in the village and town viz; education, medical, drinking water, communication and transport, post and telegraph, electricity, banking, and other miscellaneous facilities. Later on, the Telegraph Services were closed by the Government of India on 15 th . July, 2013. The data of DCHB are of considerable importance in the context of planning and development at the grass- root level.

2. In the 1961 Census, DCHB provided a descriptive account of the District,

administrative statistics, Census tables and Village and Town Directory including Primary Census Abstract. This pattern was changed in 1971 Census and the DCHB was published in three parts: Part-A related to Village and Town Directory, Part-B to Village and Town PCA and Part-C comprised analytical report, administrative statistics, District Census tables and certain analytical tables based on PCA and amenity data in respect of Villages. The 1981 Census DCHB was published in two parts: Part-A contained Village and Town Directory and Part-B the PCA of Village and Town including the SCs and STs PCA up to Tahsil/Town levels. New features along with restructuring of the formats of Village and Town Directory were added. In Village Directory, all amenities except electricity were brought together and if any amenity was not available in the referent Village, the distance in broad ranges from the nearest place having such an amenity, was given.

3. The pattern of 1981 Census was followed by and large for the DCHB of 1991

Census except the format of PCA. It was restructured. Nine-fold industrial classification of main workers was given against the four-fold industrial classification presented in the 1981 Census. In addition, sex wise population in 0-6 age group was included in the PCA for the first time with a view to enable the data users to compile more realistic literacy rate as all children below 7 years of age had

been treated as illiterate at the time of 1991 Census. One of the important innovations in the 1991 Census was the Community Development Block (CD Block) level presentation of Village Directory and PCA data instead of the traditional Tahsil/Taluk/PS level presentation.

4. As regards DCHB of 2001 Census, the scope of Village Directory was improved

by including some other amenities like banking, recreational and cultural facilities, newspapers & magazines and `most important commodity’ manufactured in a

Village in addition to prescribed facilities of earlier Censuses. In Town Directory, the statement on Slums was modified and its coverage was enlarged by including details on all slums instead of ‘notified slums’.

5. The scope and coverage of Village Directory of 2011 DCHB has been widened

by including a number of new amenities in addition to those of 2001. These newly

1

added amenities are: Pre-Primary School, Engineering College, Medical College, Management Institute, Polytechnic, Non-formal Training Centre, Special School for Disabled, Community Health Centre, Veterinary Hospital, Mobile Health Clinic, Medical Practitioner with MBBS Degree, Medical Practitioner with no degree, Traditional Practitioner and faith Healer, Medicine Shop, Community Toilet, Rural Sanitary Mart or Sanitary Hardware Outlet in the Village, Community Bio- gas, Sub Post Office, Village Pin Code, Public Call Office, Mobile Phone Coverage, Internet Cafes/ Common Service Centre, Private Courier Facility, Auto/Modified Autos, Taxis and Vans, Tractors, Cycle-pulled Rickshaws, Carts driven by Animals, Village connected to National Highway, State Highway, Major District Road, and Other District Road, Availability of Water Bounded Macadam Roads in Village, ATM, Self-Help Group, Public Distribution System(PDS) Shop, Mandis/Regular Market, Weekly Haat, Agricultural Marketing Society, Nutritional Centers (ICDS), Anganwadi Centre, ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist), Sports Field, Public Library, Public Reading Room, Assembly Polling station, Birth & Death Registration Office. In the Town Directory, seven Statements containing the details and the data of each Town have been presented viz.; (i)-Status and Growth History of Towns,(ii)- Physical Aspects and Location of Towns, (iii)-Civic and other Amenities, (iv)-Medical Facilities, (v)-Educational, Recreational & Cultural Facilities, (vi)- Industry & Banking, and (vii)- Civic & other amenities in Slums respectively. CD Block wise data of Village Directory and Village PCA have been presented in DCHB of 2011 Census as presented in earlier Census.

6. The data of DCHB 2011 Census have been presented in two parts, Part-A

contains Village and Town Directory and Part-B contains Village and Town wise Primary Census Abstract. Both the Parts have been published in separate volumes

in 2011 Census.

7. The Village and Town level amenities data have been collected, compiled and

computerized under the supervision of Smt Y.V Anuradha, IAS., Director of Census Operation, Andhra Pradesh. The task of Planning, Designing and Co-ordination of this publication was carried out by Dr. Pratibha Kumari, Assistant Registrar General (SS) under the guidance & supervision of Dr. R.C.Sethi, Ex-Addl. RGI and Shri Deepak Rastogi present Addl.RGI. Shri A.P. Singh, Deputy Registrar General, (Map) provided the technical guidance in the preparation of maps. Shri A.K. Arora, Joint Director of Data Processing Division under the overall supervision of Shri M.S.Thapa, Addl. Director (EDP) provided full cooperation in preparation of record structure for digitization and validity checking of Village and Town Directory data and the programme for the generation of Village Directory and Town Directory including various analytical inset tables as well as Primary Census Abstract (PCA). The work of preparation of DCHB, 2011 Census has been monitored in the Social Studies Division. I am thankful to all of them and others who have contributed to bring out this publication in time.

New Delhi. Dated:- 16-06-2014

(C.Chandramouli) Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India

2

Preface

The District Census handbooks (DCHBs) is brought out in each decennial census since 1951 containing Village and Town Directory, Village & Town wise Primary Census Abstract (PCA) and data on “amenities” for each village and town in the district. The objective of publishing the DCHB is to place the data collected at census along with the data on amenities at Village and Town level, collected from Tahsildars/Municipal Commissioners. The amenities data is validated by comparing with secondary data obtained from Heads of the Departments. For example, information on schools was compared with data available with the Commissioner, School Education and information on post offices was compared with data obtained from the Chief Post Master General and so on. Validation of data in the above manner was by no means an easy exercise. Scores of officials had put in grueling efforts for months together.

Generally, the District Census Hand Book contains two parts i.e., Part A & Part B. Part A contains Village and Town Directory and Part-B contains data on Village and Town Primary Census Abstract along with Housing amenities. This time both Part-A and Part-B volumes will be published separately for each district.

The present volume deals with the Part-B of the DCHB and comprises broadly:

History and scope of the DCHB, Brief History of the district, Administrative setup, District highlights, Important Statistics of the District, Brief note of Primary Census Abstract, Appendix to District Primary Census Abstract i.e., Urban block wise figures of Total, SC & ST Population, Rural PCA, Urban PCA, Housing Amenities etc., of 2011 Census of India.

The District Census Handbook is further enriched with a district and Sub-district (Mandal) maps depicting villages/towns with population size and also amenities such as educational Institutions, Hospitals, Telegraph and Telephone facilities, Banks etc.

I am grateful to the Chief Secretary, Principal Secretaries, Secretaries, District Collectors, Municipal Commissioners, Tahsildars and senior officials of the

3

Government of Andhra Pradesh for their co-operation and assistance throughout

the Census Operations and in the process of collection of the Secondary data.

I am very privileged to be associated with the national task of Census of India 2011

in the capacity of Director of Census Operations, Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. I

express my heartfelt gratitude to Dr. C. Chandramouli, IAS, Registrar General &

Census Commissioner, India, for the inspiring guidance all along. I sincerely

express my profound thanks to Dr. R.C. Sethi, ISS, Additional Registrar General,

India, Dr. Deepak Rastogi, Deputy Director General, Shri. A.K. Singh, Deputy

Registrar General (Census) for help, guidance and constant support accorded in all

matters. Thanks are also due to Dr. A.P. Singh, Deputy Registrar General (Map) for

his support and guidance in generating digital maps. I also acknowledge the

continuous support of Dr. Prathibha Kumari, Assistant Registrar General (S.S) and

other Officers of the Office of the Registrar General, India, New Delhi.

I sincerely express my gratitude to Shri M.S. Thapa, Additional Director (EDP) and

his team for their technical guidance and also in generating various tables in

bringing out this volume.

The credit for preparation of DCHB goes to a team of devoted officers and staff of

this Directorate under the guidance of Shri. R.V.V. Durga Prasad, Joint Director

along with the methodical direct supervision of Shri. S. Daya Sagar, Assistant

Director for their active involvement and painstaking efforts in bringing out this

publication. The names of individuals associated with this project are shown in

‘Acknowledgements’. I am grateful to all of them.

