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STAN CTLIN

ENTOMOLOGIE

MANUAL UNIVERSITAR
pentru
nvmntul la distan

CRAIOVA
2011

CUPRINS

Tema nr. 1
!"#$"%"&'()*+,*#-.)()'-/*0,*%"#...................................................................... 1
1.1. !"#$%&'(&"#)*+(,)%)&-"%) ....................................................................................................... 1
1.2. ./0",)%)&'(&"#)*+(,)%)&-"%)................................................................................................... 5
1.3. 12+/3)*$%&'(&"#)*+(,)%)&-"%) .............................................................................................. 8
Tema nr. 2
SCHELETUL INSECTELOR.
STADIILE DE DE DEZVOLTARE ALE INSECTELOR ................................................... 11
2.1. Tegumentul struc4$05&'(&6$*,7((........................................................................................... 11
2.2. 84"+($%&+)&/$&'(&-4"+($%&+)&%"095&%"&(*-),4) .......................................................................... 13
:;<;&84"+($%&+)&#$#5&'(&-4"+($%&+)&"+$%4 ...................................................................................... 16
Tema nr. 3
FACTORII CARE INFLUENTEAZA DEZVOLTAREA INSECTELOR.
*/,'!(#*()1(2-*%"#)3')4(&25*%"#)4#"12/*)1*)1.2-.,"#' .................. 19
3.1. Factorii abiotic(&,"0)&(*6%$)*7)"=5&+)=9/%4"0)"&(*-),4)%/0 .................................................... 19
3.2. >",4/0((&2(/4(,(&'(&)+"6(,(&,"0)&(*6%$)*7)"=5&+)=9/%4"0)"&(*-),4)%/0....................................... 21
3.3. ?-4(3"0)"&+"$*)%/0&'(&#"@$2)%/0&#0/+$-)&+)&+5$*54/0( ...................................................... 24
Tema nr. 4
!*,"1*)1*)0"!5(,*#*)()1.2-.,"#'%"#)4%(-,*%"#)(&#'0"%*............ 28
A;B;&C5-$0(&#0)9)*4(9) .............................................................................................................. 28
4.2. Metode fizice, mec"*(,)D&,E(3(,)&+)&,/32"4)0)&"&+5$*54/0(%/0&#%"*4)%/0&"@0(,/%) .............. 31
A;<;&C)4/+)&2(/%/@(,)&+)&,/32"4)0)&"&+5$*54/0(%/0&#%"*4)%/0&"@0(,/%) ....................................... 37
Tema nr. 5
RE02-"(3,*#*()4#'-0'4(%'%"#)1.2-.,"#')
AI CULTURILOR AGRICOLE............................................................................................ 43
F;B;&G5$*54/0((&#/%(6"@(............................................................................................................. 43
F;:;&G5$*54/0((&,)0)"%)%/0.......................................................................................................... 47
F;<;&G5$*54/0((&"%4/0&,$%4$0(&"@0(,/%) ......................................................................................... 52
,*/,)1*)*6(%2(#*)$'-(%. .......................................................................................... 61
BIBLIOGRAFIE ...................................................................................................................... 66

Tema nr. 1

!"#$"%"&'()*+,*#-.)()'-/*0,*%"#
1234563)78)92:56;<8)=

!
!
!

!"!"#$%&'(#)*#%&+,-*.+(+#/%(+
!"0"#123%.+(+#)*#%&+,-*.+(+#/%(+
!"4"#56-27+,'(#)*#%&+,-*.+(+#/%(+

Obiectivele temei:
.',2%)terea )*# 8,9+(+:+3+%# .2,.+&;+(23# )*# <237%3+%# &+3/&+.;*=+*# %/'pra morfologiei
externe a insectelor;
>#-+?6%;+3+%#&%3;*.'(%3*;@9*(23#morfologice ale diferitelor specii de insecte.
>#%,%(*?%3+%#.23+(%9*+*#-*,;3+#-*<+3*;+(+#;*&'3*#-+#%&%3%;+#6'.%(+#)*#-%',+(+#&32=2.%;+#-+#
*,/+.;+(+#-@',@;2%3+#&(%,;+(23#%:3*.2(+"
Timpul alocat temei : 5 ore
>3?@3AB<;C38)<8DAE;27;45)=
1. Andriescu L., Bobrnac B., Perju T., Ghizdavu L., !"#$#$% &'% ())*)+,'% #+",-)*.%
A-*;'3%#5.%-+7*+*#B27C,+D#E'.'3+);*D 2001
2. Ghizdavu I.,)*# .2(%6", Entomologie a+",-)*."# A-*;"# F*-%.;*.@# )*# G+-%:2:*.@
R.A.,E'.'3+);*., 1997.
3. Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%+'0'"#*.2 Editura SITECH Craiova, 1998.
4. Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%#+",-)*.2 Editura Universitaria Craiova, 2005.
5. H*;3+%# I"D# J;%,# $"D# K'.@# L"D Entomologie vol. 1, Editura Reprograph Craiova,
2008.
1.1 CapF@)G3);H8273D8@8)I;@8

D5F254A<33)
plantelor
agricole

!"#$%&$' ()*")&+,-$' ./"%-0' 1-thropoda, cls.


Insecta sau Hexapoda). - 80%
12&$' "$3$-&$4-,&$' ()*")&+,-$
,%,-5$"56'7+2*8&$'$&%09'- 15%

(nematozi,

:$-&$4-,&$'()*")&+,-$'.7,75;$-$6'<)#)-59' 5%

Introducere : Insectele sunt animale nevertebrate cu corp segmentat (unitatea


/*/;+7%;*.@# .+%# 7%*# ,'7+32%/@# %# 3+:,'('*# %,*7%(, peste 70%) <%.# &%3;+# -*,# 8,.3+,:@;'3%#
Arthropoda, clasa Insecta sau Hexapoda. Segmentele corpului sunt grupate n 3 regiuni
distincte: cap, ;23%.+##)*#%6-27+,#"

Ve-vertex; Fr-frunte; Ge-obraji; Cl-clipeu; Ocochi; Ocl-oceli; Ant- antene; Lbr-labrum (buza
/'&+3*2%3@PR# S6-(%6*'7# O6'?%# *,<+3*2%3@PR# H-#
mandibule;
Mx-maxile;Pm-pronot;
Mznmezotorace; Mta -metatorace; Ar-aripi; Pcpicioare; Stg-stigme; An- anus;Ov- ovopozitor;
Ce-.+3.*#O-'&@#T+((+3P"
=$>5"$7 : Capul insectelor (caput, epicranium, D;HIF@;)D8C;@3D5)
- +/;+#%(.@;'it din contopirea %#)%/+#/+:7+,;+: acron, antenal, intercalar, mandibular,
maxilar )i labial (vizibile numai n stadiul embrionar)
- &3+?*,;@#anterior - 23*<*.*'(#6'.%(#)*#posterior - orificiul occipital
- are for7@ =%3*%;@: %(',:*;@D#;3*',:M*'(%3@D#.2,*.@D (@9*;@#+;."#iar d'&@#&2?*9*%#/%#<%9@#-+#
corp, capul la insecte poate fi (fig.4):
- prognat, cnd piesele bucale sunt orientate nainte n prelungirea axei corpului,
(coleoptere);
- ortognat, cnd organele bucale sunt ndreptate n jos, iar axa capului este mai mult
/%'#7%*#&'9*,#&+3&+,-*.'(%3@#&+#%N%#.23&'('*#O+"','",2%-)3#4,2%*.-53$');
- hipognat, .C,-#&*+/+(+#6'.%(+#/',;#23*+,;%;+#8,-@3@;D#*%3#%N%#.%&'('*#<237+%?@#.'#%N%#
.23&'('*#',#',:M*#%/.'9*;#O;*/%,2&;+3+D#6(%;*-+D#.*.%-+D#+;."P"

* Regiunile capului pe partea dorsala: Occipitalul (occiput) sau ceafa, c-$8&$&*2


(vertex), Fruntea (frons) )*#.lipeul (clypeus).
* Regiunile capului pe partea ventrala: <+->5*"$,'4,?52,-) (gula), ?FJ;)32C8<3A;<5
(labium), Obrajii (genae), Tmplele (tempora) .
Apendicele capului

A%B55'%+7<*85 - /',;#8,#,'7@3#-+#-2*, %(.@;'*9*#-*,;3-un


,'7@3# =ariabil de celule hexagonale denumite
ommatidii O.'# .C;# ,'7@3'(# %.+/;23%# +/;+# 7%*# 7%3+# .'#
%;C;#=+-+3+%#+/;+#7%*#&+3<+.9*2,%;@P

Organele
vizuale (oculi)
Ochii simpli, pot fi:
- oceli O8,#,'7@3#-+#!# 7P#8,;C(,*9*#(%#%-'(9*
- stemate O8,#,'7@3#-+#!# 7) 8,;C(,*9*#la stadiul de lar=@
Antenele (antennae), sunt o pereche de apendice mobile, inserate n diferite &2?*9**#n
apropierea 2.M**#.27&')*D#%'#32(#2(<%.;*=#)*#;%.;*( )*#/',;#formate dintr-un articol bazal, numit
scapus, &+#.%3+#/+# *,/+3@#%(# -2*(+%#%3;*.2(D pedicelul, -'&@#.%3+ *-7$,?)';2,@$2*2'(funiculul
#,*'8"*-*2',"&$"$5), format dintr-',#,'7@r variabil de articole antenale. Q'7@3'(#%3;*.2(+(23#
%,;+,%(+# +/;+# <2%3;+# =%3*%;D# 8,# <',.9*+# -+# /&+.*%# -+# *nsecte de la trei articole (Musca

domestica), &C,@#(%# 80 - 100 de articole (Blatta orientalis). F'&@#<237%#)*#%)+?%3+%#%3;*.2(+(23#


antenale /+#-*/;*,:#'37@;2arele tipuri de antene:
a /+;*<237@# O;+;*:2,**-+PR# 6# <*(*<237@#
(carabide); c 72,*(*<237@# (termite); d
/+3%;@# O+(%;+3*-+PR# +# # pectinate (unele
lepidoptere); f

7@.*'.%;- .(%=%;@#
(pieride); g 7@.*'.%;-.%&*;%;@#O/*3<*-+PR# M#
fusiform (zygaenide); i- (%7+(%;@#
(melolontine); l :+,*.'(%;@#O('.%,*-+PR##7#
neregulate (hydrophilide) n &+,%;@#
(saturnide); o %,;+,@# /etifere (muscide);
O-'&@#E2:-%,2=-Katikov).

Aparatul bucal. F'&@# .%3%.;+3+(+# <',.9*2,%(+# %(+# 23:%,+(23# .27&2,+,;+# )*# -'&@#
72-'(# -+# M3%,@# %(# *,/+.;+(23D# /+# 8,;C(,+/.# '37@;2%3+(+ tipuri principale de aparate bucale la
insecte:
1. Aparatul bucal de rupt G3)E;I43D;4
Este -+,'7*;# )*# %&%3%t masticator
sau -+?)&+-' este &5<*2' ($' 4,?)' ($' ,<,-,&'
bucal la insecte G3) +/;+# %(.@;'*;# -*,U# buza
#*<$-5+,-) (labrum) cu rol de a apuca
hrana; mandibulele sau maxilarele
superioare, piese pereche cu rol de a apuca,
3'&+# )*# /<@3C7%# :32/2(%,# M3%,%R# maxilele
/',;# &*+/+# &+3+.M+D# %(.@;'*;+# -*,U cardo,
stipes, palp maxilar, lobul extern (galea) )*
lobul intern (lacinia), au r2('(#-+#%#7@3',9*#
(tritura) hrana; 4*?,' 5";$-5+,-) (labium),
&*+/@# ,+&+3+.M+# <237%;@# -*,U submentum,
Lbr-labrum;Md-mandibule; Mx-maxile; Lb -labium; mentum, 2 palpi labiali, g1ose sau lobi
cd - cardo; st-stipes; li-lob intern; lex- lob extern; *,;+3,*# )* parag1ose sau lobi externi. are
p.m. -palp maxilar; Sm -submentum; Mn -mentum; gl 32('(# -+# %# ;+37*,%# ;3*;'3%3+%# M3%,+*# )*# -+# %#
- glose; pgi- paraglose; pl- &%(&# (%6*%(R# O-'&@# forma bolul alimentar .
H%,2(%.M+#)*#E2:'(+%,'P

2. (H;<;4F@)?FD;@)H824<F)<FH4K)@32I)G3)IFH4
E/;+# /&+.*<*.# %-'(9*(23# L3-"# # Hymenoptera
O=*+/&*D# %(6*,+D# 62,-%3*P# &3+?*,;@# '37@;2%3+(+#
caracteristici: labrum este mai alungit; mandibulele
/',;# &';+3,*.+D# ')23# %(',:*;+# .'# &@39*(+# *,;+3*2%3+#
&3+=@?';+# .'# ?*79*D# .'# 32(# -+# 32%-+3+R# maxilele
&3+?*,;@# /;*&+/'(# %(',:*;D# (26**# +N;+3,*# %(',:*9*D# -+#
forma unei coase, avnd rol de sprijin al trompei, iar
(26**#*,;+3,*#)*#&%(&**#7%N*(%3*#/',;#%;32<*%9*R labium are
/;3'.;'3%# .+%# 7%*# 72-*<*.%;@U# 7+,;'7# /-a alungit
glosele s-%'#%(',:*;#)*#/-au unit sub forma unui organ
tubuliform (trompa), parag1osele s-au atrofiat iar
&%(&**# (%6*%(*# /',;# %(',:*9*# /*# %'# 32(# -+# /&3*V*,# %(# %(#
trompei (ligula), care este organul principal pentru lins
)*# /'&;D# &3+?*,;@# *,# *,;+3*23# ',# .%,%(# %(*7+,;%3# )*# /+#
;+37*,@#.'#2#&*+/@#.%#2#(*,:'3*9@#-+,'7*;@ flabellum.
3

3. Aparatul bucal de lins si supt


E/;+# /&+.*<*.# %-'(9*(23# -*,# 23-*,'(# Lepidoptera
O<(';'3*P#&3+?*,;@#'37@;2%3+(+#.%3%.;+3*/;*.*U labrum s-a
redus, man-*6'(+(+# %'# -*/&@3';D# palpii maxilari sunt
%;32<*%9*D# (26**# *,;+3,*# )*# +N;+3,*# %*# 7%N*(+(23# /-au
%(',:*;# )*# ',*;# <237C,-# ;327&%D# .%3+# 8,# &2?*9*+# -+#
3+&%'/#)*#8,#;*7&'(#?623'('*#/+#/;3C,:+#/'6#<237%#',+*#
/&*3%(+#<**,-#,'7*;@#)* 36,",$")16..
Din labium doar palpii labiali sunt puternic
%(',:*9*D#%=C,-#32(#-+#/&3*V*,#%(#;327&+*"

4. (H;<;4F@)?FD;@)H824<F)9268H;4)G3)IFH4)/%'#/':@;23D#+/;+#8,;C(,*;#(%#*,/+.;+(+#.%3+#/+#
M3@,+/.#.'#M3%,@#(*.M*-@#%<(%;@#8,#*,;+323'(#9+/';'3*(23#O&(2),*9+D#;3*&)*D#&'3*.*D#&@-'.M*D#9C,9%3*D#
etc.). S+#-*<+3+,9*%?@#&%;3'#/'6;*&'3*U
a. Subtipul heteropter-homopter este ntlnit la
insectele din ordinele Heteroptera O&(2),*9+P# )*# Homoptera
O&'3*.*D# &@-'.M*# -+# <3',?+PD# %3+# '37@;2%3+(+# &%3;*.'(%3*;@9*U#
labrum s-%#3+-'/D#7%,-*6'(+(+#)*#7%N*(+(+#/-au, transformat n
,*);+# <237%9*',*#%.*.'(%3+D#-+,'7*;+##&52$>5 D#.%3+# .'(*/+%?@# 8,#
;327&%#<237%;@#&3*,#%(',:*3+%#(%6*umului. Prin apropiera celor
0# /;*(+9*# 7%N*(%3*# /+# <237+%?@# -2'@# .%,%(+U# ', canal salivar,
&3*,# .%3+# *,/+.;%# *,2.'(+%?@# 8,# 9+/';'3*# /%(*=%# ,+.+/%3@#
&3+('.3@3**# .M*7*.+# %# M3%,+*# O-+;+37*,%# M*&+3;32<*+3*# /%'#
-+.2(23@3*# %(+# 23:%,+(23# &(%,;+(23# %;%.%;+P# )* un canal
alimentar, prin care suge hrana. Trompa (rostrum) poate fi
%3;*.'(%;@# .%# (%# M+;+32&;+3+# O%(.@;'*;@# -*,# 4-4 articole) sau
,+%3;*.'(%;@#(%#M272&;+3+"
b. Subtipul dipter-culicid +/;+# 8,;C(,*;# (%# 9C,9%3*
(femele) - se hranesc cu sngele animalelor.

:
c. Subtipul dipter-tabanid este specific femelelor de
;@',*#OTabanidae), se hranesc cu sngele animalelor

d. Subtipul thysanopter (asimetric) este specific ;3*&)*lor (ordinul Thysanoptera) se


.%3%.;+3*?+%?@#&3*,#%6/+,9%#7%,-*6'(+*#-*,#&%3;+%#-3+%&;@D#-*,#.%3+#.%'?@#(%63'7'(#cobora sa
*%#(2.'(#&*+/+*#-*/&@3';+#%/;<+(#.@#%&%3%;'(#6'.%(#este asimetric. H%,-*6'(%#/;C,:@#)*#7%N*(+(+#

/',;# %.*.'(%3+D# (',:*D# /'69*3*# )*# <(+N*6*(+D# 3+&3+?+,;C,-# &3*,.*&%(+(+# &*+/+# 6'.%(+# -+# 8,9+&%;# )*#
supt ale insectei. Labiumul +/;+#%(',:*;#)*#<237+%?@#;327&%.
A4#$-3,>5$C' $',2%);+3+%# %&%3%;+(23# 6'.%(+# (%# *,/+.;+# &3+?*,;@# *7&23;%,9@# n
determinarea insectelor 8,# <',.9*+# -+# tipul de -%',+# &+# .%3+# (+# &32-'.# O32/@;'3*# # 8,# .%?'(#
insectelor cu aparat bucal de rupt sau hipertrofieri, pete de decolorare in cazul insectelor
/':@;2%3+P# )*# -e asemenea aplicarea produselor fitosanitare pentru combatere se face
-*<+3+,9*%;# )*# 8,# <',.9*+# -+# ;*&'(# -+# %&%3%;# 6'.%(# %(# *,/+.;+(23# -@',@;2%3+# &(%,;+(23# agricole
cultivate.
TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Care sunt <8B3F23@8)D;HF@F3)H8)H;<48;)7A<I;@5?
B@/&',/U
Occipitalul (occiput)2%-"'4$'$5*%(vertex), fruntea (frons) 4,%-*,6'5*%(clypeus)
2. Ce sunt insectele?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. Aparatele bucale care produc daune identifiD;48)H<32)<AI54F<3)IF24:
a. 5&%3%;'(#6'.%(#&+,;3'#8,9+&%;#)*#/'&;
b. 5&%3%;'(#6'.%(#&+,;3'#3'&;D#(*,/#)*#/'&;
c. Aparatul bucal de lins si supt
d. 5&%3%;'(#6'.%(#-+#3'&;#)*#7%/;*.%;
e. Aparatul bucal de lins
Rezolvare : 6#)*#De rezolvat:
2. Aparatul bucal 78)<FH4)G3)E;I43D;4 8I48);@D54F34)732=
a. buza sup+3*2%3@ labrum
b. oceli
c. mandibulele
d. stemate
e. maxilele
Rezolvare:
1.2. ,A<;D8@8)G3);H8273D8@8)I;@8
Introducere: Toracele (thorax), +/;+#&%3;+%#7+-*%,@#%#.23&'('*#*,/+.;+(23D#%(.@;'*;#-*,#
trei segmente: protorace (prothorax), mezotorace (mezothorax) )* metatotace (metathorax).
W*+.%3+# /+:7+,;# ;23%.*.# +/;+# %(.@;'*;# -*,: arcul dorsal - notum (tergum sau tergit ); arcul
ventral - sternum (sternit) )*# 0#%3.'3*# (%;+3%(+#- pleure (pleuron) care fac leg@;'3%# 8,;3+#%3.'(#
-23/%(#)*#.+(#=+,;3%(. X,#<',.9*+#-+#/+:7+,;'(#;23%.*.#',-+#/+#%<(@, aceste sclerite sunt denumite
astfel: pronotum, prosternum )*# propleure la protorace; mezonotum, mezosternum )*
mezopleure la mezotorace; metanotum, metasternum )* metapleure la metatorace.
Apendicele toracelui sunt reprezentate de 23:%,+(+# -+# (2.2729*+# %(+# *,/+.;+(23#O&*.*2%3+(+# )*#
aripile).

=$>5"$7 :Picioarele (pedes) /',;#/*;'%;+#&+#&%3;+%#=+,;3%(@#%#.23&'('*D#.C;+#2#&+3+.M+#


pe fiecare segment toracic (de aici denumirea clasei: Hexapoda), prima pereche de picioare
O%,;+3*2%3+P# +/;+# <*N%;@# (%# &32;23%.+D# %# -2'%# &+3+.M+# O7+-*%,+P# (%# 7+?2;23%.+D# *%3# %# ;3+*%#
pereche (posterioare) la metatorace. Y,+(+# *,/+.;+# 8,# /;%-*'(# -+# (%3=@# /',;# %&2-+# O&*.*2%3+(+#
lipsesc).
Piciorul tipic la insecte +/;+# %(.@;'*;# -*,:
coxa, sau 8+2(*2 - <%.+# (+:@;'3%# .'# ;23%.+(+# n
.%=*;%;+%# .2;*(2*-@D# &2%;+ avea diferite forme:
:(26'(%3@D#%(',:*;@D#+;."R trochanterul este articolul
ce asigur@#(+:@;'3%#8,;3+#.2N@#)*#<+7'3D#femurul este
%3;*.2('(#.+(# 7%*#-+?=2(;%;#%(#&*.*23'('*D#-+# <237@#)*#
7@3*7+# =%3*%6*(@R tibia -+# 26*.+*# 7%*# /'69*3+# )* de
<237@# -3+%&;@# /%'# ')23# %3.'*;@D# &3+=@?';@# 7%3:*,%(#
-+/+23*#.'#/&*,*#)*#&*,;+,*#OColeoptera); - tarsul.
- tarsul este format la majoritatea insectelor din 3-5 articole, primul fiind denumit
metatars (bazitars), iar ultimul pretars (onychium la coleoptere), care de obicei este terminat
.'#-2'@#:M+%3+D#.%3+#&3+?*,;@#7+-*%,#2#&3+(',:*3+#<*,@D#-+,'7*;@ empodium, cu 32(#-+#%#7@3*#
%-+3+,9%# *,/+.;+(23# &+# /'6/;3%;'(# -+# -+&(%/%3+D# *%3# (%# %(;+# /&+.**# /+# 8,;C(,+/.# -2*# (26*# .+# /+#
;+37*,@#.'#:M+%3+ (pulvillus), /%'#2#&3+(',:*3+#7+-*%,@#8,#<237@#-+#(26D#-+,'7*;@ arolium.
Tipuri de pretarse
a , b - Priplaneta orientalis; c - Asilidae; Pr pretars;Gh- gheare; Ar- arolium; Pv- pulvillus;
Em- em&2-*'7R#O-'&@#Z+6+3P
Tipuri de picioare:
- picioare pentru mers piciorul tipic ntlnit la ordinul Coleoptera etc.;
- picioare pentru alergat O<':@PD# (%# .%3+# %3;*.2(+(+# .27&2,+,;+# /',;# (',:*# )*# /'69*3*D#
ntlnite la ordinul Blattaria etc.;
Tipuri de picioare la insecte:
a de alergat (Cicindella);
b de mers (Nemobius);
c - prehensil (Mantis);
d -+#/@3*;#OLocusta);
e de fixat (Dytiscus);
f -+#/@&%;#OGryllotalpa);
O-'&@#W2(/27#)"%"P"##

- <5%5+,-$'<$"&-*'#)-5&, unde femurele picioarelor posterioare s-au alun:*;#)*#-+?=2(;%;#<2%3;+#


