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Lect. univ. drd. Elena NISTOR

LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

Anul III

Materialele documentare consultate pentru elaborarea lucrării de faţă au fost puse la dispoziţie de Centrul de Informare şi Documentare al Organizaţiei Naţiunilor Unite la Bucureşti.

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Acest manual urmăreşte instruirea cursanţilor în domeniul cunoaşterii unor noţiuni

detaliate privind lexicul limbii engleze, avându-se în vedere dezvoltarea aptitudinilor de comunicare verbală şi scrisă. Scopul final vizează capacitatea cursanţilor:

- de a înţelege şi interpreta informaţii detaliate din domeniul comunicaţiilor;

- de a exprima opinii personale, utilizând un vocabular adecvat;

- de a redacta texte argumentative pe o temă dată.

Testele de verificare din cadrul unităţilor de studiu, precum şi Testul final urmăresc, de asemenea, evaluarea cunoştinţelor acumulate de cursant pe parcursul procesului de învăţare.

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C O N T E N T S

UNIT 1. Telephone

UNIT 2. Computer

UNIT 3. Letter Writing (I): Personal and Private Letters

UNIT 4. Letter Writing (II): Business and Commercial Correspondence

UNIT 5. Composition Tips

UNIT 6. Curriculum Vitae

UNIT 7. Application Forms

UNIT 8. Job Interviews

Evaluation Test

Basic English Vocabulary

Main Irregular Verbs

List of Common Abbreviations

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UNIT 1 TELEPHONE

Obiective: După parcurgerea şi studiul acestui capitol, cursantul este în măsură:

- să rezume, utilizând propriile cunoştinţe lexicale şi gramaticale, un text pe o temă dată;

- să folosească elemente de vocabular din domeniul respectiv în diferite contexte;

- să susţină o conversaţie telefonică în limba engleză.

Key words: to quadruple, aversion, confidence, to get flustered, routine, role-playing, tip, abrasive, to rehearse, beforehand

Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of the text:

How many people can put their hand on their heart and say that it has not quadrupled its beat at the prospect of making a phone call? According to experts in management and business skills, an aversion to the telephone is a common office problem. Telephone confidence, they say, is a special skill which can come only with lots of practice. Dick LeHunt, of Inbucon, who designs and runs training programmes for individual companies, says, ”Many people get flustered when making even routine calls, so we use role-playing to help employees practise and improve their telephone manner”. Dick always begins with the basic tips which are essential for any business call. The first is to ”smile when you dial”. Smiling both before and during the call relaxes the facial muscles and instantly makes you sound warmer and more friendly. The second rule is to introduce yourself, greet the other person by name and say at least one thing to establish common ground before getting on to why you have called. This seems rather obvious, but it is astonishing how curt and abrasive many business callers can be. Of course a brusque telephone manner can also come from nerves, hence the third basic rule (which is easier said than done): relax. Says Dick, ”Be natural. And always use the words you feel most comfortable with”.

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An essential part of being effective over the telephone is to be prepared for the call. It is not possible to plan ahead for every telephone conversation, but many business calls can be anticipated and rehearsed. Pauline Malindine, who runs her own communications skills consultancy, encourages her clients to list in advance the objectives of each call, to think about possible barriers to communication and work out how to overcome them. “If you have to call a customer in Holland to tell him that the goods he was expecting yesterday will not arrive until next week, prepare for the worst”, she says. “The line will probably be bad, he may not speak English very well and he is likely to be very upset. Work out precisely what you need to say in clear, simple English and decide beforehand on the best strategy for coping with his irritation.” Know the facts before you pick up the phone. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 2. Look at the following table showing recent statistics concerning telephone problems in Britain. Which are the most common problems in your own experience? Are the percentages given below more or less valid for your country, or are there notable differences? Are there any problems connected with phones which are common in your country but not listed here?

Faults in the Phone Box

Money went through

8%

Line was dead

17%

Equipment vandalized

18%

Did not accept money

50%

Other

7%

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Exercise 3. Complete the missing part of these exchanges with suitable sentences, according to the meaning:

A: So I’ll give you the number to ring; it’s 4721301. B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: Well, be quick, because I’m in a phone box and the money’s running out!

A: Can I use your phone? B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: Okay, I’ll wait till after your call’s come through.

A: My number’s Birmingham 4721301. B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: Oh, for Birmingham it’s 021.

A: Did you get him? B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: Oh, perhaps his phone’s out of order.

A: Is that 4271301? B: No, this is 4721031. A: …………………………………………………………………………………

A: Telecom. Can I help you? B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: Okay, we’ll send someone to have a look at it. Can I have your number and address?

Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against, the ideas in the following text:

What about those problem calls which always take us by surprise? “Don’t answer the telephone just to stop it ringing,” advises Bob, an industrial psychologist. He warns that you shouldn’t be forced into decisions by being caught at the wrong moment by an impatient caller. To some extent, being telephoned by someone means being under their control, so the first priority is always to get the situation back into your grasp. If

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someone rings when you are not prepared, say that you need time to think the problem over and arrange to call them back. Techniques for cutting short a telephone conversation are indispensable for personal as well as business calls. “The best idea is to use the person’s name when they pause for breath,” advises Pauline Malindine. “If you say firmly, ‘Well, Anne’ or just ‘Anne’, they will stop short. Don’t ask me why, but it works like a charm. Then just wind up to a quick goodbye – but say it as if you mean it.” But make sure it’s not you who becomes the non-stop talker. When speaking to someone face to face, we barely notice if there is a five-second pause in the conversation, but on the telephone it plunges us into instant panic and we rush to fill in. “I also tell people to begin a call by saying why they are phoning and then leave a pause,” says Dick LeHunt, “if only to give the other person a chance to grunt. The key to getting what you want is dialogue, not monologue.” Asking a question can be a useful device to get two-way communication going if the conversation has ground to a complete halt. Silence can also be used for dealing with angry of abusive callers. John Riley, a computer software specialist, often uses this technique. “When a customer is unhappy with something and rings up in a state, I usually keep silent until they stop ranting. I then say, ‘Right. Now we can talk.’” …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………

Exercise 5. Topics for discussion

1. How common is to have a telephone nowadays?

2. Is it considered a luxury or a necessity?

3. How efficient is the phone company?

4. What special service does the phone company provide?

5. What are the common problems in using the phone in a foreign country?

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SUPPLEMENTARY READING

An Etiquette Guide for Cellmates Cellular phones have become so popular and their users so unpopular for disturbing everyone from theatregoers to train passengers that the arbiters of manners have been forced to step in. A German manual, Style & Etiquette, already has a section devoted to proper use of a mobile phone. The book advises, for example, against taking a cell phone to a job interview: it might ring at the wrong time and convince your prospective boss that you are self-important and insecure. And please, the author beseeches, have respect for the dead: turn the thing off at funerals. Such common-sense suggestions are only the beginning, of course. Here’s our correspondents’ guide to going cellular without making an ass of yourself:

- Do not say anything on a mobile phone that you wouldn’t like to see on the front page

of a tabloid. An eavesdropper picked up Britain’s Prince Charles making verbal love to

his paramour, while Princess Diana was caught in an intercepted cell-phone chat that revealed not only an amorous liaison but also an embarrassing nickname: ”Squidgy”.

- Do not use a mobile phone in places where people have paid big money to listen to

voices other than yours. La Scala opera house in Milan has had so many complaints that

Rule No 9 for ticketholders is, ”Leave telefonini in the cloakroom”.

- Do not take a phone into a stuffy British men’s club. The Athnaeum warns its

members that all mobile phones must be left with the porter. White’s members, the club secretary hints, re far too well mannered even to think of carrying one inside the club, and Gavin Rankin, who helps run London’s posh dining club Harry’s Bar, says, ”Any attempt to use one would be swiftly suppressed”.

- Do not use one on Paris buses. Last month riders of one bus watched as a physical

therapist who took an important call from a patient was loudly berated by an elderly woman passenger who cried, ”Elitism! They can’t afford Rolls-Royces, so they ride the

bus with portable phones to impress people”.

- Do use a mobile if you want the latest in gangster chic. Last March during the

kidnapping of German tobacco heir Jan Philipp Reemtsma in Hamburg, the bad guys used a cell phone to direct the ransom couriers to the drop-off point. And in London etiquette maven Mary Killen complained of the mobile phone’s ”very visible popularity among petty criminals”.

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- Do be careful who borrows yours. Warns Milan management consultant Antonino

Busacca: ”The problem comes when a husband lends it to his wife and then his lover tries to reach him”.

- Do remember that how you use your phone reveals a great deal about your character. ”When you go out for a pizza with friends”, says Angèle Becheras, secretary for a French news agency in Rome, ”you see there are two kinds of people. Those who turn their telefonini off. And those who leave them on, put them on the table and hope smeone will call”.

REMEMBER!

Telephone confidence is a skill which can come only with practice. The first tip for any business call is to ’smile when you dial’. The second rule is to introduce yourself, greet the other person by name and say something to establish common ground before getting on to the reason of your call. Be prepared for the call. Know the facts before you pick up the phone. To cut short a telephone conversation, use the person’s name when (s)he pauses for breath. Asking a question can be a useful device to get two-way communication going. Silence can also be used for dealing with angry of abusive callers. The key to getting what you want is dialogue, not monologue

CHECK-UP TEST

Write some possible dialogues including the following expressions (about 10 lines):

1. I’m on 4271301. A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

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A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

2. If you can’t get me at home, try work number.

A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

3. He’s on extension 437.

A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

4. If you don’t know the number, look it up in the phone book.

A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

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A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

5. Just dial directory inquiries and ask for help. A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

6. The lines were really busy and I couldn’t get through.

A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: …………………………………………………………………………………

B: …………………………………………………………………………………

7. Sorry, I’m not at home at the moment. Please leave a message after the beep.

A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

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A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

8. I think you’ve got a wrong number – this is 4720131. A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

9. Will you answer the phone, please? A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ….……………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

10. You can telephone from your hotel room. A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

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A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: ………………………………………………………………………………… A: ………………………………………………………………………………… B: …………………………………………………………………………………

REFERENCES

Cambridge International Dictionary of English, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995 TIME, May 27, 1996 – Jay Branegan, ” An Etiquette Guide for Cellmates” McCarthy, Michael, Alistair MacLean, and Patrick O’Malley, Proficiency Plus. Grammar Lexis Discourse, Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1990

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UNIT 2 COMPUTER

Obiective: După parcurgerea şi studiul acestui capitol, cursantul este în măsură:

- să rezume, utilizând propriile cunoştinţe lexicale şi gramaticale, un text pe o temă dată;

- să folosească elemente de vocabular din domeniul respectiv în diferite contexte;

- să utilizeze computerul în scopuri de comunicare.