I hope that the data users will find this publication very useful.

Date: 30.06.2014 Hyderabad

4

Y.V. Anuradha, I.A.S. Director

Officers

Shri. D. Hanumantharaya Shri. R.V.V. Durga Prasad Shri. G. Bapuji Shri. Jagannath Majhi Shri. S. Daya Sagar Shri. V.Sreekanth

Drafting

Dr. P. John Samuel

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Designation

Joint Director Joint Director Joint Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Assistant Director

Senior Geographer

Collection, Compilation, Comparison and Finalization

Shri. Pradip Dev Smt. P. Vijaya Shri .B. Nadavaiah Smt. T. Balatripura Sundari Smt. M. Indra Bhavani Shri. G. Venkateswara Rao Shri. L. Sudish Mitra Smt.Deepthi Divakaran Shri. P.L.N. Sharma Smt. P.S. Veena Smt. Alin Barkha Tigga Smt. C.K. Karthika Kum. Minakshi Sahu Smt. N.V. Satyavathi Devi Smt. T. Manorama Smt. T. Sujatha Smt. K. Rama Smt. D. Kali Prasanna Shri. K. Nagaiah Shri. M. Sree Ramulu Shri. S. Ramakrishna Shri. D. Ramulu Shri. D. Somanna Smt. B. Kusuma Kumari Shri. L.K. Murthy Shri. B.S. Hanumantha Reddy

Statistical Investigator Grade-I Statistical Investigator Grade-I Statistical Investigator Grade-II Statistical Investigator Grade-II Statistical Investigator Grade-II Statistical Investigator Grade-II Statistical Investigator Grade-II Statistical Investigator Grade-II Senior Compiler Compiler Compiler Compiler Compiler Assistant Compiler Assistant Compiler Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Assistant Director [G] {on Contract} Statistical Investigator Grade-II {on Contract} Statistical Investigator Grade-II {on Contract} Statistical Investigator Grade-II {on Contract} Statistical Investigator Grade-II {on Contract} Statistical Investigator Grade-II {on Contract} Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ {on Contract} Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ {on Contract}

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Data Entry Shri.K.S.K.Chakravarthy Smt.S.Anuradha Smt. C. Lakshmi Shri. N. Mahesh Mohan Rao Shri. D. Venkata Ramana Smt. T. Sujatha Smt. K. Rama Smt. D. Kali Prasanna Smt. V.Adilakshmi Smt. B. Shobha Rani Smt. Deepthi Divakaran Sri. Indrapal Yadav Smt. P.S. Veena Smt. Alin Barkha Tigga Smt. C.K. Karthika Kum. Minakshi Sahu

Supervision of Mapping Work Smt G.V. Chandrakala Smt M.B. Rama Devi

Preparation of Computerised Maps

Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Data Entry Operator Grade ‘B’ Statistical Investigator Grade-II Statistical Investigator Grade-II Compiler Compiler Compiler Compiler

Assistant Director Senior Geographer

Shri

G. Mariyanna

Senior Drawing Assistant

Shri

D. Chiranjeevi Raju

Senior Draughtsman

Shri

M.A Quadeer

Senior Draughtsman

Shri T. Trinadh Smt R.R.S.N Subba Lakshmi Shri Gulam Hasan Mohinuddin Shri P. Babji

Senior Draughtsman Senior Draughtsman Senior Draughtsman Senior Draughtsman

ORGI- Data Processing Division

Shri Jaspal Singh Lamba

Ms. Usha

Shri Anurag Gupta

Shri Mukesh K.Mahawar

Ms. Shagufta Nasreen Bhat

Ms. Kiran Bala Saxena

Deputy Director

Assistant Director

DPA Grade ‘A’

DPA Grade ‘A’

DPA Grade ‘A’

Sr. Supervisor

6

HISTORY AND SCOPE OF THE DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK

The need of data at the grass root level for the administrative and planning purposes at sub micro level as well as academic studies prompted the innovation of District Census Handbook. District Census Handbook is a unique publication from the Census organization which provides most authentic details of census and non-census information from village and town level to district level. The District Census Handbook was firstly introduced during the 1951 Census. It contains both census and non census data of urban as well as rural areas for each district. The census data contain several demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the lowest administrative unit i.e. of each village and town and ward of the district. The non census data comprise of data on availability of various civic amenities and infrastructural facilities etc. at the town and village level which constitute Village Directory and Town Directory part of the DCHB. The data of DCHB are of considerable importance in the context of planning and development at grass-root level.

In 1961 census DCHB provided a descriptive account of the district, administrative statistics, census tables and village and town directory including Primary Census Abstract. This pattern was changed in 1971 Census and the DCHB was published in three parts: Part-A related to village and town directory, Part-B to village and town PCA and Part-C comprised analytical report, administrative statistics, district census tables and certain analytical tables based on PCA and amenity data in respect of villages. The 1981 census DCHB was published in two parts: Part-A contained village and town directory and Part-B the PCA of village and town including the SCs and STs PCA up to tahsil/town levels. New features along with restructuring of the formats of village and town directory were added into it. In Village Directory, all amenities except electricity were brought together and if any amenity was not available in the referent village, the distance in broad ranges from the nearest place having such an amenity, was given.

The pattern of 1981 census was followed by and large for the DCHB of 1991 Census except the format of PCA. It was restructured. Nine-fold industrial classification of main workers was given against the four-fold industrial classification presented in the 1981 census. In addition, sex wise population in 0-6 age group was included in the PCA for the first time with a view to enable the data users to compile more realistic literacy rate as all children below 7 years of age had been treated as illiterate at the time of 1991 census. One of the important innovations in the 1991 census was the Community Development Block (CD Block) level presentation of village directory and PCA data instead of the traditional tahsil/taluk/PS level presentation.

As regards DCHB of 2001 Census, the scope of Village Directory was improved by including some other amenities like banking, recreational and cultural facilities, newspapers & magazines and `most important commodity’

7

manufactured in a village in addition to prescribed facilities of earlier censuses. In Town Directory, the statement on Slums was modified and its coverage was enlarged by including details on all slums instead of ‘notified slums’.

The scope and coverage of Village Directory of 2011 DCHB has been widened by including a number of new amenities in addition to those of 2001. In the Town Directory, seven Statements containing the details and the data of each town have been presented viz.; (i) Status and Growth History of towns, (ii) Physical Aspects and Location of Towns, (iii) Civic and other Amenities, (iv) Medical Facilities, (v) Educational, Recreational & Cultural Facilities, (vi) Industry & Banking, and (vii) Civic & other amenities in Slums respectively. CD Block wise data of Village Directory and Village PCA have been presented in DCHB of 2011 census as presented in earlier census. The data of DCHB 2011 Census have been presented in two parts, Part-A contains Village and Town Directory and Part-B contains Village and Town wise Primary Census Abstract. Both the Parts have been published in separate volumes in 2011 Census.

--------------------------------------------------------

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Brief History of the District

The earliest rulers of the district known to History were the Andhra Kings or the Satavahanas styled as Buddhist kings. Simuka was the first king reputed as the founder of the great Satavahana dynasty. With his conquest of the Deccan (Kalinga) in 260 B.C. the great Ashoka Maurya claims to have subdued the Andhra Kings. However, his conquest of the Andhra Kings by no means terminated their existence as Simuka was contented with semi-independent status. Even Kanha the successor of Simuka continued to rule as his predecessor has done. But at this time the Magadha Empire was tottering to its fall owing to its vastness and for want of an able ruler after Ashoka. As such internal dissensions cropped up besides the external invasions. In such a situation of political confusion and chaos, Gautamiputra Satakarni ascended to the throne and was considered as the greatest of the Satavahanas and champion of Andhras as he protected their interests by destroying the Sakas, Yavanas and the Pallavas of Malwa, Gujarath and Kathiawar respectively. He soon proposed an alliance with the powerful Amgiya family in the west and married Naganika in order to make his empire safe from further incursions in the west and thereby restored glory to the Satavahana family. The Satavahanas subsequently ruled over a wide empire gradually extending their political sway from the Krishna delta towards Nasik. Even the inscriptions at Amaravati and Dharanikota, besides the coins which have been found in the Andhra regions, indicate their greatness. But the last rulers of the Satavahana dynasty were weaklings and their rule was of little significance.