7'(;D#*%3#;*6**(+#/',;#(',:*#)*#/'69*3*#OOrthoptera familia AcrididaePD#/%'#.2N%#)*#;32.M%,;+3'(#
sunt bine dezvoltate (unele Homoptere: Psyllidae, Cicadidae);
- <5%5+,-$'<$"&-*'#)<,&'85'#%+-7+"5&, au tibiile picioarelor anterioar+#7'(;#(@9*;+#)*#&3+=@?';+#
&+#7%3:*,*#.'#-*,9*#&';+3,*.#(Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, unele Scarabaeidae);
- <5%5+,-$' <$"&-*' F"+&' 85' 3G#25&, prezente la insectele acvatice (Dytiscidae), la care tarsele
&*.*2%3+(23#7+-*%,+#)*#&2/;+3*2%3+#/',;#(@9*;+#)*#&3+=@?';+#7%3:*,%(#.'#,'7+32)*#&+3*#(',:*R#
- picioare pentru apucat (prehensoare), %'# <+7'3+(+# )*# ;*6**(+# &*.*2%3+(23# %,;+3*2%3+# 7'(;#
%(',:*;+D#8,?+/;3%;+#&+#7%3:*,*#.'#/&*,*#&';+3,*.*D#*%3#;*6**(+#&@;3',-#8,;3-o cavitate a femurului

ca ntr-2#;+%.@#(Mantis religiosa);
- picioare pentru cules (adunat), &+# ;*6**(+# &*.*2%3+(23# /+# %<(@# ,*);+# .2,.%=*;@9*# Ocorbicule),
pentru adunat polen (Apis mellifera);
Aripile (alae). Majoritatea insectelor adulte &3+?*,;@#0#&+3+chi de aripi: prima pereche
(aripi anterioare) sunt situate pe mezotorace, iar a doua pereche (aripi posterioare), pe
metatorace. EN.+&9ie - la diptere, care au o sing'3@# &+3+.M+# -+# %3*&*# O%,;+3*2%3+), iar cele
posterioare s-au transformat n organe de echilibru (balansiere sau haltere), iar la femelele de
coccidae sunt aptere- aripile lipsesc. 53*&*(+# &2;#%=+%# <237@U# ;3*',:M*'(%3@D# -3+&;',:M*'(%3@D#
2=%(@D#(%,.+2(%;@#+;."D#*%3#.2(23%9*%#<2%3;+#=%3*%;@"
Aripa este %(.@;'*;@# -*,# -2'@# 7+763%,+# /'&3%&'/+D# lipite pe margini, ntre care se
:@/+);+#2#3+9+%#-+#,+3=uri, care <237+%?@ 0'"7#8,# aripii.
L#%3*&@#;*&*.@#&3+?*,;@#'37@;2%3+(+#3+:*',*U#6%?%#(basis) - &239*',+%#.'#.%3+#/+#(+%:@#-+#
;23%.+R# 7%3:*,+%# +N;+3*2%3@# (termen), 2&'/@# 6%?+*R# 7%3:*,+%# %,;+3*2%3@# /%'# .2/;%(@# (costa),
23*+,;%;@#8,%*,;+#8,#;*7&'(#?623'('*#)*#7%3:*,+%#&2/;+3*2%3@#(dorsum), 2&'/@#%.+/;+*%"#Y,:M*'(#
format de costa )*#termen &2%3;@#-+,'7*3+%#-+#=C3<#(apex), iar cel dintre termen )*#dorsum, se
,'7+);+#tornus.
Q+3='3*(+# %3*&*(23# &2;# <*# (2,:*;'-*,%(+# )*# ;3%,/=+3/%(+D# )*# %'# '37@;2%3+(+# -+,'7*ri
(fig.17): (costalis), (subcostalis); (radialis),; mediana (mediana), .'# [# 3%7*<*.%9**R cubitala
(cubitalis), .'# 4# 3%7*<*.%9**R #0#*. (analis), D# /*,:'3%# ,+3='3@# %(+# .@3+*# 3%7*<*.%9**# &23,+/.#
-*3+.;#-*,#6%?%#%3*&+*R#)*#!-2 nervuri jugale (vena jugalis).
J.M+7%#,+3=%9*',**#longitudinale a aripi:
Co - nervura -)3$#*.; Sb - 359-)3$#*. cu 2
3%7*<*.%9**R# Ra - "#&,#*. .'# \# 3%7*<*.%9**R# H+# 1'&,#0. cu 4 3%7*<*.%9**R# $'# --59,$#*. cu 3
3%7*<*.%9**R# 5,# - #0#*.; Ju - V':%(@R# rm - radis7+-*%,@R# 7.'# - medio-.'6*;%(@ (nervurile
transversale iau numele nervurilor longitudinale pe
care le unesc)R#O-'&@#Z+6+3P
A4#$-3,>5$C'd'&@#I4<FD4F<5)(DA2I3I48265), aripile insectelor pot fi:
- membranoase (Hymenoptere);
- membranoase cu solzi (ord. Lepidoptera);
- chitinoase (elitre) (aripile anterioare la ord. Coleoptera)
- pergamentoase (tegmine aripile anterioare la ord. Orthoptera).
- pieloase (ord. Dermaptera)
-'&@#omogenitatea structurii aripile insectelor pot fi:
- omogene - %76+(+# &+3+.M*# %'# %.++%)*# /;3'.;'3@# O23-"# Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata
etc.);
- heterogene - aripile anterioare chitinoase )*# cele posterioare membranoase (ord.
Coleoptera), sau aripile anterioare pergamentoase )*# cele posterioare membranoase (ord.
Orthoptera);
- mixte (hemielitre), .C,-# &%3;+%# 6%?%(@# %# %3*&+*# +/;+# .M*;*,*?%;@D# *%3# &%3;+%# %&*.%(@# +/;+#
7+763%,2%/@#O23-"#Heteroptera).
TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Care sunt segmentele ce ;@D54F38ID)4A<;D8@8 la insecte?
#5IHF2I=

Toracele (thorax) '3$'% #*-.$5,$% &,0% $"',% 3'+1'0$':% protorace (prothorax), mezotorace
(mezothorax) 4,%1'$#$)$#-' (metathorax).
2. 0FE)I8)D@;I3C3D5);<3H3@8)7FH5)AEAB8234;tea structurii lor?
#5IHF2I=

DE$-%5>55:
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. L3D3A<F@)@;)32I8D48)8I48);@D54F34)732:
a. coxa
b. 7%3:*,+%#%,;+3*2%3@
c. trochanter
d. 7%3:*,+%#&2/;+3*2%3@
e. tibia
Rezolvare : a, c, e
De rezolvat:
1. 12363)DF)A)@3238)782FE3<3@8)nervurilor @A2B34F732;@8)DF)2FE5<F@)78)<;E3C3D;633)
IH8D3C3D)C38D5<83; :
a) nervura -)3$#*.
0#3%7*<*.%9**
b) nervura 359-)3$#*.
\#3%7*<*.%9**
c) nervura "#&,#*.
4 3%7*<*.%9**
d) nervura 1'&,#0.
4#3%7*<*.%9**
e) nervura -59,$#*.
1 ramific%9*+
Rezolvare:
1.3. Abdomenul G3);H8273D8@8)I;@8
Abdomenul (urosom) 3+&3+?*,;@#'(;*7%#regiune a corpului insectelor, este format din
5-12 segmente (urosomite), fiecare +/;+# %(.@;'*;# -*,U# %3.'(# -23/%(# (urotergit), arcul ventral
(urosternit) )* arcurile laterale (uropleure).
=$>5"$7:Abdomenul poate avea diferite formeD#*%3#8,#<',.9*+#-+#72-'(#.'7#/+#<*N+%?@#
de torace, se deosebesc '37@;2%3+(+ tipuri de abdomen:
a - sesil O.C,-# &3*7'(# '32/27*;# %3+# %.++%)*# :32/*7+# .%#
metatoracele (coleoptere, lepidoptere-Cossus cossus) ; b suspendat (atunci cnd primul urosomit este foarte ngust,
la insectele din ord. Hymenoptera - Vespa germanica); c H863A@;4 /%'#&+-',.'(%;#O.C,-#&3*7+(+#-2'@#'32/27*;+#/',;#
/'69*%;+#23-"#Hymenoptera, fam. Ichneumonidae)
A4#$-3,>5$C'Apendicele abdomenului pot fi:
1. la insectele inferioare
- stili cu rol de su/9*,+3+#%#%6-27+,'('*;
- tubul ventral )*# %&%3%;'(# -+# /@3*; format din
Collembola;
2. la insectele superioare:

retinaculum )* furca la ordinul

- cerci, (apendice pereche - la ord. Blattaria, Dermaptera etc.);


- ovopozitor (oviscapt) la ord. Orthoptera, cu rol de depunere a pontei n sol n
<237%9*',*#-+,'7*;+#22;+.*"
- $'"'9".%sau $#",'"., (ord. Hymenoptera, fam. Tenthredinidae), cu rol de depunere a
pontei n organele plantelor.
- ac veninos, l%#',+(+#M*7+,2&;+3+#O=*+/&*#)*#%(6*,+P"#
- pygidium, o prelungire %6-27*,%(@#.%#2#.2%-@ la unele Scarabaeidae.
- organele genitale sunt tot apendici abdominali.
TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Ce sunt retinaculum G3 furca?
B@/&',/U
;6'0&,-'% #9&)1,0#*'% -'% <)"1'#(.% #6#"#$5*% &'% 3.",$% *#% ,03'-$'*'% ,0<'",)#"'% &,0% ordinul
Collembola.
2. Care sunt tipurile de abdomen?
B@/&',/U

Exerci>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. Apendicele abdomenului la insectele inferioare sunt:
a. stili
b. ovopozitor
c. tubul ventral
d. pygidium
e. %&%3%;'(#-+#/@3*;U retinaculum )* furca
Rezolvare : a, c )* e
De rezolvat:
2. Apendicele abdomenului la insectele superioare sunt:
a. cerci
b. ovopozitor
c. retinaculum
-"#;%3*+3@
e. furca
Rezolvare:

REZUMATUL TEMEI
]# H%V23*;%;+%# -@',@;23*(23# &(%,;+(23# %:3*.2(+# 2# 3+&3+?*,;@# *,/+.;+(+# -@',@;2%3+# OX,.3"#
Arthropoda, cls. Insecta sau Hexapoda cca. 80%).
] Insectele sunt animale nevertebrate .'# .23&# /+:7+,;%;# 87&@39*;# 8,# 4# 3+:*',*: cap,
;23%.+##)*#%6-27+,.
]# $%&'(# &2%;+# %=+%# -*<+3*;+# <237+# )*# 7@3*7*D# &3+?*,;@# 3+:*',*# -*/;*,.;+# &+# &%3;+%#
-23/%(@# )*# =+,;3%(@# )* &2/+-@# '37@;2%3+(+# %&+,-*.+U# 23:%,+# -+# /*79# 2(<%.;*=D# ;%.;*(D# =*?'%(# )*#
aparatul bucal.
]#S%# *,/+.;+#%&%3%;'(# 6'.%(#+/;+#-*<+3+,9*%;# 8,# <',.9*+#-+# 72-'(#-+# M3@,*3+# 8,#[#;*&'3*#
principale : Aparat 6'.%(# -+# 3'&;# )*# 7%/;*.%;R Aparat 6'.%(# &+,;3'# 3'&;D# (*,/# )i supt; Aparat
6'.%(#&+,;3'#(*,/#)*#/'&;R#Aparat 6'.%(#&+,;3'#8,9+&%;#)*#/'&;"
] Toracele este %(.@;'*;# -*,: protorace, mezotorace )*# 7+;%;2race, iar apendicele
;23%.+('*#/',;#&*.*2%3+(+#)*#%3*&*(+.
]# Insectele au trei perechi de picioare dispuse ventral cte una pe fiecare segment
toracic. Piciorul este %(.@;'*;# -*,U# .2N@D trochanter, femur, tibie )*# tars. Unele insecte n
/;%-*'(#-+#(%3=@#/',;#%&2-+#O&*.*2%3+(+#(*&/+/.P"
]# J+# -*/;*,:# '37@;2%3+(+# ;*&'3*# -+# &*.*2%3+U- pentru mers (ord. Coleoptera)- pentru
alergat (ord. Blattaria) - &+,;3'#/@3*;#(ord. Orthoptera, Homoptera) - &+,;3'#/@&%;#)*#/.2372,*;
(Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, unele Scarabaeidae) - &+,;3'#8,2;#)*#=C/(*;D (fam. Dytiscidae - pentru
apucat (Mantis religiosa)- pentru adunat polen (Apis mellifera)
.
] Majoritatea insectelor adulte &3+?*,;@#0#&+3+chi de aripi. EN.+&9ie - la diptere, care
au o sing'3@#&+3+.M+#-+#%3*&*D#iar unele insecte sunt aptere- aripile lipsesc.
]# F'&@# /;3'.;'3@# )*# .2,/*/;+,9@D# %3*&*(+# *,/+.;+(23# &2;# <*U - membranoase (ord.
Hymenoptera); - membranoase cu solzi (ord. Lepidoptera); - chitinoase (ord. Coleoptera) pergamentoase (ord. Orthoptera) - &*+(2%/+# O23-"# F+37%&;+3%PD# *%3# -'&@# 272:+,*;%;+%#
structurii aripile pot fi:- omogene (ord. Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata etc.); heterogene (ord. Coleoptera, Orthoptera)- mixte (Heteroptera).
] Abdomenul 3+&3+?*,;@# '(;*7%# regiune a corpului insectelor, este format din 5-12
segmente, poate avea diferite forme, deosebindu-se '37@;2%3+(+ tipuri de abdomen: sesil
(coleoptere etc.) - suspendat (ord. Hymenoptera - Vespa germanica) - &+9*2(%; (ord.
Hymenoptera, fam. Ichneumonidae).
]#Apendicele abdomenului pot fi: stili, tubul ventral, retinaculum )* furca la insectele
inferioare; cerci, 2=2&2?*;23D#;+3+63@D##ac veninos, pygidium, genitaliile.

10

Tema nr. 2

SCHELETUL INSECTELOR.
STADIILE DE DE DEZVOLTARE ALE INSECTELOR
1234563)78)92:56;<8)=

!
!
!

0"!"#1+:'7+,;'(#/;3'.;'3@#)*#<',.9**
0"0"#J;%-*'(#-+#2'#)*#/;%-*'(#-+#(%3=@#(%#*,/+.;+
0"4"#J;%-*'(#-+#&'&@#)*#/;%-*'(#-+#%-'(;##

Obiectivele temei:
># .',2%)terea )*# 8,9+(+:+3+%# .2,.+&;+(23# )*# <237%3+%# &+3/&+.;*=+*# %/'&3%# scheletului
*,/+.;+(23#)*#/tadiilor de dezvoltare ale acestora.
>#-+?6%;+3+%#,29*',*(23#3+<+3*;2%3+#(%#U#+N2#)*#+,-2#/.M+(+;D#&%3;*.'(%3*;@9*(+#/;%-**(23#-+#
dezvoltare.
>#%,%(*?%3+%#.23+(%9*+*#-*,;3+#&%3;*.'(%3*;@9*(+#/;%-**(23#-+#-+?=2(;%3+, daunele provocate
plantelor agricole )*#',+(+#7+;2-+#/&+.*<*.+#-+#.276%;+3+.
Timpul alocat temei : 5 ore
>3?@3AB<;C38)<8DAE;27;45)=
1. Andriescu L., Bobrnac B., Perju T., Ghizdavu L., !"#$#$% &'% ())*)+,'% #+",-)*.%
A-*;'3%#5.%-+7*+*#B27C,+D#E'.'3+);*D 2001
2. Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%+'0'"#*.2 Editura SITECH Craiova, 1998.
3. Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%#+",-)*.2 Editura Universitaria Craiova, 2005.
4. H*;3+%# I"D# J;%,# $"D# K'.@# L"D Entomologie vol. 1, Editura Reprograph Craiova,
2008.
5"#B2).%#I"D#A,;272(2:*+#:+,+3%(@"#A-*;'3%#J^(=*D#E'.'3+);*D#0__!
MNON),8BFE824F@)I4<FD4F<5)G3)CF2D633
Introducere : Scheletul insectelor este format din exoschelet )* endoschelet.
Exoscheletul este reprezentat de tegument.
Tegumentul 3+&3+?*,;@# 8,=+(*)'(# -+# (%# +N;+3*23'(# .23&'('*# ',+*# *,/+.;+D# .%3+# +/;+#
.M*;*,2/D# +(%/;*.# )*# -'3D# %(.@;'*;# -*,# trei straturi distincte: 7$74-,",' 4,?,2)6' B5<+($-7,' 85
cuticula.
Structura tegumentului insectelor:
Exo - exocuticula; Epc - epicuticula;
C - cuticula; H - hipoderma;
Mb - 7+763%,%#6%?%(@R###G#- peri;
Sp - spini; Ctr - .+('(@#;3*.M2:+,@#
O-'&@#Z+6+3P
=$>5"$7 : H$74-,",'4,?,2) este n genera(#%.+('(%3@#/%'#<237%;@#-*,#.+('(+#/;+(%;+#)*#
%3+#32(#-+#%#/+&%3%#;+:'7+,;'(#-+#.%=*;%;+%#:+,+3%(@#7*N;@#%#.23&'('*#*,/+.;+*"

11

Hypoderma (epiderma) +/;+# <237%;@# -*,;3-',# /;3%;# -+# .+('(+# -+# <237@# .*(*,-3*.@# /%'#
.'6*.@D# cu rolul de a secreta cuticula; tot aici /+# :@/+/.# )*# .+('(+# ;3*.M2:+,+# .%3+# :+,+3+%?@#
perii senzoriali.
Cuticula este stratul cel mai dezvoltat, lipsit de /;3'.;'3@#.+('(%3@D#%3+#32('(#-+#%#%&@3%#
.23&'(#-+#%.9*',*(+#<%.;23*(23#+N;+3,*"#A/;+#.2,/;*;'*;@#-*,:
Endocuticul)'- partea cea mai de?=2(;%;@, <237%;@ -*,#/'6/;%,9+#&32;+*.+#)*#.M*;*,@D#
%)+?%;+#/'6#<237%#',23#&(@.i suprapuse.
Exocuticul) - stratul cel mai rezistent al c';*.'(+*D# <237%;# -*,# .M*;*,@D# %/*:'3@#
3+?*/;+,9%# ;+:'7+,;'('*D# ;2;# %*.*# /+# %<(@ )*# &*:7+,9*i, care dau culoarea chimi.@# %#
tegumentului.
Epicuticul)'- stratul extern al tegumentului, format -*,#/'6/;%,9+#:3%/+D#.+32%/+D#are
32('(#-+#%#%&@3%#.23&'(#*,/+.;+(23#)*#-+#%#7+,9*,+#umiditatea .2,/;%,;@"#P2%;+#%=+%#/'&3%<%9%#
,+;+-@# /%'# .'# -*<+3*;+# %/&+3*;@9*, adncituri etc., ca3+# <237+%?@ sculptura O23,%7+,;%9*%P
tegumentului.
A4#$-3,>5$C'W',.9**(+#;+:'7+,;'('*U
- 3+&3+?*,;@#exoscheletul corpului;
- 3+&3+?*,;@#8,=+(*)'(#&32;+.;23#<%9@#-+#factorii externi;
- -+<*,+);+ .'(2%3+%#.M*7*.@#)*#<*?*.@R#
- .2,9*,+#-*<+3*;+#:(%,-+D
- gen+3+%?@#%,'7*;+#<237%9*',* (peri senzoriali).
Endoscheletul sau scheletul intern +/;+# 3+&3+?+,;%;# &3*,# ,*);+# +N.3+/.+,9+# %(+#
;+:'7+,;'('*D# /+3=*,-# .%# &',.;+# -+# %3;*.'(%9**# %# %&+,-*.*(23D# -+# *,/+39*+# %# 7').M*(23# )*# .%#
suport pentru organele interne. Corespun?@;23# 3+:*',*(23# .23&'('*D# /+# -*<+3+,9*%?@# ',#
endoschelet al capului (tenctorium), al toracelui (endotorax) )*#%(#%6-27+,'('*"#
TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Care sunt I4<;4F<3@8)D;<8)CA<E8;J5)DF43DF@;?
B@/&',/U
/0&)-5$,-5*.2%'=)-5$,-5*.2%'6,-5$,-5*.

2. Care sun4)I4<;4F<3@8)D;<8)CA<E8;J5)48BFE824F@?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. Epiderma:
a. A/;+#<237%;@#-*,;3-',#/;3%;#-+#.+('(+#-+#<237@#.*(*,-3*.@#/%'#.'6*.@
b. Este stratul extern al tegumentului
c. Are rolul de a secreta cuticula )*#%3+#celule tr*.M2:+,+#.%3+#:+,+3+%?@#&+3**#/+,?23*%(*
d. A/;+#8,#:+,+3%(#%.+('(%3@#/%'#<237%;@#-*,#.+('(+#/;+(%;+#
+"#F+<*,+);+ .'(2%3+%#.M*7*.@#)*#<*?*.@
Rezolvare : a, c
De rezolvat:
2. $F2D633@8)48BFE824F@F3)IF24:
a. -+<*,+);+#.'(2%3+%#.M*7*.@#)*#<*?*.@

12

b. organ de /*79#;%.;*(#)*#olfactiv
c. 3+&3+?*,;@#+N2/.M+(+;'(#.23&'('* )*#8,=+(*)'(#&32;+.;23#<%9@#-+#<%.;23**#+N;+3,*
d. organ de reproducere
e. .2,9*,+#-*<+3*;+#:(%,-+#)*#:+,+3+%?@#%,'7*;+#<237%9*',*
Rezolvare:
2.2. /4;73F@)78)AF)G3)I4;73F@)78)@;<:5)@;)32I8D48
Introducere : M%V23*;%;+# %# *,/+.;+(23# /+# 8,7'(9+/.# &+# .%(+# /+N'%;@D# +N*/;@# *,/@# (%#
*,/+.;+#)*#3+&32-'.+3+#%/+N'%;@"#12;%(*;%;+%#;3%,/<237@3*(23#.%3+#%'#(2.#8,#.23&'(#',+*#*,/+.;+D#
-*,# /;%-*'(# -+# +763*2,# )*# &C,@# (%# 72%3;+%# <*?*2(2:*.@# %# %-'(;'('*# &2%3;@# -+,umirea de
($?3+2&,-$' +"&+@$"$&5%) )*# .'&3*,-+# ;3+*# &+3*2%-+U# -+?=2(;%3+%# +763*2,%3@D# -+?=2(;%3+%#
&2/;+763*2,%3@# )*# -+?=2(;%3+%# &2/;7+;%62(@" F+?=2(;%3+%# +763*2,%3@# O+763*2:+,+?%P ncepe
-'&@#<+.',-%3+%#2'('*#)*, /+#;+37*,@#%;',.*#.C,-#%3+#(2.#+.(2?*',+%#O*+)*3+%#(%3=+(23#-*,#2'P#)*#
+/;+#-+&+,-+,;@#-+#/&+.*+#)*#<%.;23**#+.2(2:*.* O+/;+#-+,'7*;@#)*#*,.'6%9*+).
=$>5"$7 : L'(#(%#*,/+.;+D#+/;+#2#.+('(@#-+#-*7+,/*',*#7%*#7%3*D#&32;+V%;#(%#+N;+3*23#-+#
',#8,=+(*)#:32/D#,'7*; chorion, care poate avea /'&3%<%9%#,+;+-@#/%'#.'#-*<+3*;+#23,%7+,;%9**#
)*#+/;+#<237%;#-*,#-2'@#7+763%,+D#',%#+N;+3,@#(exochorion) )*#%(;%#*,;+3,@ (endochorion). La
unul din poliD#.M23*2,'(#&3+?*,;@#','(#/%'#7%*#7'(;+#23*<*.**#,'7*;+ micropil(e), loc prin care
/&+37%;2?2*-'(# &@;3',-+ 8,# 2='(# )* &+# ',-+# =%# *+)*# (%3=%"# J'6# .M23*2,# /+# %<(@ membrana
7,$'*,0., .%3+# &32;+V+%?@# .2,9*,';'(# 2'('*# ,'7*;# <-+&+<2,#7) format din: nucleu, dispus
central, ooplasma (vitelus formativ), care <237+%?@# +763*2,'(# )* deutoplasma (vitelus
nutritiv), .2,/;*;'*;@#-*,#/'6/;%,9+#-+#3+?+3=@#.+#M3@,+/.#+763*2,'(.
J+.9*',+#
(2,:*;'-*,%(@# &3*,#
2'(#
-+# *,/+.;@#
(Musca):
Mp
micropil;
Nc
nucleu;
Ch
chorion;
Mv
7+763%,@# =*;+(*,@R#
De - -+';2&(%/7@R#
O-'&@# a+,b*,^# )*#
Bloehmann)

W237+#-+#2'@#
la insecte:
O-'&@# JMarp,
Packard,
Spuler etc.)

D*7+,/*',*(+# 2'@(23# -*<+3@# 8,# <',.9*+# -+# /&+.*+# 8,;3+# _D!77# )*# `# 77D# *%3# <237%# (23#
&2%;+# <*U# 2=%(@# O(%# ',+(+# .2(+2&;+3+# )*# (+&*-2&;+3+PD# %(',:*;@# O(%# (@.'/;+# )*# unele diptere),
+7*/<+3*.@# O(%# ',+(+# (+&*-2&;+3+PD# -+# 6';2*%)# O(%# ',+(+# &(2),*9+PD# %(;+(+# /',;# /+/*(+# O(%#
majoritatea speciilor) sau pedunculate (Psyllidae) etc.
$'(2%3+%# 2'@(23# &2%;+# <*U# :%(6+,@# O(%# ',+(+# .2(+2&;+3+# /*# (+&*-2&;+3+PD# =+3-+#
OM+;+32&;+3+#)*# (+&*-2&;+3+PD#63',@#O(%#',+(+# M+;+32&;+3+PD#%(6*.*2%/@#O(%#',+(+#-*&;+3+PD#32)*+portocalie (la unele coleoptere)D#.+,')*+-,+:3*.*2%/@#(la unele lepidoptere) etc.
Totalitatea 2'@(23 -+&'/+# -+# 2# *,/+.;@# /+# ,'7+);+ pont)"# G2,;%# &2%;+# <*# -+&'/@ n
mediul extern pe diferite organe ale plantelor: - pe frunze (6*)40,8'2% -)*')6$'"'2% etc.); - pe
&*2<5"5' 85' -,7*-5 (fluturi etc.); - pe fructe (coleoptere, fluturi etc.) sau n interiorul unor
organe ale plantelor: - n frunze 85' ;2+-5 (viespi); - n mugurii vegetativi (+."+.",8'*'%
fructelor); - n mugurii floriferi (+."+.",8'*'%6)1,*)"); - n fructe (+."+.",8'*'%<"5-$'*)").
Alte specii de insecte depun ponta n sol, (Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, Melolontha
melolontha, Anisoplia spp.), n form%9*',*# /&+.*%(+# denumite ooteci (Caliptamus italicus,
Dociostaurus maroccanus etc.)

