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CopyrightinfringementWikipedia

Copyrightinfringement
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Copyrightinfringementistheuseofworksprotectedbycopyrightlaw
withoutpermission,infringingcertainexclusiverightsgrantedtothe
copyrightholder,suchastherighttoreproduce,distribute,displayor
performtheprotectedwork,ortomakederivativeworks.Thecopyright
holderistypicallythework'screator,orapublisherorotherbusinessto
whomcopyrighthasbeenassigned.Copyrightholdersroutinelyinvoke
legalandtechnologicalmeasurestopreventandpenalizecopyright
infringement.
Copyrightinfringementdisputesareusuallyresolvedthroughdirect
negotiation,anoticeandtakedownprocess,orlitigationincivilcourt.
Egregiousorlargescalecommercialinfringement,especiallywhenit
involvescounterfeiting,issometimesprosecutedviathecriminaljustice
system.Shiftingpublicexpectations,advancesindigitaltechnology,and
theincreasingreachoftheInternethaveledtosuchwidespread,
anonymousinfringementthatcopyrightdependentindustriesnowfocus
lessonpursuingindividualswhoseekandsharecopyrightprotected
contentonline,andmoreonexpandingcopyrightlawtorecognizeand
penalizeas"indirect"infringerstheserviceprovidersandsoftware
distributorswhicharesaidtofacilitateandencourageindividualactsof
infringementbyothers.

Anadvertisementforcopyrightand
patentpreparationservicesfrom
1906,whencopyrightregistration
formalitieswerestillrequiredinthe
US

Estimatesoftheactualeconomicimpactofcopyrightinfringementvarywidelyanddependonmanyfactors.
Nevertheless,copyrightholders,industryrepresentatives,andlegislatorshavelongcharacterizedcopyright
infringementaspiracyortheftlanguagewhichsomeU.S.courtsnowregardaspejorativeorotherwise
contentious.[1][2][3]

Contents
1 Terminology
1.1 "Piracy"
1.2 "Theft"
1.3 "Freebooting"
2 Motivation
2.1 Developingworld
2.2 Motivationsduetocensorship
3 Existingandproposedlaws
3.1 Civillaw
3.2 Criminallaw
3.3 Noncommercialfilesharing
3.3.1 Legalityofdownloading
3.3.2 Legalityofuploading
3.3.3 Relaxedpenalties
3.4 DMCAandanticircumventionlaws
3.5 Onlineintermediaryliability
3.5.1 Definitionofintermediary
3.5.2 Litigationandlegislationconcerningintermediaries

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3.5.2 Litigationandlegislationconcerningintermediaries
3.5.3 Peertopeerissues
4 Limitations
4.1 Noninfringinguses
4.2 Noninfringingtypesofworks
5 Preventativemeasures
5.1 Legal
5.2 Protecteddistribution
6 Economicimpactofcopyrightinfringement
6.1 Motionpictureindustryestimates
6.2 Softwareindustryestimates
6.3 Musicindustryestimates
6.4 Criticismofindustryestimates
6.5 Economicimpactofinfringementinemergingmarkets
7 Proopencultureorganizations
8 Anticopyrightinfringementorganizations
9 Seealso
10 References
11 Furtherreading
12 Externallinks

Terminology
Thetermspiracyandtheftareoftenassociatedwithcopyrightinfringement.[4][5]Theoriginalmeaningofpiracyis
"robberyorillegalviolenceatsea",[6]butthetermhasbeeninuseforcenturiesasasynonymforactsofcopyright
infringement.[7][8]Theft,meanwhile,emphasizesthepotentialcommercialharmofinfringementtocopyright
holders.However,copyrightisatypeofintellectualproperty,anareaoflawdistinctfromthatwhichcovers
robberyortheft,offensesrelatedonlytotangibleproperty.Notallcopyrightinfringementresultsincommercial
loss,andtheU.S.SupremeCourtruledin1985thatinfringementdoesnoteasilyequatewiththeft.[1]

"Piracy"
Thepracticeoflabellingtheinfringementofexclusiverightsincreativeworksas"piracy"predatesstatutory
copyrightlaw.PriortotheStatuteofAnnein1710,theStationers'CompanyofLondonin1557,receivedaRoyal
Chartergivingthecompanyamonopolyonpublicationandtaskingitwithenforcingthecharter.Thosewho
violatedthecharterwerelabelledpiratesasearlyas1603.[7]Theterm"piracy"hasbeenusedtorefertothe
unauthorizedcopying,distributionandsellingofworksincopyright.[8]Article12ofthe1886BerneConvention
fortheProtectionofLiteraryandArtisticWorksusestheterm"piracy"inrelationtocopyrightinfringement,
stating"PiratedworksmaybeseizedonimportationintothosecountriesoftheUnionwheretheoriginalwork
enjoyslegalprotection."[8]Article61ofthe1994AgreementonTradeRelatedAspectsofIntellectualProperty
Rights(TRIPs)requirescriminalproceduresandpenaltiesincasesof"willfultrademarkcounterfeitingor
copyrightpiracyonacommercialscale."[9]Piracytraditionallyreferstoactsofcopyrightinfringement
intentionallycommittedforfinancialgain,thoughmorerecently,copyrightholdershavedescribedonline
copyrightinfringement,particularlyinrelationtopeertopeerfilesharingnetworks,as"piracy."[8]
RichardStallmanandtheGNUProjecthavecriticizedtheuseoftheword"piracy"inthesesituations,sayingthat
publishersusethewordtoreferto"copyingtheydon'tapproveof"andthat"they[publishers]implythatitis
ethicallyequivalenttoattackingshipsonthehighseas,kidnappingandmurderingthepeopleonthem."[10]
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"Theft"
Copyrightholdersfrequentlyrefertocopyrightinfringementastheft.In
copyrightlaw,infringementdoesnotrefertotheftofphysicalobjectsthat
takeawaytheowner'spossession,butaninstancewhereapersonexercises
oneoftheexclusiverightsofthecopyrightholderwithoutauthorization.[11]
Courtshavedistinguishedbetweencopyrightinfringementandtheft.For
instance,theUnitedStatesSupremeCourtheldinDowlingv.UnitedStates
(1985)thatbootlegphonorecordsdidnotconstitutestolenproperty.Instead,
"interferencewithcopyrightdoesnoteasilyequatewiththeft,conversion,
orfraud.TheCopyrightActevenemploysaseparatetermofarttodefine
onewhomisappropriatesacopyright:'[...]aninfringerofthecopyright.'"
Thecourtsaidthatinthecaseofcopyrightinfringement,theprovince
guaranteedtothecopyrightholderbycopyrightlawcertainexclusive
rightsisinvaded,butnocontrol,physicalorotherwise,istakenoverthe
copyright,noristhecopyrightholderwhollydeprivedofusingthe
copyrightedworkorexercisingtheexclusiverightsheld.[1]copyrightisa
typeofintellectualproperty,anareaoflawdistinctfromthatwhichcovers
robberyortheft,offensesrelatedonlytotangibleproperty.Notall
copyrightinfringementresultsincommercialloss,andtheU.S.Supreme
Courtruledin1985thatinfring