The rise of the Chutus in the western and southern districts of the Abhiras in the Nasik area and of the Ikshvakus in the east and the relentless pressure of the Sakas of Ujjain sounded the death knell of the Satavahana Empire. This too went the way of all empires through valour, greatness, discord, degeneracy and decay. But, while it lasted for more than four and half centuries, it imparted more stability and security to the life of the people, the inhabitants of regions of the Deccan, than any other Indian power had ever done. Many empires had come and gone, the Mauryas, Sungas and Kanvas in Magadha, the Chetis in Kalinga and the Bactrians, Sakas and Pallavas in north and northwestern India. Yet the Satavahanas ruled on, strong in will and stronger in action and before they fell, made weak by time and fate, they had already saved the Deccan from the aliens for more than three centuries.

The next rulers to appear on the scene were the earliest Pallavas and we read about Mukkanti Pallava as the king of Dharanikota which immediately adjoins Amaravati. The Pallavas (250-340 A.D.) consequent on the decline of Satavahana rulers, were the direct inheritors of parts of the Andhra Empire which stretched from the Krishna to the Tungabhadra and included Amaravati in the east, Bellary in the west and Kanchipuram (Conjeevaram) in the south. They were originally officers and governors of the southeastern portion of the Satavahana Empire, who later became independent and extended their power southwards. The Pallavas were also known as the Andhra feudatories who rose into prominence and conquered Kanchi region. The copper plate grants at Mydavolu (Guntur District) represent Sivaskandavarman as the maker of the Pallava greatness and as a great conqueror. Indeed he ought to have been the ablest of the early Pallavas and assumed the title of Dharmamaharaja and performed the Asvamedha sacrifice.

9

The Pallava chieftains had two of their capitals at Venginagar near Ellore and at Pithapuram, both in "Vengidesha".

The next dynasty of importance is that of Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi who were

a branch of the Western Chalukyas of Badami (or Vatapi) in Bijapur district.

Pulakesin-II of the Western Chalukyas was a great conqueror as his very name which means either tiger haired or the great lion also indicates his conquest of Pithapuram, the old capital of Pallavas and Vengi desha proper, then in the hands of Vishnukundies, brought the entire Andhra country under his control in about 615 A.D. As such he appointed his younger brother, Vishnuvardhana surnamed "Kubja" (or "the hunch-back") as the Viceroy of the newly conquered possessions. Kubja Vishnuvardhana remained loyal but on the death of Pulakesin-II he automatically declared himself as an independent sovereign of the Kingdom of Vengi and thereby founded the Eastern Chalukya dynasty which subsequently

became great and popular.

The kingdom lasted upto 1070 A.D. when it was absorbed into the Chola dynasty through the intermarriage between Vimaladitya, the brother of Saktivarma one of the Eastern Chalukya Kings and Kundavai, the daughter of Rajaraja the great, of Chola dynasty. Thus a union was brought about between the Chola and Eastern Chalukya Kings though they were at war with each other quite naturally in the early stages. In the early part of the 8th century, Udayachandra, the General of Pallava King, Narasimhavarman, claims to have subdued Vishnuvardhana-III of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty but this reconquest by the ancient owners of the country seems to have been short lived. The Eastern Chalukyas were credited with the excavations of the cave temple at Undavalli and other rock-cut shrines.

At the end of the 10th century the mighty Rajaraja-I, who had laid the foundations of the great Chola Empire with its capital at Tanjore, conquered the Eastern Chalukya country and appointed the defeated Sakthivarman (999-1011 A.D.) as king or perhaps a feudatory in Vengi. His brother and successor, Vimaladitya (1011-22 A.D.), though he had married a Chola princess apparently attempted to throw off his allegiance, for Rajaraja's son Rajendra Chola (1011-44 A.D.) again invaded the Vengi country and advanced as far as the hill called Mahendragiri in Ganjam where he planted a pillar of victory. Vimaladitya was not deposed, however, and was succeeded by his son, Rajaraja (1022-62 A.D.), who also married a princess of the Chola royal house. This king fixed his capital at Rajahmundry and it was during his reign that the Mahabharata was translated into Telugu. He is well known to local tradition to this day under the name Rajaraja Narendra who is generally regarded as a national hero of the Andhras and was a patron of the great Telugu poet, Nannaya Bhattu who began the translation of Mahabharata into Telugu. When the Chola power began to decline Vengi fell first under a number of petty chiefs.

The district then at the end of the 13th century came under the political sway of the Ganapathi dynasty of Telangana, popular as Kakatiya Kings. This fell before the Muslims who obtained a brief foothold in the country in 1324 A.D. but the invaders were soon driven back.

10

The first appearance of the Muslims in the Deccan was in 1296 A.D. when Alla-ud- din assassinated his own uncle Jalal-ud-din and seized the throne and then made a singularly bold incursion against the Hindu Raja of Deogiri. He had also long been jealous of the growing power of the Kakatiyas. In 1,303 A.D. he had unsuccessfully attempted to crush their kingdom. But in 1,310 A.D. an army was despatched from Delhi against Warangal. Pratapa Rudra summoned the neighbouring Rajas to the assistance of their suzerain but in vain. The Muslim General, Malik Kafur, took the city by assault and Pratapa Rudra was besieged in the citadel, purchased peace by a payment of 300 elephants and 7,000 horses and a promise of an annual tribute. This tribute was paid regularly until 1312 A.D. but the confusions in the following year at Delhi emboldened Pratapa Rudra to withhold it which was the reason why the Emperor Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluk on his accession in 1321 A.D. lost no time in sending to Warangal an army under the command of his eldest son, Prince Alaf or Jorah Khan. The Hindus fought with desperate valour and drove the Muslims as far back as Deogiri but reinforcements were obtained from Delhi and in 1323 A.D.Warangal was taken with great slaughter and the ill fated Pratapa Rudra was carried as captive to Delhi.

In 1344 A.D. the capricious cruelty of Prince Alaf Khan, later on Muhammad-I, had so disgusted his subjects that Virabhadraya, son of Pratapa Rudra, seized the opportunity to assert his independence at Warangal and, aided by the Raja of Vijayanagar, made a successful stand against the Muslims. This was followed by the revolt in 1347 A.D. of the Muslim officers in the deccan and Virabhadraya made common cause with them against Delhi and sent 15,000 infantry who took part in the great battle near Bidar but failed to regain the lost dominions of his father. However, it enabled Hassan Shah Gangu, to assume the regal style and to found the dynasty at Gulbarga known as the Bahmani Kings of the Deccan. The kings of this dynasty were so called in memory of the Bahmani Gangu in whose service Hasan, the founder of the race, had discovered the hidden treasure and who was afterwards the trusted minister at Delhi Sultan's court. The Bahmani kingdom extended from Berar in the north to left bank of the Tungabhadra in the south and from Dabal on the west coast to the Telangana tract in the east. The Muslim Kingdom of Gulbarga steadily advanced until in 1425 A.D. Warangal was included within its limits.

The captivity of Pratapa Rudra in 1323 A.D. left his kingdom without a ruler. The northern provinces probably fell under the sway of the Odisha(Orissa) Rajas. Along side it, in the south the district acknowledged the authority of a line of cultivators who rose to considerable power and are known to history as the "Reddi Kings". The founder of this family was Donti Aliya Reddi, a cultivator of Hanamkonda who amassed enormous wealth, tradition says by discovering the alchemists' secret of the process of transmuting metals into gold, and migrated to Kondavidu. On the downfall of Pratapa Rudra, the eldest son Pulaya Vema Reddi found himself independent and established himself in the hill fort of Kondavidu, which had doubtless been a stronghold for some centuries previous to this date. He also possessed himself of the fortress of Bellamkonda, Vinukonda and Nagarjunakonda in the Palnad. His brother, Anavema Reddi, extended his dominions to Rajahmundry on the north, Kanchi on the south and Srisailam on the west. Kondapalle hill fort is said to have been built in his reign. The Kondavidu Reddis were great patrons of Telugu literature. The poet Srinadha and

11

his brother-in-law Bammera Pothana flourished at this court. The ruins of their fortresses at Kondavidu, Bellamkonda and Kondapalli are still to be seen.