13

1*&'3*#-+#&2,;@#(%#*,/+.;+U
!D#0#22;+.*#-+#(@.'/;+R#4#- %(6*(*9%R#[#- &(2),*9%#=+3?+*R#\#- :C,-%.'(#7@.3*)'('*R
6 - 27*-%#=+3?+*R#`#&(2),*9%#/<+.(+*R#c#- buha verzei; 9 - &(2),*9+(+#.+3+%(+(23R
10 - inelarul pomilor; 11 - &@-'.M+(+#-+#.%&R#!0#- 27*-%#-+#/;+&@
O-'&@#E2:-%,2=#- Katicov)
Q'7@3'(# -+# 2'@# (%# *,/+.;+# =%3*%?@# 8,# <',.9*+# -+# /&+.*+# )*# .2,-*9**(+# -+# 7+-*'# de la
singur ou (la afide - paduchi de frunze) &C,@# (%# sute -+# 2'@ la fluturi, iar gndacul din
Colorado (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) &2%;+# -+&',+# .*3.%# 4___# -+# 2'@D# *%3# 7%;.%# ;+37*;+(23#
&C,@#(%#4____#-+#2'@ zilnic.
A4#$-3,>5$C' G%3;*.'(%3*;@9*(+# /;%-*'('*# -+# 2'# /',;# *726*(*;%;+%# )*# +763*2:+,+?%D# *%3#
.',2%);+3+%D# 72-'('*# )*# %# (2.'('*# ',-+# *,/+.;+(+# -+&',# &2,;%D# %3+# 2# 7%3+# *7&23;%,9@# (%#
8,;2.7*3+%# &32:,2?+(23# -+# %&%3*9*+# %# *,/+.;+(23# /%'# (%# %&(*.%3+%# ',23# 7@/'3*# /&+.*%(+# -+#
combatere a lor.
I$?3+2&,-$,' <+#&$74-5+",-) 8,.+&+# .'# %&%3*9*%# (%3=+*# )*# -'3+%?@# &C,@# (%# <237%3+%#
stadiului intermediar de adult denumit imago. 13%,/<237@3*(+#.%3+#%'#(2.#8,#.23&'(#*,/+.;+(23#
8,#%.+%/;@#&+3*2%-@#&2%3;@#-+,'7*3+%#-+ 7$&,7+-;+?) (meta = schimbare )* morfo >%<)"1.),
sau metabolie.
H+;%723<2?%#&2%;+#<*U#.27&(+;@#- ?)*)1'$#9)*.%n care insectele parcurg toate stadiile
de dezvoltare: )52%*#"7.2%656.%3,%#&5*$%3#5%*,.27&(+;@##- B$&$-+7$&,4+2) (B$757$&,4+2)) n
care insectele parcurg 3 stadii de dezvoltare: ou, *#"7. 4, adult.
J&,(5*2'($'2,-3) e/;+#',#/;%-*'# <2%3;+#726*(# 8,#.%3+# *,/+.;+(+#/',;#=23%.+#O/+#M3@,+/.#
intens) %.'7'(C,-# 7%3*# .%,;*;@9*# -+# /'6/;%,9+# ,+.+/%3+# .3+);+3**# )*# -+?=2(;@3**"# Stadiul de
(%3=@D#-'3+%?@#8,#<',.9*+#-+#/&+.*+#)*#-+#.2,-*9**(+#-+#7+-*'#-+#(%#4#- [#?*(+#(%#7');+R#(%#!_#- 11
(',*#(%#.%3%6')**#/&*.+(23R#0#%,*#(%#/<3+-+(*;23'(#;'(&*,*(23D#4#- 4 an*#(%#=*+37**#/C37@#&C,@#(%#!_#
-17 ani la unele cicade.
Larva parcurge mai multe vrste (2 la diptere, 3 - 9 la lepidoptere etc.), marcate prin
,@&C3(*3*#OexuvieriPD#.%3+#.2,/;%'#8,#/.M*76%3+%#.';*.'(+*#-'&@#2#%,'7*;@#&+3*2%-@#-+#.3+);+3+D#
.C,-# &+# (C,:@# /&23*3+%# -*7+,/*',*(23# .23&23%(+# )*# /.M*76%3+%# .2(23*;'('*D# %&%3# %&+,-*.*# ,2*#
+;."#$';*.'(%#=+.M+#.3%&@#-+-%#(',:'(#.23&'('*#)*#+/;+#&@3@/*;@D#<**,-#-+,'7*;@ exuvie *#"7#"..
S%3=+(+#&3+?*,;@#'37@;2%3+(+#.%3%.;+3*/;*.*#723<2(2:*.+U
- au tegumentul slab chiti,*?%;#O+N.+&9*+#<%.#7,'"1,,%3@"1.A )i pubescent;
- .23&#/+:7+,;%;#87&@39*;#nU#.%&D#;23%.+#)*#%6-27+,R
- ochii simpli (stemate) ;
- %&%3%;'(# 6'.%(# &2%;+# <*# %-%&;%;# &+,;3'# 3'&;# )*# 7%/;*.%;# OColeoptera, Orthoptera,
Hymenoptera, unele diptere etc.) sau de 8,9+&%;#)*#/'&;#OTysanoptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera
etc.) ;

14

- ;23%.+(+# +/;+# %(.@;'*;# -*,# 4# /+:7+,;+# -*/;*,.;+D# &3+=@?';+# =+,;3%(# .'# 4# &+3+.M*# -+#
&*.*2%3+#%-+=@3%;+#O+N*/;@#)*#(%3=+#%&2-+P ;
- aripile lipsesc (sau sunt rudimentare);
-abdomenul este sesil, *%3#(%#(+&*-2&;+3+#O27*?*P#)*#M*7+,2&;+3+#O<%7" Tenthredinidae),
&+#&%3;+%#=+,;3%(@#%6-27+,'('*#/+#8,;C(,+/.#picioare false (pseudopicioare).
F'&@#.2,<237%9*%#.23&'('*#)*#%#&*.*2%3+(23D#/+#-*/;*,:#7%*#7'(;+#;*&'3*#-+#(%3=+#U
Larve protopode sau ciclopiene, au corpul piriform, cu aspect de ciclop. Apendicii
;23%.*.*# )*# %6-27*,%(*# /',;# 3'-*7+,;%3*D# *%3# 7%,-*6'(+(+# -+?=2(;%;+# (Chalcididae,
Ichneumonidae etc.).
Larve polipode sau eruciforme, /',;# &3+=@?';+D# 8,# %<%3%# &*.*2%3+(23# ;23%.*.+# )*# .'#
picioare fals+#O&/+'-2&*.*2%3+P#&+#%6-27+,D# <**,-#-*<+3+,9*%;+# 8,U - eruciforme (omidoforme)
#&'7."#$', (%#.%3+#,'7@3'(#-+#&/+'-2&*.*2%3+#,'#-+&@)+);+#\#&+3+.M*#O23-" Lepidoptera);
- eruciforme false, .C,-#,'7@3'(#&*.*2%3+(23#+/;+#7%*# 7%3+#-+#\#&+3+.M*#O23-" Hymenoptera,
fam. Tenthredinidae).
Larve oligopode %'#%&%3%;'(#6'.%(#-+#3'&;#)*#7%/;*.%;#&';+3,*.D#%&+,-*.+(+#;23%.*.+#)*#
abdominale dezvoltate, deosebindu-se mai multe subtipuri:
- campodeiform, (%# .%3+# .23&'(# +/;+# (@9*;D# 8,:'/;%;# &2/;+3*23# )*# ;+37*,%;# .'# 0# %&2<ize
(Cicindelidae, Carabidae etc.);
- elateriforme, (%3=%#%3+#.23&'(# (',:#/'6.*(*,-3*.D#*%3#;+:'7+,;'(#+/;+#:32/#)*#&';+3,*.#
chitinizat, denumite popular 7,'"1,%3@"1. (Elateridae);
- scarabaeiform (melolontoid), corpul este voluminos, curbat, iar abdomenul
;3%,/&%3+,;D#-+,'7*;+#&2&'(%3#)* viermi albi (Scarabaeidae).
Tipuri de larve:
1 - &32;2&2-@#OPlatygaster);
2 - polipo-@# /%'# +3'.*<237@# %-+=%3%;@
(Plutella);
3 - &2(*&2-@# /%'# +3'.*<237@# <%(/@
(Athalia); 4 - 2(*:2&2-@#- .%7&2-+*<237@#
(Carabus);
5
!?B3#0)6$'".
(Thysanoptera);
6 - 2(*:2&2-@# - /.%3%6%+*<237@#
(Melolontha);
7 - &2/;2(*:2&2-@#OLocusta);
8 - %&2-@#- +'.+<%(@ (Apis);
9 - %&2-@# -%.+<%(@# OTabanusP# O-'&@#
Bobrnac)

Larve apode sau viermiforme, (*&/*;+#-+#&*.*2%3+D#-*<+3+,9*%;+#-'&@#.%&/'(%#.+<%(*.@#


n trei subtipuri: eucefale, %'# .%&'(# 6*,+# +=*-+,9*%; (Curculionidae); hemicefale, au capul
cufundat n torace (Tipulidae); acefale, (*&/*;+#-+#.%&/'(%#.+<%(*.@ (Brachycera).
Larve postoligopode (%#.%3+#.23&'(#+/;+#8,#:+,+3%(#%/+7@,@;23#.'#.+(#%(#%-'(9*(23D#8,/@#
7%*# 7*.# )*# .'# 3'-*7+,;+# -+# %3*&*D# .%3%.;+3*/;*.# *,/+.;+(23# M+;+327+;%62(+ (Orthoptera,
Heteroptera etc.).
G%3;*.'(%3*;@9*(+#/;%-*'('*#-+#(%3=@#/',;U#726*(*;%;+D#=23%.*;%;+#7%N*7@D#.3+);+3+#3%&*-@D#
exuviere, -$<-$?5"&)'<-57*2'#&,(5*'()*")&+-'(5"'35,>,'5"#$%&$2+-.

15

TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Care sunt particF@;<34563@8)I4;73F@F3)78)AF?
B@/&',/U
particul#",$.8,*'%3$#&,5*5,%&'%)5%350$%,1)9,*,$#$'#%4,%'19",)+'0'(#
2. 0;<8)IF24)H;<43DF@;<34563@8)I4;73F@F3)78)@;<:5?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. Oul la insecte:
a. Este format dintr-',#/;3%;#-+#.+('(+#-+#<237@#.*(*,-3*.@#/%'#.'6*.@
b. Este c%#2#.+('(@#-+#-*7+,/*',*#7%*#7%3*D#&32;+V%;#(%#+N;+3*23#-+# chorion
."#G2%;+#%=+%#.'(2%3+#:%(6+,@#=+3-+D#63',@D#%(6*.*2%/@
-"#53+#-*7+,/*',*#.'&3*,/+#8,;3+#_D!#77#)*#`#77
e. Este imobil
Rezolvare : b, c, d, e
De rezolvat:
2N)))%;<:8@8)H<8J3245)F<E54A;<8@e caracteristici morfologice:
a. %'#2#&+3+.M+#-+#2.M*#.27&')*
b. &+#&%3;+%#=+,;3%(@#%6-27+,'('*#%'#&/+'-2&*.*2%3+
c. %'#%&%3%;#6'.%(#-+#(*,/#)*#/'&;
d. nu au aripi
e. au tegumentul slab chitinizat
Rezolvare:
MNPN)/4;73F@)78)HFH5)G3)I4;73F@)78);7F@4
Introducere : J&,(5*2'($'<*<), 3+&3+?*,;@#',#/;%-*'#*,;+37+-*%3#.%3%.;+3*/;*.#*,/+.;+(23#
M2(27+;%62(+# +/;+# ',# /;%-*'# *726*(# )*# ;32<*.# *,%.;*=D# .%3+# /+# .%3%.;+3*?+%?@# &3*,# *,;+,/+#
;3%,/<237@3*# M*/;2<*?*2(2:*.+# C?,3$)*,(. -*/;3':+3+%# &%39*%(@# /%'# ;2;%(@# %# ',23# 23gane sau
9+/';'3*#/&+.*<*.+#/;%-*'('*#-+#(%3=@#)*#?,3$)+'0'(. /+#<237+%?@#2#/+3*+#-+#9+/';'3*#,2*D#/&+.*<*.+#
adultului), n '37%#.@323%#/+#&32-'.+#;3%,/<237%3+%#(%3=+*#8,#%-'(;.
=$>5"$7 : F'&@#.%3%.;+3*/;*.*(+#723<2(2:*.+#/+ -*<+3+,9*%?@ trei tipuri de pupe:
K*<,' 254$-) %3+# ;29*# %&+,-*.**# ,237%(*# -+?=2(;%9*# )*# /+# :@/+/.# (*6+3*# &+# (C,:@# .23&D#
&2%;+#+<+.;'%#7*).@3*#(%;+3%(+#<@3@#/@#/+#&2%;@#-+&(%/%#OColeoptera &'051,$.%0,1<.).
K*<)' +4&$%&) &3+?*,;@# %,;+,+(+D# &*.*2%3+(+# )*# %3*&*(+# (*&*;+# -+# .23&# )*# %.2&+rite cu o
7+763%,@#;3%,/&%3+,;@#OLepidoptera - &'051,$.%crisalid.).
K*<,'%+,-%&,&) .2,/;*;'*+#2#&'&@#(*6+3@D#8,#*,;+3*23'(#'(;*7+*#+N'=**#(%3=%3@D#-+#<237%#
','*#6';2*%)#,'7*; (Diptera - &'051,$.%puparium).
F'3%;%# /;%-*'('*# -+# &'&@# -+&*,-+# -+# /&+.*+# )*# <%ctorii ecologici: de la cteva zile la
.C;+=%#(',*D#-'&@#.%3+#.2.2,'(#&'&%(#/+#3'&+#)*#%&%3+#*,/+.;%#%-'(;@#8,#<237@#-+ imago.
G%3;*.'(%3*;@9*(+#/;%-*'('*#-+#&'&@#/',;U#/+7*726*(*;%;+D#M*/;2(*?@#)*#M*/;2:+,+?@"#
I$?3+2&,-$,' <+#&7$&,4+2) -'3+%?@# -+# (%# %&%3*9*%# <237+*# -+# *7%:2# )*# %# /;%-*'('*# -+#
%-'(;D#&C,@#(%#72%3;+%#<*?*2(2:*.@#%#%.+/;'*%" Imago /+#-+2/+6+);+#-+#adultul propriu zis prin

16

'37@;2%3+(+#&%3;*.'(%3*;@9*U#;+:'7+,; 72%(+D# /(%6# .2(23%;D#'7+-D# *%3# 7*).@3*(+#/',;#:3+2%*+#)*#


lenteD#,'#/+#M3@,+);+#)*#,'#/+#3+&32-'.+#)*#%.+%/;%#<237%#-'3+%?@#-+#(%#.C;+=%#23+#(%#.C;+=%#?*(+#
8,#<',.9*+#-+#/&+.*+.
J;%-*'(#-+#%-'(;#&3+?*,;@#;3+*#&+3*2%-+#-*/;*,.;+U
Diferite tipuri de pupe:
1- &'&@#(*6+3@#-+#Entomoscelis adonidis;
2- &'&@#8763@.%;@#-+#Pieris brassicae;
3- &'&@#.2%3.;%;@#-+#Hylemya floraliss;
4- coconul de Plutella maculipennis
(d'&@#E2:-%,2=#- Katikov)

- 6"')7)6)(,$#"., O.C,-#%3+#(2.#7%;'3%9*%#/+N'%(@PR
- )7)6)(,$#". sau de apogeu O.23+/&',-+#.'#.2&'(%9*% )*#&2,;%PR
- 6)3$)7)6)(,$#". /%'# <%?%#-+#3+:3+/#%#%-'(;'('*#O-+# 876@;3C,*3+P#.C,-#.%&%.*;%;+%#-+#
3+&32-'.+3+#)*#/'6/;%,9+(+#-+#3+?+3=@#/',;#+&'*?%;+#)*#8,#.+(+#-*,#'37@#*,/+.;%#72%3+"#F'3%;%#
/;%-*'('*# -+# %-'(;# (%# ',+(+# *,/+.;+# +/;+# <2%3;+# /.'3;@D# -+# 4\# -58 minute Psyche apiformis
(Psychidae Lepidoptera) 7%V23*;%;+%# %'# 2# -'3%;@# -+# !# - d# (',*D# %(;+(+# &C,@# (%# !0# - 15 ani
O7%;.%# -+# ;+37*;+PD# *%3# /&+.*%# .'# .+%# 7%*# (',:@# -'3%;@# %# =*+9**# +/;+# .*.%-%# Tibicina
septemdecim (17 ani).
A4#$-3,>5$C stadiul de adult pr+?*,;@# '37@;2%3+(+# &%3;*.'(%3*;@9*U mobilitate mare,
M3@,*3+# *,;+,/@#&+,;3'#%#/+#&';+%#3+&32-'.+D#%-'(9**# nu mai cre/.#)*# ,'#,@&C3(+/.D# 8)*# 7@3+);+#
%3+%('(#-+#3@/&C,-*3+#pentru ca este un stadiu aripat )*#/+#8,7'(9+);+"#
TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Care sunt par43DF@;<34563@8)I4;73F@F3)78)HFH5?
B@/&',/:
D#"$,-5*#",$.8,*'%3$#&,5*5,%&'%656.%350$:%3'1,1)9,*,$#$'2%?,3$)*,(.%4,%?,3$)+'0'(.
2. 0;<8)IF24)H;<43DF@;<34563@8)I4;73F@F3)78);7F@4?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. /4;73F@)78);7F@4)H<8J3245)F<E54Aarele perioade:
a. &3+2=2&2?*;%3@
b. V'=+,*(@
c. 2=2&2?*;%3@
d. &2/;2=2&2?*;%3@
e.de apogeu
Rezolvare : a, c, d

17

De rezolvat:
2. QFH5)D;<;D48<3I43D3@8)EA<CA@AB3D8)I8)924R@28ID)43HF<3@8)78 HFH5:
a. G'&%#(*6+3@
b. G'&@#/+7*(*6+3@
c. Pupa coar.;%;@
d. G'&@#8,:32&%;@
e. G'&@#26;+.;@
Rezolvare: a, c, e
REZUMATUL TEMEI
]# Tegumentul 3+&3+?*,;@# 8,=+(*)'(# -+# (%# +N;+3*23'(# .23&'('*# ',+*# *,/+.;+D# .%3+# +/;+#
.M*;*,2/D# +(%/;*.# )*# -'3D# %(.@;'*;# -*,# trei straturi distincte: 7+763%,%# 6%?%(@D# M*&2-+37%# )*
cuticula.
]# W',.9**(+# ;+:'7+,;'('*# /',;: exoscheletul corpului; 8,=+(*)'(# &32;+.;23# <%9@# -+#
factorii externi; -+<*,+);+ .'(2%3+%#.M*7*.@#)*#<*?*.@R#.2,9*,+#-*<+3*;+#:(%,-+ )*#:+,+3+%?@#&+3**#
senzoriali.
]#12;%(*;%;+%#;3%,/<237@3*(23#.%3+#%'#(2.#8,#.23pul unei insecte, din stadiul de embrion
)*# &C,@# (%# 72%3;+%# <*?*2(2:*.@# %# %-'(;'('*# &2%3;@# -+,'7*3+%# -+ -+?=2(;%3+# 2,;2:+,+;*.@# )*#
cuprinde ;3+*# &+3*2%-+U# -+?=2(;%3+%# +763*2,%3@D# -+?=2(;%3+%# &2/;+763*2,%3@# )*# -+?=2(;%3+%#
&2/;7+;%62(@"
]#L'(#(%#*,/+.;+D#+/;+#2#.+('(@#-+#-*7+,/*',*#7%*#7%3*D#&32;+V%;#(%#+N;+3*23#-+#chorion,
/'6#.%3+#/+#%<(@ 7+763%,%#=*;+(*,@D#.%3+#&32;+V+%?@#.2,9*,';'(#2'('*#- &32;2&(%/7@#<237%;#-*,U#
nucleu, ooplasma )* deutoplasma.
]#G%3;*.'(%3*;@9*(+#/;%-*'('*#-+#2'#/',;#*726*(*;%;+%#)*#+7briogeneza.
]# S%3=+(+# &3+?*,;@# '37@;2%3+(+# .%3%.;+3*/;*.*# 723<2(2:*.+U# - au tegumentul slab
.M*;*,*?%;#O+N.+&9*+#<%.#=*+37**#/C37@P )*#&'6+/.+,;R#- .23&#/+:7+,;%;#87&@39*;#8,U#.%&D#;23%.+#)*#
abdomen;- 2.M**#/',;#3+&3+?+,;%9*#-+#/;+7%;+R#- aparatul bucal po%;+#<*#%-%&;%;#&+,;3'#3'&;#)*#
7%/;*.%;# /%'# -+# 8,9+&%;# )*# /'&;; - aripile lipsesc; -abdomenul este sesil, iar la lepidoptere
O27*?*P# )*# M*7+,2&;+3+# O27*?*# <%(/+), &+# &%3;+%# =+,;3%(@# %6-27+,'('*# /+# 8,;C(,+/.# picioare
false.
]#F'&@#.2,<237%9*%#.23&'('*#)*#%#&icioarelor, se disting tipurile de larve:
Larve protopode (Ord. Hymenoptera fam. Chalcididae, Ichneumonidae etc.);
Larve polipode (ord. Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera);
Larve oligopode (ord.Coleoptera);
Larve postoligopode (Ord. Orthoptera, Heteroptera etc.).
Larve apode (ord.Coleoptera fam. Curculionidae, ord. Diptera).
]# G%3;*.'(%3*;@9*(+# /;%-*'('*# -+# (%3=@# /',;U# 726*(*;%;+D# =23%.*;%;+# 7%N*7@D# .3+);+3+#
3%&*-@D#+N'=*+3+"
] J;%-*'(# -+# &'&@D este un stadiu intermediar caracteristic insectelor holometabole,
.%3+#/+#.%3%.;+3*?+%?@#&3*,#*,;+,/+#;3%,/<237@3*#M*/;2<*?*2(2:*.+.
] F'&@#.%3%.;+3*/;*.*(+#723<2(2:*.+#/+ -*<+3+,9*%?@ trei tipuri de pupe:
LFH;)@3?8<5 (ord. Coleoptera -+,'7*;@#,*7<@);
LFH5)A?48D45 (ord. Lepidoptera - -+,'7*;@#.3*/%(*-@);
K*<,'%+,-%&,&) (ord. Diptera - -+,'7*;@#puparium).
]# Dezvoltarea postme;%62(@# -'3+%?@# -+# (%# %&%3*9*%# <237+*# -+# *7%:2# )*# %# /;%-*'('*# -+#
%-'(;D#&C,@#(%#72%3;+%#<*?*2(2:*.@#%#%.+/;'*%"
] J;%-*'(# -+# %-'(;# &3+?*,;@# ;3+*# &+3*2%-+# -*/;*,.;+U 6"')7)6)(,$#"., )7)6)(,$#". )*
6)3$)7)6)(,$#"..
] S;%-*'(#-+#%-'(;#&3+?*,;@#'37@;2%3+(+#&%3;*.'(%3*;@9*U 726*(*;%;+#7%3+D#M3@,*3+#*,;+,/@#
&+,;3'# %# /+# &';+%# 3+&32-'.+D# %-'(9**# nu mai cre/.# )*# ,'# ,@&C3(+/.D# 8)*# 7@3+);+# %3+%('(# -+#
3@/&C,-*3+#pentru ca este un stadiu aripat )*#/+#8,7'(9+);+"

18

Tema nr. 3
FACTORII CARE INFLUENSEAZ. DEZVOLTAREA INSECTELOR.
*/,'!(#*()Q(1-*%"#)T')L(&1>*%"#)L#"Q1/*)Q*)Q.1-.,"#'
1234563)78)92:56;<8)=
!
!
!

3.1. W%.;23**#%6*2;*.*#.%3+#*,<('+,9+%?@#-+?=2(;%3+%#*,/+.;+(23
4"0"#W%.;23**#6*2;*.*#)*#+-%<*.*#.%3+#*,<('+,9+%?@#-+?=2(;%3+%#*,/+.;+(23
4"4##A/;*7%3+%#-%',+(23#)*#&%:'6+(23#&32-'/+#-+#-@',@;23*

Obiectivele temei:
>#.',2%);+3+%#)*#8,9+(+:+3+%#.2,.+&;+(23#)*#<237%3+%#&+3/&+.;*=+*#%/'&3%#<%.;23*(23#.%3+#
*,<('+,9+%?@#-+?=2(;%3+%#*,/+.;+(23"
># -+?6%;+3+%# ,29*',*(23# 3+<+3*;2%3+# (%# U# -%',+D# &*+3-+3*# )*# &3%:# +.2,27*.# -+# -@',%3+#
(P.E.D.)
>#%,%(*?%3+%#.23+(%9*+*#-*,;3+#-*<+3*;+(+#;*&'3*#-+#%&%3%;+#6'.%(+#)*#-%',+(+#&32=2.%;+#-+#
*,/+.;+(+#-@',@;2%3+#&(%,;+(23#%:3*.2(+"#
Timpul alocat temei : 6 ore
>3?@3AB<;C38)<8DAE;27;45)=
1. E%*.'#1"D#J@=+/.'#5"D#E,3$'1'%&'%-)19#$'"'%,0$'+"#$.%#%9)*,*)"%4,%&.50.$)",*)"%6'%
culturi. Editura Ceres, 1986.
0"#E%*.'#1"D#J@=+/.'# 5"D#P"#+5",*'%'-)0)1,-'%&'%&.50#"'%4,%")*5*%*)"%F0%-)19#$'"'#%
,0$'+"#$.%#%9)*,*)"%4,%&.50.$)",*)"%-5*$5",*)"%&'%-@16"#G32-'.9*%#=+:+;%(@D#.+3+%(+#)*#
plante tehnice,Vol. XLI, 2, pg.43-48 1986.
3.Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%+'0'"#*.2 Editura SITECH Craiova, 1998.
4.Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%#+",-)*.2 Editura Universitaria Craiova, 2005.
\"# H*;3+%# I"D# J;%,# $"D# K'.@# L"D Entomologie vol. 1, Editura Reprograph Craiova,
2008.
3.1. Factorii c;<8)32C@F8268;J5)78J:A@4;<8;)32I8D48@A<
Introducere : W%.;23**# .%3+# *,<('+,9+%?@# -+?=2(;%3+%# *,/+.;+(23# /',;U# abiotici, biotici,
$(,;5%5'85',"&-+<5%5.
Factorii abiotici sau anorganici /',;#3+&3+?+,;%9*#de factorii climatici )* &3+?*,;@#.+%#
mai mare import%,9@# 8,# -+?=2(;%3+%D# -*/;3*6'9*%# :+2:3%<*.@# )*# %.;*=*;%;+%# *,/+.;+(23"# F*,;3+#
factorii climatici, $'16'"#$5"#% 4,% 51,&,$#$'#D# %'# *,<('+,9@# -*3+.;@# %/'&3%# 8,7'(9*3**# )*#
3@/&C,-*3**#*,/+.;+(23"
=$>5"$7 : Temperatura. I,/+.;+(+# .%# )*# %(;+# ,+=+3;+63%;+# %'# ;+7&+ratura corpului
=%3*%6*(@D#8,#<',.9*+#-+#.2,-*9**(+#-+#7+-*'#8,#.%3+#;3@*+/.D#%-*.@#/',;#%,*7%(+ heteroterme sau
poikiloterme. X,#:+,+3%(D#*,/+.;+(+#%'D#;+7&+3%;'3%#.23&'('*#7%*#3*-*.%;@#.'#_D\e$# 1C dect
%#7+-*'('*#8,.2,V'3@;23"#5.;*=*;%;+%#6*2(2:*.@#% insectelor are loc la temperaturi cuprinse ntre
5 - 40C, iar temperatura medie cuprinde valori de 8 - 20C. Fiecare specie de insecte are
(*7*;+(+#/%(+#&32&3**#-+#;+7&+3%;'3@#8,#.%3+#/+#-+?=2(;@" 5.;*=*;%;+%#6*2(2:*.@#8,.+&+#(%#2#(*7*;@#
*,<+3*2%3@# -+# ;+7&+3%;'3%D# -+,'7*;@ prag biologic inferior -+# -+?=2(;%3+# /%'# ;+7&+3%;'3@#
7*,*7@#O; 0 P#)*#2#(*7*;@#/'&+3*2%3@D#-+,'7*;@ prag biologic superior /%'#;+7&+3%;'3@#7%N*7@#
de dezvoltare (T).