PiratededitionofGerman
philosopherAlfredSchmidt
(Amsterdam,ca.1970)

"Freebooting"
Morerecently,theterm"freebooting"hasbeenusedtodescribetheunauthorizedrehostingofonlinemedia,
particularlyvideos.ThistermwascoinedbyBradyHaran,anindependentvideojournalist,intheaudiopodcast
HelloInternet,andhasbeenusedbyseveralintheYouTubecommunity.[12][13]

Motivation
Someofthemotivesforengagingincopyrightinfringementarethefollowing:[14]
Pricingunwillingnessorinabilitytopaythepricerequestedbythelegitimatesellers
Unavailabilitynolegitimatesellersprovidingtheproductinthecountryoftheenduser:notyetlaunched
there,alreadywithdrawnfromsales,nevertobesoldthere,geographicalrestrictionsononlinedistribution
andinternationalshipping
Usefulnessthelegitimateproductcomeswithvariousmeans(DRM,regionlock,DVDregioncode,Blu
rayregioncode)ofrestrictinglegitimateuse(backups,usageondevicesofdifferentvendors,offlineusage)
orcomeswithannoyingnonskippableadvertisementsandantipiracydisclaimers,whichareremovedinthe
unauthorizedproductmakingitmoredesirablefortheenduser
Shoppingexperiencenolegitimatesellersprovidingtheproductwiththerequiredqualitythroughonline
distributionandthroughashoppingsystemwiththerequiredlevelofuserfriendliness
Anonymitydownloadingworksdoesnotrequireidentificationwhereasdownloadsdirectlyfromthe
websiteofthecopyrightowneroftenrequireavalidemailaddressand/orothercredentials
Sometimesonlypartialcompliancewithlicenseagreementsisthecause.Forexample,in2013,theUSArmy
settledalawsuitwithTexasbasedcompanyApptricity,whichmakessoftwarethatallowsthearmytotracktheir
soldiersinrealtime.In2004,theUSArmypaidUS$4.5millionforalicenseof500users,whileallegedly
installingthesoftwareformorethan9000usersthecasewassettledforUS$50million.[15][16]Majorantipiracy
organizations,liketheBSA,conductsoftwarelicensingauditsregularlytoensurefullcompliance.[17]
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CaraCusumano,directoroftheTribecaFilmFestival,statedinApril2014:"Piracyislessaboutpeoplenot
wantingtopayandmoreaboutjustwantingtheimmediacypeoplesaying,'IwanttowatchSpidermanrightnow'
anddownloadingit".ThestatementoccurredduringthethirdyearthatthefestivalusedtheInternettopresentits
content,whileitwasthefirstyearthatitfeaturedashowcaseofcontentproducerswhoworkexclusivelyonline.
Cusumanofurtherexplainedthatdownloadingbehaviorisnotmerelyconductedbypeoplewhomerelywantto
obtaincontentforfree:
Ithinkthatifcompanieswerewillingtoputthatmaterialoutthere,movingforward,consumerswill
follow.It'sjustthatthey[consumers]wanttoconsumefilmsonlineandthey'rereadytoconsumefilms
thatwayandwe'renotnecessarilyofferingtheminthatway.Soit'sthedistributionmodelsthatneed
tocatchup.Peoplewillpayforthecontent.[4]
InresponsetoCusumano'sperspective,ScreenProducersAustraliaexecutivedirectorMattDeanerclarifiedthe
motivationofthefilmindustry:"Distributorsareusuallywantingtoencouragecinemagoingaspartofthisprocess
[monetizingthroughreturns]andrestricttheimmediateaccesstoonlinesoastoencouragethemaximumnumber
ofpeopletogotothecinema."DeanerfurtherexplainedthematterintermsoftheAustralianfilmindustry,stating:
"therearecurrentlyrestrictionsonquantitiesoftaxsupportthatafilmcanreceiveunlessthefilmhasatraditional
cinemarelease."[4]
InastudypublishedintheJournalofBehaviouralandExperimentalEconomics,andreportedoninearlyMay
2014,researchersfromtheUniversityofPortsmouthintheUKdiscussedfindingsfromexaminingtheillegal
downloadingbehaviorof6,000Finnishpeople,agedsevento84.Thelistofreasonsfordownloadinggivenbythe
studyrespondentsincludedmoneysavingtheabilitytoaccessmaterialnotongeneralrelease,orbeforeitwas
releasedandassistingartiststoavoidinvolvementwithrecordcompaniesandmoviestudios.[18]
InapublictalkbetweenBillGates,WarrenBuffett,andBrentSchlenderattheUniversityofWashingtonin1998,
BillGatescommentedonpiracyasameanstoanend,wherebypeoplewhouseMicrosoftsoftwareillegallywill
eventuallypayforit,outoffamiliarity,asacountry'seconomydevelopsandlegitimateproductsbecomemore
affordabletobusinessesandconsumers:
AlthoughaboutthreemillioncomputersgetsoldeveryyearinChina,peopledon'tpayforthe
software.Somedaytheywill,though.Andaslongasthey'regoingtostealit,wewantthemtosteal
ours.They'llgetsortofaddicted,andthenwe'llsomehowfigureouthowtocollectsometimeinthe
nextdecade.[19]

Developingworld
InMediaPiracyinEmergingEconomies,thefirstindependentinternationalcomparativestudyofmediapiracy
withcenteronBrazil,India,Russia,SouthAfrica,Mexico,TurkeyandBolivia,"highpricesformediagoods,low
incomes,andcheapdigitaltechnologies"arethechieffactorsthatleadtotheglobalspreadofmediapiracy,
especiallyinemergingmarkets.[20]
Accordingtothesamestudy,eventhoughdigitalpiracyinflictsadditionalcostsontheproductionsideofmedia,it
alsooffersthemainaccesstomediagoodsindevelopingcountries.Thestrongtradeoffsthatfavorusingdigital
piracyindevelopingeconomiesdictatethecurrentneglectedlawenforcementstowarddigitalpiracy.[21]InChina,
theissueofdigitalinfringementisnotmerelylegal,butsocialoriginatingfromthehighdemandforcheapand
affordablegoodsaswellasthegovernmentalconnectionsofthebusinesseswhichproducesuchgoods.[22]
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Motivationsduetocensorship
Therehavebeeninstanceswhereacountry'sgovernmentbansamovie,resultinginthespreadofcopiedvideos
andDVDs.RomanianborndocumentarymakerIlincaCalugareanuwroteaNewYorkTimesarticletellingthe
storyofIrinaMargaretaNistor,anarratorforstateTVunderNicolaeCeauescu'sregime.Avisitorfromthewest
gaveherbootleggedcopiesofAmericanmovies,whichshedubbedforsecretviewingsthroughRomania.
Accordingtothearticle,shedubbedmorethan3,000moviesandbecamethecountry'ssecondmostfamousvoice
afterCeauescu,eventhoughnooneknewhernameuntilmanyyearslater.[23]