Key words: gadgetry, pervasive, to magnify, integrated circuit, chip, swatch, ubiquitous, to mount, shake-out, unrest

Exercise 1. Read the following text carefully and then sum up the main ideas of the text:

A revolution is under way. Most Americans are already well aware of the wonder gadgetry that is emerging, in rapidly accelerating bursts, from the world’s high- technology laboratories. But most of us perceive only dimly how pervasive and profound the changes of the next twenty years will be. We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine – an ’information age’ that will change forever the way an entire nation works, plays, travels and even thinks. Just as the industrial revolution dramatically expanded the strength of man’s muscles and the reach of his hand, so the smart-machine revolution will magnify the power of his brain. But unlike the industrial revolution, which depended on finite resources such as iron and oil, the new information age will be fired by a seemingly limitless resource the inexhaustible supply of knowledge itself. Even computer scientists, who best understand the galloping technology and its potential, are wonderstruck by its implications. ”It is really awesome,” says L.C. Thomas of Bell Laboratories. ”Every day is just as scary as the day before.” The driving force behind the revolution is the development of two fundamental and interactive technologies computers and integrated circuits. Today, tiny silicon chips half the size of a fingernail are etched with circuitry powerful enough to book seats on jumbo jets (and keep the planes working smoothly in the air), cut complex swatches of fabric with little wastage, help children learn to spell and play chess well enough to beat all but the grandest masters.

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The new technology means that bits of computing power can be distributed wherever they might be useful the way small electric motors have become ubiquitous or combined in giant mainframe computers to provide enormous problem-solving potential. In addition, this ’computational plenty’ is making smart machines easier to use and more forgiving of unskilled programming. Machines are even communicating with each other. ”What’s next?” asks Peter E. Hart, director of an internation artificial intelligence centre. ”More to the point, what’s not next?” There are a few clouds on the industry’s horizon: capital costs are rising, and Japan is mounting an all-out challenge to American supremacy in the field. Some experts predict that the shape of the industry will change considerably over the next period. But whatever shake-outs lie ahead, the world will continue to snap up chips as fast as manufacturers can turn them out, creating an expanding ’information industry’ that will grow into a $500 billion-a-year enterprise, by far the biggest on earth. The transformation will not be easy, for smart machines bring with them the seeds of widespread economic dislocation and social unrest. Eventually, for example, they will make possible the full automation of many factories, displacing millions of blue-collar workers with a new ’steel collar’ class. Even office workers will feel the crunch, as smart machines do more and more of the clerical work. Traditional businesses such as television networks and publishing companies will encounter new competition as programmers and advertisers beam information directly into the consumer’s home. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

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Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences with the suitable word or phrase:

computing,

programmes, on computer

computer,

software,

systems,

literate,

home,

graphics,

mail

box,

by

1.

Many people now have a ………………

2.

She works for a company that produces computer ……………

3.

Computer …………… can be used to control aircraft.

4.

We need someone who is computer-…………… to do this job.

5.

The factory has an elaborate …………… system to control its stock.

6.

The runners’ finishing times are recorded ……………

7.

You can get computer …………… to check your spelling for you.

8.

All our customer orders are handled ……………

9.

Computer …………… can produce images on a video screen or directly into film.

10. An electronic …………… is the place where the computer stores messages.

Exercise 3. Shorthand is a quick way of writing something.Because text messaging is very popular, text messaging shorthand has developed. Often the words are chosen because of their sounds. Here are the mostly used words and expressions:

Anything NTHING Are R Are you OK? RUOK? Ate 8 Be B Before B4 Be seeing you BCNU By the way BTW Date D8 Dinner DNR Easy EZ Excellent XLNT For 4 Great GR8 In my humble opinion IMHO

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Late L8 Later L8R Love LUV Please PLS Please call me PCM See/sea C See you later CU L8R Speak SPK Thanks THX Thank you THNQ To/too 2 To be 2B Today 2DAY Tomorrow 2MORO Want to WAN2 What WOT Work WRK Why Y You U

Give the correct words for the following abbreviations:

BCNU ………………………………………………… DNR XLNT……………………………………………………

L8R

PLS ………………………………………………………. THX ……………………………………………………… EZ ………………………………………………………… PCM ……………………………………………………… SPK ………………………………………………………. THNQ ……………………………………………………

……………………………………………………

…………………………………………………….

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Exercise 4. Write a short commentary expressing your opinions for, or against, the ideas in the following text:

Computers are tireless and versatile business and professional tools. Derivatives of the major commercial applications can usually be found for the small business or home management, such as… Word processing Here the computer is used to create, revise and print correspondence, documents and business forms. You load your word processing software into the computer’s memory. Then you type in your letter, or any other text, using the computer keyboard. The words appear on the display screen. When you decide to make corrections to the text, a few key strokes are sufficient. Instead of typing over an entire report in order to add a paragraph, you scroll through your text until the page you want appears on the screen. You press a key or type in a command, and proceed to add the paragraph. Word processing is ideal for form letters, legal documents and any other text that is repeated. You simply store any information you want to keep on a floppy disk. You call up your form letter on the screen, make whatever changes you need, and print out as many copies as you want. Accounting, bookkeeping and personal finance The computer records all your accounting information while you are creating invoices, writing cheques or entering debits. Then the computer tabulates all your income, expenditure and operating expenses, and organizes the results into financial statements and reports such as a profit and loss statement. You can print out your cheques and invoices on the printer, using business forms created for computers. Planning, forecasting and decision-making These applications help managers do their job to analyze trends, forecast events, plan, schedule, create budgets and make informed decisions. The computer lets you ask, ”What if?” and see the results. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

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……………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………

Exercise 5. Topics for discussion

1. In your opinion, does a personal computer mean progress? Why (not)?

2. Do you think computers are a reliable help?

3. How would it be best to encourage the youngsters to use a computer?

4. How would it be best to encourage adults and elder people to use a computer?

5, What are the (dis)advantages of providing computers for children or young people?

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Etiquette on E-mail is called "netiquette." Here are a few suggested rules from the Student Lists:

A. All the people on the lists are students like you. They are probably new to this as

well. So please don't be afraid to post messages. It will be a great learning experience.

B. Be positive. If somebody says something you like, tell him or her, either by

commenting to the whole group, or by sending him or her an individual reply. If you

disagree with the person, try to do so in a constructive rather than negative way.

C. Be polite. On a list like this, with people from many cultures, it can be easy to have

misunderstandings. Try to be polite and friendly in your postings.

D. Humor is appreciated, but again, please be polite. Avoid comments which could

offend or confuse people of other cultures.

E. Remember: if it's of individual or personal interest, send a reply to the person who

posted the message (just use the reply option on your system). If you think it might be

of general interest, post a message to the whole group. F. Let people know what you're going to be talking about. Make sure your posting has a clear and descriptive entry on the "Subject" line.

G. Keep it short. Some students have to pay to get their e-mail! So keep your messages

brief--no more than 2 screens. The LISTSERV will not accept messages that are longer than 50 lines or so.

H. Don't post too often! There is a limit of two postings per day per student with a

maximum of five postings in a week.

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I. Identify yourself. List your name, school, and e-mail address briefly at the end of your posting. Some e-mail systems do not include the "header" so other people may not see

it.

J. If you are referring to another person's comments, it is usually a good idea to quote

that person. On some systems the "forward" feature will help you do this. However, please EDIT out that person's header and any other information which is not relevant, to avoid clutter and wasted space. Under no circumstances should the quoted material be longer than your own comments!

K. Try to make the right comments to the right list. If you want to discuss movies, you

should join and post to MOVIE-SL. If you want to discuss music, join and post to

MUSIC-SL. If you want to discuss general topics, join and post to CHAT-SL or DISCUSS-SL. BUT -- do not 'cross post.' Send your message to ONLY ONE list!

L. Keep in mind that people all over the world will be reading your comments. If your

comments will only be clear for people from your own country, provide more background information. M. The SL Lists are "unmoderated". This means that what members post goes directly to the membership, unedited and uncensored. We are strongly committed to maintaining an uncensored list. In particular, please refrain from using obscene language.

N. On e-mail, you cannot see people's faces. So people often use symbols to make their

points. *'s or capital letters can give emphasis. For example, "That was a *great*

movie". Or "That was a GREAT movie." (Or "That was a g-r-e-a-t movie.")

Then there are the famous "sideways" symbols:

:-) (a smile) ;-) (a wink) :-( (a frown)

All in all, follow the basic guideline: Do not post to others what you would not want posted to you!

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REMEMBER!

We are at the dawn of the era of an ’information age’ that will change forever the way an entire nation works, plays, travels and even thinks. The new information age will be fired by a seemingly limitless resource the inexhaustible supply of knowledge itself. The driving force behind the revolution is the development of two fundamental and interactive technologies computers and integrated circuits. These smart machines will make possible the full automation of many factories, but will displace millions of blue-collar workers with a new ’steel collar’ class.

CHECK-UP TEST

Starting from the following text, write an argument for or against using a computer (200 words):

I want to try to explain what it’s like to write with a rod processor. The nearest thing to it is an experience you may have had as a kid: building sand castles. Sand castles are best built on perilous oceanfronts, not on seif lakefronts. To erect a sand castle under the threat of the waves gives uou a delectable sense of defying devastation. A similar foreboding of doom hovers over the writer who uses a word processor. What if there’s a power failure and your work is wiped away?… And yet despite this fear, to see your castle of words start to rise fills you with an odd sense of freedom and playfulness. The experience is like whomping together some piles of wet sand that you want to develop into towers… That is much like what you do in producing an essay on a word processor. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

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REFERENCES

http://ucs.orst.edu/~healeyd/pci/netiquette.html Kennedy, J.X., Dorothy M. Kennedy, The Bedford Reader. Second Edition, New York: St Martin’s Press, 1985 – J.X. Kennedy, ”Writing with a Decmate II: Building Sand Castles” McCarthy, Michael, Alistair MacLean, and Patrick O’Malley, Proficiency Plus. Grammar Lexis Discourse, Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1990

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UNIT 3 LETTER WRITING (I):

PERSONAL AND PRIVATE LETTERS

Obiective: După parcurgerea şi studiul acestui capitol, cursantul este în măsură:

- să redacteze corespondenţă personală.

Key words: private correspondence, style, colloquial, heading, salutation,

communication, formal letter, ending, subscription, close

Letter writing is divided into two classes:

(1) personal and private letters;

(2) business and commercial correspondence.

(1) Personal and Private Letters

In the case of private correspondence, it is not necessary to be so formal as in essay

writing. Be quite natural in your style, taking care not to become too colloquial or

careless as to punctuation, grammar, and clearness of expression.

Private letters are arranged as follows:

A) The heading, consisting of the ADDRESS of the writer and the DATE, is written at

the top right-hand corner of the pages and is spaced thus:

85

Waterloo Street,

Note:

- the place of the comma;

- the front position of the number of the house;

24

Hackney,

London, N.E.

March

12th, 2001

- the name of the town comes last;

- the date may also be written 12th March 2001, 12-03-01, 12/03/01, the order being:

the day of the month; the number of the month; and the year.