19

n afara acestor limite, insectele mai au un prag de prolificitate (O), reprezentnd


;+7&+3%;'3%#(%#.%3+#%3+#(2.#8,.+&';'(#87&+3+.M+3**#)*#-+&',+3+%#&2,;+*#)*#', prag termic optim
(O 1 PD#(%#.%3+#-+?=2(;%3+%#(23#%3+#(2.#8,#.2,-*9**#2&;*7+"
f2,%# .'&3*,/@# 8,;3+# .+(+# -2'@# &3%:'3*# 6*2(2:*.+# t 0 )*# 1, poarta denumirea de zona
activit)>55' 45+2+@5%$6 *%3# .+%# %<(%;@# /'6# &3%:'(# 6*2(2:*.# *,<+3*23# O; o P# )*# &+/;+# &3%:'(# 6*2(2:*.#
superior (T), ?+",'2$&,2) (1)"$#*. sau pessimusPD#8,#.%3+#/&+.*%#,'#7%*#&2%;+#;3@*"
L+",',%&535&)>55'45+2+@5%$ (Z. A. B.) cuprinde subzonele:
Subzona rece .'&3*,/@#8,tre pragul biologic inferior (t 0 P#)*#&3%:'(#-+#&32(*<*.*;%;+#OLPD##8,#.%3+#
%3+#(2.#.3+);+3+%#,'#)*#-+?=2(;%3+%"
J*4?+",' +<&57) .'&3*,/@# 8,;3+# &3%:'(# 2&;*7'('*# ;+37*.# *,<+3*23# OLP# )*# 2&;*7'(# ;+37*.# OL 1 ),
.'&3*,-+#.2,-*9**(+#2&;*7+#-+#.3+);+3+#)*#-+?=2(;%3+"
J*4?+",'%,2()6 .'&3*,/@#8,;3+##2&;*7'(#;+37*.#OL 1 P#)*#&3%:'(#;+37*.#/'&+3*23#O1P#2<+3@#.2,-*9**#
&'9*,#<%=23%6*(+#-+#.3+);+3+#)*#-+?=2(;%3+"
M,' &$7<$-,&*-5' #%)?*&$ sub pragul termic inferior, insectele se retrag n locuri
%-@&2/;*;+D#*,;3C,-#8, diapauza hi$7,2) 4, 3+=*,#(%#%.;*=*;%;+#8,#&3*7@=%3@D#2-%;@#.'#3*-*.%3+%#
;+7&+3%;'3**# &+/;+# %.+/;# &3%:"# H2%3;+%# *,/+.;+(23# (%# ;+7&+3%;'3*# /.@?';+D# *,;+3=*,+# -%;23*;@#
&32.+/'('*#-+#8,:M+9%3+#%#%&+*#(*6+3+#-*,#9+/';'3*#)*#3+/&+.;*=#%#<237@3**#.3*/;%(+(23#-+#:M+%9@"
La temperaturi ridicate &+/;+#&3%:'(#6*2(2:*.#/'&+3*23D#%.;*=*;%;+%#*,/+.;+(23#8,.+;+%?@#
-%;23*;@# .2%:'(@3**# ;3+&;%;+# %# /'6/;%,9+(23# &32;+*.+# -*,# 9+/';'3*"$2%:'(%3+%# /'6/;%,9+(23#
&32;+*.+D#%3+# (2.# (%#;+7&+3%;'3*# .'#%;C;#7%*#3*-*.%;+D#.'#.C;#.2,9*,';'(# 8,#%&@#+/;+# 7%*# 7*.# )*#
&2%;+#<*#&%39*%(@# C0'-")(.A2 -'&@#.%3+# *,/+.;+(+# 8)*#&2;#3+=+,*D#/%'#;2;%(@ C6#"#0'-")(.A2 -'&@#
.%3+#3+=+,*3+%#(23#(%#=*%9@#,'#7%*#&2%(+#%=+%#(2."
A4#$-3,>5$C' G+,;3'# -+?=2(;%3+D# <*+.%3+# /&+.*+# %3+# ,+=2*+# -+# 2# %,'7*;@# /'7@# -+#
;+7&+3%;'3@#+<+.;*=@D#.',2/.';@#/'6#-+,'7*3+%#-+ %+"#&,"&,'&$-75%) OTeP"#F+<*,*9*%#+.'%9*+*#
.2,/;%,;+*#;+37*.+#OTe$P#%#<2/;#+(%623%;@#&+,;3'#&3*7%#-%;@#-+#E(',.b#O!g![P#)*#-+?=2(;%;@#-+#
J@=+/.'#O!g\\#- 1976).
A%#3+&3+?*,;@#&32-'/'(#-*,;3+#;*7&'(#-+?=2(;@3**#Oh n P#)*#;+7&+3%;'3%#+<+.;*=@#O; n - t 0 ),
indiferent de localitate: K = X n (t n -to), n care:K 3+&3+?*,;@#.2,/;%,;%#;+37*.@R#h n durata
-+?=2(;@3**# *,/+.;+*R# ; n temperatura la care are loc dezvoltarea; t 0 pragul inferior de
dezvoltare; (t n - t 0 ) temperatura efec;*=@.
Umiditatea 85 <-$%5<5&,>552$6 %'# ',# 32(# *7&23;%,;# 8,# =*%9%# *,/+.;+(23D# %&%# <**,-#
*,-*/&+,/%6*(@#&+,;3'#&32.+/+(+#=*;%(+#%(+#23:%,*/7'('*"#Y7*-*;%;+%#)*#&3+.*&*;%9**(+#%.9*2,+%?@#
asupra insectelor fie direct, fie indirect prin intermediul hranei sau a altor factori de mediu.
5.;*=*;%;+%#*,/+.;+(23#/+#-+/<@)2%3@#8,#(*7*;+(+#?2,+*#6*2(2:*.+D#-+(*7*;%;@#-+#',#&3%:#*,<+3*23#
-+# '7*-*;%;+# OMiP# )*# ',# &3%:# /'&+3*23# -+# '7*-*;%;+# OaiP"W*+.%3+# /&+.*+# -+# *,/+.;@D# %3+#
(*7*;+(+#/%(+#-+#'7*-*;%;+#(%#.%3+#/+#-+?=2(;@"
X,#<',.9*+#-+#&3+<+3*,9%#&+,;3'#'7*-*;%;+D#*,/+.;+(+#&2;#<*U higrofile care iubesc zonele
umede (cu 85 - !__i#'7*-*;%;+#3+(%;*=@P, mezofile .%3+#;3@*+/.#8,#?2,+(+#/+7*'7+-+#O.'#[\#c\i#'7*-*;%;+#3+(%;*=@#- 7%V23*;%;+%#/&+.**(23P#)* xerofile .%3+#&3+<+3@ zonele secetoase, cu o
'7*-*;%;+#3+(%;*=@#/'6#[\#i"
K-$%5<5&,>552$ &2;# *,<('+,9%# &2?*;*=# /%'# ,+:%;*=# .3+);+3+%# )*# -+?=2(;%3+%# *,/+.;+(23"#
5/;<+(D# &(2*(+# %6',-+,;+# )*# 3+&+?*# .2,-'.# (%# 3+-'.+3+%# -+,/*;@9**# ,'7+3*.+# %# ',23# -@',@;23*#
&3*,#/&@(%3+%#&2,;+(23#)* (%3=+(23#,+2,%;+#-+#&+#23:%,+(+#&(%,;+(23"#J;3%;'(#-+#?@&%-@#<237+%?@#
',# %-@&2/;# &3*+(,*.# &+,;3'# M*6+3,%3+%# *,/+.;+(23D# 8,# =3+7+# .+# *+3,*(+# (*&/*;+# -+# ?@&%-@# )*#
:+32%/+D#.2,;3*6'*+#(%#.3+);+3+%#723;%(*;@9**#(23#-*,#.%'?%#8,:M+9'3*(23"
Lumina V2%.@#',#32(#*7&23;%,;#8,#=*%9%#*,/+.;+(23D#+%#-+;+37*,C,-#/.M*76@3*#+/+,9*%(+#
8,# ',+(+# &32.+/+# <*?*2(2:*.+# -*,# 23:%,*/7""# Y,+(+# *,/+.;+# /',;# %;3%/+# -+# ('7*,@D# %=C,-# ',#
fototropism pozitiv (ord. Lepidoptera fam. Noctuidae), %(;+(+# <':# -+# ('7*,@# (lucifuge),
prezentnd un fototropism negativ (ord.Blattaria, fam. Blatidae etc.).
Pentru speciile fototropic pozitive, se pot utiliza diferite curse luminoase pentru

20

.%&;'3%3+%# (23# 8,# =+-+3+%# /;%6*(*3**# -*,%7*.**# %&%3*9*+*# /%'# &+,;3'# -*/;3':+3+%# -*3+.;@# %# (23#
(exemplu: fluturii ,2.;'3,*#)*#.3+&'/.'(%3*P"
N*-$">55' ($' ,$- .2,;3*6'*+# (%# *,;+,/*<*.%3+%# +=%&23@3**# %&+*# -*,# .23&'(# *,/+.;+(23D#
87&*+-*.@# 7*).%3+%D# M3@,*3+%D# .2&'(%9*%# )*# &2,;%# (23D# -%3# )*# %V';@# (%# 3@/&C,-*3+%# *,/+.;+(23# (%#
-*/;%,9+#7%3*"#$'3+,9**#&';+3,*.*#-+#%+3#&2;#3@/&C,-*#.'#')'3*,9@#(%#-*/;%,9+#<2%3;+#7%3*#27*?*(+#
&@32%/+#(Lymantria dispar - 27*-%#&@32%/@#%#/;+V%3'('*#)*#Hyphantria cunea - 27*-%#&@32%/@#%#
dudului).
$'3+,9**# -+# %+3# -+# /(%6@# *,;+,/*;%;+D# -%3# -+# -'3%;@# (',:C# 87&*+-*.@# %.;*=*;%;+%# ',23#
specii de insecte ca: musca de Hessa, sfredelitorul tulpinilor de porumb etc.
Concluzie : W%.;23**# %6*2;*.*# *,<(+,9+%?@# 8,# 72-# -*3+.;# -+# .3+);+3+%# )*# -+?=2(;%3+%#
insectelor.
TEST DE EVALUARE
1. 0FE)I8)D@;I3C3D5)32I8D48@8)92)CF2D638)78)H<8C8<326;)H824<F)FE3734;48?
B@/&',/:
higrofile (85 - GHHI%51,&,$#$'%"'*#$,7.), mezofile (45 - JKI%51,&,$#$'%"'*#$,7.A%4, xerofile
-#"'%6"'<'".%()0'*'%-5%)%51,&,$#$'%"'*#$,7.%359%LK%IM
2. Care sunt subzonele Z. A. B.?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. ,8EH8<;4F<;)E;U3E5)78)78J:A@4;<8)V,W)<8H<8J3245=)
a. prag biologic inferior
b. prag de prolificitate
c. prag biologic superior
d. prag termic optim
e. prag termic inferior
Rezolvare : c
De rezolvat:
2. XA2;)DFH<32I5)924<8)D8@8)7AF5)H<;BF<3)?3A@AB3D8=)4 0 G3),)<8H<8J3245=
a. sub?2,%#2&;*7@
b. ?2,%#%.;*=*;@9**#6*2(2:*.+
c. prag biologic superior
d. ?2,%#(+;%(@
+"#?2,%#*,<+3*2%3@
Rezolvare:
3.2. Factorii biotici G3)87;C3D3)D;<8)32C@F8268;J5)78J:A@4;<8;)32I8D48@A<
Introducere : Din grupa factorilor biotici fac parte: hrana, zoofagii )*#epizootiile.
Hrana /%'# <%.;23'(# ;32<*.D# *,<('+,9+%?@# 8,# 72-# -*3+.;# =*%9%# *,/+.;+(23# O.3+);+3+%# )*#
-+?=2(;%3+%D#8,7'(9*3+%#)*#3@/&C,-*3+%P"X,#<',.9*+#-+#3+:*7'(#-+#M3%,@D#*,/+.;+(+#/+#.(%/*<*.@#8,#

21

trei grupe: specii fitofage; specii zoofage; specii pantofage.


=$>5"$7 : Insectele fitofage /+# M3@,+/.# .'# -*<+3*;+# 23:%,+# =+3?*# /%'# '/.%;+# %(+#
&(%,;+(23U#3@-@.*,*D#;'(&*,*D#<3',?+D#<(23*D#<3'.;+D#/+7*,9+#+;."#F'&@#23:%,+(+#&+#.%3+#(+#&3+<+3@D#
se mpart n:
- insecte xilofage - .%3+# /+# M3@,+/.# .'# (+7,# /%'# .' /.2%39@# .%# -+# +N+7&('U# .%3**# -+#
(+7,#)*#-+#/.2%39@#%*#&27*(23R#
- insecte folifage, .%3+#.2,/'7@#%&%3%;'(#<2(*%3#%(#&(%,;+(23#O:C,-%.'(#-*,#$2(23%-2PR
- insecte florifage, .%3+#/+#M3@,+/.#.'#+(+7+,;+(+#<(23%(+#%(+#&(%,;+(23#O:C,-%.'(#&@32/#
al florilor);
- insecte cletrofage sau seminifage, .%3+# /+# %;%.@# /+7*,9+(+# O:@3:@3*9%# 7%?@3**D#
:@3:@3*9%#:3C'('*D#72(*%#.%<+,*+#%#.+3+%(+(23#+;."PR#
- insecte micofage sau micetofage, .%3+#/+#M3@,+/.#.'#.*'&+3.*#O7'/.%#.*'&+3.*(23PR#
- insecte saprofage .%3+#.2,/'7@#7%;erii organice n descompunere (larvele tinere de
.@3@6')*#+;."P"
F'&@#,'7@3'(#-+#/&+.**#-+#&(%,;+#.'#.%3+#/+#M3@,+/.D#*,/+.;+(+#&2;#<*U
- monofage /+#M3@,+/.#.'#2#/*,:'3@#/&+.*+#-+#&(%,;@#O:@3:@3*9%#7%?@3**PR
- oligofage .2,/'7@# /&+.** de &(%,;+# %&%39*,C,- (%# %.+%)*# <%7*(*+# 62;%,*.@# /%'# (%#
<%7*(**# 8,3'-*;+# O.@3@6')+**# /&*.+(23D# &(2),*9+(+# .3'.*<+3+(23D# &(2),*9+(+# .+3+%(+(23D# 7');+(+#
cerealelor etc.);
- polifage .%3+# /+# M3@,+/.# .'# -*<+3*;+# /&+.**# -+# &(%,;+# -*,# -*<+3*;+# <%7*(**# 62;%,*.+#
(viermii albi, viermi*#/C37@D#=*+37**#.+,')**#+;."P"
A4#$-3,>5$C' Insectele zoofage /+# M3@,+/.# .'# 23:%,*/7+# %,*7%(+# - vii sau moarte,
&';C,-# <*U# 72,2<%:+D# 2(*:2<%:+# )*# &2(*<%:+"# G2;# <*U# *,/+.;+ harpactofage, 6".&.$)#"' sau
".6,$)#"' .+#/+#M3@,+/.#.'#&3%-@#=*+U#/&+.**#-+#6'6'3'?e; insecte parazite, &+#2'@D#(%3=+D#&'&+#
/%'# %-'(9*D# /+# M3@,+/.# &%3%?*;C,-# 23:%,*/7+(+# =**# O/&+.**# -+# =*+/&*# +,;272<%:+U# Aphelinus,
Prospaltella etc.); insecte necrofage .2,/'7@#*,/+.;+#72%3;+#(Necrophorus spp. etc.); insecte
coprofage /+#M3@,+/.#.'#+N.3+mentele diferitelor specii de animale (Scarabaeus spp., Copris
lunaris etc.).
Insecte pantofage /%'# 27,*=23+# %'# ',# 3+:*7# -+# M3%,@# 7*N;# /%'# 27,*=23D# ?22<%:# )*#
<*;2<%:#.2,/'7C,-#%;C;#M3%,@#=+:+;%(@#.C;#)*#%,*7%(@#(Forficula auricularia, Blatta orientalis
etc.).
Zoofagii /',;#3+&3+?+,;%9*# -+# 2# /+3*+# -+# 23:%,*/7+# %,*7%(+# -*<+3+,9*%;+# n 6#"#(,8,% 4,%
6".&.$)",2 .%3+#;3@*+/.#&+#/+%7%#%(;23#/&+.**"
K,-,?5>55 ;3@*+/.#&+#/+%7%#%(;23#/&+.**#-+,'7*;+#:%?-+#.@323%#(+#&32-'.#72%3;+%#(+,;@#
8,# .'3/'(# -+?=2(;@3**# (23"# G%3%?*9**# /',;# 8,;2;-+%',%# 7%*# 7*.*# -+.C;# :%?-+(+# (23# "# A*# &2;# <*#
'0&)6#"#(,8, .C,-# /+# -+?=2(;@# 8,# *,;+3*23'(# :%?-+(23# )*# '-$)6#"#(,8, .C,-# /+# -+?=2(;@# (%#
exteriorul gazdelor.
K-)()&+-55 /',;#23:%,*/7+#.%3+#/+#M3@,+/.#.'#%(;+#/&+.**#-+#%,*7%(+#O=*.;*7+PD#&+#.%re
(+#-+=23+%?@#3%&*-D#-+#26*.+*#&3@-@;23'(#+/;+#7%3+#-+.C;#&3%-%#+*#&2;#<*#U#
- insectele entomofage &3@-@;2%3+# %&%39*,# 23-*,+(23U Heteroptera, Hymenoptera,
Coleoptera, Diptera etc.
- acarofagi fac parte din ordinul Parasitiformes, (cls. Arachnida), familia Phytoseidae
(Typlodromus pyri, Typlodromus soleiger etc.).
- vertebratele -)<5&+,-$ )*# insectivore O&@/@3*D# 7%7*<+3+# +;."P# .2,/'7@# <2%3;+# 7'(;+#
/&+.**# -@',@;2%3+# O*,/+.;+D# 32?@;2%3+D# 7+(.*# +;."P"# F*,;3+# &@/@3*(+# *,/+.;*=23+# .'# *7&23;%,9@#
-+2/+6*;@# 8,# .276%;+3+%# 6*2(2:*.@# %# -@',@;23*(23# 7+,9*2,@7U# &*9*:2**D# .'.'(D# .*2.@,*;23*(+D#
graurii etc.
H%7*<+3+(+#*,/+.;*=23+#O%3*.*'(D#.C3;*9%D#(*(*%.'(#+;."PD#.2,/'7@#',#,'7@3#7%3+#-+#/&+.**#
-@',@;2%3+D#8,#=3+7+#.+#2#/+3*+#-+#32?@;2%3+#/',;#.2,/'7%;+#-+#',+(+#7%7*<ere carnivore ca:
6'3/'.'(D#-*M23'(D#,+=@/;'*.%#+;."

22

$',2%);+3+%# ?22<%:*(23D# &3+?*,;@# *7&23;%,9@# &3%.;*.@# -+2/+6*;@D# )*# ;3+6'*+# 2.32;*9*# 8,#
=+-+3+%# 7+,9*,+3**# +.M*(*63'('*# 6*2.+,2;*.# )*# ';*(*?%9*# 8,# 72-# -*3+.;# 8,# .276%;+3+%# &+# .%(+#
6*2(2:*.@#%#-@',@;23*(23.
Epizootiile /',;# 62(*# %(+# *,/+.;+(23# -%;23%;+# %.;*=*;@9**# -+/<@)'3%;+# -+# 2# /+3*+# -+#
microorganisme entomopatogene (virusuri, bacterii, ciuperci, sporozoare etc.). Bolile produse
-+#=*32?+#&2%3;@#-+,'7*3+%#-+ viroze, cele cauzate de bacterii - bacterioze, cele provocate de
ciuperci - micoze, iar cele produse de sporozoare - sporozooze.
Factori edafici. J2('(#.%#%;%3+#3+&3+?*,;@#',#<%.;23#+.2(2:*.#*7&23;%,;#8,#-+?=2(;%3+%#)*#
3@/&C,-*3+%# *,/+.;+(23D# 7%*# %(+/# %# .+(23# +-%<*.+D# +(# *,<('+,9C,-# -*3+.;# &3*,# &32&3*+;@9*(+# /%(+#
<*?*.+#)*#.M*7*.+D#<*+#*,-*3+.;#&3*,#.2,-*9*2,%3+%#-*<+3*;@#%#=+:+;%9*+*"
F+?=2(;%3+%#',+*#/&+.**#-+# *,/+.;+#O:C,-%.*D#.@3@6')*#+;."P#/%'#.+(#&'9*,#%#','*# /;%-*'#
de dezvoltare a lor, are loc n sol.
5/;<+(D# /2('3*(+# ')2%3+D# ,*/*&2%/+# /',;# &3+<+3%;+# -+# .@3@6')'(# 7%3723%;D# .@3@6')+**#
=+3?*#%*#=*9+*D#:C,-%.'(#&@32/#+;."#
W*(2N+3%#=*9+*#-+#=*+D#/+#-+?=2(;@#,'7%*#8,#/2('3*(+#:3+(+D#(';2-%3:*(2%/+#)*#(';2%/+#)*#,'#
:@/+);+#.2,-*9**#<%=23%6*(+#&+#/2('3*(+#62:%;+#8,#6*2N*-#-+#/*(*.*'#O,*/*&'3*#)*#/2('3i nisipoase).
J2('3*(+#'7+-+# )*#.'#3+%.9*+#%.*-@#/',;# 7%*#&2&'(%;+#-+.C;#.+(+#.'#3+%.9*+# ,+';3@#/%'#
6%?*.@"#
Majoritatea speciilor de elateride se ntlnesc n soluri acide, cu un pH cuprins ntre
3,8 - \D0D# 8,# =3+7+# .+# (%3=+(+# .@3@6')+*(23# .+3+%(+(23# (Anisoplia spp.) &3+<+3@# /2('3*(+# .'#
3+%.9*+#%(.%(*,@#/%'#,+';3@"
X,#<',.9*+#-+#;*&'3*(+#-+#/2('3*#&+#.%3+#(+#&2&'(+%?@D#*,/+.;+(+#&2;#<*U#psamofile care se
-+?=2(;@# 8,# /2('3*(+# ,*/*&2%/+R halofile .%3+#;3@*+/.# 8,# ;+3+,'3*# /@3@;'3%;+R pietrofile care sunt
fre.=+,;+#&+#/2('3*(+#&*+;32%/+#)* indiferente care se ntlnesc n diferite soluri, indiferent de
/;3'.;'3%#)*#.27&2?*9*%#(23"
Concluzie : W%.;23**#6*2;*.*#)*#+-%<*.*#(%#<+(#.%#)*#.+*#%6*2;*.*#*,<(+,9+%?@#8,#72-#-*3+.;#
-+#.3+);+3+%#)*#-+?=2(;%3+%#*,/+.;+(23"
TEST DE EVALUARE
ON)0FE)I8)D@;I3C3D5)32I8D48@8)92)CF2D638)78)<8B3EF@)78)Y<;25?
B@/&',/U
F0%<50-8,'%&'%"'+,15*%&'%?"#0.%,03'-$'*'%6)$%<,:%fitofage, ())<#+'%4,%6#0$)<#+'
2. 08)IF24)H;<;J3633)G3)DFE)I8)D@;I3C3D5?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. QFH5)2FE5<F@)78)IH8D33)78)H@;248)H8)D;<8)@8);4;D5)32I8D48@8)HA4)C3:
a. monofage
b. zoofage
c. oligofage
d. acarofage
e. polifage
Rezolvare : a, c, e
De rezolvat:

23

2. 12363)denumirile insectelor fitofage cu organele plantelor H8)D;<8)@8);4;D5 :


a. insecte folifage
/+#M3@,+/.#.'#(+7,#/%'#.'#/.2%39@
b. insecte xilofage
se M3@,+/.#.'#+(+7+,;+(+#<(23%(+
c. insecte florifage
.2,/'7@#%&%3%;'(#<2(*%3
d. insecte cletrofage
/+#M3@,+/.#.'#.*'&+3.*
e. insecte micofage
.2,/'7@#/+7*,9+(+
Rezolvare:
3.3. *I43E;<8;)7;F28@A<)G3)H;BF?8@A<)H<A7FI8)78)75F254A<3
Introducere : Dauna sau :545E;<8; +/;+# 3+?'(;%;'(# %.9*',**# -@',@;23'('*# %/'&3%#
&(%,;+*D#8,#/.2&'(#M3@,*3**#/%'#8,#'37%#%(;23#%.;*=*;@9*#O.2,/;3'*3+%#:%(+3**(23#&+,;3'#-+&',+3+%#
pontei, construir+%#%-@&2/;'3*(23#-+#M*6+3,%3+#+;."P"#j@;@7@3*(+#-+&*,-#-+#72-'(#-+#M3@,*3+#)*#
;*&'(# %&%3%;'('*# 6'.%(D# *%3# 8,# '37%# %;%.'('*# %'# (2.# &+3;'36@3*# %(+# <',.9**(23# <*?*2(2:*.+#
O3+/&*3%9*+D#;3%,/&*3%9*+D#<2;2/*,;+?@#+;."PD#.%3+#.2,-'.#(%#/.@-+3+%#3+?+3=+(23#-+#M3%,@#OM*-3%9*#
-+# .%362,D# /'6/;%,9+# &32;+*.+# +;."PD# %/;<+(# &(%,;+(+# /'<+3@# 8,# =+:+;%9*+D# ,'# /+# -+?=2(;@# )*# ,'#
<3'.;*<*.@#.23+/&',?@;23#)*#',+23*#&*+3"#
=$>5"$7 : 1*&'3*(+#-+#-%',+#/',;#-*<+3+,9*%;+#-'&@#%&%3%;'(#6'.%(#8,U
- daune morfologice, /'6# <237@# -+# 32/@;'3*# O&%39*%(+# /%'# ;2;%(+# &C,@# (%# /.M+(+;%3+P#
asupra diferitelor organe ale plantelor - &32=2.%;+# -+# *,/+.;+(+# .'# %&%3%;# 6'.%(# -+# 3'&;# )*#
7%/;*.%;#O32?@;2%3+PR#
- daune fiziologice *-+,;*<*.%;+# &3*,# &3+?+,9%# ',23# -+.2(23@3*D# 3@/'.*3*D# -+<237@3*# /'6#
<237@#-+#'7<(@;'3*#O:%(+#/%'#.+.*-**PD#,+.32?@3*#+;."- provocate de insecte cu aparat bucal de
8,9+&%;# )*# /'&;# O/':@;2%3+PD# .C,-# /',;# -+3+:(%;+# <',.9**(+# <*?*2(2:*.+# )*# %&%3# 72-*<*.@3*#
biochimice. Tipurile de daune, n general sunt foarte variate, deosebindu-se -'&@# 23:%,+(+#
atacat+#'37@;2%3+(+#;*&'3*#&3*,.*&%(+:
1*&'3*#-+#-@',@3*#(%#-*<+3*;+#23:%,+#%(+#&(%,;+(23U#
a - la muguri (Anthonomus pomorum);
b - (%#/+7*,9+#(Laspeyresia nigricana);
c - la fructe (Cydia pomonella);
d - la tulpini (Cossus cossus);
e - (%#3@-@.*,*#(Melolontha melolontha);
f-(%#3@-@.*,*#:%(+#(Ceuthorrhynchus pleurostigma),
g - la tuberculi (Agriotes spp.);
h - la bulbi (Delia antiqua) O-'&@#-*<+3*9*#%';23*P
Tipuri de daune la frunze:
a - ro%-+3+%# ;2;%(@# %# (*76'('*# <2(*%3#
(Leptinotarsa decemlineata);
b- /'6# <237@ de scheletare (Gastroidea
viridula);
c - /'6#<237@#-+#<*:'3*#(Sitona spp.);
d - pseudocecidii (Aphis fabae); e - sub
<237@#
-+#
&+3<23%9**#
(Mamestra
brassicae);
f -ciuruire (Phyllotreta spp.); g - sub
<237@#-+#7*,+#(Pegomyia betae);
h - gale (Tetraneura ulmi) O-'&@# -*<+3*9*#
autori)