On the extinction of the Reddi dynasty the Gajapathi Kings of Odisha(Orissa) extended their power over the district. The name of Kapileswara Gajapathi is preserved by the village Kapileswarapuram (now in Pamidimukkala Mandal). He was succeeded by Vidyadhara Gajapathi who built Vidyadharapuram and constructed a reservoir at Kondapalli. His wife Bhavanamma and his two daughters Muthyalamma and Paidamma gave their names to Bhavanipuram, Muthayalammapadu villages (now included in Vijayawada M.Corp.) and Paidurupadu village now in Vijayawada Rural Mandal. About 1516 A.D. Krishna Devaraya the great King of Vijayanagar conquered the whole of this country and left inscriptions to announce his victories. The farthest boundary of the Kingdom in North extended up to Simhachalam in Visakhapatnam district. He restored Kondapalli to the Orissa Raja but retained Kondavidu.

About the end of the 15th century the Bahmani Kingdom split up into several smaller states such as Bijapur in 1489 A.D. Ahammadnagar in 1490 and Bidar in 1498 A.D. In 1512 A.D.the Kingdom of Golconda or Hyderabad was founded by one Sultan Quli Qutub Shah, a Turk of noble family, who was Governor of the Golconda province under the Bahmanis. He took advantage of the distracted state of Kingdom under Mahamud Shah and declared his independence, establishing the Qutub Shahi dynasty which reigned from 1512 to 1687. The Kingdom of Golconda included this district within its limits.

The life story of this adventurer Sultan Quli is marvellous. In 1490 A.D. he was an officer of the guard at the palace when an attempt was made on the King's life by some Abyssinians and Deccanis and it was his desperate defence that enabled the young Mohamud Shah to escape with his life. For this service, he was rewarded with the title of Qutb-ul-Mulk and in 1495 A.D. we find him appointed as Governor of Telangana with the personal Jagirs of Warangal and Golconda. To the credit of Sultan Quli it must be recorded that he steadfastly remained loyal to Mahamud Shah, his early patron. The province was governed in the King's name and during his various interchanging conflicts which occupied the following twenty years Sultan Quli, as far as possible gave his support to the King. It was not until his four rivals had all assumed the regal style, and homage to Mahamud Shah had become nothing but a sentimental survival bereft of all real significance, that Sultan Quli Qutub Shah, in 1512 A.D. proclaimed himself king and fixed his capital at Golconda but even after this he continued to send presents and money every year to the descendant of the Bahmani Kings. Bellamkonda was, at this time, held by a raja named Sitapati who also held Warangal and Khammammet and who seems to have been a vassal of Orissa. It was a dispute with this Raja that first brought Sultan Quli into the Krishna District.

Raja Sitapati not only possessed these three strongholds, but had in his service a trained body of twelve thousand infantry noted as good marksmen. Confident in the security thus afforded him he laid hands on some of the Qutub Shah's districts which adjoined his territory. This roused the king who marched from Golconda and leaving aside Warangal and Khammammet, crossed the Krishna river and laid close siege to Bellamkonda. The fortress held out much longer

12

than the King expected, so losing patience, he ordered a general escalade on all sides simultaneously and thus took the place but with heavy loss.

Bellamkonda had hitherto been considered impregnable and Sitapati Raja, who had been well content to see the king waste his time below its walls, no sooner heard of its fall than he marched with his army to cut off the King's retreat. A desperate battle ensued. The Hindu infantry with a well directed fire inflicted severe loss upon their enemies and firmly withstood several charges of the Mahammadan cavalry but at last gave way, leaving the baggages and treasure to Sultan Quli who returned with his booty to Golconda.

Sitapati Raja had fled from the field to his fortress of Khammammet but defeat only incited him to further efforts. He sent messengers to all the neighbouring Rajas, writing to them to form a league against this Sultan Quli Qutub Shah who had already reduced greater part of Telangana and was every day gaining ground so that soon no Hindu chiefs would remain to oppose his overwhelming ambition. The Rajas responded to his call and their united forces assembled at Khammammet. Sultan Quli at once marched to oppose them and as usual gained a victory.

The defeated but not despairing Sitapati fled to Kondapalli where he found Raja Ramachandra, the son of Gajapati Vijayananda Deo, Raja of Orissa. To this prince he represented that Sultan Quli had at length succeeded in expelling him from his country, that all Telangana lay at the mercy of this Muslim and that unless he was checked, the Orissa Dominions would be the next to suffer, Gajapati Ramachandra, impressed by the gravity of the crisis, issued orders to all his tributaries to retire to Kondapalli with their forces and soon collected at Kondapalli an enormous army, said to have numbered three hundred thousand infantry, thirty thousand horses and seven hundred elephants. The various Hindu Rajas took an oath to stand by each other, and then they marched to crush Sultan Quli. He prepared to oppose them with only five thousand horses and met them at the river near "Palanchennur" (perhaps the present Penuganchiprolu near Jaggayyapet). Sultan Quli not withstanding the disparity of numbers determined on delivering the attack and won the battle. Thus the king reduced the fortress of Kondapalli but in 1530 A.D. he was obliged to take the field against the Raja of Vijayanagar. Under the command of Siva raja in which Sultan Quli scored a victory, Sultan Quli Qutub Shah was advanced in years and resolved to spend the remainder of his life in peaceful pursuits. On 4th September, 1543 A.D. when he was kneeling at prayer in the mosque at Golconda he was assassinated by order of his third son prince Jamshid who ascended the throne in his stead. On his death, Prince Ibrahim was crowned. The rise of the Vijayanagar Empire was dramatically rapid. The empire reached the height of its power under Sri Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1530 A.D.) the greatest of its monarchs. In 1515 A.D. King Sri Krishna Devaraya of Vijayanagar wrested the north of the district from the Gajapati Kings of Orissa. He was a great patron of Sanskrit and Telugu literatures and won the title as 'Andhra Bhoja' and in fact his court was adorned by the famous eight poets popularly known as 'Ashtadiggajas'.

The Hindu Minister Jagadeva Row was too powerful for a subject and when Ibrahim Qutub Shah took steps against him fled to the Vijayanagar Court and employed all his energies in fomenting intrigues to the detriment of his late

13

master. Thus in 1557 A.D. the Kings of Bidar and Bijapur attacked on him on the west and Rama Raja of Vijayanagar on the south, while two Orissa generals named Sitapati and Vijayaditya moved from Rajahmundry against Ellore and Siddhiraja Rimmappa, Governor of Kondavidu with fifty thousand horses attacked Masulipatnam and Kondapalli fighting several actions near the gardens of Ibrahim Shah and Vijayawada.

The king confined by this coalition of his enemies to the neighbourhood of his capital had recourse to negotiations and induced Rama Raja to be satisfied with the forts of Pangul and Ghunapur. The confederacy then broke up and Ibrahim Qutub Shah so laboured to impress upon the other Muslim Kings the need for union against the Vijayanagar power that seven years later in 1565 A.D. they leagued together and crushed the Hindu Raja at the famous battle of Tallikot by razing the city of Vijayanagar to the ground. The empire never recovered from the blow.

Abul-Hasan Shah was the last of Qutub Shahi dynasty known as Tanesha. The Muslim and Hindu people tell many stories about his reign. He had two ministers, both Brahmins, named Akkanna and Madanna, who managed his affairs with much ability and left an enduring reputation.

For some reason, they fixed their office at Vijayawada. Popular tradition attributed this preference of Vijayawada to the devotion of the two ministers to the goddess Kanaka Durga and certain it is that the impetus then given to her cult still exists for as late as 1878 A.D. a serai at Vijayawada for the accommodation of pilgrims to her shrine, was erected by some merchants of Cocanada. The mendicant laudator temporis acti still fondly points out the spot, at the foot of the telegraph hill, where the beneficient ministers distributed food every day to a crowd of applicants of all castes and such was the impression made on the public mind by their rapid transaction of business, that the legend is still current that from the caves on that hill runs a subterranean passage to Hyderabad by which the ministers could go to court, obtain the King's orders and return to Vijayawada in one day.

