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English worksheet no 5

Module 4 The media and global communication

VERB TENSES:
Simple Present, Present Continuous, Simple Past, Past
Continuous,
Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous

Simple Present
We use the Simple Present to:
- describe routines and regular/habitual actions or permanent states;
- express a present state or a truth (scientific actions or facts).
To form the affirmative form we use the infinitive without to (love)
and to form the 3rd person singular in the affirmative form we add s but:

Expressions used:
always
often
never
rarely

usually
sometimes
frequently
every

- vowel + y - add s
- consonant + y - i and add es
- o, ss, sh, ch, x - add es

In the negative and interrogative we use the auxiliary To do, in the Simple Present (do or does):
Affirmative
subject + main verb
I work
You work
He / She / It works
We work
You work
They work

Negative
subject + auxiliary (neg) + main verb
(don't / doesn't) (infinitive)
I don't work
You don't work
He / She / It doesn't work
We don't work
You don't work
They don't work

Interrogative
auxiliary verb + subject + main verb ?
(do / does)
(infinitive)
Do I work?
Do you work?
Does he / she / it work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?

Present Continuous
We use the Present Continuous to:
- describe actions happening now (at the moment of speaking);
- describe repeated and annoying actions;
- express fixed arrangements in the near future (arranged previously).

Expressions used:
now
at the/this moment
this at present tomorrow

To form the affirmative, negative and interrogative forms we use the auxiliary To be, in the Simple
Present, and the gerund of the main verb (infinitive + ing):
Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

subject + auxiliary + main verb subject + auxiliary (neg) + main verb auxiliary verb + subj. + main verb ?
(am/are/is) (gerund)
(am/are/is not) (gerund)
(am/are/is)
(gerund)
I am working
You are working
He / She / It is working
We are working
You are working
They are working

I'm not working


You aren't working
He / She / It isn't working
We aren't working
You aren't working
They aren't working

Am I working?
Are you working?
Is he / she / it working?
Are we working?
Are you working?
Are they working?

Simple Past
We use the Simple Past to:
- talk about past actions, finished at a definite time;
- describe regular actions in the past;
- express something that you think is unlikely to happen.

Expressions used:
yesterday
ago
last

To form the affirmative form we have to make a distinction between regular and irregular verbs:

Regular verbs:

Irregular verbs:

- add ed to the infinitive but:


- ending in e - add d only
- vowel + y - add ed
- consonant + y - i and add ed

(2nd column of the list)

In the negative and interrogative forms we use the auxiliary To do, in the Simple Past (did), both for
regular and irregular verbs:
Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

subject + main verb

subject + auxiliary (neg) + main verb


(didn't)
(infinitive)

auxiliary verb + subject + main verb ?


(did)
(infinitive)

I worked / came
You worked
He / She / It worked
We worked
You worked
They worked

I didn't work / come


You didn't work
He / She / It didn't work
We didn't work
You didn't work
They didn't work

Did I work / come?


Did you work?
Did he / she / it work?
Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?

Past Continuous
Expressions used:
when

while

She was sleeping when the accident happened.


While she was sleeping, the accident happened.

We use the Past Continuous to:


- describe an action happening at a particular time in the past;
- describe actions taking place at the same time in the past;
- describe an event which was happening when another one happened (the action in course was
interrupted by another one in the past)
(something was happening when something else happened // while something was happening something else happened) .

To form the affirmative, negative and interrogative forms we use the auxiliary To be, in the Simple
Past, and the gerund of the main verb (infinitive + ing):
Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

subject + auxiliary + main verb subject + auxiliary (neg) + main verb


(was/were) (gerund)
(was/were not) (gerund)

auxiliary verb + subj. + main verb ?


(was/were)
(gerund)

I was working
You were working
He / She / It was working
We were working
You were working
They were working

Was I working?
Were you working?
Was he / she / it working?
Were we working?
Were you working?
Were they working?

I wasn't working
You weren't working
He / She / It wasn't working
We weren't working
You weren't working
They weren't working

Present Perfect
We use the Present Perfect to:
- describe actions which started in the past and continue to the present, with results in the present.
Ex: I have eaten eggs for breakfast since I was a child. Wheres the key? I dont know. Ive lost it. (I havent got it now.)

talk about a recent action.


Ex: The road is closed. There has been an accident.

Expressions used:

Still (at agora) - negative sentences


(between the subject and the auxiliary verb)

ever (alguma vez)

Yet (ainda) - negative and interrogative sentences

just (h pouco tempo/mesmo agora)

(at the end of the sentence)

already

Already (j) - affirmative and interrogative sentences


(between the auxiliary verb and the main verb)

For - + a period of time (durante/h)

since

Since - + a point in time (desde)

yet
for

never

still
this

To form the affirmative, negative and interrogative forms we use the auxiliary To have, in the Simple
Present, and the past participle (3rd column (irregular verbs) or ed (regular verbs)):
Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

subject + auxiliary + main verb subject + auxiliary (neg) + main verb auxiliary verb + subj. + main verb ?
(has/have) (p.p.)
(has/have not) (p.p.)
(has/have)
(p.p.)
I have worked
You have worked
He / She / It has worked
We have worked
You have worked
They have worked

I haven't worked
You haven't worked
He / She / It hasn't worked
We haven't worked
You haven't worked
They haven't worked

Have I worked?
Have you worked?
Has he / she / it worked?
Have we worked?
Have you worked?
Have they worked?

Present Perfect Continuous


We use the Present Perfect Continuous to:
- describe an action which ended recently, with a close relation to the present time;
Ex: Youre out of breath. Have you been running? (you are out of breath now)
- Is it raining? - No, but the ground is wet. It has been raining.

describe actions which started in the past and are still happening.
Ex: Where have you been? I have been looking for you for an hour.
It is raining now. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining. It has been raining for two hours.

The Present Perfect Continuous is usually used with for and since to describe repeated actions, expressing anger or criticism.
Since(desde)
For (h)
two hours
a week
8 oclock
1977
20 minutes
50 years
Monday
Christmas
five days
a long time
12 May
lunchtime
six months
ages
April
he was at school

To form the affirmative, negative and interrogative forms we use the auxiliary To have, in the Simple
Present, plus the past participle of the verb To be (been) and the main verb in the gerund (-ing):
Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

subject + auxiliary + been + main verb


(has/have) (p.p. to be) (ing)

Subj. + auxiliary in the neg.+ been + main


verb
(hasnt/havent) (p.p. to be) (ing)

auxiliary verb + subj.+ been + main verb?


(has/have)
(p.p. to be) (ing)

I have been working


You have been working
He / She / It has been working
We have been working
You have been working
They have been working

I haven't been working


You haven't been working
He / She / It hasn't been working
We haven't been working
You haven't been working
They haven't been working

Have I been working?


Have you been working?
Has he / she / it been working?
Have we been working?
Have you been working?
Have they been working?

Has Painted is the present perfect simple.


The action is finished. We are interested in the result of the action, not in the action itself.
Ex: The ceiling was white. Now it is blue. Ann has painted the ceiling.
Has been painting is the present perfect continuous.
We are interested in the action. It doesnt matter if the action was finished or not, but it is usually unfinished.
Ex: Anns clothes are covered in paint. She has been painting the ceiling.