24

G*+3-+3*(+#&32-'/+#-+#-@',@;23*#-+&*,-#-+#-+,/*;%;+%#(23D#.%3+#/+#&2%;+#+N&3*7%#-*3+.;D#
&3*,# ,'7@3# -+# +N+7&(%3+k&(%,;@D# (%# !__# &(%,;+# (%# 7&"D# (%# b:"D# ;3',.M*D# <3',?@D# /&*.# +;.", sau
*,-*3+.;#.%#7%,*<+/;%3+#%#%;%.'('*#Oi#-+#<3',?+#32%/+D#,'7@3#-+#&+;+D#:%(+3**D#23*<*.**#+;."P"
A4#$-3,>5$':Q82I34;48;)2FE8<3D5);)HAHF@;6383 OFQPD#.%#)* B<;7F@)78)75F2;<8 sau de
*,<+/;%3+#OlFPD#/+#&2%;+#+/;*7%#.'#%V';23'(#',23#/.@3*#-+#+/;*7%3+"#G3*, #%,-)'($'$#&57,-$ se
8,9+(+:+#:3%-%9*%#-+,/*;@9**# ,'7+3*.+D#%#:3%-'('*#-+#-@',%3+#/%'#%#&%:'6+(23D#&+# *,;+3=%(+#-+#
.(%/+D# 8,# <',.9*+# -+# (*7*;+(+# .3*;*.+# -+# -+,/*;%;+D# 3+/&+.;*=# -+# -@',%3+%# .%'?%;@"# AN&3*7%3+#
:3%-'('*# -+# -@',%3+# /+# <%.+# .'# %V';23'(# %# &%;3'# *,;+3=%(+# -+# .(%/@D# .%3+# &3+?*,;@# '37@;2%3+%#
/+7,*<*.%9*+U#FQ#m#_#- %;%.'(#(*&/+);+R#FQ#m#7*.@#- atacul este slab, dar se poate intensifica;
DN = mijlocie - %;%.'(#+/;+#7*V(2.*'#)*#/+#*,;+3=*,+#-+2%3+.+#-+,/*;%;+%#&2%;+#.3+);+#)*#FQ#m#
mare - atacul este pu;+3,*.D#3*/.'(#+/;+#<2%3;+#7%3+#)*#/+#*,;+3=*,+#+,+3:*."#X,#72-#&3%.;*.D#/+#
*,;+3=*,+#,'7%*#%;',.*#.C,-#FQ#%#-%',+23#-+&@)+);+#(*7*;%#.3*;*.@D#3+/&+.;*= pragul economic
($'()*",-$ OGAFPD#.C,-#FQ#+/;+#7*V(2.*+#)*#7%3+D#.++%#.+#.23+/&',-+#','*#%;%.#7*V(2.*'#sau
puternic.
K-,@*2'$%+"+75%'($'()*",-$ OGAFP#3+&3+?*,;@#2#-+,/*;%;+#-+#-@',@;23*#/%'#',# ,*=+(#
-+# %;%.# &+# &(%,;%# -+# .'(;'3@D# .%3+# &32-'.+# 2# &*+3-+3+# -+# &32-'.9*+# +:%(@# .'# .2/;'(#
tratamentului.
GAF#&3+?*,;@#2#(%;'3@#+.2,27*.@D#&+,;3'#.@#*%#8,#.2,/*-+3%3+#%tt costul tratamentului
.C;# )*# ,*=+('(# &*+3-+3*(23# +N&3*7%;+# =%(23*.D# -%3# %3+# )*# 2# (%;'3@# +.2(2:*.@D# .+# 3+?'(;@# -*,#
3+-'.+3+%# ,'7@3'('*# -+# ;3%;%7+,;+# )*# -*,# <%&;'(# .@# # &3*,# &32;+V%3+%# +,;272<%:*(23# ,*=+('(#
&2&'(%9*2,%(# %(# -@',@;23*(23# /+# 7+,9*,+# (%# ',# :3%-# /.@?';"# GAF# /+# &2%;+# -+;+37*,%# <2(2/*,-#
3+(%9*%U
Cp$Cg $R

PED # Rc$Pr$P$E (1 " Cr


) , n care:
Pr
$&# /',;# .2/;'3*(+# -+# &32;+.9*+# %# &(%,;+(23# kM%R# $3# m# .2/;'3*(+# &+,;3'# 3+.2(;%#
/'&(*7+,;%3@# %# &32-'.9*+*# &32;+V%;+# &3*,# 7@/'3*(+# %&(*.%;+kM%R# $:# m# .2/;'3*(+# :+,+3%(+R# B# =
r+,;%6*(*;%;+%#8,#iR#B.#m#3+.2(;%#O&32-'.9*%P#nkM%R#G3#m#&3+9'(#-+#=C,?%3+#.'#%7@,',;'(knR#G#m#
&*+3-+3+%#-+#&32-'.9*+#.%(.'(%;@#(%#i#+N+7&(%3+#-+#-@',@;23R#A#m#+<*.%.*;%;+%#6*2(2:*.@"
Un alt indicator este ;-$%3$">,',&,%*2*5 OWiP"#.%3+#3+&3+?*,;@#3%&23;'(#-*,;3+#,'7@3'(#
-+#&(%,;+#/%'#23:%,+#%;%.%;+#O,P#)*#,'7@3'(#;2;%(#-+#&(%,;+#/%'#23:%,+#-+#&(%,;+#%,%(*?%;+#OQP#
8,7'(9*;#.'#2#/';@#)*#/+#&2%;+#.%(.'(%#.'#%V';23'(#3+(%9*+*U#########
n
F% # $100
N
Intensitatea atacului (I%) 3+&3+?*,;@#&32.+,;'(#8,#.%3+#2#&(%,;@#/%'#',#23:%,#%(#&(%,;+*#
+/;+#%;%.%;#/%'#&*+3-+3+%#-+#&32-'.9*+#8,3+:*/;3%;@#-+#2#&(%,;@#/%'#-+#2#.'(;'3@#&+#',*;%;+%#-+#
/'&3%<%9@#O7&"D#M%P"
Acest indicator adesea este subiectiv, deoarece el se poate exprima prin note conform
'37@;2%3+*#/.@3**#=%(23*.+U#_#m#.'#&32.+,;#-+#%;%.#_R#!#m#%;%.#-+#!#&C,@#(%#4i#-*,#&(%,;@#/%'#
23:%,R#0#m#%;%.#-+#[#&C,@#(%#!_iR#4#= %;%.#-+#!!#&C,@#(%#0\iR#[#m#%;%.#-+#0d#&C,@#(%#\_iR#\#
m#%;%.#-+#\!#&C,@#(%#`\iR#d#m#%;%.#-+#`d#&C,@#(%#!__i"
X,# <',.9*+# -+# %.+%/;@# /.%3@D *,;+,/*;%;+%# %;%.'('*# /+# &2%;+# .%(.'(%# -'&@# 2# +N&3+/*+#
% (i $ f ) ,
.%(*;%;*=@U I % #
n
n care: i - 3+&3+?*,;@#&32.+,;'( clasei; f- ,'7@3'(#-+#&(%,;+#/%'#23:%,+#%;%.%;+#&+#<*+.%3+#.(%/@#
,2;%;@#.'#NR#,#- ,'7@3'(#;2;%(#-+#&(%,;+#/%'#23:%,+#%,%(*?%;+"
Intensitatea atacului /+#&2%;+#.%(.'(%#)*#.'#%V';23'(#',+*#+N&3+/**#.%,;*;%;*=+

I% #

a&b
x 100, n care:
a

25

%# m# &32-'.9*%# &(%,;+*# /%'# .'(;'3**# ,+%;%.%;+D# *%3# 6# = &32-'.9*%# 269*,';@# -+# (%# 2# &(%,;@# /%'#
.'(;'3@#%;%.%;@"
O-,(*2' ($' ()*",-$ (GD) se +N&3*7@# &32.+,;'%(# 8,# <',.9*+# -+# <3+.=+,9%# )*#
*,;+,/*;%;+%#%;%.'('*#8,#+N&3+/*%#.%(*;%;*=@D#3%&23;%;#(%#!__" Gradul de atac se poate determina
-'&@#<237'(%#U
(i $ f )
GD # F %xI % sau GD # F $ %
100

Paguba +/;+# 3+?'(;%;'(# -%',+*D# .2,.3+;*?%;# &3*,# /.@-+3+%# /%'# &*+3-+3+%# -*,# 3+.2(;@D#
3+&3+?*,;@#2#+N&3+/*+#.%,;*;%;*=@D#+.2,27*.@#%#%;%.'('*#&32-'/#-+#-@',@;23*D#.%3+#/+#3+<+3@# (%#
&32-'.9*%# 269*,';@D# 3+&3+?+,;C,-# -*<+3+,9%# -*,;3+# &32-'.9*%# 269*,';@# (%# 2# .'(;'3@# ,+%;%.%;@# )*#
',%#%;%.%;@"#
1"#E%*.'D#O!gcdPD#%#<237'(%;#.C;+=%#&3*,.*&**#&3*=*,-#&*+3-+3*(+#-+#&32-'.9*+U
- o3*.+#.'(;'3@#&2%;+#<*#%;%.%;@#-+#-@',@;23*R
- n'#23*.+#%;%.#-+#-@',@;23*#-'.+#(%#&*+3-+3*R
- p*+3-+3*(+#&32-'/+#-+#-@',@;23*#-+&*,-#)*#-+#23:anele atacate ale plantelor;
- n*=+('(#&*+3-+3*(23#-+&*,-+#-+#/&+.*%#-@',@;2%3+R###
Concluzii: Paguba /%'#&*+3-+3+%#OGiP#+/;+#3+?'(;%;'(#','*#%;%.#&';+3,*.#8,#'37%#.@3'*%#
/+# 8,3+:*/;3+%?@# &*+3-+3*# .%,;*;%;*=+# -+# 3+.2(;@D# +=%('%;+# 8,# :3+';%;+# (%# ',*;%;+%# -+ /'&3%<%9@D#
&27#+;."#G%:'6%#3+&3+?*,;@#&32-'/'(#-*,;3+#<3+.=+,9%#)*#*,;+,/*;%;+%#%;%.'('*D#('%;@#8,#+N&3+/*+#
.%,;*;%;*=@D#-'&@#3+(%9*%U
P% # F % $ I % # F $

( a &b )
, n care:
a

a m#&32-'.9*%#.'(;'3**#,+%;%.%;+#R#6m#&32-'.9*%#.'(;'3**#%;%.%;+"
Pentru calculare pi+3-+3*(23# -+# &32-'.9*+D# /+# &2%;+# ';*(*?%# 2# 7+;2-@# 7'(;# 7%*# 3%&*-@D#
<2(2/*,-#3+(%9*%U
P% = (a . e - b), n care:
a = &32-'.9*%#&(%,;+(23#-@',%;+#(%#',*;%;+%#-+#/'&3%<%9@#O'k/PR
6#m#&32-'.9*%#269*,';@#(%#'k/R#+#= ,'7@3'(#;2;%(#-+#&(%,;+#(%#'k/"
TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Care sunt tipurile de daune 2)CF2D638)78)43HF@)78);H;<;4)?FD;@?
B@/&',/U
daune morfologice, 359% <)"1.% &'% ")3.$5",% #356"#% &,<'",$'*)"% )"+#0'% #*'% 6*#0$'*)"% 6")7)-#$'%&'%,03'-$'*'%-5%#6#"#$%95-#*%&'%"56$%4,%1#3$,-#$N%daune fiziologice 359%<)"1.%&e
&'-)*)".",2% ".35-,",2% &'<)"1.",% C+#*'% 3#5% -'-,&,,A2% 0'-")(.",% '$-M- provocate de insecte cu
#6#"#$%95-#*%&'%F08'6#$%4,%356$M
2. Ce este L<;BF@)8DA2AE3D)78)75F2;<8 (P.E.D.)?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:

26

1. $<8D:826;);4;DF@F3 (F%) reprezint5=)


a. &32-'.9*%#&(%,;+(23#-@',%;+#(%#',*;%;+%#-+#/'&3%<%9@#
b. 3%&23;'(#&32.+,;'%(#-*,;3+#,'7@3'(#-+#&(%,;+#/%'#23:%,+#%;%.%;+#)*#,'7@3'(#;2;%(#-+#
plante sau organe de plante analizate
c. &32-'.9*%#.'(;'3**#%;%.%;+#
d. ,'7@3'(#;2;%(#-+#&(%,;+#/%'#23:%,+#analizate
+"#,'7@3'(#-+#&(%,;+#%;%.%;+
Rezolvare : b
De rezolvat:
2. Intensitatea atacului V'ZW)<8H<8J3245=
a. 3+&3+?*,;@#&32.+,;'(#8,#.%3+#2#&(%,;@#/%'#',#23:%,#%(#&(%,;+*#+/;+#%;%.%;
b. ,'7@3'(#;2;%(#-+#&(%,;+#/%'#23:%,+#%;%.%;+
c. &32-'.9*%#&(%,;+(23 -@',%;+#
d. &*+3-+3+%# -+# &32-'.9*+# 8,3+:*/;3%;@# -+# 2# &(%,;@# /%'# -+# 2# .'(;'3@# &+# ',*;%;+%# -+#
/'&3%<%9@
e.procentul de plante atacate
Rezolvare:

REZUMATUL TEMEI
]#Dauna +/;+#3+?'(;%;'(#%.9*',**#-@',@;23'('*# %/'&3%#&(%,;+*D# 8,#/.2&'(# M3@,*3**# /%'# 8,#
urma a(;23#%.;*=*;@9*#O.2,/;3'*3+%#:%(+3**(23#&+,;3'#-+&',+3+%#&2,;+*D#.2,/;3'*3+%#%-@&2/;'3*(23#
de hibernare etc.).
]#1*&'3*(+#-+#-%',+#/',;#-*<+3+,9*%;+#-'&@#%&%3%;'(#6'.%(#8,U
- daune morfologice, /'6# <237@# -+# 32/@;'3*# %/'&3%# -*<+3*;+(23# 23:%,+# %(+# &(%,;+(23# &32=2.%;+#-+#*,/+.;+(+#.'#%&%3%;#6'.%(#-+#3'&;#)*#7%/;*.%;#O32?@;2%3+PR#
- daune fiziologice *-+,;*<*.%;+#&3*,#&3+?+,9%#',23#-+.2(23@3*D#3@/'.*3*D#-+<237@3*#/'6#
<237@#-+#'7<(@;'3*#O:%(+#/%'#.+.*-**PD#,+.32?@3*#+;."- provocate de insecte cu aparat bucal de
8,9+&%;# )*# /'&;# O/':@;2%3+PD# .C,-# /',;# -+3+:(%;+# <',.9**(+# <*?*2(2:*.+# )*# %&%3# 72-*<*.@3*#
biochimice.
]#K-,@*2'$%+"+75%'($'()*",-$ OGAFP#3+&3+?*,;@#2#-+,/*;%;+#-+#-@',@;23*#/%'#',#,*=+(#
-+# %;%.# &+# &(%,;%# -+# .'(;'3@D# .%3+# &32-'.+# 2# &*+3-+3+# -+# &32-'.9*+# +:%(@# .'# .2/;'(#
;3%;%7+,;'('*"GAF#&3+?*,;@#2#(%;'3@#+.2,27*.@D#(ia n considerare att costul tratamentului ct
)*#,*=+('(#&*+3-+3*(23#+N&3*7%;+#=%(23*.)D#-%3#%3+#)*#2#(%;'3@#+.2(2:*.@D#.+#3+?'(;@#-*,#3+-'.+3+%#
,'7@3'('*#-+#;3%;%7+,;+.
]# F-$%3$">,' ,&,%*2*5 (F%) 3+&3+?*,;@# 3%&23;'(# procentual -*,;3+# ,'7@3'(# -e plante
sau organe atacate )*#,'7@3'(#;2;%(#-+#&(%,;+#/%'#23:%,+#-+#plante analizate.
]# Intensitatea atacului (I%) 3+&3+?*,;@# &32.+,;'(# 8,# .%3+# 2# &(%,;@# /%'# ',# 23:%,# %(#
plantei este atacat sau pierderea -+# &32-'.9*+# 8,3+:*/;3%;@# -+# 2# &(%,;@# /%'# -+# 2# .'(;'3@# &+#
',*;%;+%#-+#/'&3%<%9@#O7&"D#M%P"
]# Paguba +/;+# 3+?'(;%;'(# -%',+*D# .2,.3+;*?%;# &3*,# /.@-+3+%# /%'# &*+3-+3+%# -*,# 3+.2(;@D#
3+&3+?*,;@#2#+N&3+/*+#.%,;*;%;*=@D#+.2,27*.@#%#%;%.'('*#&32-'/#-+#-@',@;23*D#.%3+#/+#3+<+3@# (%#
&32-'.9*%# 269*,';@D# 3+&3+?+,;C,-# -*<+3+,9%# -*,;3+# &32-'.9*%# 269*,';@# (%# 2# .'(;'3@# ,+%;%.%;@# )*#
',%#%;%.%;@"#

27

Tema nr. 4

!*,"Q*)Q*)0"!>(,*#*)()Q.1-.,"#'%"#
PLANTELOR AGRICOLE
1234563)78)92:56;<8)=
!
["!"#H@/'3*#&3+=+,;*=+
o######4.2. Me;2-+#<*?*.+D#7+.%,*.+D#.M*7*.+#-+#.276%;+3+#%#-@',@;23*(23#&(%,;+(23#
agricole
!
["4##H+;2-+#6*2(2:*.+#-+#.276%;+3+#%#-@',@;23*(23#&(%,;+(23#%:3*.2(+

Obiectivele temei:
>#.',2%);+3+%#)*#8,9+(+:+3+%#.2,.+&;+(23#)*#<237%3+%#&+3/&+.;*=+*#%/'&3%#metodelor de
.276%;+3+#%#-@',@;23*(23#&(%,;+(23#%:3*.2(+"
>#-+?6%;+3+%#,29*',*(23#3+<+3*;2%3+#(%#U#7+;2-+(+#&3+=+,;*=+#)*#.'3%;*=+#-+#.276%;+3+#%#
-@',@;23*(23#&(%,;+(23#%:3*.2(+"
># %,%(*?%3+%# )*# &3+.*?%3+%# %=%,;%V+(23# )*# %# -+?%=%,;%V+(23# metodelor de combatere a
-@',@;orilor plantelor agricole, n special a metodelor chimice de combatere.
Timpul alocat temei : 6 ore
>3?@3AB<;C38)<8DAE;27;45)=
1. E%*.'#1"D#J@=+/.'#5"D#E,3$'1'%&'%-)19#$'"'%,0$'+"#$.%#%9)*,*)"%4,%&.50.$)",*)"%6'%
culturi. Editura Ceres, 1986.
2. Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%#+",-)*.2 Editura Universitaria Craiova, 2005.
3"# H*;3+%# I"D# J;%,# $"D# K'.@# L"D Entomologie vol. 1, Editura Reprograph Craiova,
2008.
4.B2).%# I"D# D")+0)(#2% #7'"$,(#"'#% 4,% -#"#0$,0#% <,$)3#0,$#".% #% &.50.$)",*)"% &,0%
#+",-5*$5".. Editura Geea, B'.'3+);*D#0___"
5. B2).%#I"D#/0$)1)*)+,'%+'0'"#*."#A-*;'3%#J^(=*D#E'.'3+);*D#0__!"
4.1. Masuri preventive
Introducere: Protectia plantelor se ocup@ cu studiul organismelor d@un@toare
(fitopatogeni, artropode fitofage, buruieni, rozatoare etc.) n scopul stabilirii de m@suri
eficiente de combatere a %.+/;23%#)*#-+# (*7*;%3+#%# pagubelor / pierderilor economice produse
de ace)tia (cca. o treime din recolta poten9ial@P.
Combaterea daunatorilor culturilor agricole se realizeaza prin metode preventive )*#
curative.
Aplicarea 7)#*-52+-' <-$3$"&53$ are ca scop prentmpinarea %&%3*9*+*# )*# 8,7'(9*3+%# 8,#
7%/@#a -@',@;23*(23 )*#/+#6%?+%?@#&+#principiul universal profilactic: '3$'%1#,%54)"%Ceficient)
3.%6"'7,,%&'-@$%3.%-)19#8,". F*,;3+#7@/'3*(+#preventive amintim:
Retinem: P<AB2AJ;) G3) ;:8<43J;<8;, n cadrul combaterii integrate constituie una din
=+3*:*(+# *7&23;%,;+# .%3+# .2,;3*6'*+# (%# %&(*.%3+%# 3%9*2,%(@# %# ;3%;%7+,;+(23# 8,# <',.9*+# -+#
727+,;'(#2&;*7#-+#/+,/*6*(*;%;+#%#-@',@;23*(23D#3+%(*?C,-#3+-'.+3+%#,'7@3'('*#-+ tratamente,

28

-*7*,'%3+%# &+3*.2('('*# -+# &2('%3+# )*# -+?=2(;%3+%# ,+/;*,:M+3*;@# %# <%',+*# )*# <(23+*# ';*(+D#
%/*:'3C,-#8,#%.+(%)*#;*7&#/&23*3+%#&32-'.9*+*"
Prin H<AB2AJ5 8,# &32;+.9*%# &(%,;+(23# /+# 8,9+(+:+# &3+=+-+3+%# .'# 7'(;# ;*7&# 8,%*,;+# %#
%&%3*9*+*# 8,# 7%/@# %# /&+.**(23# -+# 62(*# )*# -@',@;23*" Prognoza poate fi de #%*-&)' (*-,&), cnd
%&%3*9*%# &2&'(%9*+*# ',+*# /&+.**# /+# &3+=+-+# .'# .C;+=%# ?*(+# /%'# /@&;@7C,*# 8,%*,;+# )*# -+ 2*"@)
(*-,&), .C,-#&3+=+-+3*(+#8,7'(9*3**#8,# 7%/@#%#-@',@;23*(23D#&+#',#%,'7*;#;eritoriu, se face cu
2-3 luni nainte de izbucnirea invaziilor.
G32:,2?%#%&%3*9*+*#8,#7%/@#%#',23#/&+.**#-@',@;2%3+#/+#/;%6*(+);+#&+#6%?%#',23#26/+3=%9**#
%/'&3%# /;@3**# <*;2/%,*;%3+# %# .'(;'3*(23# O<3+.=+,9%# )*# *,;+,/*;%;+%# %;%.'('*D# :3%-'(# -+# -@',%3+P#
&3+.'7#)*#%/'&3%#-+,/*;@9*i numerice a speciilor respective.
Avertizarea %&(*.@3**#;3%;%7+,;+(23#<*;2/%,*;%3+#3+&3+?*,;@ momentul optim de aplicare a
;3%;%7+,;+(23# )*# %3+# 2# *7&23;%,9@# -+2/+6*;@# &+,;3'# .276%;+3+%# +<*.*+,;@# %# -@',@;23*(23#
plantelor. S+#3+%(*?+%?@#-+#26*.+*#-'&@#;3+* .3*;+3**U#6*2(2:*.D#+.2(2:*.#)*#<+,2(2:*."
! Criteriul biologic, .2,/;@# 8,# ';*(*?%3+%# ',23# &%3;*.'(%3*;@9*# 6*2(2:*.+D# <*+# %(+# %-'(9*(23D#
<*+#%(+#%(;23#/;%-**D#.'7#%3#<*U#.'36%#-+#?623D#.'36%#-+#%&%3*9*+D#+.(2?*',+%#+;."
! Criteriul ecologic, c2,/;@# 8,# ';*(*?%rea ca mijloc de avertizare a timpului biologic
Oh,PD#%#/'7+*#-+#;+7&+3%;'3@#+<+.;*=@#O;,#- ;2PD#%#.*.('('*#6*2(2:*.D#6*2.(*72:3%7+(23#)*#
prognogramelor.
! Criteriul fenologic, .2,/;@# 8,# .2*,.*-+,9%# <+,2<%?+(23# -+?=2(;@3**# &(%,;+*# :%?-@# cu
anumite stadii ale -+?=2(;@3**# /&+.*+*# -@',@;2%3+D care poa;+# <*# ('%;@# .%# 3+&+3# &+,;3'#
avertizarea aplic@3**#;3%;%7+,;+(23#<*;2/%,*;%3+"
A4#$-3,>5$' :!5IF<3@8)78)D;<;24325)C34AI;234;<5 au ca scop limitarea 3@/&C,dirii unor
-@',@;23*# %,*7%(*# O%:+,9*# <*;2&%;2:+,*# etc.) ai plantelor agricole cultivate. Activitatea de
.%3%,;*,@# <*;2/%,*;%3@# /+#-+/<@)2%3@#&+# 6%?%# (+:*/(%9*+*# 8,# =*:2%3+ n cadrul I,/&+.9*+*#-+#J;%;#
&+,;3'#$%3%,;*,@#W*;2/%,*;%3@D#-*,#.%-3'(#H*,*/;+3'('*#5:3*.'(;'3**#)*#F+?=2(;@3**#B'3%(+. F'&@#
26*+.;*='(#'37@3*;D#.%3%,;*,%#<*;2/%,*;%3@#&2%;+#<*#*,;+3,@#)*#+N;+3,@"
N,-,"&5",'5"&$-")6 /+#3+<+3@#(%#.2,;32('(#&32-'/+(23#-+#,%;'3@#=+:+;%(@#*,<+/;%;+#/%'#,'#
-+# /&+.**# -@',@;2%3+# - .%3+# /+# %<(@# 8,# 9%3@D# -%3# &+,;3'# .%3+# /+# *%'# 7@/'3*# -+# (*7*;%3+# %#
3@/&C,-*3**# (23# 8,# %(;+# ?2,+ sau de l*.M*-%3+# %# <2.%3+(23# +N*/;+,;+"# J+#3+%(*?+%?@ -+# F*3+.9**(+#
W*;2/%,*;%3+#p'-+9+,+#.%3+#+N+.';%#.2,;32('(#<*;2/%,*;%3#&+37%,+,;#%(#.'(;'3*(23"
N,-,"&5",' $E&$-") prentmpin@ &@;3',-+3+%# 8,# 9%3@# %# ',23# -@',@;23*# &+3*.'(2)*# O-+#
.%3%,;*,@PD# .%3+# ,'# +N*/;@# 8,# 9%3@D# 2# -%;@# .'# /.M*76'(# -+# &32-'/+# %:3*.2(+" Controlul se
+<+.;'+%?@# (%# =@7*(+# <+32=*%3+D# 7%3*;*7+D# %+32&23;'3*D# .2(+;+# &2);%(+# +;."# G32-'/+(+# .%3+# /+#
*7&23;@# /%'# +N&23;@D# ;3+6'*+# /%# <*+# 8,/29*;+# -+# .+3;*<*.%;+# <*;2/%,*;%3+D# 8,# .%3+# /+# /&+.*<*.@#
23*:*,+%# &32-'/'('*# )*# -%.@# +/;+# (*&/*;# -+# 62(*# )*# -@',@;23*# -+# .%3%,;*,@" K%3%# .%3+# +N&23;@#
&32-'/+# =+:+;%(+D# +7*;+# .+3;*<*.%;+# <*;2/%,*;%3+# &3*,# .%3+# %;+/;@# .@# 7%3<%# +/;+# (*6+3@# -+#
-@',@;23*#.+#<%.#26*+.;'(#(*/;+*#-+#.%3%,;*,@#%#9@3**#.%3+#*7&23;@#7%3<%"
!5IF<3) ;B<AC34A48Y23D8 au drept scop %/*:'3%3+%# .2,-*9**(23# optime pentru plantele
agricole .'(;*=%;+#)*#,+<%=23%6*(+#&+,;3'#-+?=2(;%3+%#)*#8,7'(9*3+%#-@',@;23*(23 specifici. Cele
mai importante sunt:
- alegerea terenului, &3+?*,;@#*7&23;%,9@#8,#.%?'(#8,<**,9@3**#,2*(23#&(%,;%9**#-+ =*9@#-+#
=*+#)*#&27*#<3'.;*<+3*D#8,<**,9%3+%#&+&*,*+3+(23#=*;*.2(+D#&27*.2(+#)*#/*(=*.+.
- a#+2,7$"&*2' 85' -+&,>5,' %*2&*-52+-, 87&*+-*.@# 8,7'(9*3+%# 8,# 7%/@# %# -@',@;23*(23
monofagi (Bruchus etc.) sau oligofagi (Zabrus, 7');+(+# .+3+%(+(23# +;."P# )*# *,<+/;%3+%# 8,;3-un
grad ridicat al culturilor.
- l*%-)-52$'#+2*2*5 pri,#%3@;'3*D#diferitele stadii edafice O=*+37*#.+,')**D#=*+37*#%(6*#+;."P
/',;# 3*-*.%;+# (%# /'&3%<%9%# /2('('*# )*# +N&'/+# %.9*',**# <%.;23*(23# -+# 7+-*'D# &@/@3*(23# )*#
mamifere(23# *,/+.;*=23+"# G3*,# ('.3@3*(+# -+# :3@&%3+# )*# &3+:@;*3+# %# ;+3+,'('*# .'# .'(;*=%;23'(D# /+#
-*/;3':#,'7+32%/+#/&+.**#-+#*,/+.;+#%#.@323#-+?=2(;%3+#%3+#(2.#8,#/;3%;'(#/'&+3<*.*%(#%(#/2('('i.