Existingandproposedlaws
Mostcountriesextendcopyrightprotectionstoauthorsofworks.In
countrieswithcopyrightlegislation,enforcementofcopyrightisgenerally
theresponsibilityofthecopyrightholder.[24]However,inseveral
jurisdictionstherearealsocriminalpenaltiesforcopyrightinfringement.[25]

Civillaw
Copyrightinfringementincivillawisanyviolationoftheexclusiverights
oftheowner.InU.S.law,thoserightsincludereproduction,thepreparation
ofderivativeworks,distributingcopiesbysaleorrental,andpublic
performanceordisplay.[26]

DemonstrationinSwedeninsupport
offilesharing,2006

IntheU.S.,copyrightinfringementissometimesconfrontedvialawsuitsin
civilcourt,againstallegedinfringersdirectly,oragainstprovidersof
servicesandsoftwarethatsupportunauthorizedcopying.Forexample,
majormotionpicturecorporationMGMStudiosfiledsuitagainstP2Pfile
sharingservicesGroksterandStreamcastfortheircontributoryrolein
copyrightinfringement.[27]In2005,theSupremeCourtruledinfavorof
MGM,holdingthatsuchservicescouldbeheldliableforcopyright
infringementsincetheyfunctionedand,indeed,willfullymarketed
themselvesasvenuesforacquiringcopyrightedmovies.TheMGMv.
GrokstercasedidnotoverturntheearlierSonydecision,butratherclouded
thelegalwatersfuturedesignersofsoftwarecapableofbeingusedfor
copyrightinfringementwerewarned.[28]
ThePirateBaylogo,aretaliationto
IntheUnitedStates,copyrighttermhasbeenextendedmanytimesover[29]
thestereotypicalimageofpiracy
fromtheoriginaltermof14yearswithasinglerenewalallowanceof14
years,tothecurrenttermofthelifeoftheauthorplus70years.Ifthework
wasproducedundercorporateauthorshipitmaylast120yearsaftercreationor95yearsafterpublication,
whicheverissooner.

Article50oftheAgreementonTradeRelatedAspectsofIntellectualPropertyRights(TRIPs)requiresthat
signatorycountriesenablecourtstoremedycopyrightinfringementwithinjunctionsandthedestructionof
infringingproducts,andawarddamages.[9]Somejurisdictionsonlyallowactual,provabledamages,andsome,like
theU.S.,allowforlargestatutorydamageawardsintendedtodeterwouldbeinfringersandallowfor
compensationinsituationswhereactualdamagesaredifficulttoprove.

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Insomejurisdictions,copyrightortherighttoenforceitcanbecontractuallyassignedtoathirdpartywhichdid
nothavearoleinproducingthework.Whenthisoutsourcedlitigatorappearstohavenointentionoftakingany
copyrightinfringementcasestotrial,butratheronlytakesthemjustfarenoughthroughthelegalsystemtoidentify
andexactsettlementsfromsuspectedinfringers,criticscommonlyrefertothepartyasa"copyrighttroll."Such
practiceshavehadmixedresultsintheU.S.[30]

Criminallaw
Punishmentofcopyrightinfringementvariescasebycaseacrosscountries.Convictionsmayincludejailtime
and/orseverefinesforeachinstanceofcopyrightinfringement.IntheUnitedStates,willfulcopyright
infringementcarriesamaximumpenaltyof$150,000perinstance.[31]
Article61oftheAgreementonTradeRelatedAspectsofIntellectualPropertyRights(TRIPs)requiresthat
signatorycountriesestablishcriminalproceduresandpenaltiesincasesof"willfultrademarkcounterfeitingor
copyrightpiracyonacommercialscale".[9]Copyrightholdershavedemandedthatstatesprovidecriminal
sanctionsforalltypesofcopyrightinfringement.[24]
ThefirstcriminalprovisioninU.S.copyrightlawwasaddedin1897,whichestablishedamisdemeanorpenaltyfor
"unlawfulperformancesandrepresentationsofcopyrighteddramaticandmusicalcompositions"iftheviolation
hadbeen"willfulandforprofit."[32]Criminalcopyrightinfringementrequiresthattheinfringeracted"forthe
purposeofcommercialadvantageorprivatefinancialgain."17U.S.C.506(https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/t
ext/17/506).Toestablishcriminalliability,theprosecutormustfirstshowthebasicelementsofcopyright
infringement:ownershipofavalidcopyright,andtheviolationofoneormoreofthecopyrightholder'sexclusive
rights.Thegovernmentmustthenestablishthatdefendantwillfullyinfringedor,inotherwords,possessedthe
necessarymensrea.Misdemeanorinfringementhasaverylowthresholdintermsofnumberofcopiesandthe
valueoftheinfringedworks.
TheACTAtradeagreement,signedinMay2011bytheUnitedStates,Japan,andtheEU,requiresthatitsparties
addcriminalpenalties,includingincarcerationandfines,forcopyrightandtrademarkinfringement,andobligated
thepartiestoactivelypoliceforinfringement.[24][33][34]
UnitedStatesv.LaMacchia871F.Supp.535(1994)wasacasedecidedbytheUnitedStatesDistrictCourtforthe
DistrictofMassachusettswhichruledthat,underthecopyrightandcybercrimelawseffectiveatthetime,
committingcopyrightinfringementfornoncommercialmotivescouldnotbeprosecutedundercriminalcopyright
law.Therulinggaverisetowhatbecameknownasthe"LaMacchiaLoophole,"whereincriminalchargesoffraud
orcopyrightinfringementwouldbedismissedundercurrentlegalstandards,solongastherewasnoprofitmotive
involved.[35]
TheUnitedStatesNoElectronicTheftAct(NETAct),afederallawpassedin1997,inresponsetoLaMacchia,
providesforcriminalprosecutionofindividualswhoengageincopyrightinfringementundercertain
circumstances,evenwhenthereisnomonetaryprofitorcommercialbenefitfromtheinfringement.Maximum
penaltiescanbefiveyearsinprisonandupto$250,000infines.TheNETActalsoraisedstatutorydamagesby
50%.Thecourt'srulingexplicitlydrewattentiontotheshortcomingsofcurrentlawthatallowedpeopleto
facilitatemasscopyrightinfringementwhilebeingimmunetoprosecutionundertheCopyrightAct.
ProposedlawssuchastheStopOnlinePiracyActbroadenthedefinitionof"willfulinfringement",andintroduce
felonychargesforunauthorizedmediastreaming.Thesebillsareaimedtowardsdefeatingwebsitesthatcarryor
containlinkstoinfringingcontent,buthaveraisedconcernsaboutdomesticabuseandinternetcensorship.

