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Chapter 1


An Embedded System employs a combination of hardware and software to

perform a specific function. Software is used for providing features and flexibility
hardware (Processors, Memory) is used for performance and sometimes security. An
embedded system is a special purpose system in which the computer is completely
encapsulated by the device it controls. Unlike a general purpose computer, such as a
PC, an embedded system performs predefined tasks usually with very specific tasks
design engineers can optimize it reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded
systems are often mass produced, so the cost savings may be multiplied by millions of
items. The core of any embedded system is formed by one or several microprocessor
or microcontroller programmed to perform a small number of tasks. In contrast to a
general purpose computer, which can run any software application, the user chooses,
the software on an embedded system is semi-permanent so it is often called firmware.


The objective of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable

fault from base station in kilometres. The underground cable system is a common
practice followed in many urban areas. While a fault occurs for some reason, at that
time the repairing process related to that particular cable is difficult due to not
knowing the exact location of the cable fault. The proposed system is to find the
exact location of the fault.
The project uses the standard concept of the Ohms law i.e., when a low DC
voltage is applied at the feeder end through a series resistor (Cable lines), then current
would vary depending upon the location of the fault in the cable.


Problem Specification
All the transmission lines are laid underground as the underground cables are

not affected by the adverse weather conditions. Neither the hot sunny day nor the rain
is to influence it. But when the cable breaks due to some reasons its very difficult to
locate that. Currently what is done is they find the approximate location and dig the
cables out from the location and check it manually to find the exact point of
discontinuity. This method is very tedious and most of the labour is involved.



A journal published in International Journal of Innovations in Engineering

Research and Technology (IJIERT) which is the basis of our project and we checked
the details of the journal which gave the thought to implement in real time. We
performed the survey on how the today underground cable fault is detected and
corrected, which can be done easily by implementing this project. So we decided to
do this project to minimize the cost at least to a certain extent.


Layout of thesis

Chapter 1 describes the about the basic information, objectives, problem

specification and methodologies of the Project.

Chapter 2 describes the literature survey.
Chapter 3 described about the details of the Hardware used, block diagrams,

circuit diagrams and mapping.

Chapter 4 tells about the Hardware Implementation of the components used.
Chapter 5 tells about the Conclusion and the future scope of the proposed

Chapter 2

In electrical utilities, transmission lines form the backbone of power systems.
With regard to reliability and maintenance costs of power delivery, accurate fault
location for transmission lines is of vital importance in restoring power services and
reducing outage time as much as possible. Accurately locating faults on high voltage
transmission networks is very important for utilities to allow a quick maintenance
action of the repair crew.

Till the last decade the cables where made to lay overhead and currently the
scenario is to lay underground cable, which is superior to the earlier method. This is
because the underground cables are not affected by the adverse weather conditions.
Neither the hot sunny day nor the rain is to influence it. But when the cable breaks
due to some reasons its very difficult to locate that. Currently what is done is they
find the approximate location and dig the cables out from the location and check it
manually to find the exact point of discontinuity.
Fault location detection is finding exact fault position of cable when there
were any unwanted accidents like short circuit, open circuit, insulation breakdown etc.
Because of large damage and inference of power cable accident, power authorities
want to have exact fault detection method to recover power lines as soon as possible.
Various methods have been developed to reduce damage and inference. Bust most of
fault detection methods have shortcomings. Some have low accuracy, some are
difficult to apply because of surrounding environment, and some give unwanted
damage to healthy neighbouring cable and facilities.
Among these methods, pulse echoing method[1] is regarded as most useful

This method use time difference between incident and reflected pulse to

calculate fault location detection and it has relatively high accuracy because it use
short period pulse. Although it has high accuracy, pulse echoing method has some
drawbacks. When we apply this method to low impedance accident, the error will be
increased. If cable is not open circuit and there is no impedance change, there are no
reflected pulse waves, and it is difficult to find fault location. Also high voltage pulse
generator is needed for pulse echoing method and it is one of its drawbacks. To make
high voltage pulse generator one should pay another money, and inserting high
voltage to cable can cause another damage to cable and facilities. It is usually applied
to detect fault location after accident arises and this way need more time to repair.
Now the world has become digitalized so the project is intended to detect the
location of fault in digital way. The underground cable system is more common
practice followed in many urban areas. While fault occurs for some reason, at that
time the repairing process related to that Fault in cable is represented as :

Any defect,
Weakness or non-homogeneity that affect performance of cable,
Current is diverted from the intended path,
Caused by breaking of conductor or failure of insulation.