29

- a(75"5#&-,-$,' -,>5+",2)' ,' F"@-)8)75"&$2+-' 85' ,7$"(,7$"&$2+-, prin aplicarea


8,:3@)@7*,;+(23# .M*7*.+# +/;+# %..+(+3%;@# .3+);+3+%# /*# -+?=2(;%3+% plantelor, devenind mai
3+?*/;+,;+# (%# %;%.'(# -@',@;23*(23" Amendamentele contribuie de asemenea la diminuarea
&2&'(%9**(23#-+#*,/+.;+#.+#/+#-+?=2(;@#8,#/2(D#.'m este cazul solurilor .'#3+%.9*+ acid@, care prin
%&(*.%3+%# %7+,-%7+,;+(23# .2,-'.# (%# ,+';3%(*?%3+%# 3+%.9*+*# /2('('*D# .3+C,-'-/+# .2,-*9**#
,+<%=23%6*(+#&+,;3'#-+?=2(;%3+%#=*+37*(23#/C37@"
- t-,&,7$"&*2' #$75">$2+- 8,%*,+# -+# /+7@,%;# (%# .+3+%(+D# &(%,;+#;+M,*.+# +;."# 3+-'.+# /%'#
elimi,@#%;%.'(#-@',@;23*(23#/&+.*<*.*"
- e<+%,'($'#$7)",& &3+?*,;@#*7&23;%,9@#-+2/+6*;@ &';C,-#3+-'.+#%;%.'(#',23#-@',@;23*#
specifici cum ar fi puricele inului sau :@3:@3*9%# <3',?+(23# -+# 7%?@3+D# :@3:@3*9%# 7%?@3**# )*#
72(**(+#7%?@3**"
- recoltarea la timp a cult'3*(23D# &3+8,;C7&*,@# /.';'3%3+%# /+7*,9+(23# )*# <237%3+%#
/%7'(%/;3+*#&+#.%3+#/+#-+?=2(;@#',+(+#/&+.**#-@',@;2%3+.
- distrugerea resturilor vegetale 3@7%/+#-'&@#3+.2(;%3+%#&(%,;+(23#.2,/;*;'*+#2#7@/'3@#-+#
.276%;+3+#%#',23#/&+.**#-@',@;2%3+#.%3+#gasesc aici adapost pentru hibernare.
P&525?,-$,'#+5*-52+-'85'B54-5?52+-'-$?5#&$">5'#,*'&+2$-,">5 (%#%;%.'(#-@',@;23*(23#/&+.*<*.*"
R+?*/;+,9%#&(%,;+(23#(%#%;%.'(#-@',@;23*(23D#/+#&2%;+#.(%/*<*.%#8,U#imunitate, -$?5#&$">) )*#
sensibilitate.
q# Imunitatea plantelor (rar n;C(,*;@# 8,# .%?'(# %;%.'('*# -+# -@',@;23*) - 3+&3+?*,;@#
8,/')*3+%#','*#/2*#(hibrid) -+#%#,'#2<+3*#-@',@;23'('*#.2,-*9**#-+#M3@,*3+ )*#-+?=2(;%3+"
q##=$?5#&$">, &(%,;+(23#(%#%;%.'(#-@',@;23*(23#&2%;+#<*U#/(%6@, 72-+3%;@ )* mareD#-'&@#.'7#
:3%-'(#-+#-@',%3+#%(#plantelor este foarte slab, moderat sau mare. =$?5#&$">, poate fi : ;,2#)
sau ,<,-$"&) O.2,-*9*2,%;@# -+# 8,/')*3*# ;+7&23%3+# %(+# &(%,;+*# :%?-@P )*# ,($3)-,&) (-%;23%;@
&3+?+,9+*# ',23# 7+.%,*/7+# 3+%(+D# .%3+# *,<('+,9+%?@# 8,# 72-# ,+:%;*=# M3@,*3+%# )*# -+?=2(;%3+%#
insectelor pe acestea). X,# .2,-*9**# -+# .C7&# /+# 8,;C(,+/.# ;3+*# <%.;23*# -+# 6%?@# %*# 3+?*/;+,9+*#
%-+=@3%;+# OG%*,;+3# !g\!P: <-$;$-5">, O;2;%(*;%;+%# 8,/')*3*(23# .%3+# <%=23*?+%?@# /%'# 87&*+-*.@#
';*(*?%3+%#&(%,;+*#-+#.@;3+#*,/+.;@#&+,;3'#M3@,*3+D#-+&',+3+#-+#2'@D#.2,/;3'*3+#-+#%-@&2/;#+;."PD#
antibioza O.%&%.*;%;+%# &(%,;+(23# -+# *,M*6%# %.;*=*;%;+%# =*;%(@# %# *,/+.;+(23P# )*# &+2$-,">,
(capacitatea plantei de a supo3;%#',#,'7@3# 7%3+# -+#-@',@;23*# <@3@# /@#/'<+3+ 2#-@',%3+#&3+%#
7%3+#)*#/+#&2ate 3+<%.+#-'&@#%;%.'(#-@',@;23*(23P.

TEST DE EVALUARE
1. 0FE)I8)D@;I3C3D5)<8J3I4826;)H@;248@A<)@;);4;DF@)75F254A<3@A<?
B@/&',/U
O'(,3$'08#% 6*#0$'*)"% *#% #$#-5*% &.50.$)",*)"2% 3'% -*#3,<,-#% F0:% ,150,$#$'2% "'(,3$'08.% 4,%
sensibilitate.

2. Care sunt metodele agrofitotehnice de prevenire a i2C8I45<3@A<)DF)75F254A<3?


#5IHF2I=

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. 0;<8) 7324<8) E5IF<3@8) 78) DAE?;4e<8) 78) E;3) [AI) I8) 92D;7<8;J5) @;) E5IF<3))
preventive:

30

a. G32:,2?%#)*#%=+3;*?%3+%
b. $%3%,;*,%#+N;+3,@
c. B%?+(+#*,<3%32)**
d. Distrugerea resturilor vegetale
e. Adunarea insectelor
Rezolvare : a, b, d
De rezolvat:
2. Avertizarea ;H@3D5<33)4<;4;E8248@A<)C34AI;234;<8)I8)C;D8)7FH5:
a. Criteriul biologic
b. Criteriul fizico-chimic
c. Criteriul matematic
d. Criteriul ecologic
e. Criteriul fenologic
Rezolvare:
4.2. Metode fizice, mecanice, chimice de combatere
;)75F254A<3@A<)H@;248@A<);B<3DA@8
!84A78@8) C3J3D8) 78) DAE?;48<8) ;) 75F254A<3@A< /+# 3+<+3@ la utilizarea unor factori
precum:
- Temperaturile 3*-*.%;+#/%'#/.@?';+D#&2;#<*#';*(*?%;+#8,#.276%;+3+%#',23#-@',@;23*#-*,#
-+&2?*;+D# 7%:%?**# )*# /+3+"# 5/;<+(D# +N&',+3+%# &32-'/+(23# %;%.%;+# -+# -@',@;23**# -*,# -+&2?*;+# (%#
temperaturi ridicate de 50 - 55C /%'#/.@?';+#-10C, contribuie la distrugerea acestora.
Focul +/;+#2# 7@/'3@# (%#.%3+# /+#3+.'3:+# 7%*#%(+/#
&+,;3'# -*/;3':+3+%# 3+/;'3*(23# =+:+;%(+# 3@7%/+# 8,# .C7&#
-'&@# 3+.2(;%3+%# .'(;'3*(23D# 2.%?*+# .'# .%3+# /',;# -*/;3')*#
,'7+32)*#-@',@;23*"
Lumina se poate utiliza ca mijloc de combatere a
unor specii de insecte cu fototropism pozitiv, care sunt
%;3%/+# -+# -*<+3*;+# /'3/+# -+# ('7*,@D# .%&;%;+# )*# %&2*#
distruse.
=,?$2$'5";-,-+855 )*#=,?$2$'Q6'R'85'S6 se folosesc
8,# .%3%,;*,%# <*;2/%,*;%3@# &+,;3'# -+&*/;%3+%# *,<+/;@3*(23#
ascunse p3+.'7#)*#8,#.276%;+3+%#',23#*,/+.;+#.%3+#%;%.@#
produsele vegetale depozitate.
Metode mecanice de combatere ;) 75F254A<3@A<)
plantelor agricole - /+# %&(*.@# (%# /.%3@# 3+-'/@# -+2%3+.+
,+.+/*;@#',#=2('7#7%3+#-+#7',.@#)*#.2,/'7#-+#+,+3:*+#
ridicat. Dintre metodele mecanice de combatere a
-@',@;23*(23#amintim:
Adunarea insectelor .'#-*<+3*;+#-*/&2?*;*=+#)*#%&%3%;+"#G+,;3'#
adunarea unor specii de insecte (buburuza lucernei, gndacul
32)'# %(# ('.+3,+*# +;."PD# /+# <2(2/+/.# 2# /+3*+# -+# ;*&'3*# -+#
-*/&2?*;*=+# .'# %.9*2,%3+# 7%,'%(@D# M*&2;3%.;%;+# /%'# ;3%.;%;+#
mecanic, cum ar fi: dispozitivul pneumatico - mecanic de
.2(+.;%3+# %# %-'(9*(23# )*# (%3=+(23# :C,-%.'('*# -*,# $2(23%-2D#
numit Bio - Colector"

31

Retinem: T,">*-52$' %,<%,") - )%,9'3*# de la 0,5 la 1,0 mD# .%3+# /+# &3@<'*+/. cu diferite
insecticide n -2?+#7@3*;+. S+#+N+.';@#&+,;3'#.276%;+3+%#*,/+.;+(23#.%3+#/+#-+&(%/+%?@#&+#/2(#
&3*,# 7+3/D# .'7# /',;# -+# +N+7&('U# :@3:@3*9%# /<+.(+*D# (%3=+(+# -+# (@.'/;+D# 27*?*(+# <(';'3+('*# -+#
lunc@#+;."#
K2,"&$2$' %,<%,") se folosesc n scopul atragerii
-@',@;23*(23# &+# /'&3%<+9+ mici sau pe un num@3# 7%*# 3+-'/# -+#
plante apoi se distrug prin diferite metode.
La culturile de plante furajere, la recoltare /+#&2%;+#(@/%#
2# 6%,-@# ,+.2/*;@D# 8,# .%3+# =23# <*# %;3%)* -@',@;23**# +N*/;+,9*# 8,#
.'(;'3@D#'37C,-#%#<*#-*/;3')*#%&2*#<*+#&3*,#diferite metode.

Inelele cleioase /',;# 6+,?*# -+# MC3;*+# *7&+37+%6*(@# /%'#


plastic, impregnate cu un strat de clei nesicativ, aplicate n jurul
trunchiurilor sau ramurilor groase ale pomilor, mpotriva
femelelor de cotari (Operophtera, Erannis), a unor omizi
(Aporia, Lymantria, Hyphantria +;."PD# %-'(9*(23# -+# Rhagoletis,
Sciaphobus etc.

U-G5$2$'%,<%,") /',;#%-@&2/;'3*#%3;*<*.*%(+#.2,<+.9*2,%;+
-*,#.%3;2,#2,-'(%;D#MC3;*+#-+#%76%(%VD#87&(+;*;'3*#-+#&%*+D#&C,?@#
de sac etc. aplicate pe tulpina pomilor la 80 - 100 cm deasupra
solului, oferind insectelor (adulte sau larve) posibilitatea de a se
%-@&2/;*#8,#&+3*2%-%#3+.+"

- Scuturatul pomilor /+# <%.+# &+# 2# &3+(%;@D# -*7*,+%9%# -+=3+7+D# .C,-# *,/+.;+(+# /',;#
%7239*;+"# I,/+.;+(+# .2(+.;%;+# /',;# -*/;3'/+# &3*,# -*<+3*;+# &32.+-++" Se poate utiliza cu bune
rezultate mpotriva unor specii de :@3:@3*9+# %(+# &27*(23# <3'.;*<+3*# (Anthonomus pomorum,
Rhynchites spp.), .@3@6')'('*# -+# 7%*# (Melolontha melolontha), .@3@6')'('*# 7%3723%;#
(Polyphylla fullo), .@3@6')+*(23#=+3?*#%*#=*9+*#(Anomala spp. etc.).
- Omizitul +/;+# 2&+3%9*%# -+# 8,(@;'3%3+ a omizilor aflate n cuiburile de pe ramurile
pomilor fructiferi u ajutorul unor foarfece de omizit.
!@5$",'%*2&*-,2) %#&27*(23D#.2,/;@#8,#.'3@9%3+%#;3',.M*'3*(23#)*#
3%7'3*(23#:32%/+#%(+#&27*(23#-+#/.2%39%#'/.%;@D#-+# 7').M*#)*# (*.M+,*D#
care p2;#%-@&2/;*#-*<+3*;+#/&+.**#-+#*,/+.;+#-@',@;2%3+"#
S+# &2%;+# <%.+# ;2%7,%# ;C3?*'D# 8,# ;*7&'(# *+3,**# /%'# &3*7@=%3%#
-+=3+7+D#.'#%V';23'(#',23#',+(;+#/&+.*%(+#O7@,')*#.'#?%(+D#3@?'*;2%3+D#
&+3**#-+#/C37@#+;."P"

32

Momelile capcan) se folosesc pentru %;3%:+3+%#)*#.%&;'3%3+%#',23#/&+.**#-@',@;2%3+#)*#


pot fi: momeli vizuale de tipul &(@.*lor galbene, portocalii, albe etc. - utilizate n combaterea
',23#/&+.**#-+#-@',@;23*#%*#&(%,;+(23#23,%7+,;%(+D#=*9@#-+#=*+D#&27*#<3'.;*<+3*#+;."

Momelile alimentare /',;# &3+&%3%;+# -*,# &(%,;+# =+3?*D# ;@3C9+D# /+7*,9+D# ;'3;+# -+# <(2%3+%#
soarelui, felii de c%3;2<D# -+# /<+.(@# +;."D# .+# /+3=+/.# &+,;3'# %;3%:+3+%# -@',@;23*(23# 8,# %,'7*;+#
(2.'3*# )*# %&2*# /+# ;3+.+# (%# -*/;3':+3+%# (23"# H27+(*(+# alimentare pot fi simple sau toxice (se
%-%':@#<2/<'3@#-+#?*,.D#-+#7%:,+?*'D#%3/+,*%9*#+;."P"
Momelile cu feromoni sexuali specifici, sunt utilizate
-+#26*.+*#8,#&32:,2?@#)*#%=+3;*?%3+ dar pot fi folosite cu bune
rezultate n combaterea specii(23#-+#(+&*-2&;+3+#-@',@;2%3+"

J+# ';*(*?+%?@# &+,;3'##


combaterea uno3# -@',@;23*# din
depozite cum ar fi:
- :C,-@.+('(# <@*,**# (Tribolium
confusum, T. castaneum),
- :C,-%.'(# ,+:3'# %(# <@*,**
(Tenebrioides
mauritanicus),
72(*%#.+,')*+#%#<@*,** (Anagasta
kuhniella),
- %.%3*%,'(# <@*,**# (Acarus siro)
etc.

Entoleteru lse <2(2/+)te n mori.


W@*,%# /%'# 62%6+(+#
introduse n aparat sunt
&32*+.;%;+#&3*,#<239@#.+,;3*<':@#
8,;3+# -2'@ -*/.'3*# -+# 29+(#
rotunjite,
situate
foarte
aproape unul de altul.
F%;23*;@# =*;+?+*# 7%3*#
.'#.%3+#/+#&32*+.;+%?@#62%6+(+#
-+# -*/.'3*D# &32-'.+# )2.'3*# .+#
272%3@# *,/+.;+(+ (acarienii)
aflate n toate stadiile de
dezvoltare.

33

A4#$-3,>5$' :Metoda chimic5 de combatere ;) 75F254A<3@A< (chimioterapia) se


6%?+%?@ pe folosirea produselor fitosanitare specifice (pesticide): insecticide, acaricide,
nematocide, moluscocide, raticide etc.
%&(*.%3+# 3%&*-@# .%3+ poate salva culturile de pagubele
&32=2.%;+#-+#-@',@;23*

Avantajele
*&525?)-55'
chimioterapiei

produsele fitosanitare &2;#<*#.2,-*9*2,%;+#/'6#-*<+3*;+#<237+,


fermierii pot astfel /@#le %(+%:@#&+#.+(+#7%*#.23+/&',?@;2%3+#
8,#<',.9*+#-+#.2,-*9**(+#&+-2.(*7%;*.+#(2.%(+ (pulberi pentru
&3@<'*;#8, ?2,+(+#(*&/*;+#-+#%&@R#+7'(/**#/%'#&'(6+3*#7'*%6*(+D#
acolo unde apa +N*/;@ etc.)
mijloace de aplicare a tratamentelor fitosanitare (aparatur@
;+3+/;3@#-+# 7%3+#.%&%.*;%;+D#:+,+3%;2%3+#-+#%+32/2(*, %=*%9*%#
';*(*;%3@#+tc.) fapt ce permite aplicarea tratamentelor ntr-un
timp scurt, imedi%;# -'&@# -+&*/;%3+%# %;%.'3*(23D# # 8,%*,;+# -+#
nregistrarea pagubelor

produsele fitosanitare sunt compatibile din punct de vedere


.M*7*.# )*# 6*2(2:*.D# %/;<+(# .@# &3*,# %&(*.%3+%# unui singur
tratament pot fi comb@;'9* mai 7'(9*#-@',@;23*
Deoarece majoritatea pesticidelor /',;# ;2N*.+# &+,;3'# 27# )*# %,*7%(+# .'# /C,:+# .%(-,
m%,*&'(%3+%D# -+&2?*;%3+%# )*# ';*(*?%3+%# ,+.23+/&',?@;2%3+ a acestora duce la o serie de
dezavantaje:
Utilizarea pesticidelor <@3@# 3+/;3*.9**D# %# %=';# .%# '37%3+#
contaminarea ntregii biosfere, reziduurile pesticidelor
:@/*,-'-/+# 8,# 9+/';'3*(+# =**# O%,*7%(+# /%'# =+:+;%(+P# &+# ;2%;@#
/'&3%<%9%#&(%,+;+*"
Dezvantajele
*&525?)-55'
chimioterapiei

P+/;*.*-+(+# &3+?*,;@# 2# 7%3+# /;%6*(*;%;+# .M*7*.@# )*# 8,#


.2,-*9**(+# 7+-*'('*# ,%;'3%(# -+gradarea lor se produce ncet
)*# .'# ;2%;+# .@# &+/;*.*-+(+# /+# -+:3%-+%?@# 8,# /2(D# +(+# &2;#
persista mu(;# ;*7&# -'&@# <2(2/*3+D /+# 6*2%.'7'(+%?@# 8,#
23:%,*/7+(+# =**# )*#&3+?*,;@#3*/.'(#-+# %#.%'?%#+<+.;+#%-=+3/+#
%/'&3%#/@,@;@9**#'7%,+#)*#%#7+-*'('*"
G3*,#';*(*?%3+%#,+.23+/&',?@;2%3+#%#&32-'/+(23#<*;2<%37%.+';*.+#/+#
&2%;+#3+-'.+#/%'#-*/;3':+#<+3;*(*;%;+%#/2('('*D#-%;23*;@#+<+.;+(23#(23#
secundare asupra 7*.3223:%,*/7+(23# )*# 7%.3223:%,*/7+(23#
acestuia
H%,*&'(%3+%D# -+&2?*;%3+%# )*# ';*(*?%3+%# ,+.23+/&',?@;2%3+# %#
&32-'/+(23# <*;2<%37%.+';*.+# .2,-'.+# (%# *,;2N*.%9**# :3%=+# %(+#
oamenilor, animalelor domestice, vnatului entomofaunei utile,
+;."#)*#&2%;+#-'.+#(%#la reducerea speciilor ntr-un ecosistem.

34

Clasificare: produsele fitosanitare ';*(*?%;+#87&2;3*=%#-@',@;23*(23#%,*7%(*D#/+#,'7+/.#


zoocide )*#/+#-*<+3+,9*%?@#8,U
- insecticide utilizate n combaterea insectelor;
- acaricide folosite n combaterea acarienilor;
- nematocide folosite n combaterea nematozilor;
- moluscocide utilizate n combaterea melcilor;
- raticide utilizate 8,#.276%;+3+%#32?@;2%3+(23
Insecticidele 3+&3+?*,;@# :3'&%# .+%# 7%*# =%/;@ O*,/+.;+(+# 3+&3+?*,;@# &+/;+# 90% dintre
-@',@;23*# %,*7%(*# .+ %;%.@# &(%,;+(+# .'(;*=%;+P )*# -+# %.++%# ,+# =27# 3+<+3*# (%# %.+/;+%%# 8,#
continuare.
QFH5)EA7F@)@A<)78);D63F28D#*,/+.;*.*-+(+#/+#-*<+3+,9*%?@#8,U
- insecticide de ingestie (%.9*2,+%?@#%/'&3%#*,/+.;+(23#-'&@#.+#/',;#*,:+3%;+P;
- insecticide de contact (&@;3und n corpul insectelor prin parte%# +N;+3*2%3@# %#
tegumentului);
- 5"#$%&5%5($'($'-$#<5-,>5$ (asfixiante sau fumigante- &@;3',-#8,#23ganism prin sistemul
respirator).
- 5"#$%&5%5($'%*',%>5*"$'%+7<2$E) (de ingestie, -+#.2,;%.;#)*#.M*%3#-+#3+/&*3%9*+).
QFH5)I4;<8;)C3J3D5)*,/+.;*.*-+(+#/+#&3+?*,;@#/'6#;3+*#<237+U##+25(), 25%B5() )*#@,?+,#)
O8,# <',.9*+# -+# /;%3+%# <*?*.@# &32-'/+(+ fitosanitare primesc simboluri de prescurtare : CA .2,.+,;3%;#&+,;3'#%&(*.%3+%#/'6#<237@#-+#%+32/2(*R#$A#- concentrat emulsionabil; EC - emulsie
.2,.+,;3%;@R# $H# - concentrat pentru momeli; CS - .2,.+,;3%;# /2('6*(# 8,# %&@R# AJ# efect
secundar; G- granule; GD - :3%,'(+#-*/&+3/%6*(+#8,#%&@R#lJ#- :3%,'(+#/2('6*(+#8,#%&@R#l5#- gaz
sub presiune; LV - (*.M*-#.'#%.9*',+#;2N*.@#&3*,#=2(%;*(*?%3+; M - 727+%(@R#P.A - &%/;@R#P.P &'(6+3+# -+# &3@<'*;R# G"J# - &'(6+3+# /2('6*(@# 8,# %&@R# G1J# - &'(6+3+# &+,;3'# ;3%;%3+%# '/.%;@# %#
/+7*,9+(23R#GY#- &'(6+3+#'7+.;%6*(@R#GYJ#- &'(6+3+#'7+.;%6*(@#&+,;3'#;3%;%3+%#/+7*,9+(23R#J$#
- /'/&+,/*+#.2,.+,;3%;@R#Jj#- produs so(*-#/'6#<237@#-+#&'(6+3*#/%'#;%6(+;+#.'#%.9*',+#;2N*.@#
prin volatilizare etc.; AVR - suspensie pentru aplicarea cu volum ultraredus; ULV - volum
ultra redus; VR - lichid pentru aplicare cu volum redus; VUR - lichid pentru aplicare cu
volum ultraredus; WR - &'(6+3+#7'*%6*(@).
QFH5)B<;7F@)78)4AU3D34;48, insecticidele se :3'&+%?@#%/;<+(:
- grupa I extrem de toxice (7%3.%;+#.'#+;*.M+;+#32)**);
- grupa II puternic toxice (marcate cu etichete verzi);
- grupa III moderat toxice (marcate cu etichete albastre);
- grupa IV toxicitate red'/@#Omarcate cu etichete negre).
1&$">5$: numai insectic*.*-+(+# -*,# :3'&%# III# )*# Ij# /+# &2;# -*/;3*6'*# &+3/2%,+(23# <*?*.+# 8,#
scopuri agricoleD# *%3# .+(+# -*,# :3'&%# I# )*# II# ,+.+/*;@# %';23*?%9**# /&+.*%(+# &+,;3'# -+9*,+3+# )*#
utilizare.
QFH5) B<FH;) DY3E3D5 insecticidele se pot clasifica n: produse organoclorurate; produse organof-osforice; - %,-4,7,>5; - <5-$&-5"+5?5' ($' #5"&$?);- diverse,- amestecuri,inhibitori ai metamorfozei artropodelor etc. Unele din ele sunt de origine min+3%(@# O-+#
+N+7&('#/@3'3*#-+#5/D#E%D#$'D#a:D#G6P#)*#%(;+(+#/',;#-+#23*:*,+#=+:+;%(@#O,*.2;*,%D#=+3%;3'7D#
/;3*.,*,@P"# H%V23*;%;+%# /',;# 8,/@# &32-')*# 23:%,*.*# -+# /*,;+?@# O+/;+3*# 23:%,2<2/<23*.*D# -+3*=%9*#
23:%,2M%(2:+,%9*D# ,*;32-+3*=%9*# %327%;*.*D# -+3*=%9*# .%36%7*.*D# .27&')*# <+,2(*.*# )*# .27&')*#
organometalici).
Insecticidele organoclorurate: produse chimice pe baz@ de hidrocarburi clorurate cu
%.9*',+#&3*,#.2,;%.;#)*#*,:+/;*+#)*#7%*#3%3#&3*,#3+/&*3%9*+D#%<+.;+%?@#/*/;+7'(#,+3=2/#)*#&32-'.#
moartea prin paralizie. 12N*.*;%;+%#=%3*%6*(@: moderat ;2N*.+#)*#&';+3,*.#;2N*.+D#%' n general
2#3+7%,+,9@#7%3+D#*%3#;*7&'(#-+#&%'?@#7%*#%(+/#(%#.'(;'3*(+#(+:'7*.2(+D#%V',:+#(%#[0#-+#?*(+"#
J'6/;%,9%#%.;*=@U +,-2/'(<%,'(#)*#(*,-%,'("#