Noncommercialfilesharing
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Legalityofdownloading
Toanextent,copyrightlawinsomecountriespermitsdownloadingcopyrightprotectedcontentforpersonal,
noncommercialuse.ExamplesincludeCanada[36]andEuropeanUnion(EU)memberstateslikePoland,[37]and
TheNetherlands.[38]
ThepersonalcopyingexemptioninthecopyrightlawofEUmemberstatesstemsfromtheEUCopyrightDirective
of2001,whichisgenerallydevisedtoallowEUmemberstoenactlawssanctioningmakingcopieswithout
authorization,aslongastheyareforpersonal,noncommericaluse.TheCopyrightDirectivewasnotintendedto
legitimizefilesharing,butratherthecommonpracticeofspaceshiftingcopyrightprotectedcontentfromalegally
purchasedCD(forexample)tocertainkindsofdevicesandmedia,providedrightsholdersarecompensatedand
nocopyprotectionmeasuresarecircumvented.Rightsholdercompensationtakesvariousforms,dependingonthe
country,butisgenerallyeitheralevyon"recording"devicesandmedia,orataxonthecontentitself.Insome
countries,suchasCanada,theapplicabilityofsuchlawstocopyingontogeneralpurposestoragedeviceslike
computerharddrives,portablemediaplayers,andphones,forwhichnoleviesarecollected,hasbeenthesubject
ofdebateandfurthereffortstoreformcopyrightlaw.
Insomecountries,thepersonalcopyingexemptionexplicitlyrequiresthatthecontentbeingcopiedwasobtained
legitimatelyi.e.,fromauthorizedsources,notfilesharingnetworks.Othercountries,suchastheNetherlands,
makenosuchdistinctiontheexemptiontherehadbeenassumed,evenbythegovernment,toapplytoanysuch
copying,evenfromfilesharingnetworks.However,inApril2014,theCourtofJusticeoftheEuropeanUnion
ruledthat"nationallegislationwhichmakesnodistinctionbetweenprivatecopiesmadefromlawfulsourcesand
thosemadefromcounterfeitedorpiratedsourcescannotbetolerated."[39]Thus,intheNetherlands,forexample,
downloadingfromfilesharingnetworksisnolongerlegal.
Legalityofuploading
Althoughdownloadingorotherprivatecopyingissometimespermitted,publicdistributionbyuploadingor
otherwiseofferingtosharecopyrightprotectedcontentremainsillegalinmost,ifnotallcountries.Forexample,
inCanada,eventhoughitwasoncelegaltodownloadanycopyrightedfileaslongasitwasfornoncommercial
use,itwasstillillegaltodistributethecopyrightedfiles(e.g.byuploadingthemtoaP2Pnetwork).[40]
Relaxedpenalties
Somecountries,likeCanadaandGermany,havelimitedthepenaltiesfornoncommercialcopyrightinfringement.
Forexample,Germanyhaspassedabilltolimitthefineforindividualsaccusedofsharingmusicandmoviesto
$200.[41]Canada'sCopyrightModernizationActclaimsthatstatutorydamagesfornoncommercialcopyright
infringementarecappedatC$5,000butthisonlyappliestocopiesthathavebeenmadewithoutthebreakingof
any"digitallock".However,thisonlyappliesto"bootlegdistribution"andnotnoncommercialuse.[42]

DMCAandanticircumventionlaws
TitleIoftheU.S.DMCA,theWIPOCopyrightandPerformancesandPhonogramsTreatiesImplementationAct
hasprovisionsthatpreventpersonsfrom"circumvent[ing]atechnologicalmeasurethateffectivelycontrolsaccess
toawork".Thusifadistributorofcopyrightedworkshassomekindofsoftware,dongleorpasswordaccess
deviceinstalledininstancesofthework,anyattempttobypasssuchacopyprotectionschememaybeactionable
thoughtheUSCopyrightOfficeiscurrentlyreviewinganticircumventionrulemakingunderDMCAanti
circumventionexemptionsthathavebeeninplaceundertheDMCAincludethoseinsoftwaredesignedtofilter
websitesthataregenerallyseentobeinefficient(childsafetyandpubliclibrarywebsitefilteringsoftware)andthe
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circumventionofcopyprotectionmechanismsthathavemalfunctioned,havecausedtheinstanceoftheworkto
becomeinoperableorwhicharenolongersupportedbytheirmanufacturers.[43]accordingtoAbbyHouseMedia
Incv.AppleIncitislegaltopointuserstoDRMStrippingsoftwareandhowtouseitbecauseoflackofevidence
thatDRMStrippingLeadstoCopyrightInfringement[44][45][46]

Onlineintermediaryliability
WhetherInternetintermediariesareliableforcopyrightinfringementbytheirusersisasubjectofdebateandcourt
casesinanumberofcountries.[47]
Definitionofintermediary
Internetintermediarieswereformerlyunderstoodtobeinternetserviceproviders(ISPs).However,questionsof
liabilityhavealsoemergedinrelationtootherInternetinfrastructureintermediaries,includingInternetbackbone
providers,cablecompaniesandmobilecommunicationsproviders.[48]
Inaddition,intermediariesarenowalsogenerallyunderstoodtoincludeInternetportals,softwareandgames
providers,thoseprovidingvirtualinformationsuchasinteractiveforumsandcommentfacilitieswithorwithouta
moderationsystem,aggregatorsofvariouskinds,suchasnewsaggregators,universities,librariesandarchives,
websearchengines,chatrooms,webblogs,mailinglists,andanywebsitewhichprovidesaccesstothirdparty
contentthrough,forexample,hyperlinks,acrucialelementoftheWorldWideWeb.
Litigationandlegislationconcerningintermediaries
EarlycourtcasesfocusedontheliabilityofInternetserviceproviders(ISPs)forhosting,transmittingorpublishing
usersuppliedcontentthatcouldbeactionedundercivilorcriminallaw,suchaslibel,defamation,or
pornography.[49]Asdifferentcontentwasconsideredindifferentlegalsystems,andintheabsenceofcommon
definitionsfor"ISPs,""bulletinboards"or"onlinepublishers,"earlylawononlineintermediaries'liabilityvaried
widelyfromcountrytocountry.Thefirstlawsononlineintermediaries'liabilitywerepassedfromthemid1990s
onwards.
Thedebatehasshiftedawayfromquestionsaboutliabilityforspecificcontent,includingthatwhichmayinfringe
copyright,towardswhetheronlineintermediariesshouldbegenerallyresponsibleforcontentaccessiblethrough
theirservicesorinfrastructure.[50]
TheU.S.DigitalMillenniumCopyrightAct(1998)andtheEuropeanECommerceDirective(2000)provide
onlineintermediarieswithlimitedstatutoryimmunityfromliabilityforcopyrightinfringement.Online
intermediarieshostingcontentthatinfringescopyrightarenotliable,solongastheydonotknowaboutitandtake
actionsoncetheinfringingcontentisbroughttotheirattention.InU.S.lawthisischaracterizedas"safeharbor"
provisions.UnderEuropeanlaw,thegoverningprinciplesforInternetServiceProvidersare"mereconduit",
meaningthattheyareneutral'pipes'withnoknowledgeofwhattheyarecarryingand'noobligationtomonitor'
meaningthattheycannotbegivenageneralmandatebygovernmentstomonitorcontent.Thesetwoprinciplesare
abarrierforcertainformsofonlinecopyrightenforcementandtheywerethereasonbehindanattempttoamend
theEuropeanTelecomsPackagein2009tosupportnewmeasuresagainstcopyrightinfringement.[51]
Peertopeerissues