The Emperor Aurangazeb included this district in the province of Golconda, one of the twenty two provinces that formed his enormous Empire, but he was too busily engaged in distant warfare to pay much attention to this part of the country, which remained under Asaf Jah who was appointed as Subedar or Viceroy of the Deccan in 1713 A.D. with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk. The Moghal Empire at this period was on the verge of decline owing to internal dissensions. Asaf Jah took opportunity fairly well so much so that he had little difficulty in asserting his independence against the weak occupants of the Delhi throne although a battle was fought at Shakarkhelda (Fathkhelda) in the Buldana district of Berar in 1724 A.D. with Mubariz Khan the Governor of Khandesh, which established him as independent sovereign of the Kingdom. Mubariz Khan was killed in the battle and so he reigned without rival as Subedar of the Deccan. The province of Golconda comprised five Nawabs' charges viz., Arcot, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Rajahmundry and Chicacole (Srikakulam). The Nawab of Rajamundry ruled the country included in the Krishna district.

14

The representatives of the different European Nations had been appearing hitherto as traders on the coast, under the patronage of some local potentiate or influential courtier. In 1611 A.D. the English founded their settlement at Musulipatnam which continued to be their headquarters until they finally moved to Madras in 1641 A.D. Three years after founding of the English settlement came the Dutch and in 1669 A.D. the French followed. The scene now changed and the Europeans played a bolder part exercising a voice in the political changes of the Deccan. The first who rose superior to the caution of the counting house and took a statesman like view of the possibility of building a European Empire upon the crumbling monarchy of the Moghuls, were the French officials at Pondicherry and prominent among them stands M.Dupleix. He was a simple merchant, who

by 1741 A.D. had risen to be the Governor of Pondicherry.

Upon the death of the old Nizam-ul-Mulk in June 1748 A.D. his second son, Nasir Jung, and Muzaffar Jung, his grandson by one of his daughters, strove for the succession. At this time the English and the French were contending for supremacy in the east and each of the claimants secured the support of these powers; Nasir Jung's cause was espoused by the English, while Muzaffar Jung was supported by the French. The latter, however, fell a prisoner to his uncle, but on the assassination of Nasir Jung, Muzaffar Jung was proclaimed the sovereign. Dupleix, the French Governor, became the controller of the Nizam's authority.

Muzaffar Jung was killed by some Pathan chiefs and the French then selected Salabath Jung, a brother of Nasir Jung as ruler. Ghazi-ud-din, the eldest son of Asaf Jah, who it was alleged, had relinquished his claim at first, now appeared as

a claimant, supported by the Marathas but his sudden death put a stop for

further struggles. The English and the French were now contesting for power and influence in the Deccan, but the Victories of Clive in the Carnatic caused the latter to turn their attention to their own possessions which were threatened and to leave Salabat Jung to shift for himself. Nizam Ali Khan, the fourth son of Asaf Jah, at this juncture obtained the support of the English on the promise of dismissing the French from his service. Salabat Jung was dethroned in 1761 A.D.

and Nizam Ali Khan was proclaimed ruler. The British secured at first the divisions

of Masulipatnam, Nizampatnam and part of Kondavidu and later the entire

Circars. At first the district was administered by a Chief and a Council at Masulipatnam but in 1794 A.D. Collectors, directly responsible to the Board of

Revenue, were appointed at Masulipatnam.

Krishna district came into existence in the year 1859 in the composite Madras state which was then known as Masulipatnam district since Machilipatnam (Bandar) is the district headquarters. Krishna district derived its name from the mighty river Krishna which is also known as the "Blue Nile of the Deccan". The river Krishna has profound bearing on the cultural and economic life of people living in its delta. Since the residuary Krishna district did not undergo any major jurisdictional changes except some minor changes in 1925, 1950 and 1959. In 1959 Munagala Paragana which was abridged to Krishna district in 1950 was transferred to Nalgonda district for administrative convenience.

Guntur and West Godavari districts were carved out from Krishna district in the years 1904 and 1905 respectively. Since then both the districts are in existence. The history and jurisdictional changes if any in these two districts i.e., Guntur and West Godavari will be discussed in the DCHBs of those districts.

15

Administrative Set-Up

(a)

Region of the State where the District is Located:

The district is located on the Eastern side of the State on the Coromandal Coast of Bay of Bengal with 88 Kms of coastline. The District is bounded on the East by Bay of Bengal and West Godavari District, and the South also by Bay of Bengal and Guntur District, on the West by Guntur and Nalgonda Districts and North by Khammam District.

(b)

Number of Revenue Divisions and Mandals:

Prior to Revenue Mandal system in 1985, there used to be 18 taluks, under 4 Revenue Divisions in the district. These 18 taluks became 50 Revenue Mandals. The 50 Revenue Mandals in the district falling in the four Revenue Divisions are given below.

1) Bandar Revenue Division: (12 Mandals) Machilipatnam, Guduru, Pedana, Kruthivennu, Bantumilli, Avanigadda, Nagayalanka, Koduru, Movva, Challapalle, Ghantasala and Mopidevi.

2) Gudivada Revenue Division: (9 Mandals) Gudivada, Mudinepalle, Nandivada, Pedaparupudi, Gudlavalleru, Pamarru, Mandavalli, Kaikalur and Kalidindi.

3) Vijayawada Revenue Division: (15 Mandals) Vijayawada Urban (Fully Urban Mandal), Vijayawada rural, Penamaluru, Kankipadu, Mylavaram, Ibrahimpatnam, G.Konduru, Kanchikacherla, Veerullapadu, Nandigama, Penuganchiprolu, Chandarlapadu, Jaggayyapeta, Vatsavai and Thotlavalluru.

4) Nuzvid Revenue Division: (14 Mandals) Nuzvid, Agiripalle, Musunuru, Bapulapadu, Gannavaram, Unguturu, Vuyyuru, Pamidimukkala, Vissannapet, Chatrai, Reddigudem, A.Konduru, Tiruvuru and Gampalagudem.

(c) Total number of Towns and Villages:

There were 974 villages out of which 937 were inhabited and 37 were un-inhabited in 1991 Census. In addition, 30 villages got fully included in 19 Towns of the district. There was no change in the number of Revenue Mandals in 2001 Census. However there was an increase in the number of villages from 974 to 986, Out of 19 towns in 1991 Census 6 were Statutory and 13 were Census Towns. 12 Census Towns lost their status and became villages. Out of the 12, two villages were included in Vijayawada U.A. as O.Gs. (Ramavarappadu and Yenamalakudur). When Tiruvuru Census Town lost its status, it became three villages namely Rajupeta, Patha Tiruvur and Nadim Tiruvur. There by the increase in the total number of villages in the district maintained as 12. Other nine Census Towns which became villages were i) Avanigadda ii) Bapulapadu iii) Challapalle iv) Gannavaram v) Kaikalur vi) Kondapalle

vii) Nandigama viii) Vuyyuru and ix) Kankipadu.

Statutory Towns including Vijayawada U.A. and one Census Town Kanuru. Nuzvid, Gudivada and Machilipatnam were Municipalities while Pedana and Jaggayyapet were

Nagar Panchayats in the district.

Consequently there were six

16

TABLE

S.No

Name of U.A

Constituent Units

1

Vijayawada U.A(Falling in Krishna and Guntur districts)

Vijayawada (M.Corp), Ramavarappadu, Prasadampadu Poranki, Tadigadapa,Yenamalakuduru (New CTs), Kannru(CT),11 New full OGs. Viz; Gollapudi, Jakkampudi, Ambapuram, Phiryadi Nainavaram, Pathapadu, Nunua, Enikepadu, Nidamanuru, Done Atkuru, Ganguru and Penamaluru.

2

Guntur district

Tadepalle (M), Mangalagiri (M), 3 full OGs viz; Undavalli, Navueuru and Atmakur.