35

Insecticidele organofosforice: %'# (%# 6%?@ esteri ai acidului fosforic, esteri ai acizilor
;3*<2/<23*.*D# +/;+3*# %*# %.*-'('*# -*;*2,2&+32<2/<23*.D# -+3*=%9*# %*# %.*-'('*# &*32<2/<23*.D# au un
/&+.;3'# (%3:# -+# %.9*',+D# ,'# .'7'(+%?@# 8,# 23:%,*/7+(+# %,*7%(+# )*# ,*.*# %(# &(%,;+(23D# %=C,-# 2#
&+3/*/;+,9@# 3+-'/@# 8, /2(D# &(%,;+# )*# %&@"# G3*,# -+/.27&',+3+# <237+%?@# /'6/;%,9+# 7%*# &'9*,#
;2N*.+"# 5.9*2,+%?@# &3*,# .2,;%.;D# *,:+/;*+# )*# 3+/&*3%9*+# %/'&3%# /*/;+7'('*# ,+3=2/ provocnd
moartea prin paralizie, o parte dintre ele sunt sistemice.T2N*.*;%;+#=%3*%6*(@#-+#(%#<2%3;+#;2N*.e
&C,@#(%#2#;2N*.*;%;+#3+-'/@"#1*7&'(#-+#&%'?@##+/;+#.'&3*,/#8,;3+#!0-15 zile.
Insecticidele carbamice : &32=*,# -*,# -+3*=%9*# .%36%7*.*D# au 2# %.9*',+# 3%&*-@# -+# )2.D#
%.9*2,C,-# &3*,# .2,;%.;# )*# *,:+/;*+R# ',+(+# &32-'/+# %'# %.9*',+# /*/;+7*.@" Produc moartea prin
&%3%(*?*+D#%.9ionnd asupra sistemului nervos"#5'#3+7%,+,9@#/.'3;@#)*#&3+?*,;@#3+?*-''3*#&'9*,#
&+3*.'(2%/+D# 8,/@# %'# ',# :3%-# -+# ;2N*.*;%;+# <2%3;+#3*-*.%;# %;C;# &+,;3'# -@',@;23**# %,*7%(*D# .C;# )*#
&+,;3'# %,*7%(+(+# .'# /C,:+# .%(-D# <@.C,-# &%3;+# -*,# :3'&+le I )*# % II- %"# 1*7&'(# -+# &%'?@# +/;+#
=%3*%6*(# 8,;3+# `# )*# d_# -+# ?*(+"# I,/+.;*.*-+(+# &+# 6%?@# -+# .%362<'3%,# )*# <'3%;*.%36# %'# 2# 6',@#
&+3/*/;+,9@# 8,# /2(# )*# %'# <2/;# .+(+# 7%*# +<*.*+,;+# 8,# .276%;+3+%# -@',@;23*(23# +-%<*.*# O=*+37*#
/C37@D# =*+37*#%(6*D# =*+37*#.+,')**#+;."P"#J+#&2;#<2(2/*# 87&2;3*=%#-@',@;23*(23#-*,#.'(;'3*(+#-+#
.%3;2<D#(+:'7+D#&27*#<3'.;*<+3*D#=*9%#-+#=*+#+;."D#/%'#8,#;3%;%3+%#/+7*,9+(23#-+"#/<+.(@D#&23'76D#
cartof etc.
Insecticidele piretrinoi78)I;F)H3<84<32A3J3)78)I3248J5=)produse provenite din sinteze
organi.+D# %# .@323# /'6/;%,9+# %.;*=+# /',;# %/+7@,@;2%3+# .+(23# %# &*3+;3*,+(23# ,%;'3%(+"# Se
-+/.27&',#')23#(%#('7*,@#)*#-'&@#2#?*#,'#7%*#&3+?*,;@#%.9*',+#6*2(2:*.@D#7%3+%#(23#7%V23*;%;+#
sunt stabile 7-15 zile. A.9*2,+%?@# %/'&3%# /*/;+7'('*# ,+3=2/# %(# *,/+.;+(23# &+# .%(+ de contact,
*,:+/;*+# )*#3+/&*3%9*+D#%=C,-#2#&';+3,*.@#%.9*',+#-+#)2."#L#&%3;+#-*,#+(+#&2;#%=+%#)*#2#%.9*',+#
%.%3*.*-@"#G3+?*,;@#',#/&+.;3'#(%3:#-+#%.9*',+D#/+(+.;*=*;%;+#3+-'/@#)*#&2;#<237%#3%/+#3+?*/;+,;+#
-+#-@',@;23*"#1*7&'(#-+#&%'?@#8,;3+#!-4#?*(+#&C,@ la 21 de zile.
Insecticidele diverse: 2#/+3*+#-+#*,/+.;*.*-+#.%3+#%'#.%#6%?+#.M*7*.+D#/'6/;%,9+#%.;*=+#
.%3+#,'#/+#8,.%-3+%?@#8,#:3'&+(+#&3+?+,;%;+#7%*#/'/D#8,/@#%,'7*;+#&32-'/+#-*,#%.+%/;@#:3'&@#/+#
<2(2/+/.#<2%3;+#-+/#8,#.276%;+3+%#-*<+3*9*(23#-@',@;23*#animali ai plantelor cultivate.
Acaricidele: /'6/;%,9+#.M*7*.+D#<2(2/*;+#8,#.276%;+3+%#','*#:3'&#-+#-@',@;23*#8,;C(,*9*#
7%*# %(+/# 8,# &27*.'(;'3@D# .'(;'3*# <239%;+# )*# /+3+D# ,'7*9*# %.%3*+,*# O&@*+,V+,*# -*,# .(%/%#
Arachinida, ord. Acari).
Nematocide: produse chimice sintetizate special, unele dintre ele fiind chiar selective,
';*(*?%;+# 8,# .276%;+3+%# ',23# -@',@;23*# 8,;C(,*9*# 8,# /2(D# -+,'7*9*# ,+7%;2?*# O=*+37*P# din clasa
Secernentea.
Moluscocide (Helocide): p32-'/+# ';*(*?%;+# 8,# .276%;+3+%# 72(');+(23# 8,# /&+.*%(# %#
mel.*(23# <@3@# .2.M*(*+"# A(+# /',;# .2,-*9*2,%;+# /'6# <237@# -+# :3%,'(+# %=C,-# [-10% s.a., fiind
&32-'/+#72-+3%;#;2N*.+#.%3+#%.9*2,+%?@#&3*,#*,:+/;*+"
Rodenticide: /'6/;%,9+#.M*7*.+#';*(*?%;+#87&2;3*=%#32?@;2%3+(23"#
L#/+3*+#-*,;3+#32-+,;*.*-+#%.9*2,+%?@#&3*,#*,:+stie, pentru fabricarea lor se folosesc o
serie de produse ca: extrase din plante (stricnina), anorganice (fosfura de zinc, sulfatul de
;%(*'PD# 23:%,*.+# -+# /*,;+;*.+# O;*2.%36%7%9**PD# *%3# %(;@# &%3;+# &32-'.# 72%3;+%# 32?@;2%3+(23# &3*,#
producerea de hemoragii interne.
n concluzie: cM*%3# -%.@# ,'# &2%;+# <*# .2,.+&';@# 2# %:3*.'(;'3@# 72-+3,@D# *,;+,/*=@# )*#
+<*.*+,;@# <@3@# ';*(*?%3+%# &+/;*.*-+(23D# ;2;')*D# ;2N*.*;%;+%# 3*-*.%;@D# &+3/*/;+,9%# )*# %.'7'(%3+%#
acestora ,+.+/*;@ 2#<2(2/*3+#3%9*2,%(@D#.23+.;@#)*#-2%3#8,#.%?#-+#'(;*7@#/2('9*+#+N*/;+,;@"#
Acest lucru se impune cu att mai mult cu ct efectele lor secundare nocive se
3+:@/+/.#%7&(*<*.%;+#(%#.%&@;'(#(%,9'('*#;32<*.#O23:%,*/7'(#'7%,P"

36

TEST DE EVALUARE
1. 0FE)I8)D@;I3C3D5)32I8D43D378@8)7FH5)I4;<8;)C3J3D5?
B@/&',/U
D56.%3$#"'#%<,(,-.%,03'-$,-,&'*'%3'%6"'(,0$.%359%$"',%<)"1':%3)*,&.2%*,-?,&.%4,%+#()#3.%

2. 0FE)I8)D@;I3C3D5)32I8D43D378@8)7FH5)B<;7F@)78)4AU3D34;48?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. QFH5)EA7F@)78);D63F28, insecticidele sunt:
a. de ingestie
b. de contact
c. -+#3+/&*3%9*+
d. .'#%.9*',+#;+37*.@
e. .'#%.9*',+#.27&(+N@
Rezolvare :a, b, c, e
De rezolvat:
2. 12363)DF)A)@3238)43HF<3@8)JAAD378)DF)B<FHF@)78)75F254A<3)H8)D;<8-i combat:
a. insecticide
folosite pentru combaterea nematozilor
b. acaricide
folosite pentru combaterea insectelor
c. nematocide
folosite pentru combaterea melcilor
d. moluscocide
folosite pe,;3'#.276%;+3+%#32?@;2%3+(23#
e. raticide
folosite pentru combaterea acarienilor
Rezolvare:

4.3. Metode biologice de combatere a daunatorilor plantelor


N+74,&$-$,'45+2+@5%)'#,*'45+&$-,<5, cuprinde un complexul -+#7@/'3*#.%3+#/+#%&(*.@#
8,# /.2&'(# -*/;3':+3**# -@',@;23*(23# %,*7%(*# %*# &(%,;+(23# agricole cultivate, prin utilizarea
-')7%,*(23 naturali (organisme zoofage), a insecticidelor biologice, autocidiei, feromonilor
+;."#)*#*7&(*.@# modificare%#+.M*(*63'('*#6*2.+,2;*.#8,#<%=2%3+%#-')7%,*(23#,%;'3%(*"#
L3:%,*/7+(+# <2(2/*;+# 8,# .276%;+3+%# 6*2(2:*.@# /',;U# microorganisme (virusuri,
6%.;+3**D#.*'&+3.*P#)*#macroorganisme (insecte )*#%(;+#%3;32&2-+D#vertebrate etc.).
Retinem: Microorganismele patogene (virusuri, bacterii, ciuperci) sunt mult utilizate
8,# .276%;+3+%# -@',@;23*(23# %,*7%(*D# -%;23*;@# 3@/&C,-*3**# (23# 8,# ,%;'3@# - ele stau la baza
&3+&%3@3**# &+# .%(+# *,-'/;3*%(@# %# 6*2&3+&%3%telor sau insecticidelor biologice.Ele produc
8762(,@=*3+%# 8,# 7%/@# %# *,/+.;+(23 )*# -+;+37*,@ 723;%(*;@9*# 3*-*.%;+ n rndul acestora"# F'&@#
natura principiului activ, insecticidele biologice pot fi: virotice, bacteriene, fungice,
helmintice, hormonale etc.
Insecticidele virotice /',;#&32-'/+#&+#6%?@#-+#=*3'/'3*#+,;272&%;2:+,+#(produc viroze) cum
ar fi: Biotrol, Virex, Polyvirocide, Heliothis virus etc., produse ce pot fi utilizate n general
pentru combaterea omizilor.

37

Insecticidele bacteriene sunt biopreparate pe 6%?@# -+# 6%.;+3**# +,;272&%;2:+,+ (produc


bacterioze). J&+.*%#.+%#7%*#<3+.=+,;#<2(2/*;@#+/;+#Bacillus thuringiensis, care se poate cultiva
&+# 7+-**# ,';3*;*=+# 8,# /;%9**# /&+.*%(+# )*# ';*(*?%;@# &+,;3'# 269*,+3+%# &+# .%(+# *,-'/;3*%(@# %#
preparatelor bacteriene (DIPEL 2X WP, DIPEL ES, FORAY(BIOBIT XL), ECOTECH
EXTRA, NOVODOR TM) .+#%'#&';+3,*.@#%.9*',+#%/'&3%#*,/+.;+(23#-@',@;2%3+"#
Insecticidele fungice sunt biopreparate care au ca principiu activ spori de ciuperci
+,;272&%;2:+,+"# $+%# 7%*# =*3'(+,;@# .*'&+3.@# +ste Beauveria bassiana '37%;@# -+# B. spores.
(Boverin, Muscardin A 45M, Metarzin etc).
Insecticide helmintice sunt preparate care au ca principiu activ larve de nematode din fam.
Mermithidae. (Scognamglis,1969 - .*;%;# -+# G+3V'D# !gg\D# 7+,9*2,+%?@# .@# 8,# .276%terea
gndacului din Colorado, preparatele helmintice sunt foarte eficiente- nlocuiesc combaterea
.M*7*.@).
Macroorganismele (zoofagii): au un rol important n reducerea rezervei biologice a
-@',@;23*(23D pot fi H;<;J363 )*#H<5754A<3.
A4#$-3,>5$' :L;<;J363i /',;# 23:%,*/7+# %,*7%(+# .%3+# /+# -+?=2(;@# &+# /+%7%# %(;23# 23:%,*/7+#
animale (gazde). Pot fi: '-$)6#"#(,8, (/+#-+?=2(;@#&+#.23&'(#:%?-+(23P#)* '0&)6#"#(,8,%(/+#-+?=2(;@#8,#
interiorul gazdelor). Majoritatea speciilor ectoparazite )* endoparazite folosite n combaterea
-@',@;23*(23# %,*7%(*# <%.# &%3;+# -*,# .(%/%# Insecta: Aphelinus mali O&%3%?*;+%?@# &@-'.M+(+# (C,2/PR#
Prospaltella perniciosi O&%3%?*;+%?@#&@-'.M+(+#-*,#J%,#p2/rPR#Trichogramma evanescens O&%3%?*;+%?@#
&+/;+# 0__# -+# /&+.**# -@',@;2%3+# -+# (+&*-2&;+3+# .%U 6'M%# /+7@,@;'3*(23D# 6'M%# (+:'7+(23D# /<3+-+(*;23'(#
tulpinilor de porumb, viermele merelor, molia strugurilor etc.); Trichogramma embriofagum
O&%3%?*;+%?@# 2'@(+# =*+37+('*# 7+3+(23# +;."PR# Aphididus matricarie O&%3%?*;+%?@# &@-'.M+(+# =+3-+# %(#
piersicului); Encarisia formosana O.276%;+#7'/.'(*9%#%(6@#-+#/+3@P#+;."

Aphelinus mali

Prospaltella perniciosi

Trichogramma spp.

L<5754A<33 /',;# 23:%,*/7+# %,*7%(+# .+# /+# M3@,+/.# .'# &3%-@# =*+D# %.+);*%# %=C,-#
ntotdeauna corpul mai mare dect al &3@?**"# G3@-@;23**# %&%39*,# .(%/+(23# -+# 7*3*%&2-+D#
%3%M,*-+D# *,/+.;+D# %7<*6*+,*D# 3+&;*(+D# &@/@3*# )*# 7%7*<+3+"# $+(+# 7%*# 7'(;+# /&+.**# -+# &3@-@;2ri
%&%39*,# .(%/+*# Insecta, ordinele: Orthoptera Mantis religiosa (.@(':@3*9%), Heteroptera Perillus bioculatus O&3@-@;23# %(# (%3=+(23# :C,-%.'('*# -*,# $2(23%-2P, Neuroptera - Chrysopa
spp. (pradatori ai afidelor), Hymenoptera - Scolia flavifrons (lupul albinelor) Coleoptera Coccinella 7 punctata (buburuza), Adalia bipunctata O&3@-@;23*# %*# &@-'.M*(23# -+# <3',?+PD
Carabus spp., Calosoma spp. (vnatori de omizi), Diptera fam. Syrphidae - Tachina
spp.etc.

Mantis religiosa

Perillus bioculatus

Scolia flavifrons Coccinella 7 punctata Carabus spp., Calosoma spp. Tachina spp.

38

Dintre H5I5<3 *7&23;%,9@# &3+?*,;@# .+(+# insectivore )*# <5H34A;<8 .'7# %3# <*U# &*9*:2**D#
.*2.@,*;2%3+%D# .'.'(D# 6'<,*9%D# .'.'=+%'%D# )23+.%3'(# .27',# +;."D# # mamiferele utile sunt
3+&3+?+,;%;+# -+U# %3*.*D# .C3;*9@D# (*(*%.# *%3# -*,;3+# 3+&;*(+# .+(+# 7%*# *7&23;%,;+# /',;# )2&C3(%# )*#
)%3&+(+#)*#/&+.**(+#-+#%7<*6*+,*"
Autocidia: /+# 6%?+%?@# &+# .3+);+3+%# )*# (%,/%3+%# 7%/.'(*(23# /;+3*(*# -*,# &',.;# -+# =+-+3+#
/+N'%(D# 8,# ,'7@3# 7'(;# 7%*# 7%3+# -+.C;# %# .+(23# -*,# &2&'(%9*%# ,%;'3%(@D# &C,@# /+# 3+%(*?+%?@#
combaterea sau eradic%3+%# &2&'(%9*+*# ,%;'3%(+" Sterilizarea masculilor (insectelor) se poate
produce p+#.%(+#<*?*.@D#.M*7*.@D#:+,+;*.@#)*#M2372,%(@"
143@3J;<8;) IF?I4;268@A<)?3A@AB3D);D43:8U#3+&3+?*,;@ /'6/;%,9+#/+.3+;%;+#-+#%3;32&2-+D#
-+# &(%,;+(+# .'(;'3@# /%'# 7*.3223:%,*/7+# &2; *,<('+,9%# .27&23;%7+,;'(# )*# 2# /+3*+# -+# &32.+/+#
<*?*2(2:*.+# )*# 6*2(2:*.+D# .++%# .+# %# <@.';# &2/*6*(@# <2(2/*3+%# (23# 8,# .276%;+3+%# -@',@;23*(23#
animali.
I?2(%3+%# %.+/;23# /'6/;%,9+# )*# %&2*# /*,;+?%# (23# 8,# (%623%;23D# &3+.'7# )*# 72-*<*.@3*(+#
produse n structura lo3#8,#/.2&'(#876',@;@9*3**#&32&3*+;@9*(23#+/;+#&2/*6*(@#)*#/+#';*(*?+%?@#&+#
/.%3@# (%3:@"# F'&@# 72-'(# (23# -+# %.9*',+# %.+/;+# /'6/;%,9+# &2;# <*U# 3+:'(%;23*# -+# .3+);+3+# %*#
*,/+.;+(23R#/;+3*(*?%,9*R#<+3272,*R#%(;+#/'6/;%,9+#6*2(2:*.#%.;*=+"
=$@*2,&+-55' ($' %-$8&$-$ -+,-2M2372,*# .+# %/*:'3@# .3+);+3+%# )*# -+?=2(;%3+%# ,237%(@# %#
*,/+.;+(23D# 8,/@# %-7*,*/;3%3+%# (23# 8,# -2?+# 7%*# 7%3*# -+.C;# .+(+# ';*(+# 23:%,*/7'('*# .2,-'.e la
dereglarea metamorfozei. 5,%(2:**#/*,;+;*.*#%*#%.+/;23#/'6/;%,9+#/+#&32-'.#*,-'/;3*%(#8,#7'(;+#
9@3*U# a*dropren (8,# -2?@# -+# _D_\i# /"%"D- &+,;3'# .276%;+3+%# ',23# M272&;+3+D# .2(+2&;+3+# )*#
lepidoptere); Metopren (8,# -2?@# -+# _D_\i# /"%"D- &+,;3'# .276%;+3+%# 7');+(23# -@',@;2%3+# 8,#
-2?@# -+# _D_0\# - 0,05% s.a).; Kinopren (8,# -2?@# -+# _D!# - 0,25% s.a. pentru combaterea unor
homoptere etc.) .
Utilizarea feromonilor 92) DAE?;48<8;) 32I8D48@A<) 75F254A;<8: insectele depind de
*,<237%9**(+# &+# .%3+# (+# ;3%,/7*;# )*# 3+.+&9*2,+%?@# &3*,# *,;+37+-*'(# 7+/%:+3*(23# .M*7*.*# .%3+#
.*3.'(@#8,#+.2/*/;+7+"#W+3272,**#/',;#-*<+3+,9*%9*#8,:
Feromonii de dezvoltare (metabolici) - *,-'.#2#/+3*+#-+#72-*<*.@3*#7+;%62(*.+#/%'#-+#
-+?=2(;%3+D#<**,-#7%*#*7&23;%,9*#(%#*,/+.;+(+#/2.*%(+#)* la cele cu comportament gregar.
V$-+7+"55' ($' ,%>5*"$ O-+# -+.(%,)%3+P- *,-'.# /.M*76@3*# -+# .27&23;%7+,;# )*# /',;#
-*<+3+,9*%9*#8,U#
- feromonii de balizaj- /+3=+/.#(%#7%3.%3+%#;3%/+'('*#-+#-+&(%/%3+#/&3+#/'3/%#-+#M3%,@#
/%'#/&3+#',#(2.#-+#.'*6@3*3+#O(%#*,/+.;+(+#/2.*%(+ etc.).
- f'")1)0,,% &'% )7,6)(,8,' - 7%3.M+%?@# (2.'3*(+# &32&ice O9C,9%3*P# /%'# *,;+3?*/+# &+,;3'#
depunerea pontei O7');+(+#<3'.;+(23PR
- feromonii de agregare - %/*:'3@#unitatea familiei la speciile sociale sau concentrarea
8,#=+-+3+%#7*:3%9*+*#/%'#&2&'(@3**#','*#6*2;2&#O(@.'/;+D#.%3*#-+#/.2%39@#/%'#(+7,#+;."P
- f'")1)0,,% &'% #*#"1. - -+;+37*,@# 3@/&C,-*3+%# &2&'(%9*+*# n momentul atacului unui
&3@-@;23.
- feromonii sexuali - inter7+-*%?@#3+(%9**(+#-*,;3+#&%3;+,+3**#/+N'%(*#8,%*,;+D#8,#;*7&'(#)*#
-'&@#87&+3+.M+3+"
Feromonii sexuali se mpart n:
- ,&-,%&,">5'#$E*,25 &32-')*#-+#','(#-*,#/+N+D#&+,;3'#%;3%:+3+%#/+N'('*#2&'/ n scopul
87&3+.M+3**D#8,;C(,*9*#(%#7%V23*;%;+%#/&+.**(23#-+#*,/+.;+#)*#/',;#&32-')*#-+#.@;3+#<+7+(+"
- afrodisiaci &32-')*# -+# .@;3+# 7%/.'(**# %;3%)*# .'# /.2&'(# -+# %# atrage femelele )*# a le
-+;+37*,%#/@#%..+&;+#87&+3+.M+3+%"
- -$<$2$">5' #$E*,25 &32-')*# 8,# %&%3%;'(# :+,*;%(# %(# 7%/.'('('*# )*# ;3ansfer%9*# 2-%;@# .'#
lichidul spermatic n aparatul genital al femelei (7%3.M+%?@#<+7+(+(+#<+.',-%;+#)*#8*#-+;+37*,@#
&+#.+*(%(9*#7%/.'(*#/@#(+#+=*;+#)*#/@#/+#87&+3+.M+?+#.'#<+7+(+#,+<+.',-%;+).
Capturarea insectelor se baze%?@# &+# &32&3*+;%;+%# ',23# ;*&'3*# -+# <+3272,*# -+# %#
-+;+37*,%# %&32&*+3+%# <%9@# -+# /'3/%# -+# +7*/*+# O%;3%.;%,9*# /+N'%(*D# -+# %:3+:%3+# +;."P"# I,/+.;+(+#

39

sunt atrase n capcane speciale (n care /+# &(%/+%?@# 727+(*# .2,9*,C,-# 2# -2?@# -+# <+3272,#
natural sau sintetic car+# +/;+# +7*/# ;3+&;%;# )*# ',*<237P# )* /',;# 3+9*,';+D 8,# <',.9*+# -+# /.2&'(#
'37@3*;, fie omorndu-le (capcane electrice, chimice, adezive etc.), fie conservndu-le vii. De
obicei capturarea insectelor se face pentru: studierea ciclului biologic, depistarea unor noi
*,<+/;@3*D# /'&3%=+:M+3+%# .%,;*;%;*=@# %# &2&'(%9*+*# 8,# =+-+3+%# /;%6*(*3**# 2&23;',*;@9**# %&(*.@3**#
7@/'3*(23#-+#.276%;+3+D#.276%;+3+%#&3*,#.%&;'3%3+%# 8,# 7%/@, st+3*(*?%3+#/+N'%(@#)*#3+(%,/%3+,
combatere prin perturbarea transmisiei feromonale normale (dezorientare) etc.