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Peertopeerfilesharingintermediarieshavebeendeniedaccesstosafeharborprovisionsinrelationtocopyright
infringement.Legalactionagainstsuchintermediaries,suchasNapster,aregenerallybroughtinrelationto
principlesofsecondaryliabilityforcopyrightinfringement,suchascontributoryliabilityandvicariousliability.[52]
Thesetypesofintermediariesdonothostortransmitinfringing
content,themselves,butmayberegardedinsomecourtsas
encouraging,enablingorfacilitatinginfringementbyusers.
Theseintermediariesmayincludetheauthor,publishersand
marketersofpeertopeernetworkingsoftware,andthe
websitesthatallowuserstodownloadsuchsoftware.Inthe
caseoftheBitTorrentprotocol,intermediariesmayincludethe
torrenttrackerandanywebsitesorsearchengineswhich
facilitateaccesstotorrentfiles.Torrentfilesdon'tcontain
copyrightedcontent,buttheymaymakereferencetofilesthat
do,andtheymaypointtotrackerswhichcoordinatethe
sharingofthosefiles.Sometorrentindexingandsearchsites,
suchasThePirateBay,nowencouragetheuseofmagnet
links,insteadofdirectlinkstotorrentfiles,creatinganother
layerofindirectionusingsuchlinks,torrentfilesareobtained
fromotherpeers,ratherthanfromaparticularwebsite.
Sincethelate1990s,copyrightholdershavetakenlegalactions
againstanumberofpeertopeerintermediaries,suchaspir,
Grokster,eMule,SoulSeek,BitTorrentandLimewire,andcase
lawontheliabilityofInternetserviceproviders(ISPs)in
relationtocopyrightinfringementhasemergedprimarilyin
relationtothesecases.[53]

TheBitTorrentprotocol:Inthisanimation,the
coloredbarsbeneathallofthesevenclientsinthe
upperregionaboverepresentthefile,witheach
colorrepresentinganindividualpieceofthefile.
Aftertheinitialpiecestransferfromtheseed(large
systematthebottom),thepiecesareindividually
transferredfromclienttoclient.Theoriginalseeder
onlyneedstosendoutonecopyofthefileforall
theclientstoreceiveacopy.

Nevertheless,whetherandtowhatdegreeanyofthesetypesof
intermediarieshavesecondaryliabilityisthesubjectof
ongoinglitigation.Thedecentralisedstructureofpeertopeernetworks,inparticular,doesnotsiteasilywith
existinglawsononlineintermediaries'liability.TheBitTorrentprotocolestablishedanentirelydecentralised
networkarchitectureinordertodistributelargefileseffectively.Recentdevelopmentsinpeertopeertechnology
towardsmorecomplexnetworkconfigurationsaresaidtohavebeendrivenbyadesiretoavoidliabilityas
intermediariesunderexistinglaws.[54]

Limitations
Copyrightlawdoesnotgrantauthorsandpublishersabsolutecontrolovertheuseoftheirwork.Onlycertaintypes
ofworksandcertainkindsofusesareprotected[55]onlyunauthorizedusesofprotectedworkscanbesaidtobe
infringing.

Noninfringinguses
Article10oftheBerneConventionmandatesthatnationallawsprovideforlimitationstocopyright,sothat
copyrightprotectiondoesnotextendtocertainkindsofusesthatfallunderwhatthetreatycalls"fairpractice,"
includingbutnotlimitedtominimalquotationsusedinjournalismandeducation.[56]Thelawsimplementingthese
limitationsandexceptionsforusesthatwouldotherwisebeinfringingbroadlyfallintothecategoriesofeitherfair
useorfairdealing.Incommonlawsystems,thesefairpracticestatutestypicallyenshrineprinciplesunderlying
manyearlierjudicialprecedents,andareconsideredessentialtofreedomofspeech.[57]
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Anotherexampleisthepracticeofcompulsorylicensing,whichiswherethelawforbidscopyrightownersfrom
denyingalicenseforcertainusesofcertainkindsofworks,suchascompilationsandliveperformancesofmusic.
Compulsorylicensinglawsgenerallysaythatforcertainusesofcertainworks,noinfringementoccursaslongasa
royalty,ataratedeterminedbylawratherthanprivatenegotiation,ispaidtothecopyrightownerorrepresentative
copyrightcollective.Somefairdealinglaws,suchasCanada's,includesimilarroyaltyrequirements.[58]
InEurope,thecopyrightinfringementcasePublicRelationsConsultantsAssociationLtdvNewspaperLicensing
AgencyLtdhadtwoprongsoneconcernedwhetheranewsaggregatorserviceinfringedthecopyrightofthenews
generatorstheotherconcernedwhetherthetemporarywebcachecreatedbythewebbrowserofaconsumerofthe
aggregator'sservice,alsoinfringedthecopyrightofthenewsgenerators.[59]Thefirstprongwasdecidedinfavor
ofthenewsgeneratorsinJune2014thesecondprongwasdecidedbytheCourtofJusticeoftheEuropeanUnion
(CJEU),whichruledthatthetemporarywebcacheofconsumersoftheaggregatordidnotinfringethecopyrightof
thenewsgenerators.[59][60][61]