B) The salutation (form of address), which varies according to the degree of intimacy

existing between the writer of the letter and the receiver of it:

- for old friends and relatives:

My Dear Mary/George Dear Uncle/Aunt

- when the degree of familiarity is not so great as in the former case:

My Dear Mr Jones/Mrs Jones/Miss Jones

- when the degree of familiarity is slight or you have no personal knowledge of the

person, use:

Dear Sir/Madam Note: A woman, married or unmarried, is addressed as Madam or Dear Madam. Also, it is not unusual to salute a person as My Dear Friend. You must never use an exclamation mark after the saluation. Always use a comma.

C) The communication (the body of the letter) which should be written in paragraphs.

The first word comes under the last word of the salutation. The style and language should be free and natural. Do not be afraid to use the fisr and second personal pronouns. The pronoun of the third person is kept for purely official and formal letters.

D) The ending (subscription or close) should come at the right-hand side of the page,

and should be of the same style as the salutation:

I am,

Your loving sister,

Mary

I remain, Yours affectionately,

25

Charles

I am,

Yours very sincerely,

Frank

I remain, Yours faithfully/truly,

E. Powell

Note: The commas, capitals and the position of the first word of each line should be carefully observed.

CAUTION! The foreign student must avoid three errors commonly made in letter writing:

a) I shall have much pleasure to accept your kind invite for next Saturday.

instead of: I have much pleasure in accepting your kind invitation for next Saturday.

b) I am very delighted to be able to come.

instead of: I am much delighted to be able to come.

c) Try and come early.

instead of: Try to come early.

Words and expressions that often occur in private letter writing:

affectionately = lovingly agreeable = pleasant gift = present to appreciate = to think much of, to thin ka great deal of business = trade comfort = ease, happiness, contentment cordially = heartily considerate = thoughtful or caring for others to commence = to begin, to start delighted = much pleased distressed = worried, troubled employment = occupation especially = particularly

26

in anticipation = in expectation

in consequence = as a result

to invite = to ask, to request the company of

I have determined = I have made up my mind

leisure = spare time, freedom from work

obliging = courteous, kind

on the outskirts = in the suburbs

progress = improvement

to permit = to allow

to recollect = to remember, to call to mind

view = aspect, look, appearance

welfare = happiness

to write a reply = to answer

Examples of private letters

1

98

Englefield Road,

Canonbury, N.

June

5th, 2002

Dear Madeleine,

I have not received any news from you for a week, but hope you are quite well.

My Mother and I have been talking about you, and if you could come on Sunday next

we should be very much pleased to see you. Two other friends are coming, and I am

sure we shall enjoy ourselves very much.

Let me know if you are able to come, and also the time of your arrival.

Hoping that all are well at home,

I am,

Yours affectionately,

27

Adrienne

2

196 King George Street, Hornsey, London, N.

28/12/02

My Dear Francis, Many thanks for your letter, which I was so pleased to receive. You may, however, doubt the truth of this on account of the time which has passed without acknowledgment. I am now on my Christmas holidays, and will not wait any longer

before telling you how I spent my first Christmas in England. First of all, I do not think it would be of any use making a comparison between the Continental festival and the one we have over here, because there is too great a difference between them.

I had a little feast in my room with a few English friends on Friday evening. We

quite enjoyed it, I assure you, especially as my Christams box came from home the same evening with all our Continental delicacies, and even a small tree was included. All these good things surprised my friends very much.

Christmas day, however, reminded me that no happiness is without alloy, for though my business affairs are getting all right I had to do some work at home in order to settle my yearly accounts.

I have begun taking English and Italian lessons at an evening institute here, and I feel I am now making great improvement in my study of these languages.

I hope you, too, have had a happy Christmas, and I wish you a very prosperous New Year. With kindest regards to all at home, I remain, Yours very sincerely, Arthur

EXERCISES

1. Write a letter to a close friend, describing your favourite pastime.

2. Write a letter inviting a friend to spend New Year’s Day with you.

3. Write a letter to your parents, describing your impressions of London.

28

4.

Write to your brother/sister, who is abroad, telling him your first impressions on

joining a class in English for foreign students.

5. Write a letter regretting that you are unable to accept an invitation to spend the

weekend with a friend.

6. You intend sending a present to an English friend. Write a suitable letter.

REMEMBER!

In the case of private correspondence, it is not necessary to be so formal as in eassay writing. Be quite natural in your style, taking care not to become too colloquial or careless as to punctuation, grammar, and clearness of expression. Private letters are arranged as follows:

A) The heading, consisting of the ADDRESS of the writer and the DATE, is written at

the top right-hand corner of the pages;

B) The salutation (form of address), which varies according to the degree of intimacy

existing between the writer of the letter and the receiver of it;

C) The communication (the body of the letter) which should be written in paragraphs.

The first word comes under the last word of the salutation. The style and language

should be free and natural.

D) The ending (subscription or close) should come at the right-hand side of the page,

and should be of the same style as the salutation

REFERENCES

Marshall, Edgar, and E. Schaap, Exercises in English for Foreign Students. Sixth Impression, London & Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1929

29

UNIT 4 LETTER WRITING (II):

BUSINESS AND FORMAL LETTERS

Obiective: După parcurgerea şi studiul acestui capitol, cursantul este în măsură:

- să redacteze corespondenşă oficială.

Key words: business correspondence, index, reference, sender, receiver, communication, behalf, abbreviation, envelope, professional men

In business correspondence, the aim is to be as brief as possible. At the same time, the language used must be plain, polite, carefully planned, and to the point. Business letters are arranged as follows:

A) The index, used for reference purposes, and placed in the top left-hand corner:

In your Reply please quote L. 96

B) the heading, arranged as in the case of private letters, except that the address is

always given in full:

85

King William St., London, E.C.

C) the inside name and address, placed just above the salutation and making clear to

whom the letter is written, even though the envelope has been lost or destroyed. In official letters, it is sometimes placed under the letter in the left-hand corner:

Messrs. Brown & Co., Ltd., 14 Old St., Cardiff

30

H. Dowse, Esq., 58 Gilesgate, Durham

D) The salutation:

- the usual form of address is: Sir;

- when the sender and the receiver are of equal rank or position: Dear Sir;

- when writing to a firm or company: (Dear) Gentlemen/Sirs

E) The communication should be stated in clear and concise language. The best business letter is the one which contains the least number of words and yet expresses adequately the meaning of the writer.

F) The subscription (the close) must agree in style with the salutation:

- the usual form is:

- when writing to a firm or company:

I am, Sir/Madam, Yours truly, J. B. Roberts

We are, Gentlemen, Your obedient servants, E. Wilson & Co.

We are, Sir, Yours obediently, T. White & Son, p.p. E.C.M.

We remain, Sir, Yours respectfully, pro Black & Sons, R. South

31

Note: In signing on behalf of a firm, the employee prefixes to his own initials the abbreviation pp (per pro, the Latin shortened form for per procurationem = on behalf of another).

Official letters generally close thus:

I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, W. Chambers

G) The envelope The name may be written in two ways:

- the most common form is: Mr. R. S. Maslen, or R. S. Maslen, Esq.;

- the more respectful form, used when addressing professional men (holding responsible positions, such as officials, managers, merchants, etc.):

R. S. Maslen, Esq., 14 High St., Wood Green, London, N.

Words and expressions that often occur in business letters:

advice = opinion, information, knowledge abilities = attainments, qualifications, capabilities to approve of = to agree with to ascertain = to learn, to find out, to see to assist = to help, to aid beneficial = useful, profitable benefiting = improving to consult a person = to seek advice from a person conduct = behaviour, morals chief depot = central office despatched = sent off documents = papers employment = occupation, job, position to endeavour = to try hard, to make a strong effort

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to inspect = to look over, to examine if appointed = if chosen, if selected, if successful if convenient to you = if suitable to you in emergency = in case of need or necessity patronage = support to postpone = to delay, to put off punctual = exact to time proficient = capable, competent proficiency = skill, success reputation = good name, fame to resume duty = to begin work again transacted = carried out

Examples of business letters

1

26 Marquess Road, Highbury, N. April 22nd, 2001

Sir,

I have just noticed your advertisement in today’s Daily Chronicle, and I think I may be suitable to fill the position you offer. I am French by birth, 28 years of age, and have been in England since last March. I have a good knowledge of the English language, and am able to translate from English into French. My speed in shorthand is 110 words per minute and for typewriting 55 words per minute, the latter both in English and French. I have the best references from a Paris office where I worked 15 months, and I enclose a copy of a testimonial received from this house. I left this firm to come to England. For the past eleven months I have been working in a City office, which I wish to leave, because it is a French firm and I have no opportunity of speaking English.

33

If you would favour me with an interview, I should be pleased to wait upon you any day between 1.30 and 2.30 PM. Hoping to hear favourably from you, I am, Sir, Yours obediently, Lucie Dutarte

H.J. Maze, Esq., 14 High Holborn, W.C.

2

Messers. Bradshaw & Co., Ltd., Leeds.

27 London Wall, Moorgate St., E.C. January 25th, 2002

Gentlemen, Being indebted for your address to Messrs. Needham & Son, and learning that you are not yet represented at this place, I herewith respectfully beg to tender my services as an agent for your esteemed house. I would point out that I am well acquainted with your class of goods, having acted as sole agent for Messrs. Johnson, Ltd., of Manchester, for many years. I am also in close and constant touch with the majority of the leading Drapery firms, such as Peter Robinson and Marshall & Snelgrove, Ltd., the buyers of most of which have been my personal friends for years. I feel confident of introducing your lines o the London market with every prospect of success, and of producing satisfactory results to our mutual advantage. In the event of your being disposed to entertain my offer, I shall be happy to receive your propositions, terms, etc., and I might mention that I should be prepared either to

34

accept your agency ona commission basis, or to handle the distribution of your articles on my own account. As to my character, ability, and financial standing, I beg to refer you to the above- mentioned firms, who will most willingly furnish you with any information you may desire in this respect. Hoping that my offer will meet with a favourable reception, I am, Gentlemen, Yours respectfully, Henri Paccard

Exercises

1. Write Messrs. Brown Bros., Wall St., Leicester, complaining that an order from your

company has not been properly executed by them.

2. Write a letter acknowledging the receipt of an order and asking for forwarding instructions.

3. You receive a letter of inquiry from a person who is thinking of buying a certain

article which you are anxious to sell. Write a reply.

4. Your luggage is damaged while being conveyed from the railway station to your

boarding house by the London Package Co., Ltd. Write a letter to them stating the

amount of the damage, and claiming compensation.

5. A complaint that the goods supplied are not according to sample is received from a

firm. After investigation, this is found to be true. Write a reply.

REMEMBER!