Cable faults can be categorized into three main types :

1. Open Conductor Fault
2. Shorted Fault
3. High Impedance Fault

2.1.1. Open Conductor Fault

An Open Conductor Fault is where the conductor of a cable is completely
broken or interrupted at the location of the cable fault. It is possible to have a high
resistance shunted faults (to ground) on one or both sides of the faulted conductors

2.1.2. Shorted Fault

A Shorted Fault is characterized by a low resistance continuity path to ground
(shunted fault). The resistance from the conductor to ground is lower than the surge
impedance of the cable for a shorted low resistance fault.

2.1.3. High Impedance Fault

A High Impedance Fault contains a resistive path to ground (shunted fault)
that is large in comparison to the cables surge impedance. This fault type may also
demonstrate non-linear resistive characteristics which allow the apparent resistance to
vary with the level of applied voltage or current.

Chapter 3

The Hardware consists of

Voltage Regulator
Analog to Digital Converter
Relay Driver
LCD Display
GSM Module



Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with a little
loss of power. Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce
voltage. Most power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously
high voltage to a safer low voltage.


The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary.
There is no electrical connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an
alternating magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two
lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core. Transformers waste very

little power so the power out is (almost) equal to the power in. Note that as voltage is
stepped down and current is stepped up.
The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turns ratio,
determines the ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of
turns on its primary (input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply,
and a small number of turns on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output
TURNS RATIO = (Vp / Vs) = ( Np / Ns )
Vp = primary (input) voltage.
Vs = secondary (output) voltage
Np = number of turns on primary coil
Ns = number of turns on secondary coil
Ip = primary (input) current
Is = secondary (output) current.


The Features of Voltage Regulator are

Output Current up to 1A.

Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V.
Thermal Overload Protection.
Short Circuit Protection.
Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection.


The LM78XX/LM78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulators are
available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages,
making them useful in a Wide range of applications. Each type employs internal
current limiting, thermal shutdown and safe operating area protection, making it
essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over
1A output Current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these
devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and


78XX series ICs do not require additional components to provide a constant,
regulated source power, making them easy to use, as well as economical and efficient
used of space. Other voltage regulators may require additional components to set the
output voltage level, or to assist in the regulation process. Some other designs may
need engineering expertise to implement.

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which
periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), current that flows in only one
direction, a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as
components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be
made of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other
components. The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C.
into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this
project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave
rectification. In positive half cycle only two diodes (1 set of parallel diodes) will
conduct, in negative half cycle remaining two diodes will conduct and they will
conduct only in forward bias only.


Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output
of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until
the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is

varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at
the output stage.
The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. The
use of this filter is very limited. It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage, lowcurrent power supplies for cathode-ray and similar electron tubes that require very
little load current from the supply. This filter is also used in circuits where the powersupply ripple frequency is not critical and can be relatively high. Below figure can
show how the capacitor changes and discharges.


A Microcontroller is
circuit containing

small computer (SoC)





single integrated



input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of Ferroelectric RAM, NOR

flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount
of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to
the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications
consisting of various discrete chips.
Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices,
such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote
controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems.
By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate

microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it

economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed
signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control
non-digital electronic systems.
Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at frequencies as
low as 4 kHz, for low power consumption (single-digit milliwatts or microwatts).
They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event
such as a button press or other interrupt; power consumption while sleeping (CPU
clock and most peripherals off) may be just nanowatts, making many of them well
suited for long lasting battery applications. Other microcontrollers may serve
performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like a digital signal
processor (DSP), with higher clock speeds and power consumption.


Optimized 8 bit CPU for control applications.

Extensive Boolean processing capabilities.
64K Program Memory address space.
4K byte of ROM.
128 bytes of on chip Data Memory.
32 Bi-directional and individually addressable I/O lines.
Two 16 bit timer/counters.
Full Duplex UART.
5-vector interrupts structure with priority levels.
On chip clock oscillator.