Noninfringingtypesofworks
Inordertoqualifyforprotection,aworkmustbeanexpressionwithadegreeoforiginality,anditmustbeina
fixedmedium,suchaswrittendownonpaperorrecordeddigitally.[62][63]Theideaitselfisnotprotected.Thatis,a
copyofsomeoneelse'soriginalideaisnotinfringingunlessitcopiesthatperson'sunique,tangibleexpressionof
theidea.Someoftheselimitations,especiallyregardingwhatqualifiesasoriginal,areembodiedonlyincaselaw
(judicialprecedent),ratherthaninstatutes.
IntheU.S.,forexample,copyrightcaselawcontainsasubstantialsimilarityrequirementtodeterminewhetherthe
workwascopied.Likewise,courtsmayrequirecomputersoftwaretopassanAbstractionFiltrationComparison
test(AFCTest)[64][65]todetermineifitistooabstracttoqualifyforprotection,ortoodissimilartoanoriginalwork
tobeconsideredinfringing.SoftwarerelatedcaselawhasalsoclarifiedthattheamountofR&D,effortand
expenseputintoawork'screationdoesn'taffectcopyrightprotection.[66]
Evaluationofallegedcopyrightinfringementinacourtoflawmaybesubstantialthetimeandcostsrequiredto
applythesetestsvarybasedonthesizeandcomplexityofthecopyrightedmaterial.Furthermore,thereisno
standardoruniversallyacceptedtestsomecourtshaverejectedtheAFCTest,forexample,infavorofnarrower
criteria.
ThePOSARtest,[67]arecentlydevisedforensicprocedureforestablishingsoftwarecopyrightinfringementcases,
isanextensionoranenhancementoftheAFCtest.POSAR,withitsaddedfeaturesandadditionalfacilities,offers
somethingmoretothelegalandthejudicialdomainthanwhattheAFCtestoffers.Theseadditionalfeaturesand
facilitiesmakethetestmoresensitivetothetechnicalandlegalrequirementsofsoftwarecopyrightinfringement.

Preventativemeasures
TheBSAoutlinedfourstrategiesthatgovernmentscanadopttoreducesoftwarepiracyratesinits2011piracy
studyresults:
"IncreasepubliceducationandraiseawarenessaboutsoftwarepiracyandIPrightsincooperationwith
industryandlawenforcement."
"Modernizeprotectionsforsoftwareandothercopyrightedmaterialstokeeppacewithnewinnovationssuch
ascloudcomputingandtheproliferationofnetworkedmobiledevices."
"StrengthenenforcementofIPlawswithdedicatedresources,includingspecializedenforcementunits,
trainingforlawenforcementandjudiciaryofficials,improvedcrossbordercooperationamonglaw
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enforcementagencies,andfulfillmentofobligationsundertheWorldTradeOrganization'sAgreementon
TradeRelatedAspectsofIntellectualPropertyRights(TRIPS)."
"Leadbyexamplebyusingonlyfullylicensedsoftware,implementingsoftwareassetmanagement(SAM)
programs,andpromotingtheuseoflegalsoftwareinstateownedenterprises,andamongallcontractorsand
suppliers."[68]

Legal
Corporationsandlegislaturestakedifferenttypesofpreventativemeasurestodetercopyrightinfringement,with
muchofthefocussincetheearly1990sbeingonpreventingorreducingdigitalmethodsofinfringement.
Strategiesincludeeducation,civil&criminallegislation,andinternationalagreements,[69]aswellaspublicizing
antipiracylitigationsuccessesandimposingformsofdigitalmediacopyprotection,suchascontroversialDRM
technologyandanticircumventionlaws,whichlimittheamountofcontrolconsumershaveovertheuseof
productsandcontenttheyhavepurchased.
Legislatureshavereducedinfringementbynarrowingthescopeofwhatisconsideredinfringing.Asidefrom
upholdinginternationalcopyrighttreatyobligationstoprovidegenerallimitationsandexceptions,[56]nationshave
enactedcompulsorylicensinglawsapplyingspecificallytodigitalworksanduses.Forexample,intheU.S.,the
DMCA,animplementationofthe1996WIPOCopyrightTreaty,considersdigitaltransmissionsofaudio
recordingstobelicensedaslongasadesignatedcopyrightcollective'sroyaltyandreportingrequirementsare
met.[70]TheDMCAalsoprovidessafeharborfordigitalserviceproviderswhoseusersaresuspectedofcopyright
infringement,thusreducingthelikelihoodthattheprovidersthemselveswillbeconsidereddirectlyinfringing.[71]
Somecopyrightownersvoluntarilyreducethescopeofwhatisconsideredinfringementbyemployingrelatively
permissive,"open"licensingstrategies:ratherthanprivatelynegotiatinglicensetermswithindividualuserswho
mustfirstseekoutthecopyrightownerandaskforpermission,thecopyrightownerpublishesanddistributesthe
workwithapreparedlicensethatanyonecanuse,aslongastheyadheretocertainconditions.Thishastheeffect
ofreducinginfringementandtheburdenoncourtsbysimplypermittingcertaintypesofusesundertermsthat
thecopyrightownerconsidersreasonable.Examplesincludefreesoftwarelicenses,liketheGNUGeneralPublic
License(GPL),andtheCreativeCommonslicenses,whicharepredominantlyappliedtovisualandliterary
works.[72]

Protecteddistribution
Topreventpiracyoffilms,thestandarddrilloffilmdistributionistohaveamoviefirstreleasedthroughmovie
theaters(theatricalwindow),onaverageapproximately16andahalfweeks,[73]beforehavingitreleasedtoBlu
RayandDVD(enteringitsvideowindow).Duringthetheatricalwindow,digitalversionsoffilmsareoften
transportedindatastoragedevicesbycouriersratherthanbydatatransmission.[74]Thedatacanbeencrypted,with
thekeybeingmadetoworkonlyatspecifictimesinordertopreventleakagebetweenscreens.[74]CodedAnti
Piracymarkscanbeaddedtofilmstoidentifythesourceofillegalcopiesandshutthemdown.

Economicimpactofcopyrightinfringement
Organizationsdisagreeonthescopeandmagnitudeofcopyrightinfringement'sfreeridereconomiceffectsand
publicsupportforthecopyrightregime.
Inrelationtocomputersoftware,theBusinessSoftwareAlliance(BSA)claimedinits2011piracystudy:"Public
opinioncontinuestosupportintellectualproperty(IP)rights:SevenPCusersin10supportpayinginnovatorsto
promotemoretechnologicaladvances."[68]
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Followingconsultationwithexpertsoncopyrightinfringement,theUnitedStatesGovernmentAccountability
Office(GAO)clarifiedin2010that"estimatingtheeconomicimpactofIP[intellectualproperty]infringementsis
extremelydifficult,andassumptionsmustbeusedduetotheabsenceofdata,"while"itisdifficult,ifnot
impossible,toquantifytheneteffectofcounterfeitingandpiracyontheeconomyasawhole."[75]
TheU.S.GAO's2010findingsregardingthegreatdifficultyofaccuratelygaugingtheeconomicimpactof
copyrightinfringementwasreinforcedwithinthesamereportbythebody'sresearchintothreecommonlycited
estimatesthathadpreviouslybeenprovidedtoU.S.agencies.TheGAOreportexplainedthatthesourcesa
FederalBureauofInvestigation(FBI)estimate,aCustomsandBorderProtection(CBP)pressreleaseandaMotor
andEquipmentManufacturersAssociationestimate"cannotbesubstantiatedortracedbacktoanunderlyingdata
sourceormethodology."[75]
Deanerexplainedtheimportanceofrewardingthe"investmentrisk"takenbymotionpicturestudiosin2014:
Usuallymoviesarehotbecauseadistributorhasspenthundredsofthousandsofdollarspromotingthe
productinprintandTVandotherformsofadvertising.ThemajorHollywoodstudiosspendmillions
onthisprocesswithmarketingcostsrivallingthecostsofproduction.Theyareattemptingthento
monetisethroughreturnsthatcanjustifytheinvestmentinboththecostsofpromotionand
production.[4]