In business correspondence, the aim is to be as brief as possible. At the same time, the language used must be plain, polite, carefully planned, and to the point. Business letters are arranged as follows:

A) The index, used for reference purposes, and placed in the top left-hand corner;

B) the heading, arranged as in the case of private letters, except that the address is

always given in full;

35

C)

the inside name and address, placed just above the salutation and making clear to

whom the letter is written, even though the envelope has been lost or destroyed. In

official letters, it is sometimes placed under the letter in the left-hand corner; Messrs. Brown & Co., Ltd.,

D) The salutation;

E) The communication should be stated in clear and concise language. The best

business letter is the one which contains the least number of words and yet expresses adequately the meaning of the writer. F) The subscription (the close) must agree in style with the salutation;

G) The envelope.

REFERENCES

Marshall, Edgar, and E. Schaap, Exercises in English for Foreign Students. Sixth Impression, London & Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1929 United Nations Correspondence Manual, New York: United Nations, Department of Conference Services, 1984

36

UNIT 5 COMPOSITION TIPS

Obiective: După parcurgerea şi studiul acestui capitol, cursantul este în măsură:

- să utilizeze corect majusculele, punctuaţia, anumite cuvinte care se confundă în limba engleză.

Key words: capital letter, comma, semi-colon, colon, period, full stop, dash, hyphen, inverted commas, apostrophe

The Use of Capitals in English

The foreign student should be careful where the use of capital letters in English differs from that in his own language. The following rules for their use should be observed in writing English:

Capitals are used:

(1) for the beginning of every sentence: Capital letters are used for special names. (2) for proper nouns: names of the deity, individual countries, cities, towns, streets, buildings, persons, rivers, etc., and also the names of the days of the week, months of the year, and holiday seasons: The Lord, England, London, Oxford Street, the Mansion House, Arthur, the Thames, Wednesday, December, Easter, Christmas, etc. (3) for adjectives derived from proper nouns: English, French, Elizabethan, etc. (4) for the chief words in: the titles of persons, the headings in the written, Commentary, the adresses on envelopes, the salutation and subscriptions of letters: George the Fifth; Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia; Dr. Jones; Mr. Evans; Licentiate-in-Letters; Doctor of Science; The Home Rule Bill; The Influence of Newspapers; My Dear Sir, etc. (5) for the abbreviations of titles, dregrees, etc.: M.P., P.C., M.A., M. Sc., Ph. D. (6) for the first word in each line of poetry:

Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest. (7) for the pronoun ’I’ and the exclamation ’O(h)’: He is better than I. O dear me!

37

(8) for the first word beginning a quotation or a speech: The professor said, ”You have not answered the question correctly.” (9) for any words to call attention to their special importance: In Direct Narration if the reporting verb is in the Present or the Future Tense, then according to the rules governing the Sequence of Tenses…

Exercises

1. Write ten sentences each containing the name of a person, a city, a town, a mountain,

a building, a lake, a country, etc.

2. Write ten proper nouns and the adjectival forms derived from them.

3. Give two names suitable for each of the following: a person, a book, an academic

title, a heading of an essay, a famous Englis building.

4. Write five suitable subscriptions and salutations for a private and a business letter.

5. Write in proper order the names for: the days of the week, the months of the year, the

principal holidays.

CHECK-UP TEST

Add a quotation or short speech to each of the following:

The Prime Minister asked, ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….…………………………………………………………………

The French Ambassador answered, ……………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….…………………………………………………………………

The statement was ………………………………………………………………………

38

….…………………………………………………………………

….…………………………………………………………………

….…………………………………………………………………

….…………………………………………………………………

The foreign student replied, ……………………………………………………………………. ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….…………………………………………………………………

The guests commented, ……………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….………………………………………………………………… ….…………………………………………………………………

Punctuation

The use of punctuation is to make clear the exact meaning of a written passage by showing to the eye the relation which exists between the different parts of a written commentary. In speech, we make pauses of varying lengths, in order to show the grammatical connections between words or groups od words; and a change of voice called inflection, to show the relation between different sentences or different parts of the same sentence. In the written language, we indicate these pauses and the modulation of the voice by means of punctuation marks. If the stops are omitted ot misplaced, the meaning of the passage may become doubtful and often mere nonsense.

39

e.g., On my journey I came across a country cottage, and a cart driven by a farmer. (Omit the comma and it could mean that the ’cottage’ as well as the ’cart’ was driven by the farmer.)

The signs used to indicate pauses are:

- the comma ,

- the semi-colon ;

- the colon :

- the period, or full stop .

The signs used to indicate modulation of the voice are:

- the mark of interrogation ?

- the mark of exclamation !

In addition to these, there are:

- the parentheses, double dash or bracket ( )

- the dash

- the hyphen -

- inverted commas, or quotation marks „ ”

- the apostrophe ’

A few simple rules on the uses of these ’stops’ are given, special attention being paid to the comma, the most frequent of the stops:

- in writing, it is placed where a slight but distinct pause is made in reading;

- do not use too many commas (if in doubt as to whether a comma is necessary or not, leave it out);

- never use a comma unless it does some necessary work in your sentence.

* No comma is placed between demonstrative (personal) and relative pronouns: he who; that which; those who

40

* A relative clause that may be omitted is enclosed within commas:

I will ask my father, who is anxious to learn the news, what he knows of the affair.

* A relative clause that cannot be omitted is not preceded by a comma not has it a

comma after it, if it is short; if somewhat long, it is generally followed by a comma:

The woman who spoke to me has left the city.

A boy that refuses to study is not worth paying much attention to.

* A comma is placed before the principal verb if the subject is accompanied by an

attributive adjunct which forms a combinarion of words of considerable length:

The justice of the sentence pronounced upon these wicked and audacious criminals, will be evident to everybody.

* If the subject is a clause, a comma is generally placed after it:

That the labour entailed in grtting this Bill through the House is difficult, is apparent to the merest political novice.

* Adverbs, adverbial phrases, adverbial adjuncts, and adverbial clauses preceding the subject of the sentence are generally marked off by commas:

The man having failed, the creditors took possession of his property.

* A comma is put after the nominative if the verb is understood:

To err is human; to forgive, divine.

* The comma is used to show apposition:

John, their uncle, died fighting bravely.

* The comma also separated words of the same part of speech:

She spoke clearly, simply, and effectively.

* The comma is used to avoid ambiguity in meaning:

The professor said the student was clever.

= The professor, said the student, was clever.

41

* The comma introduces a quotation:

They said, ”You will be forgiven”.

The semi-colon is stronger than the comma, and indicates a longer pause; it separates co-ordinate clauses, and thus often takes the place of the conjunction:

Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; writing an exact man.

The colon is used to introduce a detailed list or a quotation (usually followed by a dash):

Please supply me with the following particulars: - Age, nationality, address, occupation, and attendance of all the students.

The period, or full stop, is used to end every sentence that is not in the exclamative or interrogative form:

B.A., Ph.D., Mr., MS., Dr., H.A.Knierim, Esq., A.D., i.e., viz., etc.

The mark of interrogation is used after every direct question:

When are you coming?

The mark of exclamation is used to express strong emotion: Bravo!, Hurrah!, Alas!, Oh!, etc.

The parenthesis is used to enclose words inserted as comments or explanations (these could be left out without affecting the construction of the sentence):

He went to the exhibition yesterday (we didn’t).

The dash is used to show a sudden and abrupt change:

I was coming but what is the use of talking now?

The hyphen joins the parts of a compound word: man-or-war

Quotation marks indicate Direct Speech:

”What do you want?” asked Tom.

42

The apostrophe indicates the omission of some letter(s): it’s, ’tis = it is; don’t = do not, etc.

Exercises

A) The use of the comma:

1. She is perhaps the cleverest student in the class.

2. If you dont believe me go and see. I tell you as I am a gentleman I saw it with these

eyes and so did my friend here.

3.

He speaks French German Spanish Italian and English.

4.

Above the sun could be seen quite easily.

5.

The arctic explorers having recovered their comrades pushed on towards the pole.

6.

The doctor said his assistant was much better.

B)

Punctuate and insert the necessary capital letters:

the london county council control not only such matters as medical inspection drainage housing tramways etc but also all forms of education they maintain day schools both elementary and secondary evening instituted commercial technical general and polytechnics in every part of the county of london

Words that are often confounded

The English language contains many words which give difficulty not only to the foreign student, but also to the home student, and their spelling and meaning are best distinguished by constant practice in the formation of sentences involving the use of these words. The leading difficulties are summarised under five chief headings:

A) words agreeing in spelling, but differing in sound or meaning:

abuse (noun) to abuse (verb), excuse (noun) to excuse (verb), grease (noun) to grease (verb), lead (nound) to lead (verb), read (noun) to lead (verb), tear (noun) to

tear (verb), wind (noun) to wind (verb)

B) words differing in spelling and meaning, but agreeing in sound:

43

air ere heir – e’er, ail – ale, base base bass, blue blew, borrough burrough, bough bow, great grate, lane lain, root route, veil veil - vale

C) words that are often confused, owing to their similar apelling or pronunciation:

allusion illusion, bath bathe, dairy diary, genus genius, human humane, loose

lose, president precendent, suit suite, valet - valley

D) words having the same spelling, but differing in meaning according to where the

accent is placed: áccent (noun) – to accént, áffix – to affíx, désert – to desért, ímport – to impórt, próduce – to prodúce, súbject – to subjéct E) words containing silent letters: honest, heir, hour, rhyme, ghost, calm, palm, balm, half, calf, talk, chalk, folk, could, would, listen, Christmas, often, castle, mistletoe,

chestnut, sword, whole, who, wrote, wrong, wreck, housewife, knob, knife, knot, knight, knee, know, knowledge, tomb, limb, lamb, climb, bomb, comb, debt, doubt, sign, design, guest, biscuit, aunt, guide, buy, guard, laugh, height, flight, might, right, fight, night, high, sigh, although, through, daughter, weight, straight, eight

Exercises 1. Compose sentences containing the following words, each of which has two distinct meanings:

clothes

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

diffuse

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

form

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

house

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

live

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

use

44

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

wound

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

2. Compose sentences bringing out the full meaning of the following words of the same pronunciation:

ark arc ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… aloud allowed ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ball bawl ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… beer bier ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… cellar seller ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… choir quire ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… compliment complement ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… die dye ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… fare fair …………………………………………………………………………………

45

………………………………………………………………………………… feet feat ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… four fore ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… guest guessed ………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… key quay ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… mantle mantel ………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… moan mown ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… slay sleigh ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

3. Write sentences distinguishing clearly between the meanings of the following pairs:

accidents accidence ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… adapt adept ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… advise advice ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

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corpse corps

………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… disease decease

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

difference deference

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

except accept

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

excess access

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

omit - emit

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

4. Mark the accent(s) and write short sentences with the following words:

abstract

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

august

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

concert

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

compact

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

concrete

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

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discount

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

extract

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

insult

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

increase

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

precedent

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

refuse

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

survey

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

5. Write ten sentences each containing a word having a mute letter.

REMEMBER!

Capitals are used:

(1) for the beginning of every sentence; (2) for proper nouns; (3) for adjectives derived from proper nouns; (4) for the chief words in: the titles of persons, the headings in the written, Commentary, the adresses on envelopes, the salutation and subscriptions of letters; (5) for the abbreviations of titles, dregrees, etc.; (6) for the first word in each line of poetry; (7) for the pronoun ’I’ and the exclamation ’O(h)’;

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(8) for the first word beginning a quotation or a speech; (9) for any words to call attention to their special importance.