In the Literature discussing microprocessors, we often see the term Embedded
System. Microprocessors and Microcontrollers are widely used in embedded system
products. An embedded system product uses a microprocessor (or Microcontroller) to
do one task only. A printer is an example of embedded system since the processor
inside it performs one task only; namely getting the data and printing it. Contrast this
with a Pentium based PC. A PC can be used for any number of applications such as
word processor, print-server, bank teller terminal, Video game, network server, or
Internet terminal. Software for a variety of applications can be loaded and run. of
course the reason a pc can perform myriad tasks is that it has RAM memory and an
operating system that loads the application software into RAM memory and lets the
CPU run it[3].

In an Embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically

burned into ROM. An x86 PC contains or is connected to various embedded products
such as keyboard, printer, modem, disk controller, sound card, CD-ROM drives,
mouse, and so on. Each one of these peripherals has a Microcontroller inside it that
performs only one task. For example, inside every mouse there is a Microcontroller
to perform the task of finding the mouse position and sending it to the PC.



All four ports in the 80C51 are bidirectional. Each consists of a latch (Special
Function Registers P0 through P3), an output driver, and an input buffer. The output
drivers of Ports 0 and 2, and the input buffers of Port 0, are used in accesses to
external memory. In this application, Port 0 outputs the low byte of the external
memory address, time-multiplexed with the byte being written or read. Port 2 outputs
the high byte of the external memory address when the address is 16 bits wide.
Otherwise, the Port 2 pins continue to emit the P2 SFR content.
All the Port 3 pins are multifunctional. They are not only port pins, but also
serve the functions of various special features as listed below:
Port Pin Alternate Function:P3.0 RxD (serial input port)
P3.1 TxD (serial output port)
P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt)

P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt)

P3.4 T0 (Timer/Counter 0 external input)
P3.5 T1 (Timer/Counter 1 external input)
P3.6 WR (external Data Memory write strobe)
P3.7 RD (external Data Memory read strobe)
The alternate functions can only be activated if the corresponding bit latch in the port
SFR contains a 1. Otherwise the port pin remains at 0.


There are many methods to convert analog signals to digital signals. These
converters find more applications as an intermediate device to convert the signals
from analog to digital form, displays output on LCD through a microcontroller. The
objective of an A/D converter is to determine the output signal word corresponding to
an analog signal. Now we are going to see an ADC of 0804. It is an 8-bit converter
with 5V of power supply. It can take only one analog signal as input.
The digital output varies from 0-255. ADC needs a clock to operate. The time
taken to convert the analog to digital value depends on the clock source. An external
clock can be given to CLK IN pin no.4. A suitable RC circuit is connected between
the clock IN and clock R pins to use the internal clock. Pin2 is the input pin High to
low pulse brings the data from internal register to the output pins after conversion.
Pin3 is a Write Low to high pulse is given to external clock. Pin11 to 18 are data
pins from MSB to LSB. The Features of the Analog to Digital Converter are given

Compatible with 8080- Microprocessor Derivatives No Interfacing Logic

Needed Access Time 135 ns.

Easy interface to all microprocessors, or Operates as a Stand-Alone Device.
Differential Analog Voltage Inputs.
Logic Inputs and Outputs Meet Both MOS and TTL Voltage Level

Works with 2.5 V (LM336) Voltage Reference on Chip Clock Generator.
0 V to 5 V Analog Input Voltage Range with Single 5 V Supply.
No Zero Adjust Required.
0.3 Inch Standard width 20 Pin DIP Package.
20 Pin Molded Chip Carrier or Small Outline Package.
Operates Rationmetrically or With 5 VDC , 2.5 VDC or Analog Span Adjusted

Voltage Reference.
Key Specifications
o Resolution : 8 Bits
o Total Error : 1/4 LSB, 1/2 LSB and 1 LSB
o Conversion Time : 100 s

The ADC0801, ADC0802, ADC0803, ADC0804 and ADC0805 devices are
CMOS 8-bit successive approximation converters (ADC) that use a differential
potentiometric ladder similar to the 256R products. These converters are designed
to allow operation with the NSC800 and INS8080A derivative control bus with Tristate output latches directly driving the data bus. These ADCs appear like memory
locations or I/O ports to the microprocessor and no interfacing logic is needed.
Differential analog voltage inputs allow increasing the common-mode
rejection and offsetting the analog zero input voltage value. In addition, the voltage
reference input can be adjusted to allow encoding any smaller analog voltage span to
the full 8 bits of resolution.