(D) Changes in Administrative Units during 2011 Census:

During 2011 Census, 7 villages namely; Nadim Tiruvuru, Kondapalle, Ibrahimpatnam, Guntupalle, Kankipadu, Poranki, and Tadigadapa and 3 out growths namely; Ramavarappadu, Prasadampadu and Yenamalakuduru are upgraded as 10 New Census Towns. 11 Villages viz; Gollapudi, Jakkampudi, Ambapuram, Phiryadi, Nainavaram, Pathapadu,Nunna,Euikapadu, Nidamarru, Done Atkuru,Ganguru and Penamaluru have been Classified as fully outgrowths to Vijayawada UA.Vijayawada Urban Agglomeration extends even in Guntur district also.

However, there are 968 villages in 2011 Census of which (34 Uninhabited and 934 habited), 50 Mandals (Vijayawada (Urban) and 49 Rural), 4 Revenue Divisions, 17 towns (6 Statutory(1 M.Corp and 5 Municipalities) and 11 Census Towns) and one Urban Agglomeration.

 

Statement Showing Administrative units at various Censuses-Krishna

 

Sl. No.

Administrative Unit

 

Census Years

 

1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

2011

1

Revenue Divisions

     

4

 

4

 

4

4

4

4

2

Mandals (Sub-districts)/(T) Taluks

 

(T)

10

(T)

10

(T)

18

50

50

50

3

Villages

 

989

982

978

974

986

968

a

Inhabited villages

   

946

939

942

937

948

934

b

Un-inhabited villages

     

43

 

43

 

36

37

38

34

c

               

d

Villages fully included in towns

 

9

 

18

 

23

30

18

14

Villages partly included in towns

   

15

 

-

 

9

11

11

-

4

Towns

   

13

 

16

 

17

19

7

17

5

Statutory towns

     

3

 

3

 

3

6

6

6

a

Municipal Corporations

   

-

 

-

 

-

1

1

1

b

Municipalities

     

3

 

3

 

3

5

3

5

c

Nagar Panchayats

     

-

 

-

 

-

-

2

-

6

Census Towns

     

10

 

13

 

14

13

1

11

7

Urban Agglomerations

   

-

 

1

 

1

1

1

1

17

District Highlights - 2011 Census

Krishna district stands 17 th position in terms of area with 8,727 Sq. Kms and ranks 4th in terms of population with 45,17,398 persons in the state.

Krishna district stands 9th in terms of urban area with 363.85 Sq. Kms and ranks 4th in terms of urban population with 18,43,660 persons in the state while it stands 17th in terms of rural area with 8,363.15 Sq. Kms and ranks 11 th in terms of rural population with 26,73,738 persons in the state.

The district ranks 3rd in terms of households with 12,43,293 as against 10,11,891 households in 2001.

The district ranks 15 th in terms of total number of villages with 968 as against

986 in 2001.

The district retains 13 th position in the state in terms of Sex-ratio with 992 as against 978 in 2001.

The district ranks 3 rd in terms of Density with 518 persons per Sq. Kms as against

480 in 2001.

The district ranks 3 rd in terms of literacy with 30,09,718 literates as against 25,39,974 in 2001.

The district is with 20,48,880 workers and 24,68,518 non-workers as against 18,41,597 workers and 23,46,244 non-workers in 2001.

Mandal [Sub-District]:

Machilipatnam Mandal is having the largest area of 404.60 Sq. Kms while Vijayawada(urban)Mandal is having the least area of 59.69 Sq. Kms.

Vijayawada( Rural)Mandal is having the largest Urban area of 115.05 Sq. Kms while Kankipadu Mandal is having the least Urban area of 3.37 Sq. Kms .

The Machilipatnam Mandal is having the largest Rural area of 377.39 Sq. Kms while Vijayawada (rural) Mandal is having the least Rural area of 36.73 Sq. Kms

Vijayawada(urban) Mandal is having the highest population of 10,21,806 persons, while the least population of 31,348 is found in Pedaparupudi Mandal.

The highest Urban Population of 10,21,806 is found in Vijayawada (Urban) Mandal and the least Urban Population of 14,616 is found in Kankipadu Mandal.

The highest Rural Population of 92,291 persons is found in Nandigama Mandal while the least Rural Population of 18,905 persons is found in Penamaluru Mandal.

18

Highest Sex-ratio of 1,038 is found in Unguturu Mandal and the least Sex-ratio 910 is found inNagayalanka Mandal.

Vijayawada(Urban) Mandal is having highest Population Density of 17,119 while Chatrai Mandal is having the least Population Density of 221 persons per Sq. Km.

Highest No. of 7,49,635 literates are in Vijayawada(Urban) Mandal and least No. of 21,766 literates are found in Pedaparupudi Mandal .

Vijayawada(Urban) Mandal is having highest No. of workers 3,78,866 and non- workers 6,42,940 while Avanigadda Mandal is having the least No. of workers 16,831 and non-workers 13,835 in Pedaparupudi Mandal respectively.

Village:

Pallethummalapalem Village of Machilipatnam Mandal is having the largest area of 9,549 hectares while Cheedipudi village of Challapalle Mandal is having the least area of 12 hectares.

Vuyyuru Village of Vuyyuru Mandal is having the highest No. of households 12,657, highest Population 46,490 while the least No. of households 5 ,least Population 16 are found in Ravikampadu Village of Jaggayyapet Mandal .

Nandigama village in Nandigama Mandal is having highest 0-6 years Population 4,811 and least 0-6 years population 2 is in Madhurapuram village of Thotlavalluru Mandal.

Highest Sex-ratio of 1,388 is found in China Avutapalle Village of Gannavaram Mandal and least Sex-ratio 173 is found in Konathanapadu village of Kankipadu Mandal.

Highest No. of 34,513 Literates are found in Vuyyuru Village of Vuyyuru Mandal and least No. of 11 Literates are found in Ravikampadu Village of Jaggaiahpeta Mandal while highest No. of 13,909 Illiterates are found in Nandigama Village of Nandigama Mandal and least No. of 3 Illiterates are found in Madhurapuram Village of Thotlavalluru Mandal.

Nandigama Village of Nandigama Mandal is having the highest workers of 18,355 and Vuyyuru village of Vuyyuru Mandal tops with 28,384 Non-workers while Ravikampadu Village of Jaggayyapet Mandal is found to have least workers of 8 persons and least Non-Workers of 8 persons .

19

Important Statistics

State

District

Number of Villages

Total

27,800

968

 

Inhabited

26,286

934

 

Uninhabited

1,514

34

Number of Towns

Statutory

125

6

 

Census

228

11

 

Total

353

17

Number of Households

Normal

20,927,188

1,237,428

 

Institutional

52,588

3,005

 

Houseless

42,812

2,860

Population

Total

Persons

84,580,777

4,517,398

 

Males

42,442,146

2,267,375

 

Females

42,138,631

2,250,023

 

Rural

Persons

56,361,702

2,673,738

 

Males

28,243,241

1,343,534

 

Females

28,118,461

1,330,204

 

Urban

Persons

28,219,075

1,843,660

 

Males

14,198,905

923,841

 

Females

14,020,170

919,819

Percentage Urban Population

 

33.36

40.81

Decadal Population Growth

 

2001-2011

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

 

Persons

8,370,770

10.98

329,557

7.87

 

Males

3,914,733

10.16

149,974

7.08

 

Females

4,456,037

11.83

179,583

8.67

Area (in sq Km.)

275045

8727.00

Density of Population (Persons per sq Km.)