The use of punctuation is to make clear the exact meaning of a written passage by showing to the eye the relation which exists between the different parts of a written commentary. In the written language, we indicate the pauses and the modulation of the voice by means of punctuation marks. The signs used to indicate pauses are: the comma; the semi-colon; the colon; the period, or full stop. The signs used to indicate modulation of the voice are: the mark of interrogation; the mark of exclamation. In addition to these, there are: the parentheses, double dash or bracket; the dash; the hyphen; inverted commas, or quotation marks; the apostrophe.

The English language contains many words which give difficulty not only to the foreign student, but also to the home student, and their spelling and meaning are best distinguished by constant practice in the formation of sentences involving the use of these words.

CHECK-UP TEST

1. Compose sentences bringing out the full meaning of the following words of the same pronunciation:

assent ascent ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… bad bade ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… birth berth ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

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cell sell ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… desert dessert

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

flower flour

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

heel heal

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

horse hoarse

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

principle principal

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

waste - waist

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

2. Write sentences distinguishing clearly between the meanings of the following pairs:

envelope envelop

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

gentle genteel

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

idol idle

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

imminent eminent

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

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proceed precede ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… presents presence ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… receipt recipe ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… secret secrete ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

3. Name the parts of speech to which the following words belong after you have accented the different syllables, and write sentences illustrating their meanings:

comment

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

collect

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

contest

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

export

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

frequent

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

minute

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

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object

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

permit

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

project

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

rebel

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

transfer

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

transport

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

4. Write ten sentences each containing a word having a mute letter.

REFERENCES

Marshall, Edgar, and E. Schaap, Exercises in English for Foreign Students. Sixth Impression, London & Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1929 United Nations Correspondence Manual, New York: United Nations, Department of Conference Services, 1984

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UNIT 6 CURRICULUM VITAE

Obiective: După parcurgerea şi studiul acestui capitol, cursantul este în măsură:

- să redacteze diverse tipuri de curriculum vitae.

Key words: CV, career, job market, to boost, jobseeker, to apply, employer, job advertisement, job description, career break

Your CV is an essential career document needed to present yourself effectively in the job market. A good CV will considerably boost your chances of getting a face-to-face interview by highlighting relevant skills, experience and value to a potential boss. There are no rights and wrongs when it comes to writing and presenting a CV, and each document will be as individual as the jobseeker it belongs to. However, by following some basic principles you will be able to present the information in a clear, concise and persuasive way. You may need to put together more than one CV if you intend to apply for different types of job across different sectors. This will enable you to emphasise the particular achievements, skills, experience and personality qualities that a particular employer is looking for. It is usually possible to tell what an employer is looking for from the job advertisement or job description; alternatively you may need to research the role and the company yourself to ensure that your CV has the right focus. Ensuring your CV is well presented and easy to follow is as important as including all the relevant information. Most employers see hundreds of CVs and yours may get less than a minute of their time. Most people follow a historical CV format, as this is familiar to employers and is easy to write with employment history placed in chronological order. It also gives a good idea of career progression. However, if your career history is fragmented due to career breaks or a period of unemployment, you may consider a skills-based CV that highlights your abilities and aptitudes. It gives you the chance to describe what you can do, rather than detailing a list of jobs.

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Whatever your choice, your CV should look clear and tidy with all the information easy to find. Although it is tempting to make your CV stand out by using, for example, coloured paper or an arty layout, it is best to stick to black print on good quality white paper. Most employers will expect to find the information under clear headings highlighted in bold or capitals, such as work experience or education. Put dates on the left-hand side and indent information to make it easy for employers to find their way through your history.

An employer will expect to find information covering the following areas:

Personal details - include your name, address, phone numbers and email address. You may wish to add details of your nationality, birth date and driving licence, but this is not obligatory. Work experience - list the most recent experience first, as it brings to the fore the most recent and, often relevant and responsible work. Describe your work experience in short sentences using straightforward, positive language. As well as describing the job, point out any general qualities that arose from the work such as ability to manage staff or work to tight deadlines. Education - list brief details of qualifications - GCSEs, A-levels, degree - along with grades attained. Applicants looking for their first job since school college or university can include their education information before work experience. Skills - include specific skills such as IT skills or languages. References - it is usual to provide the names and contact details of two referees, one of which should be your most recent employer. Graduates and school leavers with limited work experience can nominate college lecturers, teachers or managers during work experience. Be sure to tell your referees in advance, so they will be prepared. Hobbies - including details of your interests away from the workplace is optional. By adding details of specific hobbies, you are giving an employer a more rounded picture of your personal qualities, don’t overdo it. Do not use a long list of hobbies to cover up a lack of work experience.

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EXAMPLES OF CVs

1) Skills CV

John Slater Ash Cottage Church Lane South Newall SO2 9PO Telephone and fax: 0123 123 4567

General manager with international operational manufacturing and project management experience. Versatile with proven commercial organisational and interpersonal skills developed in small and large subsidiaries. Joint venture, acquisition and disposal experience. Successful in change and performance improvement.

Area of expertise

Organisational

Instigated and managed change by implementing new work culture and practices.

Introduced effective management systems which improved control and cut costs.

Set up a new manufacturing works, recruited personnel, developed organisation and quality systems. Company obtained ISO 9002 accreditation and 'Investors in People'.

Led multi-disciplinary team in Ł34 million joint venture greenfield project from design through construction to operation. Project completed on time, with Ł1.4 million savings. Commercial and financial

Successfully led commercial services across subsidiary companies. Met a challenging budget.

Managed a service company with full responsibility for

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finance, marketing operations and personnel (revenue Ł3.5 million per annum). Developed strategy plans and budgets.

Set up, managed and successfully controlled multi- million pound revenue and capital cost centres. Negotiated, awarded and controlled major contracts. Interpersonal

Played ambassadorial role in promoting the organisation through partnerships, presentations and media interviews.

Undertook liaison roles with embassies, local authorities and joint venture partners. Negotiated successfully with unions and contractors to resolve disputes.

Recruited, trained, led and motivated personnel with diverse skills and from different functions. Effectively operated management by objectives with target setting and appraisal. Operational and technical

Executed audits and evaluated operational performance. Recommendations led to performance cost and manpower improvement programmes.

Appraised potential company acquisitions; some resulted in bids and purchases. Evaluated viability of major capital projects which were approved, constructed and successfully run.

Managed major plant and staff with accountability for operations, maintenance, costs and performance. (Assets of Ł180 million, costs of Ł48 million per annum and 108 staff.)

Personal information

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Development

Executive Development Programme, London Business School, 1990 BSc Chemistry (2.1), Warwick University, 1968

Personal

Date of birth: 6 August 1946 Married with three grown-up children.

Interests

Swimming, rambling, keep fit and theatre

Career history

Technica Europe SA Danish subsidiary providing services to the oil and chemical industries. Turnover Ł6 million; 85 employees. General manager and managing director 1992-present Seconded to develop newly acquired operation. Polygonia Project manager and works manager 1989-1992 Responsible for overall execution of Ł34 million greenfield project from design through construction, into operation and commercial production. Ashdown International Senior planning and appraisal manager 1986-1989 General advisory and consulting role covering operational performance, master planning, manpower and infrastructure of chemical operations (manufacturing costs Ł1.5 billion per annum). Chemiref plc Utilities and services manager 1983-1986 Responsible for the uninterrupted provision of utilities to refinery and chemical plants. (Assets of Łl80 million, costs of Ł48 million per annum and 108 staff) Manager job evaluations 1982-1983 Managed introduction of a new joint participative company/union job evaluation system and grade structure based on evaluation results for 1900 employees with payroll costs of Ł15 million per annum. Operations manager 1981-1982

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Earlier 1970 - 1978

Ran small and large volume batch and continuous plants producing a range of chemicals. Assets Ł27 million, sales Ł26 million per annum and 74 staff. Manufab International Manufacturing and services manager 1980-1981 Co-ordinated four service locations (sales Ł13 million per annum, 119 staff). Operations and works manager 1978-1980 Managed stand-alone works producing and distributing agricultural and industrial chemicals.

manufacturing

positions in companies in UK, Singapore and Germany.

career Held

a

variety

of

technical

and

production

2) Historical CV

Roger David The Poplars Park Lanehouse Chestnutshire DR1 0PS Tel: 01 123 755483 (home) Mobile: 0573 635689 Board director who develops and turns around businesses. Team builder and team member who enjoys challenging the status quo. Makes a 'constructive difference' by initiating and delivering strategic solutions to business problems.

Roger David Consultancy 1996-date Established a Management Consultancy targeted on small to medium-sized businesses. Clients have included a manufacturer, a hygiene wholesaler, a national distributor of disposables and an office products trade body. Key approach centred on combining strategic vision, operational common sense and customer focus. Assignments included:

Developing and implementing new IT strategy for small company. Significantly improved management information and increased gross profit from 33% to 42%.

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Reviewing strategic direction of two companies. Identified new business development initiatives and advised acquisition targets.

Invited by one client with Ł1.5 million sales to take 24% equity stake to strengthen existing management team.

Styrell Ltd 1989-1995 Wholesaler of disposables/consumables with sales of Ł150 million and staff of 600.

Logistics director 1992-1995 Unique position created for me with responsibility for entire supply chain management process. Managed 350 staff at 21 depots, purchases of Ł82 million, stock of Ł6 million and a marketing budget of Ł450k.

Initiated and chaired a strategic review of all non-sales activities. Developed and gained agreement to new strategic plan.

Introduced a hub/satellite depot structure to achieve step change in distribution efficiency.

Introduced customer service level targets of 98.5% to improve company focus on customer satisfaction.

Commercial director 1987-1996 Invited to HO to ensure that Styrell's product and service offer met current and future customer needs and was understood and implemented by the field.

Produced product strategy papers to communicate strategic direction.

Created product manager role to improve focus on key product areas.

Reduced costs by over Łl million via supplier action plan.

Divisional director 1974-1987 Recruited with full profit responsibility for two regions generating Ł53 million sales.

Successfully managed a major organisational restructure within budget and timescales.

Maintained sales during recession by increasing market share.