ULN2003 is a high voltage and high current Darlington transistor array. The
ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays.
It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that feature high-voltage outputs with
common-cathode Clamp diode for switching inductive loads. The collector-current
rating of a single Darlington pair is 500mA. The Darlington pairs may be paralleled
for higher current capability. Applications include relay drivers, hammer drivers, lamp
drivers, display drivers (LED gas discharge), line drivers, and logic buffers.
The ULN2003 has a 2.7kW series base resistor for each Darlington pair for
operation directly with TTL or 5V CMOS devices.

FIG. 3.8. ULN 2003


Pin no.16
Temperature, Operating Range:-20C to +85C
Transistor Polarity: NPN
Transistors, No. of:7
Case Style:DIP-16
Temp, Op. Min:-20C

Temp, Op. Max:85C

Base Number:2003
Channels, No. of:7
Current, Output Max:500mA
Device Marking:ULN2003A
IC Generic Number:2003
Input Type: TTL, CMOS 5V
Logic Function Number:2003
Output Type: Open Collector
Transistor Type: Power Darlington
Voltage, Input Max:5V
Voltage, Output Max:50V

FIG. 3.9. PIN




Seven Darlingtons per package

Output currents500mA per driver(600mA peak)
Integrated suppression diodes for inductive loads
Outputs can be paralleled for high currents
TTL/CMOS/PMOS/DTL compatible inputs.
Inputs pinned opposite to outputs
Simplified layout

3.7. RELAY
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to
operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also
used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal
(with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where
several circuits must be controlled by one signal.


FIG. 3.10. RELAY

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of
the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch
contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and
most have double throw (changeover) switch contacts as shown in the diagram.


Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely
separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to
switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay
between the two circuits; the link is magnetic and mechanical.
The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V
relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower
voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used
to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The
maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can
supply relay coils directly without amplification.
Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of
switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily

available. For further information about switch contacts and the terms used to
describe them please see the page on switches.
Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly
to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay.
The supplier's catalogue should show you the relay's connections. The coil
will be obvious and it may be connected either way round. Relay coils produce brief
high voltage 'spikes' when they are switched off and this can destroy transistors and
ICs in the circuit. To prevent damage you must connect a protection diode across the
relay coil.
The figure shows a relay with its coil and switch contacts. You can see a lever
on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever
moves the switch contacts.


There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and another behind
them, making the relay DPDT.
The relay's switch connections are usually labelled COM, NC and NO:

COM = Common, always connect to this; it is the moving part of the switch.
NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off.
NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.

3.7.1. Applications of relays

Relays are used to and for:

Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of

modems or audio amplifiers.

Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter

solenoid of an automobile.
Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening

and closing circuit breakers.

Time delay functions. Relays can be modified to delay opening or delay
closing a set of contacts. A very short (a fraction of a second) delay would use a


copper disk between the armature and moving blade assembly. Current flowing in
the disk maintains magnetic field for a short time, lengthening release time. For a
slightly longer (up to a minute) delay, a dashpot is used. A dashpot is a piston
filled with fluid that is allowed to escape slowly. The time period can be varied
by increasing or decreasing the flow rate. For longer time periods, a mechanical
clockwork timer is installed.


It is very important to keep a track of the working of almost all the automated
and semi-automated devices, be it a washing machine, an autonomous robot or
anything else. This is achieved by displaying their status on a small display module.
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is such a display module and a 16x2 LCD
module is very commonly used. These modules are replacing seven segments and
other multi segment LEDs for these purposes. The reasons being: LCDs are
economical, easily programmable, have no limitation of displaying special & even
custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on. LCD can be
easily interfaced with a microcontroller to display a message or status of a device.
This topic explains the basics of a 16x2 LCD and how it can be interfaced with
AT89C51 to display a character.
A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such
lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two
1. Command/Instruction Register- stores the command instructions given to the
LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like
initializing, clearing the screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc.
2. Data Register- stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII
value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.


LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a
wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very

commonly used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred over
seven segments and other multi segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are
economical; easily programmable; have no limitation of displaying special & even
custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on.
1. A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such
lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has
two registers, namely, Command and Data.
2. The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A
command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing
it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data
register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of
the character to be displayed on the LCD.