 

308

518

Sex Ratio

Total

993

992

(Number of females per 1000 males)

Rural

996

990

 

Urban

987

996

20

Important Statistics

State

District

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

Literates

Persons

50,556,760

67.02

3,009,718

73.74

 

Males

28,251,243

74.88

1,598,959

78.30

 

Females

22,305,517

59.15

1,410,759

69.18

Scheduled Castes

Persons

13,878,078

16.41

871,063

19.28

 

Males

6,913,047

16.29

435,412

19.20

 

Females

6,965,031

16.53

435,651

19.36

Scheduled Tribes

Persons

5,918,073

7

132,464

2.93

 

Males

2,969,362

7

66,734

2.94

 

Females

2,948,711

7

65,730

2.92

Workers and Non-Workers

 
 

Total Workers (Main and Marginal)

Persons

39,422,906

46.61

2,048,880

45.36

Males

24,185,595

56.98

1,327,299

58.54

 

Females

15,237,311

36.16

721,581

32.07

(i)

Main Workers

Persons

33,037,378

39.06

1,744,978

38.63

 

Males

21,460,081

50.56

1,193,430

52.63

 

Females

11,577,297

27.47

551,548

24.51

(ii) Marginal Workers

Persons

6,385,528

7.55

303,902

6.73

 

Males

2,725,514

6.42

133,869

5.90

 

Females

3,660,014

8.69

170,033

7.56

Non-Workers

Persons

45,157,871

53.39

2,468,518

54.64

 

Males

18,256,551

43.02

940,076

41.46

 

Females

26,901,320

63.84

1,528,442

67.93

Category of Workers (Main & Marginal)

 

(i)

Cultivators

Persons

6,491,522

16.47

150,166

7.33

 

Males

4,357,304

18.02

124,652

9.39

 

Females

2,134,218

14.01

25,514

3.54

(ii)Agricultural Labourers

Persons

16,967,754

43.04

1,006,976

49.15

 

Males

8,130,022

33.62

518,834

39.09

 

Females

8,837,732

58

488,142

67.65

(iii)Workers in household industry

Persons

1,439,137

3.65

48,444

2.36

Males

643,092

2.66

28,400

2.14

 

Females

796,045

5.22

20,044

2.78

(iv) Other Workers

Persons

14,524,493

36.84

843,294

41.16

 

Males

11,055,177

45.71

655,413

49.38

 

Females

3,469,316

22.77

187,881

26.04

21

Section - I

Primary Census Abstract (PCA)

Brief Note on Primary Census Abstract

Introduction:

The Indian Census has the reputation of being one of the best in the world. The first Census in India was conducted in the year 1872. This was conducted at different points of time in different parts of the country. In 1881 a Census was taken for the entire country simultaneously. Since then, Census has been conducted every ten years, without a break. Thus, the Census of India 2011 was the fifteenth in this unbroken series since 1872, the seventh after independence and the second census of the third millennium and twenty first century. The census has been uninterruptedly continued despite of several adversities like wars, epidemics, natural calamities, political unrest, etc.

The Census of India is conducted under the provisions of the Census Act 1948 and the Census Rules, 1990. In Censuses until 1931, a synchronous de- facto method was adopted wherein the Census was conducted throughout the country on a single night. This being a very costly affair and involved the deployment of very large force at one point of time was given up in 1941. Since then the same methodology has been followed in all the Censuses. It is a gigantic operation and considered to be the single largest, complex, peace time administrative exercise in the world.

The Census Operation in India is carried out in two distinct but inter connected phases - the House listing and Housing Census followed by the Population Enumeration. During the first phase of Census 2011 i.e., House listing and Housing Census, the buildings, census houses and households were identified and systematically listed in the House Listing and Housing Census Schedule during the period April to September, 2010 in different States/Union Territories. Apart from listing of houses, some useful data on the amenities available to the households was also collected for assessing condition of human settlements, housing deficits etc.

Censuses prior to Census 2001 had the system of collecting the information through Individual Slip which was a key schedule for every individual. The information collected through slip was then compiled for a household. Some information was also collected in addition to this for the household. During 2001 Census a comprehensive Household Schedule was adopted replacing the individual slip concept. In 2011 Census also similar household schedule was used for canvassing. The scope of demographic, socio- economic parameters has been widened in every census.

2. Population Enumeration - Census 2011:

The field work of the second phase i.e. Population Enumeration was carried out during February-March, 2011. One of the essential features of Population Enumeration in the second phase was that each person was enumerated and her/his individual particulars were collected at a well-defined point of time.

24

The Census moment and the reference date for the Census of India 2011 was 00:00 hours of 1st March, 2011. The enumeration was conducted from 9th February to 28 th February, 2011 along with a revisional round from 1 st March, 2011 to 5 th March, 2011 synchronously all over the country except for few specific areas of the Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states that remain snowbound in February. In these locations the population enumeration was done from 11 th September, 2010 to 30 th September, 2010 along with a revisional round from 1 st October, 2010 to 5 th October, 2010. The reference date for the census in snow bound non-synchronous areas of these states was 00.00 hours of the first day of October, 2010. In addition to the coverage during House listing & Housing Census, the enumeration of the Houseless population was carried out on the night of 28th February, 2011, as has been the usual practice. For the purpose of Census, certain areas where the access of the civilian enumerators was not permissible due to security reasons termed as ‘Special Charges’ such as the Defence and strictly Military/Para- Military areas, including operational areas were also covered. Such areas were not covered during the House listing & Housing Census. In addition to the defence/para-military areas, Special Charges also included certain factory areas, certain colonies, sensitive areas, scientific establishments, etc. These also formed Special Charges as these were not accessible by the usual census enumerator.

3. Quality Assurance:

A Task Force for Quality Assurance (TFQA) functioned under the chairmanship of the RG & CCI. Experienced officers of the different divisions of the organization i.e. Heads and senior officers of the Census Division, Data Processing Division, Map Division, Demography Division and Social Studies Division comprised the TFQA. The Directors of Census Operations were co-opted as members whenever the TFQA discussed the data for their States/Union territories. The main objective of constituting the TFQA was to subject the data to stringent validation checks and ensure its quality before release as it was expedient to be satisfied itself about the quality of data before putting the same in public domain.

The Directors and their senior officers were involved at all levels with respect to the quality and the coverage of their states/Uts. The TFQA intensively scrutinized coverage and content parameters including edit and imputation logic. The most important aspect of the data quality was to ensure complete coverage of all geographical areas especially for the population enumeration phase where the data is disseminated right up to the village level in the rural areas and the ward level in the urban areas. Thus ensuring the complete coverage and correct geographical linkage of each enumeration block was one of the major planks of the quality control, especially for small area population statistics. The content was scrutinized mainly through the process of internal consistency, comparison with similar data in the past and also through validation with likewise data if available, from external sources. Quite often the local knowledge and perception was looked at to understand both the existing and the new emerging trends of

25

population distribution and characteristics. A very comprehensive check and edit mechanism was put in place to objectively examine the preliminary Census 2011 Population Enumeration results and finally clear them for use. The population data was cleared only after the full possible satisfaction of the TFQA.

The entire work relating to the data validation and scrutiny was completed by all the States/Union territories under the overall supervision and monitoring of the Census Division of the Office of the Registrar General, India with active cooperation and support of the Social Studies Division, Data Processing Division, Data Dissemination Division and Map Division.

4. Primary Census Abstract:

The Primary Census Abstract which is important publication of 2011 Census gives basic information on Area, Total Number of Households, Total Population, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes Population, Population in the age group 0-6, Literates, Main Workers and Marginal Workers classified by the four broad industrial categories, namely, (i) Cultivators, (ii) Agricultural Labourers, (iii) Household Industry Workers, and (iv) Other Workers and also Non-Workers. The characteristics of the Total Population include Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Institutional and Houseless Population and are presented by sex and rural-urban residence.

In 1981 census main workers were presented into four categories. As regards 1991 Census, the nine-fold industrial classification of main workers has been given in the Primary Census Abstract. One of the important features of the Primary Census Abstract of 1991 Census was the presentation of population of the age group 0-6 which is continued in 2001 and 2011 Census. All the children of age 6 years or less have been treated as illiterate even if the child is going to a school and may have picked up reading and writing. This will help the data users in better analysis and understanding of the literacy data as the literacy rate is calculated with 7 years and above population and it is referred as effective literacy rate. In 2001 and 2011 census four categories of main workers have been given in the Primary Census Abstract.

5. Level of Presentation of PCA data in District Census Handbooks:

The format of Primary Census Abstract (PCA) adopted in the DCHB of 2001 Census has been continued for 2011 Census as the data on four categories of works have been presented similar to 2001 census. The Primary Census Abstract data in different PCAs are presented at different levels. The level of presentation of Primary Census Abstracts in DCHB is as under:

26

1.

District Primary Census Abstract -District/C.D. Block/Town.