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Education and training

1986 Sundridge Park, General Management Development Programme, 3 weeks

1971-1974

Leeds University: BSc (Hons) Management Sciences Member of the Chartered Institute of Marketing Member of the Institute of Directors

Personal

Date of birth:

25 November 1953

Status:

Married; one adult daughter

Interests:

Golf, running, tennis, cycling, food and wine

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

When drawing out your CV:

Use a confident tone and positive language

Concentrate on your achievements not your responsibilities. This means listing things you have done - such as products launched, sales increase, awards won - not rewriting your job description. Quote figures whenever possible

Make your most relevant experience and skills prominent to encourage the employer to read on

Keep it to the point and concentrate on the quality of your achievements, not the quantity

List other skills that could raise you above the competition such as languages, driving licence, IT skills

Be ruthless with yourself and keep it to a maximum of two pages. Only very senior, experienced, executives have more

Check thoroughly for correct spelling and grammar - spotting errors is a quick and easy way of weeding out weaker candidates when faced with a mountain of CVs to read

Get a second opinion from someone you trust

Include examples of your work, if appropriate

Use good quality paper - white is usually best

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Don't:

Leave any gaps in your work record - employers may assume the worst, for example that you were sacked

Lie - many employers use information service companies or sophisticated new software to check CV details for accuracy, including educational qualifications, places of study and the veracity of job references

List all the one-day training courses you have ever been on

Include a photo unless you know the employer wants one

Fax it without sending a copy in the post as well

Use elaborate fonts, or colours keep it simple

Forget it's just a tool for getting you an interview. The CV will not land you the job alone, the rest is up to you

REMEMBER!

Your CV is an essential career document needed to present yourself effectively in the job market. You may need to put together more than one CV if you intend to apply for different types of job across different sectors. This will enable you to emphasise the particular achievements, skills, experience and personality qualities that a particular employer is looking for. Ensuring your CV is well presented and easy to follow is as important as including all the relevant information. Most people follow a historical CV format, as this is familiar to employers and is easy to write with employment history placed in chronological order. It also gives a good idea of career progression. If your career history is fragmented due to career breaks or a period of unemployment, you may consider a skills-based CV that highlights your abilities and aptitudes. It gives you the chance to describe what you can do, rather than detailing a list of jobs.

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CHECK-UP TEST

Draw out your Curriculum Vitae, using the following information:

NAME

Home Address:

Date of Birth:

Nationality:

Status:

 

Phone:

E-mail:

Education

(time length)

(town/city, institution)

Academic achievements (time length)

*

* Anything! From A-levels, to being employed in University, to prizes, etc.

Work experience (time length)

*

* Anything again! Like being official simultaneous translator for a EU Copernicus Project meeting in Bucharest and likely to continue that position in future meetings… or teaching different ages, translating articles for publication for others… or organizing meetings… whatever. Useful to mention if you have special abilities, like typing or computer literacy (which might go down under a different section as well).

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Additional information

e.g., Speaking English fluently, I have carried out translation work for both English and Romanian research periodicals.

or, I am a member of the British Veterinary Association.

or, During my work in Hungary, I liaised between Romanian organizations and their Hungarian counterparts.

or, I prepared a set of anatomical drawings which were used in an exhibition on techniques of anatomical preparations.

Or, I hold a clean driving licence and hope to buy a car soon.

etc.

Hobbies and interests

Arts, sports, social work, reading, etc.

REFERENCES

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UNIT 7 APPLICATION FORMS

Obiective: După parcurgerea şi studiul acestui capitol, cursantul este în măsură:

- să completeze diverse tipuri de formulare;

- să redacteze corespondenţă specifică pentru căutarea unui loc de muncă.

Key words: to fill out, lengthy, commitment, to spot, criminal record, application, vacancy, confidential, draft, succinct

Filling out job application forms can be time consuming and seems a little old fashioned. However, some employers, including the BBC and many in the public sector, still insist on it. From an employer's point of view, someone taking the time to fill out a lengthy form shows a certain level of commitment and interest on the part of the jobseeker, and allows the employer to extract more information from the applicant than some people include in their CVs. It makes it easier, for example, for the employer to pick out gaps in employment history or to spot that a box asking about a criminal record has not been ticked. Employers may hold your application 'on file' for the purpose of matching you up with any suitable vacancies that may crop up in the future. Under the Data Protection Act they are required to keep the information held in your application confidential, and used only for the purpose of recruitment, and for no longer than is necessary.

Do:

Read the instructions before you fill in the form. It has been designed to make life easy for the personnel team who won't waste time trying to work out where you have gone wrong

Photocopy the form beforehand and use the copy as a rough draft

Take time drafting the section about what you would bring to the job. This is your chance to shine in only 300 words - you need to be succinct. Concentrate on those achievements that will be most relevant to the job in question

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Write legibly if you cannot type in the information. The form should be easy to read, so keep your handwriting to a decent size and don't be afraid to leave some empty space - it looks better and is easier to read - even it if means leaving out that third prize you won in the annual sales competition ten years ago

Use black ink - it makes for clearer photocopies at the other end

Read your completed form carefully, checking for grammar and spelling errors and, if possible get a second opinion from someone

Keep a photocopy of your completed form for your own records

Don't:

Leave any questions unanswered. If a question is not applicable to you then say so

Include a CV as well, unless it has been requested. However, a short covering letter following some of the above guidelines is probably worthwhile

Lie - you'll be found out and the employer will probably never deal with you again. Many employers use information service companies to check out facts included in application forms

Job application letter in response to an advertisement

24 May 1998

Rose Cottage

Rigg Lane

Stoneham

LN1 3NH

John Wellington

First Rate Recruiters

12 Drummond Street

Glasgow G3 4RF Your reference XYZ 123

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Dear Mr Wellington

Re: regional manager vacancy: Evening Argus, 23 May

From a varied sales and marketing career in the car industry; I would like to highlight the following relevant skills and experience:

Successful planning of the restructuring of a large UK automotive dealer network

An instrumental role in developing a UK growth strategy for Skoda sales

Planning the profitable development of Ford brands in the UK

Creating a new team to build a vehicle distribution process at Skoda Cars

A lead role at Ford Cars in improving customer supply lead times and reducing vehicle inventories

Leading a team through TQM cascade programme supporting major Ford/Skoda programmes and later ISO 9001 accreditation programmes.

If you would like any further information, please get in touch.

Yours sincerely

Adam Smith

Covering Letters

The main purpose of writing a covering letter is to prompt a recruiter to read your CV. The letter gives you the chance to demonstrate that you understand the nature of the job being advertised; allows you to explain why you want to work in that area; and show how your skills and abilities fit the vacancy. While your CV tells the employer about you, the letter should concentrate on the position and the company. Remember to fully research the firm, perhaps by visiting its web site, and use this information to help draft your letter. The covering letter is your first contact with a potential future employer and a great chance to market your skills.

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Do:

Include a personalised covering letter with every CV you send out

Keep it short and factual - four or five paragraphs on one side of A4 paper

Tell the recruiter where you saw the ad and include any reference numbers

Refer to the CV you have attached - it might go missing and they'll think you haven't sent one

Tailor it to each specific application - outline how your experience matches job requirements

Say why you want the job

Concentrate on telling employers why you would be good for the job, rather than why the job would be good for you

If the job is in a different sector from the one to which you have devoted the past ten working years, draw links between the two

Try and show that you have done some research into the organisation already - for example mention that you have read the latest annual report or visited their web site.

Include any dates when you might be unavailable for interview. If you are able to take calls during the day, then provide a contact number

Check that you have addressed your letter to the right person, that you have used the correct job title and spelt his or her name correctly

You may wish to state your current salary and your salary expectations for the job.

Don't:

Simply send out standard covering letters to different employers

Underestimate the value of the covering letter - you can use it to lift your CV if your experience is lacking by drawing attention to your strengths

Speculative Letters

If you are not replying to an advertised position, it may be worth writing a speculative letter to a company that you would like to work for. In this instance, begin by stating the specific work you are seeking, say why you want to work for this particular company and ask for your CV to be held on file for any vacancies that may come up.

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Covering letter for a speculative / direct approach to a company

12 Fairfax Close

Stableton Bristol BS12 5RT Kenneth Brown

Molson plc 14-24 Cable Street Bristol BS2 4RT

25 July

Dear Mr Brown

Yesterday's Evening Post reported that you are expanding your sales and servicing activities. It occurred to me that you might need additional staff for your new branches. I am currently looking for opportunities to make use of my direct experience of working in a service centre and would therefore be extremely interested in any potential vacancies.

Over the past ten years I have worked in customer services initially in retail and most recently for a major plc. This work has included: taking bookings from customers and organising job schedules for service engineers in a service centre; training and supervising a team of three; setting up and running a customer complaints service; handling customer account queries.

Full details of my track record are contained in my CV which I have enclosed. I will phone next week to establish whether a meeting would be appropriate. I would very much like to discuss any potential opening with you.

Yours sincerely

Sally Jones

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Job application letter in response to an advertisement

24 May 1998

Rose Cottage

Rigg Lane

Stoneham

LN1 3NH

John Wellington

First Rate Recruiters

12 Drummond Street

Glasgow G3 4RF Your reference XYZ 123

Dear Mr Wellington

Re: regional manager vacancy: Evening Argus, 23 May

From a varied sales and marketing career in the car industry; I would like to highlight the following relevant skills and experience:

Successful planning of the restructuring of a large UK automotive dealer network

An instrumental role in developing a UK growth strategy for Skoda sales

Planning the profitable development of Ford brands in the UK

Creating a new team to build a vehicle distribution process at Skoda Cars

A lead role at Ford Cars in improving customer supply lead times and reducing vehicle inventories

If you would like any further information, please get in touch.

Yours sincerely

Adam Smith

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REMEMBER!

Filling out job application forms can be time consuming and seems a little old fashioned. Read the instructions before you fill in the form. Photocopy the form beforehand and use the copy as a rough draft Take time drafting the section about what you would bring to the job. Write legibly if you cannot type in the information. Use black ink. Read your completed form carefully, checking for grammar and spelling errors and, if possible get a second opinion from someone Keep a photocopy of your completed form for your own records Don’t leave any questions unanswered. Don’t include a CV as well, unless it has been requested. Don’t lie - you'll be found out and the employer will probably never deal with you again.

CHECK-UP TEST

1. Write a covering letter for a speculative / direct approach to a company.

2. Write a job application letter in response to an advertisement.

REFERENCES

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UNIT 8 JOB INTERVIEWS

Obiective: După parcurgerea şi studiul acestui capitol, cursantul este în măsură:

- să participe la un interviu pentru ocuparea unui loc de muncă.