Motionpictureindustryestimates
In2008,theMotionPictureAssociationofAmerica(MPAA)reportedthatitssixmajormembercompanieslost
US$6.1billiontopiracy.[76]A2009LosAngelesDailyNewsarticlethencitedalossfigureof"roughly$20billion
ayear"forHollywoodstudios.[77]Accordingtoa2013WallStreetJournalarticle,industryestimatesintheUnited
Statesrangebetween$6.1Bto$18.5Bperyear.[78]
InanearlyMay2014Guardianarticle,anannuallossfigureofUS$20.5billionwascitedforthemovieindustry.
Thearticle'sbasisistheresultsofaUniversityofPortsmouthstudythatonlyinvolvedFinnishparticipants,aged
betweensevenand84.Theresearchers,whoworkedwith6,000participants,stated:"Moviepiratesarealsomore
likelytocutdowntheirpiracyiftheyfeeltheyareharmingtheindustrycomparedwithpeoplewhoillegally
downloadmusic".[18]

Softwareindustryestimates
Accordingtoa2007BSAandInternationalDataCorporation(IDC)study,thefivecountrieswiththehighestrates
ofsoftwarepiracywere:1.Armenia(93%)2.Bangladesh(92%)3.Azerbaijan(92%)4.Moldova(92%)and5.
Zimbabwe(91%).Accordingtothestudy'sresults,thefivecountrieswiththelowestpiracyrateswere:1.U.S.
(20%)2.Luxembourg(21%)3.NewZealand(22%)4.Japan(23%)and5.Austria(25%).The2007report
showedthattheAsiaPacificregionwasassociatedwiththehighestamountofloss,intermsofU.S.dollars,with
$14,090,000,followedbytheEuropeanUnion,withalossof$12,383,000thelowestamountofU.S.dollarswas
lostintheMiddleEast/Africaregion,where$2,446,000wasdocumented.[79]
Inits2011report,conductedinpartnershipwithIDCandIpsosPublicAffairs,theBSAstated:"Overhalfofthe
world'spersonalcomputerusers57percentadmittopiratingsoftware."Theninthannual"BSAGlobal
SoftwarePiracyStudy"claimsthatthe"commercialvalueofthisshadowmarketofpiratedsoftware"wasworth

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US$63.4billionin2011,withthehighestcommercialvalueofpiratedPCsoftwareexistentintheU.S.duringthat
timeperiod(US$9,773,000).Accordingtothe2011study,Zimbabwewasthenationwiththehighestpiracyrate,
at92%,whilethelowestpiracyratewaspresentintheU.S.,at19%.[68]
TheGAOnotedin2010thattheBSA'sresearchupuntilthatyeardefined"piracyasthedifferencebetweentotal
installedsoftwareandlegitimatesoftwaresold,anditsscopeinvolvedonlypackagedphysicalsoftware."[75]

Musicindustryestimates
In2007,theInstituteforPolicyInnovation(IPI)reportedthatmusicpiracytook$12.5billionfromtheU.S.
economy.Accordingtothestudy,musiciansandthoseinvolvedintherecordingindustryarenottheonlyoneswho
experiencelossesattributedtomusicpiracy.Retailershavelostoverabilliondollars,whilepiracyhasresultedin
46,000fewerproductionleveljobsandalmost25,000retailjobs.TheU.S.governmentwasalsoreportedtosuffer
frommusicpiracy,losing$422millionintaxrevenue.[80]
Areportfrom2013,releasedbytheEuropeanCommissionJointResearchCentresuggeststhatillegalmusic
downloadshavealmostnoeffectonthenumberoflegalmusicdownloads.Thestudyanalyzedthebehaviorof
16,000Europeanmusicconsumersandfoundthatalthoughmusicpiracynegativelyaffectsofflinemusicsales,
illegalmusicdownloadshadapositiveeffectonlegalmusicpurchases.Withoutillegaldownloading,legal
purchaseswereabouttwopercentlower.[81]
Thestudyhasreceivedcriticism,particularlyfromTheInternationalFederationofthePhonographicIndustry,
whichbelievesthestudyisflawedandmisleading.Oneargumentagainsttheresearchisthatmanymusic
consumersonlydownloadmusicillegally.TheIFPIalsopointsoutthatmusicpiracyaffectsnotonlyonlinemusic
salesbutalsomultiplefacetsofthemusicindustry,whichisnotaddressedinthestudy.[82]

Criticismofindustryestimates
Themethodologyofstudiesutilizedbyindustryspokespeoplehasbeenheavilycriticized.Inflatedclaimsfor
damagesandallegationsofeconomicharmarecommonincopyrightdisputes.[83][84]Somestudiesandfigures,
includingthosecitedbytheMPAAandRIAAwithregardstotheeconomiceffectsoffilmandmusicdownloads,
havebeenwidelydisputedasbasedonquestionableassumptionswhichresultedinstatisticallyunsound
numbers.[85][86]
Inoneextremeexample,theRIAAclaimeddamagesagainstLimeWiretotaling$75trillionmorethantheglobal
GDPand"respectfully"disagreedwiththejudge'srulingthatsuchclaimswere"absurd".[87]
However,this$75trillionfigureisobtainedthroughonespecificinterpretationofcopyrightlawthatwouldcount
eachsongdownloadedasaninfringementofcopyright.Aftertheconclusionofthecase,LimeWireagreedtopay
$105milliontoRIAA.[88]
Thejudicialsystemhasalsofoundflawsinindustryestimatesandcalculations.Inonedecision,USDistrictCourt
JudgeJamesP.Jonesfoundthatthe"RIAA'srequestproblematicallyassumesthateveryillegaldownloadresulted
inalostsale,"[89]indicatingprofitlossestimateswerelikelyextremelyoff.
Othercriticsofindustryestimatesarguethatthosewhousepeertopeersharingservices,orpractice"piracy"are
actuallymorelikelytopayformusic.AJupiterResearchstudyin2000foundthat"Napsteruserswere45percent
morelikelytohaveincreasedtheirmusicpurchasinghabitsthanonlinemusicfanswhodon'tusethesoftware
were."[90]Thisindicatedthatusersofpeertopeersharingdidn'thurttheprofitsofthemusicindustry,butinfact
mayhaveincreasedit.
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ProfessorAramSinnreich,inhisbookThePiracyCrusade,statesthattheconnectionbetweendecliningmusic
salesandthecreationofpeertopeerfilesharingsitessuchasNapsteristenuous,basedoncorrelationratherthan
causation.Hearguesthattheindustryatthetimewasundergoingartificialexpansion,whathedescribesasa
"'perfectbubble'aconfluenceofeconomic,political,andtechnologicalforcesthatdrovetheaggregatevalueof
musicsalestounprecedentedheightsattheendofthetwentiethcentury".
Sinnreichcitesmultiplecausesfortheeconomicbubble,includingtheCDformatreplacementcycletheshiftfrom
musicspecialtystorestowholesalesuppliersofmusicand'minimumadvertisedpricing'andtheeconomic
expansionof19912001.Hebelievesthatwiththeintroductionofnewdigitaltechnologies,thebubbleburst,and
theindustrysufferedasaresult.[91]