2. Primary Census Abstract for Scheduled Castes- District/C.D. Block/Town.

3. Primary Census Abstract for Scheduled Tribes -District/C.D. Block/Town.

4. Village Primary Census Abstract -C.D. Block/Village wise.

5. Urban Primary Census Abstract- Town/Ward level.

The PCA Data for villages was presented C.D. Block wise for the first time in 1991 Census. This practice is continued in 2001 and 2011 Census. The term ‘Total Population’ includes the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, the Institutional and the Houseless populations. An appendix to District Primary Census Abstract has also been furnished showing urban enumeration block-wise particulars on Total Population, the Scheduled Castes Population and the Scheduled Tribes Population for each town.

6. Area Figures:

The area figures supplied by local revenue authorities of the district in respect of tahsils, Police Stations and by the local bodies in respect of towns are given in square kilometers. The area figures of the villages supplied by the Tahsildars in acres have been converted and shown in hectares. The area figures of the C.D. Block are the total of the village areas coming under each C.D. Block. The area figures for the district are the same as adopted by the Surveyor General of India to maintain uniformity at the national level.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

27

District Primary Census Abstract

 

DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK : KRISHNA

 

DISTRICT PRIMARY

Location

Total/

Area in

Total population (including institutional and houseless population)

 

code

District/ CD Block/ Town

Rural/

Square

Number of

 

Population in the age-group 0-6

number

Urban

Kilometre

households

Persons

Males

Females

Persons

Males

Females

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

547

Krishna - District

Total

8,727.00

1,243,293

4,517,398

2,267,375

2,250,023

435,884

225,220

210,664

 

Rural

8,363.15

753,922

2,673,738

1,343,534

1,330,204

258,921

133,905

125,016

 

Urban

363.85

489,371

1,843,660

923,841

919,819

176,963

91,315

85,648

0659

Vatsavai

Total

227.44

17,149

61,749

30,670

31,079

6,481

3,323

3,158

 

Rural

227.44

17,149

61,749

30,670

31,079

6,481

3,323

3,158

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0660

Jaggayyapeta

Total

223.17

19,041

72,745

36,229

36,516

8,268

4,209

4,059

 

Rural

223.17

19,041

72,745

36,229

36,516

8,268

4,209

4,059

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0661

Penuganchiprolu

Total

164.35

14,262

51,811

25,782

26,029

5,284

2,698

2,586

 

Rural

164.35

14,262

51,811

25,782

26,029

5,284

2,698

2,586

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0662

Nandigama

Total

189.68

24,662

92,291

46,218

46,073

9,926

5,140

4,786

 

Rural

189.68

24,662

92,291

46,218

46,073

9,926

5,140

4,786

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0663

Veerullapadu

Total

200.51

14,115

49,089

24,420

24,669

5,094

2,612

2,482

 

Rural

200.51

14,115

49,089

24,420

24,669

5,094

2,612

2,482

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0664

Mylavaram

Total

203.21

17,939

66,947

33,684

33,263

6,763

3,518

3,245

 

Rural

203.21

17,939

66,947

33,684

33,263

6,763

3,518

3,245

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0665

Gampalagudem

Total

209.65

20,085

71,544

36,215

35,329

7,071

3,650

3,421

 

Rural

209.65

20,085

71,544

36,215

35,329

7,071

3,650

3,421

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0666

Tiruvuru

Total

184.32

20,605

76,731

38,679

38,052

7,041

3,588

3,453

 

Rural

173.83

15,622

58,164

29,439

28,725

5,424

2,721

2,703

 

Urban

10.49

4,983

18,567

9,240

9,327

1,617

867

750

588980

Nadim Tiruvuru (CT)

Urban

10.49

4,983

18,567

9,240

9,327

1,617

867

750

0667

A.Konduru

Total

207.61

12,697

48,463

24,675

23,788

5,027

2,572

2,455

 

Rural

207.61

12,697

48,463

24,675

23,788

5,027

2,572

2,455

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0668

Reddigudem

Total

194.04

12,271

46,226

23,522

22,704

4,559

2,426

2,133

 

Rural

194.04

12,271

46,226

23,522

22,704

4,559

2,426

2,133

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0669

Vissannapet

Total

202.64

15,714

59,798

29,866

29,932

5,958

3,034

2,924

 

Rural

202.64

15,714

59,798

29,866

29,932

5,958

3,034

2,924

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0670

Chatrai

Total

242.08

14,425

53,493

27,080

26,413

5,437

2,764

2,673

 

Rural

242.08

14,425

53,493

27,080

26,413

5,437

2,764

2,673

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0671

Musunuru

Total

208.23

15,205

57,197

28,941

28,256

5,783

2,952

2,831

 

Rural

208.23

15,205

57,197

28,941

28,256

5,783

2,952

2,831

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0672

Nuzvid

Total

227.27

19,014

70,963

35,884

35,079

7,564

3,918

3,646

 

Rural

227.27

19,014

70,963

35,884

35,079

7,564

3,918

3,646

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0673

Bapulapadu

Total

226.63

24,036

84,922

42,406

42,516

8,403

4,359

4,044

 

Rural

226.63

24,036

84,922

42,406

42,516

8,403

4,359

4,044

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0674

Agiripalle

Total

224.08

17,055

62,098

31,780

30,318

6,430

3,365

3,065

 

Rural

224.08

17,055

62,098

31,780

30,318

6,430

3,365

3,065

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0675

G.Konduru

Total

196.25

15,666

57,693

29,073

28,620

6,061

3,237

2,824

 

Rural

196.25

15,666

57,693

29,073

28,620

6,061

3,237

2,824

 

Urban

0.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0676

Kanchikacherla

Total

173.85

19,897

71,075

35,430

35,645

7,747

3,934

3,813

 

30

PRIMARY CENSUS ABSTRACT

 

CENSUS ABSTRACT

 
 

Total/

Scheduled Castes population

Scheduled Tribes population

 

Literates

Rural/

District/ CD Block/ Town

Persons

Males

Females

Persons

Males

Females

Persons

Males

Females

Urban

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

3

2

871,063

435,412

435,651

132,464

66,734

65,730

3,009,718

1,598,959

1,410,759

Total

Krishna - District

665,621

333,803

331,818

93,915

47,291

46,624

1,657,592

891,610

765,982

Rural

205,442

101,609

103,833

38,549

19,443

19,106

1,352,126

707,349

644,777

Urban

19,050

9,456

9,594

3,731

1,843

1,888

35,119

19,692

15,427

Total

Vatsavai

19,050

9,456

9,594

3,731

1,843

1,888

35,119

19,692

15,427

Rural

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Urban

15,124

7,612

7,512

8,285

4,158

4,127

40,922

23,075

17,847

Total

Jaggayyapeta

15,124

7,612

7,512

8,285

4,158

4,127

40,922

23,075

17,847

Rural

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Urban

16,097

8,119

7,978

2,060

1,031

1,029

28,815

16,440

12,375

Total

Penuganchiprolu

16,097

8,119

7,978

2,060

1,031

1,029

28,815

16,440

12,375

Rural

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Urban

25,659

12,828

12,831

4,303

2,150

2,153

56,615

31,076

25,539

Total

Nandigama

25,659

12,828

12,831

4,303

2,150

2,153

56,615

31,076

25,539

Rural

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Urban

18,328

9,104

9,224

1,700

841

859

26,969

15,353

11,616

Total

Veerullapadu

18,328

9,104

9,224

1,700

841

859

26,969

15,353

11,616

Rural

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Urban

14,510

7,215

7,295

5,007

2,523

2,484

39,144

21,602

17,542

Total

Mylavaram

14,510

7,215

7,295

5,007

2,523

2,484

39,144

21,602

17,542

Rural

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Urban

22,337

11,393

10,944

1,233

624

609

38,847

22,169

16,678

Total

Gampalagudem

22,337

11,393

10,944

1,233

624

609

38,847

22,169

16,678

Rural

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Urban

23,572

12,043

11,529

2,181

1,089

1,092

46,072

25,452

20,620

Total

Tiruvuru

20,920

10,757

10,163

1,715

866

849

32,112

18,094

14,018

Rural

2,652

1,286

1,366

466

223

243

13,960

7,358

6,602

Urban

2,652

1,286

1,366

466

223

243

13,960

7,358

6,602

Urban

Nadim Tiruvuru (CT)

12,039

6,345

5,694

12,604

6,301

6,303

24,067

13,982

10,085

Total

A.Konduru

12,039

6,345