Key words: job interview, applicant, interviewer, personnel officer, candidate, employee, check, to fire, personal weakness, career planning

Job interviews are never easy for an applicant. Most people get anxious about interviews, particularly if they are seriously interested in the job. They are afraid that they will not do well. The style of the interviewer may vary from warm and interested to cold and aloof or even rude. Some interviewers expect the applicant to make only brief remarks; others encourage or expect you to do most of the talking. You should not be surprised by occasional silence from the interviewer. Employers and personnel officers will sometimes ask questions that you do not expect, because they are interested in how you react and respond. Before you go to an interview, think about the responses you would make if you were asked questions regarding your choice of academic field, positions you are interested in, work experience, etc. From the point of view of the organization, an interview is conducted: (1) to obtain information and impressions about applicants, and (2) to give applicants information about the organization. Many interviewers seem to be most concerned about ruling out undesirable candidates, so negative information gained from the applicant often carries more weight than positive information. The average interview is fairly brief, lasting about twenty to thirty-five minutes. Decisions to employ are often based on subjective factors such as intuition, attitudes, and ideas about a good employee. Your objective as an applicant in a job interview is to present yourself honestly, but in such a way that the interviewer develops a positive impression based on subjective factors unrelated to job performance. For example, the employment interview is not the place to talk about personal problems, family problems, or previous job problems. Never lie about leaving previous jobs, for

71

contradictions will show up when personnel officers do reference checks. If you were fired, be honest with the interviewer and say you didn’t have the skills or understand the responsibility. Also say you are looking for ways to grow and to overcome such problems in the future. No matter what happened, don’t criticize your former employer of the people you worked with if you do, you will probably lose the job. If the interviewer asks about personal weaknesses, always speak of your weaknesses as potential areas of development. You might say, for example, ”I haven’t had management experience yet, but that’s what I fiind appealing about this job. I think it will give me the opportunity to get some experience.” Or turn your weakness into a strength, saying, for example, ”I’m a perfectionist.” Most interviewers look for a pleasant, friendly person who has positive attitudes toward working. They expect the applicant to be prepared to discuss his or her skills and experiences and how he or she would fit the job being sought. The positive person who has been involved in career planning and has some idea of where he or she wants to be in five or ten years has a jump ahead of the person shopping for a job.

Here are some suggestions for handling job interviews:

- Make an appointment. Be on time for the appointment. Some evidence is available that being on time is even more important than appearance in making a positive first impression. If you are going to be the least bit late, call ahead. When you arrive, apologize immediately for your tardiness and explain what delayed you. Treat the secretary or others in the outer office with courtesy and respect.

- Go alone. Don’t take a friend or a parent. The employer is interested in you. If a friend of parent accompanies you, the employer may wonder if you are mature or serious enough to handle a job.

- Before you go, think about the questions you may be asked. Although interviewers

vary in the questions they ask, most of them want to know what experience you have had, what education you have had and where you received it, what you are like, what your plans for the future are, what you can do well, the state of your health, and the like. You can prepare by asking yourself these questions and planning your answers. For example, if you are asked why you left your last job, there are several good reasons you can name, all of them positive: ”I needed more opportunity for growth”, or, ”I’m looking for professional advancement.”

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- If your long-range goal is to go into business for yourself, you may want to avoid

daying so. You certainly will not encourage an employer by indicating that you will

give the company the privilege of training you for a year or two, but then plan on going on your own to compete with it.

- Be attentive. Remain standing until you are invited to sit down. Listen to what the

interviewer is saying. Talk clearly (that does not mean loudly) and directly to the interviewer. Answer questions factually, fully, and direclty. If you do not hear something the interviewer has said, ask him or her to repeat it. Many interviewing experts consider communication and interpersonal skills as the single most important factors in the interview.onverbal behaviours such as eye contact, smiling, and attentive

posture are also influential.

- Show interest. Before an employer hires you, he or she must know what you can do

and must feel confident that you can do it. Mny employers who interview young people say that they often show no interest in the job or what it can lead to in the future. All too

often, these employers say that young people are only interested in the money and the hours of employment. You need not and should not claim that you know everything about the job, but you must show that you are eager to learn and improve as you go along.

- You may be able to state your abilities more clearly if you plan beforehand how you might describe them to an interviewer. Also show an interest in the company as a

whole, not just in the particular job. To do so, research the company before the interview finding out what it does, its history, future plans, etc. Statements that indicate cooperation, dependability, trustworthiness, and motivation help to counter negative impressions. The interviewer looks for a pleasant, socially aware individual who is enthusiastic about work and career.

- To maintain an interviewer’s attention on objective factors, you need to discuss your

special qualifications for the position both at the beginning and other times. Mentioning

specific and relevant skills, work epxerience, and educational background demonstrates both your strength as a candidate and your understanding of the skills the job requires.

- Do not prolong the interview. Once the interviewer indicates that it is over, leave

promptly unless you have something relevant to say. If you do, tell the interviewer what

you want to say. Most interviewers have other appointments to keep, but they want to be sure that you have presented everything that should be said on your behalf. Ask for

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the privilege of returning or calling in a few days to find out whether you have the job. Be sure to express your appreciation for the interview. - Unless you have been told that you have or do not have the job, return occasionally to inquire as to whether there is an opening. Do not let the firm forget you, but do not make a nuisance of yourself. Ask your questions courteously, but do not linger after you have a reply. If you have an unsuccessful interview, analyse the whole experience and plan how you could present your case better next time. If, after an interview, you fail to get the job, do not always assume that you made a bad impression. Employers often have so many qualified applicants that they must turn dwn many who could handle the job well. The person they finally employ may have some chance advantage over the other applicants a personality that matches those of the other workers in the organization, for example that you could not possibly guess at. So if you fail to get a job, try not to worry about it. Go on to the next interview, and do the best you can.

Questions frequently asked during job interviews:

1. What led you to choose your academic major or field? What do(n’t) you like about it?

2. In what kinds of positions are you most interested?

3. Would you identify or describe any summer or previous employment in this or a related field?

4. What have you learned from previous work experience?

5. In choosing a job, what are your most important considerations?

6. What courses have you taken that you think helped prepare you for this occupation? How did you do in them?

7. Why are you interviewing with our organization?

8. Do you have any geographical preferences about where you work?

9. What do you expect to be doing five/ten years from now? What are your long- range goals?

10. If you are married, how does your spouse view your working?

11. How important is your family and personal life compared with your work?

12. What are your father’s/mother’s/spouse’s occupations?

13. How do you spend your leisure time?

14. What would you say is your strongest attribute? Weakest?

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15.

What are your ideas on salary? How much money do you want to be earning five years from now?

16. Were you ever fired from a job? Did you ever quit? Why?

17. What can you contribute to this organization?

18. Do you have any questions you want to ask?

You can show your interest in the job and the company by asking questions. The interview is the place to become informed about the company. Too many applicants close up and can’t remember the questions they have, so write them down and put them in order of importance to you. Use the list to ask what you want to know. Here are some questions you may want to ask:

1. Is there a written jos description I can see?

2. What are the usual working hours/policy on overtime?

3. Is there any probationary period for a new employee? If so, how long is it and who makes the decision?

4. Is a pre-employment physical examination required by the company? Des the company pay for it?

5. Is there a policy on vacation time/sick leave? How many vacation days and sick time hours are accrued in what length of time?

6. Are there company sports teams/physical fitness facilities?

7. Does the company offer a retirement plan? Do employees contribute to it? How long must I work before I become eligible for the plan?

8. Does the firm publish its salary schedule? Are there policies about cost-of-living increases/merit raises/bonuses?

9. How and when will I be notified whether I have the job?

Dressing for an interview It may not be fair, but plenty of surveys have shown that appearance really counts in interview situations. Looking credible and confident can suggest you're the right person for the job. The key to dressing for interview is to dress appropriately for the company to which you are applying, and to keep things simple. 'Do your homework and see how the company presents itself on a daily basis,' says Barney Tremblay of the Federation of

75

Image Consultants. 'A three-piece suit may be totally inappropriate for a laid-back design agency, for example.'

Do:

Familiarise yourself with the dress code of the company you are applying to. If this is not possible, wear a suit - it shows respect. If you get a second meeting you can then dress more like those you observe around the company.

Try your interview outfit on in advance and make sure you have everything cleaned, pressed and in good repair in advance. It may sound obvious but the last thing you need on the day is a panic over clothing

Pay attention to detail and keep accessories to a minimum.

Keep cosmetics simple, neutral and well applied

Choose garments that flatter your shape and unobtrusive colours.

Don't:

Overdress turning up in top hat and tails might be a bit over the top, especially if everyone else is in jeans and trainers

Neglect grooming details - unkempt fingernails and dandruff on shoulders can be distracting and offputting

Wear too much perfume or cologne

Pick loud colours or patterns - if in doubt err on the side of caution and go muted

Wear uncomfortable garments - you won't feel relaxed. It's best to pick an outfit you have worn before.

Body language From the moment an interviewer sees you, they form an impression about what sort of person you are, and what kind of employee you would make. This is because even when we are not speaking, we are communicating. The way we move, our gestures and what we wear, all say something about who

we are.

According to Julia Campion, from image consultancy First Impressions, during the first 60 seconds of an interview situation, 55 per cent of interviewers' first impressions are based on body language and appearance. Only seven per cent focus on the words we use.

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So how can you appear more confident, even if your knees are trembling?

Make an entrance Traditionally a daunting place, the interview room represents hostile territory and we tend to slow our walking pace when entering an unknown area. Slowing down however can suggest reluctance, or a lack of confidence. But rather than enter the room at full speed, or dawdling, Alan Pease, author of Body Language - How to read others' thoughts by their gestures suggests that interviewees make a point of just pausing at the door before entering at speed.

The handshake Firm, but friendly is the best way. Nobody likes a limp, 'wet fish' handshake, which can suggest a weak character. However, also avoid taking off the interviewer's hand at the wrist. What Pease describes as a 'knuckle grinder' can denote over-confidence, or even arrogance.

The eyes Eye contact is vital, but be careful not to overdo it - you don't want to stare down your potential boss. A trick to maintaining eye contact is to use what Pease describes as 'the business gaze'. 'Imagine there is a triangle on the other's person's forehead. By keeping your gaze directed at this area, you create a serious atmosphere and the other person senses that you mean business,' he says.

The mouth Smile - most of us can manage a smile. It helps you relax and it makes you appear personable and approachable. 'It portrays a lack of fear. After all it's an interview, not a trial,' says Campion.

Posture Slouching and tipping back on the chair should be left to schoolchildren. Remember to sit up as it makes you look attentive, while leaning forward slightly makes you look as if you are taking an active interest.

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Avoid crossing your arms or legs as this creates a defensive barrier. Barrier postures are a no-no, as they can look as if you have got something to hide.

Gestures Should be open and expansive, you want to try and involve the interviewer in what you are saying. Keep palms up and open to suggest honesty and avoid pointing or banging fists on the table to emphasise a point, it's too aggressive. Try to copy some of the interviewer's gestures. Copying, or as Pease describes it 'mirroring', gestures is a way for us to tell others that we like them.

Read the signs Finally, don't forget an interview is a two-way process. Remember to read your interviewer's body language. As you launch into your well-rehearsed speech on 'How I would motivate staff', beware if the interviewer folds their arms. Pease warns: 'You may have said something with which the other person disagrees. So it may be pointless continuing your line of argument, even if the other person may be verbally agreeing with you.'

Make every second count You never get a second chance to make a first impression. Make sure, that along with all your interview research, you spend some time working on your body language. As Campion says: 'Interviews only give you a short time to get your message across. By using body language and dress, you can make sure you start as soon as you get through the door.'

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Interviewers' favourites

Tell me about yourself This is a good chance to impress an employer, but it is a deceptively simple question that can have a variety of answers. The employer is really interested in how you would fit into the company, so keep your answers as pertinent to the company and its work as possible.