GSM/GPRS module is used to establish communication between a computer
and a GSM-GPRS system. Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an
architecture used for mobile communication in most of the countries. Global Packet
Radio Service (GPRS) is an extension of GSM that enables higher data transmission
rate. GSM/GPRS module consists of a GSM/GPRS modem assembled together with
power supply circuit and communication interfaces (like RS-232, USB, etc) for
computer. The MODEM is the soul of such modules.


GSM/GPRS MODEM is a class of wireless MODEM devices that are

designed for communication of a computer with the GSM and GPRS network. It
requires a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card just like mobile phones to activate
communication with the network. Also they have IMEI (International Mobile
Equipment Identity) number similar to mobile phones for their identification. A
GSM/GPRS MODEM can perform the following operations:

Receive, send or delete SMS messages in a SIM.

Read, add, search phonebook entries of the SIM.
Make, Receive, or reject a voice call.

The MODEM needs AT commands, for interacting with processor or controller,

which are communicated through serial communication [6]. These commands are sent
by the controller/processor. The MODEM sends back a result after it receives a
command. Different AT commands supported by the MODEM can be sent by the
processor/controller/computer to interact with the GSM and GPRS cellular network.


Chapter 4


The project uses the simple concept of OHMs law where a low DC voltage is
applied at the feeder end through a series resistor. The current would vary depending
upon the length of fault of the cable in case there is a short circuit of LL or 3L or LG
etc. The series resistor voltage drop changes accordingly which is then fed to an ADC
to develop precise digital data which the programmed microcontroller would display
the same in Kilo meters. The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing
cable length in KMs and fault creation is made by a set of switches at every known
KM to cross check the accuracy of the same.
This is proposed model of underground cable fault distance locator using
microcontroller. It is classified in four parts DC power supply part ,cable part,
controlling part, display part[7]. DC power supply part consist of ac supply of 230v is
stepdown using transformer, bridge rectifier converts ac signal to dc & regulator is
used to produce constant dc voltage. The cable part is denoted by set of resistors along
with switches. Current sensing part of cable represented as set of resistors &switches
are used as fault creators to indicate the fault at each location. This part senses the
change in current by sensing the voltage drop. Next is controlling part which consist
of analog to digital convertor which receives input from the current sensing circuit,
converts this voltage into digital signal and feeds the microcontroller with the signal.
The microcontroller also forms part of the controlling unit which is programmed with
the help of Keil Software and makes necessary calculations regarding the distance of
the fault. The microcontroller also drives a relay driver which in turn controls the
switching of a set of relays for proper connection of the cable at each phase. The
display part consists of the LCD display interfaced to the microcontroller which
shows the status of the cable of each phase and the distance of the cable at the
particular phase, in case of any fault. The same is conveyed through SMS using GSM
Module which is interfaced with the Microcontroller at one of the output port.


Chapter 5


By implementing this system the underground cable fault detection is possible
which decreases the human labour, cost and time. The project is capable of showing
the distance from the source to the fault location distance in kilometres on the LCD
module which is again conveyed through the SMS through GSM module. Also as a
future scope it can be combined with different technologies for the detection of the
fault in the different types of cables.


In future we have a tendency to detect the location of the open circuit fault by
using capacitor in ac circuit which measures the change in impedance and calculate
the distance of fault.

Chapter 6


Cable Fault Monitoring and Indication : A Review International Journal of


Computer Science and Network, Volume 2, Issue 4, August 2013.

B. Clegg, Underground Cable Fault Location, New York : McGraw Hill,


M.S. Choi, D.S. Lee and X. Yang, A line to ground fault location algorithm
for underground cable system, KIEE Trans. Power Eng., pp. 267-273, June


Md. Fakhrul Islam, Amanullah M T Oo, Salahuddin. A. Azad, Locating
Underground Cable Faults : A Review and Guideline for New Development,


2013 IEEE.
T.S. Sidhu and Z. Xu, Detection of Incipient Faults in Distribution
Underground Cables, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 25, No.3,


July 2010.
K.K. Kuan, Prof. K. Warwick, Real-time expert system for fault location on
high voltage underground distribution cables, IEEE PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol.


139, No. 3, May 1992.

Underground Cable Fault Distance Locator International Journal of
Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology (IJIERT), ISSN : 23943696, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2015.