Economicimpactofinfringementinemergingmarkets
The2011BusinessSoftwareAlliancePiracyStudyStandard,estimatesthetotalcommercialvalueofillegally
copiedsoftwaretobeat$59billionin2010,withemergingmarketsaccountingfor$31.9billion,overhalfofthe
total.Furthermore,maturemarketsforthefirsttimereceivedlessPCshipmentsthanemergingeconomiesin2010,
makingemergingmarketsnowresponsibleformorethanhalfofallcomputersinuseworldwide.Inadditionwith
softwareinfringementratesof68percentcomparingto24percentofmaturemarkets,emergingmarketsthus
possessthemajorityoftheglobalincreaseinthecommercialvalueofcounterfeitsoftware.Chinacontinuesto
havethehighestcommercialvalueofsuchsoftwareat$8.9billionamongdevelopingcountriesandsecondinthe
worldbehindtheUSat$9.7billionin2011.[92][93]In2011,theBusinessSoftwareAllianceannouncedthat83
percentofsoftwaredeployedonPCsinAfricahasbeenpirated(excludingSouthAfrica).[94]
Somecountriesdistinguishcorporatepiracyfromprivateuse,whichistoleratedasawelfareservice.Thisisthe
leadingreasondevelopingcountriesrefusetoacceptorrespectcopyrightlaws.TraianBsescu,thepresidentof
Romania,statedthat"piracyhelpedtheyounggenerationdiscovercomputers.ItsetoffthedevelopmentoftheIT
industryinRomania."[95]

Proopencultureorganizations
FreeSoftwareFoundation(FSF)
ElectronicFrontierFoundation(EFF)
CreativeCommons(CC)
DemandProgress
FightfortheFuture
PirateParty

Anticopyrightinfringementorganizations
BusinessSoftwareAlliance(BSA)
CanadianAllianceAgainstSoftwareTheft(CAAST)
EntertainmentSoftwareAssociation(ESA)
FederationAgainstSoftwareTheft(FAST)
InternationalIntellectualPropertyAlliance(IIPA)
AssociationFortheProtectionOfInternetCopyright(APIC)
CopyrightAlliance
FairUseProtectionAssociation(FUPA)

Seealso
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Abandonware
InreAimsterCopyright
Litigation
Antipiracy
Australiancopyrightlaw
Bootlegrecording
CenterforCopyright
Information
Comparisonofanti
plagiarismsoftware
ComputerAssociatesInt.Inc.
v.AltaiInc.
Copyfraud
Copyleft
Copyrightaspectsof
downloadingandstreaming
Copyright,Designsand
PatentsAct1988
Copyrightedcontentonfile
sharingnetworks
FairUse

FBI
FederationAgainstCopyright
Theft(FACT)
ImmigrationandCustoms
Enforcement(ICE)
IFPI(InternationalFederation
ofthePhonographicIndustry)
Intellectualproperty
infringementinthePeople's
RepublicofChina
InternetPrivacyAct
Jacobsenv.Katzer
Legalaspectsofcopyright
infringement
MissionaryChurchof
Kopimism
Musicpiracy
OnlineCopyright
InfringementLiability
LimitationActintheUnited
States

OpenLettertoHobbyists
Piratedmoviereleasetypes
Plagiarism
Productactivation
Publicdomain
Radiomusicripping
Softwarecopyright
Tradegroupeffortsagainst
filesharing
TransPacificPartnership
TransPacificPartnership
IntellectualProperty
Provisions
Warez
WindowsGenuineAdvantage
WorldAntiPiracy
Observatory(WAPO)

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Furtherreading
Hamerman,Sarah(September11,2015)."PIRATELIBRARIESandthefightforopeninformation".The
Media.
Horten,Monica(2012).TheCopyrightEnforcementEnigmaInternetPoliticsandtheTelecomsPackage.
PalgraveMacmillan.ISBN9780230321717.
Johns,Adrian(2009).Piracy.TheIntellectualPropertyWarsfromGutenbergtoGates.TheUniversityof
ChicagoPress.ISBN9780226401188.
Karaganis,Joe,ed.(2011).MediaPiracyinEmergingEconomies.SocialScienceResearchCouncil.
ISBN9780984125746.
Rosen,Ronald(2008).MusicandCopyright.OxfordOxfordshire:OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN019
5338367.

Externallinks
CopyrightAlliance(https://www.copyrightalliance.org/),Nonprofit
BewareofPirates!HowtoAvoidBootlegBluraysandDVDs(http://www.brentonfilm.com/articles/beware
ofpirateshowtoavoidbootlegbluraysanddvds)articleatBrentonFilm(http://www.brentonfilm.com/)
VideographersuesNCoverrightstoBlackbeardshipwreckfootage(http://www.newsobserver.com/news/loc
al/article47647130.html),News&Observer
PhotographersuingstateoverBlackbeardshipwreckfootage(http://www.wral.com/photographersuingstate
overblackbeardshipwreckfootage/15150138/),WRALTV
Blackbeard'sLawwouldclarifycontrolofmediarightstoshipwrecks(http://www.greensboro.com/news/bla
ckbeardslawwouldclarifycontrolofmediarightsto/article_cdb0e03d0306588d8278c87d8df12cf7.ht
ml),News&Record
LawmakersenterlegalbattleoverBlackbeard'sship(http://www.newsobserver.com/news/state/northcarolin
a/article29437363.html),News&Observer
ControversyOverBlackbeard'sQueenAnne'sRevengeContinues(http://publicradioeast.org/post/controvers
yoverblackbeardsqueenannesrevengecontinues),PublicRadioEast
BattleOverShipwreckPhotosBrewsinN.C.(http://www.courthousenews.com/2015/08/12/battleovership
wreckphotosbrewsinnc.htm),CourthouseNews
PlunderdisputesplaguethewreckofBlackbeard'sship(http://www.soundingsonline.com/features/indepth/
294588plunderdisputesplaguethewreckofblackbeardsship),Soundings
PhotographersuesGettyImagesfor$1billionaftershe'sbilledforherownphoto(http://www.latimes.com/b
usiness/hiltzik/lafihiltzikgettycopyright20160729snapstory.html),L.A.Times
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_infringement

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