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Why do you want this job? The employer wants to know that you are genuinely interested in the company, and not just looking for something to tick you over for a few months. Say that you view the position as your natural next step. You like the firm because … show off your knowledge and make all that research you have done worthwhile.

Why should we offer you this job? You need to show how you can add new skills or ideas to the job. You could try thinking about any weaknesses you perceive in the company, and how your past experience and unique abilities could benefit the company.

Why did you leave your last job? The interviewer may want to know if you had any problems in your last job. If you did not have any problems, simply give a reason such as: it was a temporary job or you want a job better fitted to your particular skills. If you did have problems, honesty is the best policy. Show that you can accept responsibility and learn from any mistakes you made. Explain any problems you had and, and don’t be tempted to slag off the employer concerned. Demonstrate that it was a learning experience that will not affect your future work.

What's been your biggest success at work? The interviewer wants to see that you can use your initiative. Talk about your own achievements rather than how you helped someone else achieve. Perhaps you had a difficult goal you had to reach? Think about how you handled meeting that goal. It is a good idea to think in advance of a few key moments from past jobs that demonstrate how well you handle different situations.

Why did you choose this career path? This question is particularly pertinent if you are changing job or sector. You need to convince the interviewer that you have a clear idea of the industry and your value. To make the employer understand how you could fit in, talk about the transferable skills you have picked up over the course of your career. Also stress what aspects of their industry are attractive to you.

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Where do you see yourself in five years time?

Although it is difficult to predict things far into the future, the employer will want to

hire somebody with drive and a sense of purpose. They will also want to know they can

depend on you, and figure out if they can offer what you really want. Avoid choosing

specific job titles you aspire to, instead mention skills and responsibilities you would

like to take on.

What is your current salary and how much are expecting?

When you talk about your current salary include the whole package with any perks such

as car, pension, interest free loans and bonuses. Don't suggest you are earning far more

than you are, it is easy to check. Make sure you know the salary range for similar jobs

and professions by recruitment agencies and other job adverts in specialist publications.

You could try putting the onus on the interviewer to make the first suggestion by asking

how much they are prepared to pay the best candidate. You then have a negotiating

point.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

"Tell Me About Yourself" The Toughest Question in the Interview

When you, as a job seeker, are asked the most common, and toughest, interview

question, "Tell me about yourself," your answer can make or break you as a candidate.

Usually job seekers will respond with their "30 second commercial," and then elaborate

on their background.

Many people fail in their job search because they are too often focused on what

they want in a job including industry, type of position, location, income, benefits, and

work environment. Their "30 second commercial" is centered around this premise. The

commercial describes the job seeker's career history and what they are looking for. Too

often, this is in direct contrast to what employers are looking for.

There are two dominant reasons why job seekers are successful in the job search.

The first is focusing on the needs of the organization. The second is focusing on the

needs of the people within that organization. In this article, we are going to examine

how to focus on the needs of the people within organizations.

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This will assist in rethinking your response to that all-important question, "Tell me about yourself." In order to learn how to respond to the needs of the interviewer, let's first learn more about ourselves. We can then apply that knowledge about ourselves to knowing how to understand and respond to the needs of others. Most social psychologists recognize four basic personality styles: Analytical, Amiable, Expressive, and Driver. Usually, each of us exhibits personality characteristics unique to one of the styles; however, we also possess characteristics to a lesser degree in the other styles. Here are the characteristics that are most commonly associated with each of the styles:

- Analytical: Positive Traits: Precise, Methodical, Organized, Rational, Detail

Oriented / Negative Traits: Critical, Formal, Uncertain, Judgmental, Picky - Amiable: Positive Traits: Cooperative, Dependable, Warm, Listener, Negotiator / Negative Traits: Undisciplined, Dependent, Submissive, Overly Cautious,

Conforming - Expressive: Positive Traits: Enthusiastic, Persuasive, Outgoing, Positive, Communicator / Negative Traits: Ego Centered, Emotional, Exploitive, Opinionated, Reacting

- Driver: Positive Traits: Persistent, Independent, Decision Maker, Effective,

Strong Willed / Negative Traits: Aggressive, Strict, Intense, Relentless, Rigid

Gaining an in-depth understanding of your personality style has enormous value in your career as well as your personal life.

REMEMBER!

Job interviews are never easy for an applicant. Employers and personnel officers will sometimes ask questions that you do not expect, because they are interested in how you react and respond. Before you go to an interview, think about the responses you would make if you were asked questions regarding your choice of academic field, positions you are interested in, work experience, etc. Negative information gained from the applicant often carries more weight than positive information. The average interview is fairly brief. Decisions to employ are often based on subjective factors such as intuition, attitudes, and ideas about a good employee.

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Your objective as an applicant in a job interview is to present yourself honestly, but in such a way that the interviewer develops a positive impression based on subjective factors unrelated to job performance. Never lie about leaving previous jobs, for contradictions will show up when personnel officers do reference checks. If you were fired, be honest with the interviewer and say you didn’t have the skills or understand the responsibility. Always speak of your weaknesses as potential areas of development. Turn your weakness into a strength.

CHECK-UP TEST

1. Write a one-page letter to a high-school student preparing for his/her first job interview, giving the student advice on how to succeed at the interview. 2. Write a 300-word essay on the best/worst appearance of an applicant for a job as a secretary of a top company.

REFERENCES

Wiener, Harvey S., Charles Bazerman, All of Us. A Multicultural Reading Skills Handbook, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992 - Bruce Shertzer, ”Job Interviews” http://www.careerbuilder.com

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EVALUATION TEST

1. Design your curriculum vitae including all the relevant information you wish to give

about yourself.

2. Imagine a telephone conversation with a friend about the unexpected arrival of a

distant relative from abroad.

3. Imagine a telephone conversation with new employee regarding the delay of some

important business contracts.

4. Imagine a telephone conversation with a business partner complaining about not having received the required information.

5. Write a covering letter for a speculative approach to a company.

6. Write a job application letter in response to an advertisement.

7. Write a letter thanking your cousin for a birthday present and describing how you

spent your birthday.

8. You receive an invitation to spend your summer holidays with an English family.

Write a letter accepting/declining the invitation.

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VOCABULARUL DE BAZĂ AL LIMBII ENGLEZE (BASIC ENGLISH VOCABULARY)

I. Nouns

accident

area

action

argument

actor

arm

addition

army

address

arrival

advantage

art

advertisement

article

advice

artist

affair

assistant

afternoon

atmosphere

age

attention

agriculture

attraction

aid

aunt

air

authority

airport

autumn

alcohol

avenue

ambition

amount

baby

amusement

back

anger

bacon

angle

bag

animal

baker’s

apparatus

balance

apple

ball

appointment

band

approval

bank

arch

barber’s

architect

base

84

basin

bottle

basket

bottom

bath

box

battle

boy

beard

brain

beauty

brake

bed

branch

bedroom

bread

beef

breakfast

beer

breath

behaviour

bridge

belief

brother

bell

brush

bench

building

bill

bus

bird

business

birth

butcher’s

birthday

butter

biscuit

button

bit

bite

café

blackboard

cake

blade

camera

blanket

cancer

block

candidate

blood

cap

blouse

capital

board

capitalism

boat

captain

body

car

bone

card

book

care

booking-office

carpet

boot

cart

border

cat

85

cattle

coal

centre

coast

century

coat

ceremony

coffee

chair

coin

chalk

collar

chance

colony

character

colour

chat

comb

cheat

comedy

cheese

comfort

chemist’s

commander

cheer

commerce

cheque

committee

cherry

communication

chest

communism

chief

communist

chicken

company

child

comparison

chimney

competition

chin

composition

chocolate

compromise

church

concert

cigar

condition

cigarette

conductor

cinema

congratulation

circle

connection

city

conservative

class

constitution

clerk

conversation

climate

co-operation

clock

copy

cloth

cord

clothes

cork

cloud

corner

86

cotton

desert

council

design

country

desire

courage

detail

court

detective

cover

development

cow

dictator

crack

difference

cream

difficulty

creation

direction

credit

discovery

crime

disturb

criminal

dining-room

crowd

dinner

cup

direction

cupboard

disarmament

current

discover

curtain

discussion

custom

disease

customer

disgust

dish

danger

dispute

date

distance

daughter

distribution

day

doctor

death

dog

debate

dollar

debt

door

decision

doubt

defence

dozen

degree

drawer

delay

dress

democracy

driver

departure

driving

desk

dust

87

ear

factory

earth

failure

east

fame

edge

family

education

farm

effect

farmer

effort

father

egg

favour

election

feeling

element

female

emotion

fever

employee

fiction

end

field

enemy

figure

energy

film

engine

fine

engineer

finger

entrance

fire

envelope

fireplace

equality

fish

error

flag

essay

flame

evening

flat

event

flight

examination

floor

example

flour

existence

flower

expansion

fog

experience

food

expert

foot

expression

foreigner

eye

fork

framework

face

freedom

fact

friend

88

friendship

guide

front

gun

frontier

fruit

hair

fuel

hairdresser’s

fun

half

furnace

hall

furniture

ham

future

hand

handkerchief

game

harbour

garage

harvest

garden

hat

gas

head

gate

headache

gentleman

headline

gift

health

girl

heart

glass

heating

globe

helicopter

glove

hen

goal

hill

gold

history

good-bye

holiday

government

home

governor

homework

grandfather

honey

grandmother

horse

grass

hospital

grip

hotel

grocer’s

hour

ground

house

group

humour

growth

husband

guest

89

ice

knife

ice-cream

knowledge

idea

illness

laboratory

improvement

labour

impulse

lady

increase

lamp

independence

land

industry

language

information

lake

initiative

law

ink

leader

insect

leaf

instrument

learning

insurance

leather

interest

leg

invention

lesson

iron

letter

island

level

liberty

jam

library

jet

licence

jewel

life

job

lift

journey

limit

joy

line

justice

linen

lip

kettle

list

key

literature

kidney

liver

kidness

lorry

king

lot

kitchen

lunch

knee

lung

90

machine

Miss

magazine

mistake

maize

model

male

moment

man

money

manager

month

manner

moon

market

morning

marmalade

motel

map

mother

masterpiece

mountain

match

mouth

material

movement

matter

Mr.

mayor

Mrs.

meal

museum

measure

music

meat

mutton

medicine

meeting

name

member

nation

memory

nature

merchant

neck

message

neighbour

metal

neutral

method

news

middle

newspaper

midnight

night

mile

noise

milk

noon

mine

north

mineral

nose

minister

notebook

minute

number

misfortune

nurse

91

<

nut

penny

people

observation

person

occasion

petrol

ocean

photograph

office

piano

officer

picture

oil

piece

operation

pig

opinion

pillow

opposition

pilot

orange

pin

orchestra

pipe

organization

place

origin

plane

oven

plant

owner

plate

platform

packet

pleasure

page

plum

pain

pocket

painter

poetry

palace

police

paper

politics

parcel

population

parent

pork

park

port