.
$%&.%,@#.'#<+3272,#/+N'%(#;*&#5;3%E2;#
(atrage masculi speciei Lobesia botrana Molia strugurilor)

TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Ce sunt H;<;J3633)insectelor G3)DFE)I8)D@;I3C3D5?
B@/&',/U
D#"#(,8,,%350$%)"+#0,31'%#0,1#*'%-#"'%3' &'(7)*$.%6'%3'#1#%#*$)"%)"+#0,31'%#0,1#*'M%D)$%
fi: '-$)6#"#(,8, &#-.% 3'% &'(7)*$.% 6'% -)"65*% +#(&'*)"% 4, '0&)6#"#(,8,% -@0&% 3'% &'(7)*$.% F0%
interiorul gazdelor.
2. Care sunt A<B;23IE8@8)CA@AI348)92)DAE?;48<8;)?3A@AB3D5?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. Feromonii sexuali pot fi:
a. 3+&+(+,9*#
b. %(%37%,9*
c. afrodisiaci
d. %-V'=%,9*
e. %;3%.;%,9*#
Rezolvare : a, c, e
De rezolvat:

40

2. 12363)DF)A)@3238)C8<AEA233)78);D63F28)DF);D63F28)H8)D;<8)A)78D@;2G8;J5:
a. f+3272,**#-+#2=*&2?*9*+
7%3.M+%?@ ;3%/+'('*#-+#-+&(%/%3+#/&3+#/'3/%#-+#M3%,@
b. feromonii de balizaj
%/*:'3@#',*;%;+%#<%7*(*+*#(%#/&+.**(+#/2.*%(+
c. feromonii de agregare
7%3.M+%?@#(2.'3*(+#&32&*.+/interzise pentru depunerea pontei
-"#<+3272,**#-+#%(%37@
*,;+37+-*%?@#3+(%9**(+#-intre partenerii sexuali
e. feromonii sexuali
-+;+37*,@#3@/&C,-*3+%#&2&'(%9*+*#(%#%;%.'(#','*#&3@-@;23
Rezolvare:

REZUMATUL TEMEI
]# Protectia plantelor se ocup@ cu studiul organismelor d@un@toare (fitopatogeni,
artropode fitofage, buruieni, rozatoare etc.) n scopul stabilirii de m@suri eficiente de
combatere a %.+/;23%#)*#-+#(*7*;%3+#%#pagubelor / pierderilor economice produse de ace)tia.
]#Combaterea daunatorilor culturilor agricole se realizeaza prin metode preventive )*#
curative.
]#Grognoza presupune prevederea cu mult timp nainte, %#%&%3*9*+*#8,#7%/@#% speciilor
-+# 62(*# )*# -@',@;23*D# *%3# %vertizarea %&(*.@3**# ;3%;%7+,;+(23# <*;2/%,*;%3+# 3+&3+?*,;@ momentul
2&;*7#-+#%&(*.%3+#%#;3%;%7+,;+(23#)*#%3+#2#*7&23;%,9@#-+2/+6*;@#&+,;3'#.276%;+3+%#+<*.*+,;@#%
-@',@;23*(23#&(%,;+(23" S+#3+%(*?+%?@#-+#26*.+*#-'&@#criteriul: biologic, ecologic )*#fenologic.
]#!5IF<3@8)78)D;<;24325)C34AI;234;<5 au ca scop limitarea 3@/&C,-*3**#',23#-@',@;23*#
animali (%:+,9*#<*;2&%;2:+,*#etc.) ai plantelor agricole cultivate. F'&@#26*+.;*='(#'37@3*;#&2%;+#
fi 3248<25 (/+# 3+<+3@# (%# .2,;32('(# &32-'/+(23# -+# ,%;'3@# =+:+;%(@# *,<+/;%;+# /%'# ,'# -+# /&+.**#
d@',@;2%3+#- .%3+#/+#%<(@#8,#9%3@D#-%3#&+,;3'#.%3+#/+#*%'#7@/'3*#-+#(*7*;%3+#%#3@/&C,-*3**#(23#8,#
alte zone sau de lichidare a focarelor existente) 8U48<25 (prentmpin@ &@;3',-+3+%#8,#9%3@#%#
',23#-@',@;23*#&+3*.'(2)*).
]# !5IF<3le agrofitotehnice au drept scop %/*:'3%3+%# .2,-*9**(23# optime pentru
plantele agricole .'(;*=%;+# )*# ,+<%=23%6*(+# &+,;3'# -+?=2(;%3+%# )*# 8,7'(9*3+%# -@',@;23*(23
specifici. Cele mai importante sunt: alegerea terenului, ,#+2,7$"&*2' 85' -+&,>5,' %*2&*-52+-6'
2*%-)-52$' #+2*2*56' ,(75"5#&-,-$,' -,>5+",2)' ,' F"@-)8)75"&$2+-' 85' ,7$"(,7$"&$2+-6''
&-,&,7$"&*2' #$75">$2+-' F",5"$' ($' #$7)",&6' -$#<$%&,-$,' $<+%55' ($' #$7)",&, respectarea
momentului optim de recoltare, distrugerea resturilor vegetale, u&525?,-$,' #+5*-52+-' 85'
B54-5-52+-'-$?5#&$">5'#,*'&+2$-,">50'
]# !84A78@8) C3J3D8) 78) DAE?;48<8) ;) 75F254A<3@A< /+# 3+<+3@ la utilizarea unor factori
fizici: temperatura, focul, lumina, r,?$2$'5";-,-+8ii, Q6'R'85'S.
]#Metodele mecanice de combatere ;)75F254A<3@A<)H@;248@A<);B<3DA@8 - /+#%&(*.@#(%#
/.%3@# 3+-'/@# -+2%3+.+ ,+.+/*;@# ',# =2('7# 7%3+# -+# 7',.@# )*# .2,/'7# -+# +,+3:*+# 3*-*.%;U#
adunarea insectelor6'8,">*-52$'%,<%,"), p2,"&$2$'%,<%,"), inelele cleioase, b-G5$2$'%,<%,"),
scuturatul pomilor, omizitul, i@5$",'%*2&*-,2), momelile capcan)6'entoleterul.
] Metoda chimic5 de combatere ;) 75F254A<3@A< (chimioterapia) /+# 6%?+%?@ pe
folosirea produselor fitosanitare specifice (pesticide): insecticide, acaricide, nematocide,
moluscocide, raticide etc. majoritatea acestora fiind ;2N*.+# &+,;3'# 27# )*# %,*7%(+# .'# /C,:+#
cald, m%,*&'(%3+%D#-+&2?*;%3+%#)*#';*(*?%3+%#,+.23+/&',?@;2%3+ a acestora poate duce la o serie
de dezavantaje.
] QFH5) EA7F@) 78) ;D63F28, insecticidele se d*<+3+,9*%?@# 8,U insecticide de ingestie,
insecticide de contact, 5"#$%&5%5($'($'-$#<5-,>5$, 5"#$%&5%5($'%*',%>5*"$'%+7<2$E).
] QFH5) I4;<8;) C3J3D5) *,/+.;*.*-+(+# /+# &3+?*,;@# /'6# ;3+*# <237+U# #+25(), 25%B5() )*#
@,?+,#).
] QFH5) B<;7F@) 78) 4AU3D34;48, insecticidele se :3'&+%?@# %/;<+(: grupa I extrem de
toxice, grupa II puternic toxice , grupa III moderat toxice , grupa IV cu toxicitate red'/@#

41

.
] QFH5) B<FH;) DY3E3D5 insecticidele se pot clasifica n: produse organoclorurate; produse organof-osforice; - c%36%7%9*R - &*3+;3*,2*?*# -+# /*,;+?@R- diverse,- amestecuri,inhibitori ai metamorfozei artropodelor etc.
] N+74,&$-$,' 45+2+@5%)' ',# .27&(+N# -+# 7@/'3*# .%3+# /+# %&(*.@# 8,# /.2&'(# -*/;3':+3**#
-@',@;23*(23# %,*7%(*# %*# &(%,;+(23# agricole cultivate, prin utilizarea -')7%,*(23 naturali
(organisme zoofage), a insecticidelor biologiceD# %';2.*-*+*D# <+3272,*(23# +;."# )*# *7&(*.@#
modificare%#+.M*(*63'('*#6*2.+,2;*.#8,#<%=2%3+%#-')7%,*(23#,%;'3%(*"#
] Microorganismele patogene (virusuri, bacterii, ciuperci) sunt mult utilizate n
.276%;+3+%#-@',@;23*(23#%,*7%(*D#-%;23*;@#3@/&C,-*3**#(23#8,#,%;'3@#- +(+#/;%'#(%#6%?%#&3+&%3@3**#
&+# .%(+# *,-'/;3*%(@# %# 6*2&3+&%3%;+(23# /%'# *,/+.;*.*-+(23# 6*2(2:*.+" F'&@# ,%;'3%# &3*,.*&*'('*#
activ, insecticidele biologice pot fi: virotice, bacteriene, fungice, helmintice, hormonale etc.
]Macroorganismele (zoofagii): au un rol important n reducerea rezervei biologice a
-@',@;23*(23D pot fi H;<;J363 )*#H<5754A<3.
]L;<;J3633 /',;#23:%,*/7+#%,*7%(+#.%3+#/+#-+?=2(;@#&+#/+%7%#altor organisme animale
(gazde). Pot fi: '-$)6#"#(,8, (/+#-+?=2(;@#&+#.23&'(#:%?-+(23P#)* '0&)6#"#(,8,%(/+#-+?=2(;@#n
interiorul gazdelor).
] L<5754A<33 /',;# 23:%,*/7+# %,*7%(+# .+# /+# M3@,+/.# .'# &3%-@# =*+D# %.+);*%# %=C,-#
8,;2;-+%',%# .23&'(# 7%*# 7%3+# -+.C;# %(# =*.;*7+*"# G3@-@;23**# %&%39in claselor de miriapode,
%3%M,*-+D#*,/+.;+D#%7<*6*+,*D#3+&;*(+D#&@/@3*#)*#7%7*<+3+"#
] Autocidia: /+#6%?+%?@#&+#.3+);+3+%#)*#(%,/%3+%#7%/.'(*(23#/;+3*(*#-*,#&',.;#-+#=+-+3+#
/+N'%(D# 8,# ,'7@3# 7'(;# 7%*# 7%3+# -+.C;# %# .+(23# -*,# &2&'(%9*%# ,%;'3%(@D# &C,@# /+# 3+%(*?+%?@#
.276%;+3+%#/%'#+3%-*.%3+%#&2&'(%9*+*#,%;'3%(+"
] 143@3J;<8;)IF?I4;268@A<)?3A@AB3D);D43:8U#3+&3+?*,;@ /'6/;%,9+#/+.3+;%;+#-+#%3;32&2-+D#
-+# &(%,;+(+# .'(;'3@# /%'# 7*.3223:%,*/7+, care &2;# *,<('+,9%# .27&23;%7+,;'(# )*# 2# /+3*+# -+#
&32.+/+#<*?*2(2:*.+#)*#6*2(ogice.
]Utilizarea feromonilor 92)DAE?;48<8;)32I8D48@A<)75F254A;<8: insectele depind de
*,<237%9**(+# &+# .%3+# (+# ;3%,/7*;# )*# 3+.+&9*2,+%?@# &3*,# *,;+37+-*'(# 7+/%:+3*(23# .M*7*.*# .%3+#
.*3.'(@# 8,# +.2/*/;+7+"# W+3272,**# /',;# -*<+3+,9*%9*# 8,: feromoni de dezvoltare (metabolici) 4,%
;$-+7+"5'($',%>5*"$ O-+#-+.(%,)%3+P"
] Capturarea insectelor- insectele sunt atrase n capcane speciale (n care /+#&(%/+%?@#
727+(*#.2,9*,C,-#2#-2?@#-+#<+3272,#,%;'3%(#/%'#/*,;+;*.#.%3+#+/;+#+7*/#;3+&;%;#)*#',*<237P#)*
/',;# 3+9*,';+D n f',.9*+# -+# /.2&'(# '37@3*;, fie omorndu-le (capcane electrice, chimice,
adezive etc.), fie conservndu-le vii.

42

Tema nr. 5

#*01-"(T,*#*()L#'-0'L(%'%"#)Q.1-.,"#')
AI CULTURILOR AGRICOLE
1234563)78)92:56;<8)=
!
!
!

5.1. F@',@;23**#&2(*<%:*
\"0"#F@',@;23**#.+3+%(+(23
\"4"#F@',@;23**#%(;23#.'(;'3*#%:3*.2(+

Obiectivele temei:
># .',2%);+3+%# )*# 8,9+(+:+3+%# .2,.+&;+(23# )*# <237%3+%# &+3/&+.;*=+*# %/'&3%# -*<+3*;+(23#
/&+.**#-+#*,/+.;+D#-@',@;2%3+#&(%,;+(23#%:3*.2(+"
dezba;+3+%# ,29*',*(23# 3+<+3*;2%3+# (%: caracteristicile morfologice ale stadiilor
-@',@;2%3+D#6*2(2:*+*#&3+.'7#)*#72-'('*#-+#%;%."
ana(*?%3+%#.23+(%9*+*#-*,;3+#-*<+3*;+(+#;*&'3*#-+#%&%3%;+#6'.%(+#)*#-%',+(+#&32=2.%;+#-+#
*,/+.;+(+#-@',@;2%3+#&(%,;+(23#%:3*.2(+"#
Timpul alocat temei : 6 ore
B3?@3AB<;C38)<8DAE;27;45)=
!"# lM*?-%='# I"D# H%;+*# I'(*%# )*# .2(%6"# /0$)1)*)+,'% #+",-)*.. A-*;'3%# F*-"# )*# G+-"D#
E'.'3+);*D#!gg`"
2. Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%#+",-)*.2 Editura Universitaria Craiova, 2005.
4"#G+3V'#1"#)*#.2(%6"#!"#$#$%&'%())*)+,'%#+",-)*.. Vol. V, Editura Academiei Romne,
2001.
["#B2).%#I"D#/0$)1)*)+,'%#+",-)*.%36'-,#*."#A-*;'3%#F*-"#)*#G+-"#B"5"D#E'.'3+);*D#0__4
\"#B2).%#I"D#/0$)1)*)+,'%36'-,#*.. A-*;'3%#F*-"#)*#G+-"#B"5"D#E'.'3+);*D#0__`
5.1. Q5F254A<33)HA@3C;B3
IntroducereU#F@',@;23**#&2(*<%:* %;%.@#.%# (%3=@#)*#',+23*#.%# %-'(;#-*<+3*;+#23:%,+#%(+#
/&+.**(23# -+# &(%,;+# -*,# -*<+3*;+# <%7*(**# 62;%,*.+"# G3*,.*&%(+(+# /&+.**# &2(*<%:+# O=*+37*# /C37@D#
=*+37*# %(6*# )*# =*+37*# .+,')**P# %'# 8,# :+,+3%(# 2# =*%9@# +-%<*.@# )*# ,+.+/*;@# 7@/'3*# *,;+:3%;+#
(profilacto-terapeutice) de combatere.
Cls. Nematoidea - Ord. Tylenchida - Fam. Tylenchidae
Retinem:\38<E8@8)<575D323@A<)-Meloidogyne incognita Chitw. (Heterodera marioni Cor.)
W+7+(%#+/;+#&*3*<237@D#%(6*.*2%/@#)*#-+#_D[_-!D4_#77#(',:*7+D#*%3#7%/.'('(#<*(*<237#)*#
de 1,2-1,8 mm, larvele au corpul filiform transparent de 2,2-_D\# 77"# a*6+3,+%?@# .%# 2'# 8,#
.M*/;'(#<+7+(#<*N%;#&+#3@-@.*,*#/%'#8,#/2(D#*%3#8,#/+3+#*+3,+%?@#)*#.%#<+7+(@#/%'#.%#(%3=@#8,#=C3/;%#
a II- %"# F+?=2(;%3+%# ',+*# :+,+3%9**# 8,# .2,-*9**# -+# /+3@# +/;+# -+# 0\-35 zile, specia avnd 4-8
:+,+3%9**#&+#%,D#*%3#8,#.C7&#4-\#:+,+3%9**D#&3+<+3C,-#/2('3*(+#,*/*&2-lutoase.
H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?()0 5-'(9**#)*#(%3=+(+#%;%.@#&3*,#8,9+&%3+#)*#/':+3+#3@-@.*,*(+#
&(%,;+(23#.%#'37%3+#%#%;%.'('*#/+#<237+%?@#:%(+#-+#-*<+3*;+#<237+#)*#7@3*7*D#%=C,-#-*%7+;3'(#
de 2-\# .7"# G(%,;+(+# %;%.%;+# /;%:,+%?@# 8,# =+:+;%9*+D# %'# <3',?+(+# +;*2(%;+# )*# /+# =+/;+V+/.D# *%3#
<3'.;+(+# 3@7C,# 7*.*# )*# .%-"# G%:'6+# -+# !\-4_i# /',;# &32=2.%;+# 8,# /+3+D# 3@/%-,*9+# )*# .'(;'3*#
<239%;+D#.'#7%N*7+#O\_-d_iP#(%#.%/;3%=+9*#)*#;27ate.

43

&(%,;@#%;%.%;@#

Meloidogyne incognitaU#(%3=@#7%/.'(####
Ord. Orthoptera - Fam. Gryllotalpidae
0A<AH3G236; - Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L.

Adultul are corpul robust, culoare 63',@#.%<+,*+#.'#


aspect catifelat, mandibule puternice, pronotul bine
dezvoltat, aripile anterioare scurte, pieloase, iar
cele posterioare lungi, strnse de-alungul
abdomenului. Picioarele anterioare adaptate pentru
/@&%;# :%(+3**# 8,# /2("# 56-27+,'(# voluminos,
terminat cu 2 cerci, lungimea corpuluide 35-60
mm. Larva se a/+%7@,@# .'# %-'(;'( dar este mai
7*.@D#.'(2%3+#7%*#-+/.M*/@#)*#%3*&*#3'-*7+,;%3+.
S&+.*+#+-%<*.@D#&3+<+3@ /2('3*(+#7%*#')2%3+D#:3%/+D#-*,#%&32&*+3+%#%&+(23D#h*6+3,+%?@#.%#
(%3=@#vrsta a III-%#8,#&3*7%#*%3,@D#*%3#%#-2'%#*%3,@#2#&+;3+.+#8,#/;%-*'(#-+#(%3=@#7%;'3@#O=C3/;%#
V) n sol la adncimi variabile, de la 50-90 la 130-180 cm. 53+#2#:+,+3%9*+#(%#0#%,*"
H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?() %;%.@#/'6#<237@#-+#32/@;'3*#/'&+3<*.*%(+#.%=+3,2%/+#)*#-+#
:%(+3**D#.2(+;'(# )*#3@-@.*,*(+# (+:'7+(23# 7%*# %(+/D#%&2*# 6'(6**D#3*?27**# )*#;'6+3.'(**"#B@-@.*,*(+#
:32%/+#/',;#32%/+D#*%3#.+(+#/'69*3*#3+;+?%;+"#5;%.'(#8,#.C7&#/+#+)%(2,+%?@#&+#;2%;@#&+3*2%-%#-+#
=+:+;%9*+D# *%3# 8,# /+3+# ;2;# %,'(D# 3+.',2%);+3+%# (23# /+ <%.+# -'&@# =+;3+# .'# s# -+# \_-100 cm cu
&(%,;+#2<*(*;+#-%3#-+#.'(2%3+#=+3-+"#F%',+(+#/',;U#-*3+.;+D#&3*,#32%-+3+%#&@39*(23#/'6;+3%,+#%(+#
&(%,;+(23#)*#*,-*3+.;+D#&3*,#:%(+3**(+#&32&3**#<@.';+#8,#/;3%;'(#/'&+3<*.*%(#%(#/2('('*D#.+#-+3%,V+%?@#
.3+);+3+%#)*#-+?=2(;%3+%#(+:'7+(23#)*#/.2%;+3+%#-+#/+7*,9+#)*#&(%,;+#8,.2(9*;+"#J&+.*+#&2(*<%:@#
.+# %;%.@# (+:'7+(+U# ;27%;+D# =*,+;+D# %3-+*D# .+%&@D# .%3;2<*D# 3*-*.M*D# /%(%;@D# 723.2=D# +;."D# %&2*#
<(23*(+D#.+3+%(+#O&3+<+3@#23?'(D#+;."PD#/<+.(%D#<(2%3+%#/2%3+('*D#;';','(D#+;."
Cls. Insecta - Ord.Coleoptera - Fam. Elateridae
A4#$-3,>5$':\38<E33)IR<E5)- Agriotes spp. L
j*+37**# /C37@# /',;# (%3=+(+# ',23# .2(+2&;+3+# -+,'7*;+# t:C,-%.*# &2.,*;23*uO:C,-%.'(#
%)+?%;#&+#/&%;+D#3+=*,+# (%#&2?*9*%# ,237%(%#&3*,;3-',# /%(;# 8,/29*;#-+#2#&2.,*;'3@"PD#/'nt edafice
%;%.@# 23:%,+(+# subterane ale plantelorR# %'# .23&'(# %(',:*;# )*# %.2&+3*;# -+# ',# ;+:'7+,;# 6*,+#
.M*;*,*?%;# .+# 7@3+);+# 3+?*/;+,9%# (%# *,/+.;*.*-+R# &3+<+3@# /2('3*(+# %.*-+# )*# umede. Speciile mai
importante sunt: Agriotes lineatus L., A. obscurus L., A. sputator L"#)*#A. ustulatus Schall.
5-'(;'(#%3+#.23&'(#%(',:*;D#+(*;3+(+#.'#[#/;3*'3*#(2,:*;'-*,%(+#+=*-+,;+#)*#.'(2%3+#63',@D#
n lungime de 7-10 mm.
S%3=%#+/;+#/'6.*(*,-3*.@D#.'#*,+('(#%,%(#.2,*.D#.'(2%3+#:%(6+,-.%/;%,*+#)*#-+#0_-26 mm.
Agriotes obscurus %3+#&32,2;'(#7%*#(%;#-+.C;#(',:D#+(*;3+(+#&'6+/.+,;+#)*#.23&'(#63',#8,.M*/D#.%&'(#.%<+,*'#)*#-+#`-10 mm lungime. Agriotes sputator, brun-32).%;#)*#7%*#7*.D#-+#d-7
mm.
Agriotes ustulatus are pronotul negru, corpul brun - 8,.M*/#)*#(',:#-+#g-12 mm.

44

Vierm**# /C37@# M*6+3,+%?@# -+# 26*.+*# .%# (%3=@# )*# %-'(;# /%'# ,'7%*# .%# (%3=@"# $*.('(#
6*2(2:*.#-'3+%?@#8,#7+-*+#4-5 aniD#8,#<',.9*+#-+#<%.;23**#+.2(2:*.*#?2,%(*"#5&%3*9*%#%-'(9*(23#/+#
26/+3=@# %,'%(D# -*,# .%'?@# .@# (%3=+(+# /+# :@/+/.# 8,# /2(# 8,# -*<+3*;+# =C3/;+"# F+?=2(;%3+%# 2&;*7@# %#
=*+37*(23#/C37@#/+#-+/<@)2%3@#(%#!`-25C.
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 5-'(9**# ,'# &32-'.# &%:'6+D# au ',# 3+:*7# -+# M3%,@#
pantofag (boabe, larve etc.). Larvele %;%.@ 23:%,+(+# /'6;+3%,+# %(+# &(%,;+(23D# 32-# /+7*,9+(+#
:+37*,%;+#)*#%;%.@#.2(+;'(#)*#&'*+9**#-*,#&+&*,*+3+(+#&27*.2(+D#=*;*.2(+#)*#/*(=*.2(+"#F%',+#7%3*#
&32=2%.@#&23'76'('*# (%#.2(+;#O2# (%3=@#&2%;+#-*/;3':+#c-!0#&(%,;+D#&3*7@=%3%PD#%;%.@#&(%,;+(+#
%6*%# 3@/@3*;+D# -+# .+3+%(+# -+# ;2%7,@# /%'# -+# &3*7@=%3@D# 3@-@.*,*(+ tinere ale plantelor tehnice
(floarea-/2%3+('*D# /<+.(@D# ;';',D# .%3;2<*D# +;."PD# (+:'7+# 3@-@.*,2%/+D# ('.+3,@D# ;3*<2*D# &(%,;+#
<(23*.2(+#+;."#5;%.'(#+/;+#8,#(',:'(#3C,-'3*(23#)*#8,#=+;3+"#

@;<:5

Agriotes spp. adult

Ord. Coleoptera - Fam. Scarabaeidae


05<5?FGF@)78)E;3)- Melolontha melolontha L.
Adultul are corpul robust, iar elitrele cu 5 coaste longitudinale evidente. Culoarea
.23&23%(@#,+%:3@D#*%3#+(*;3+(+#)*#&*.*2%3+(+#.%/;%,**#)*#lateral pe abdomen cu pete triunghiulare
albe. Lungimea de 22,5-4!D\#77#OG%,*,P"#S%3=%#;*&#7+(2(2,;2*-D#.'#.23&'(#.'36%;#(%#7*V(2.#)*#
acoperit de un tegument gros. Culoarea alb-:@(6'*+, capul brun, iar stigmele laterale brune, n
lungime de 40-50 mm. Oul oval, alb-:@(6'*# )*# -+# !Dc-0D\# 77D# *%3# ,*7<%# +/;+# (*6+3@D# :@(6'*%(6*.*2%/@# )*# (',:@# -+# 0_-4_# 77"# $@3@6')'(# -+# 7%* %3+# 2# :+,+3%9*+# (%# 4# %,*D# M*6+3,+%?@# .%#
adult n sol la adncimi diferite: n medie la 30-\_#.7D#*%3#8,#/2('3*#')2%3+#(%#d_-80 cm.

M. melolontha: - adult;

- @;<:5))))))))))))))

- AF5)))))))))))))))))))))

- pupa

H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 5-'(9**# %;%.@ frunzele arborilor, consumnd limbul n
%<%3@#-+#,+3='3*D#&32-'.C,-#-+<2(*+3*#&%39*%(+#/%'#;2;%(+"D#*%3#(%3=+(+#%;%.@#3@-@.*,*(+#&(%,;+(23#
.'(;*=%;+D#.%3+#,'#7%*#=+:+;+%?@#)*#<3'.;*<*.@#,237%("#X,#&+&*,*+3+#(%3=+(+#32-#/.2%39%#&'*+9*(23#
de la colet n josD# /'6# <237@# -+# /&*3%(@D# *%3# 8,# :%(+3**(+# %;%.%;+# (%# .%3;2<*D# /<+.(@# +;."# /+#
*,/;%(+%?@# %.%3*+,*D# ,+7%;2?*D# 6%.;+3**# +;."# .+# .2,;*,'@# )*# 7@3+/.# -%',+(+"# $@3@6')'(# -+# 7%*#
+/;+#',#-@',@;23#&2(*<%:#.%#%-'(;#)*#(%3=@D#-+<2(**,-#%3623**#<23+/;*+3*#O/;+V%3D#<%:D#&(2&#+;."P#)*#
&27**#<3'.;*<+3*#O&3',D#.*3+)D#7@3D#,'.#+;."P#%&2*#=*9%#-+#=*+D#;3%,-%<*3'(D#',+(+#.2,*<+3+#+;."#
S%3=+(+# /',;# 3*?2<%:+# )*# %;%.@# 7%*# %(+/# .@&)','(D# 6';%)**# -*,# &+&*,*+3+D# %&2*# /<+.(%D#
cartoful, porumbul, legumele, cerealele etc.

45

Ord. Lepidoptera - Fam. Noctuidae


>FY;)I8E5254F<3@A<)- Euxoa (Agrotis, Sotia) segetum Schiff.
W(';'3**#%'#.23&'(#:32/#)*#&@32/D#63',-.+,')*'D#(',:*7+%#-+#!\-20 mm. Aripile anterioare sunt
brun-.%<+,**#.'#4# 7%.'(+#/&+.*<*.+# O3+,*<237@D#.*3.'(%3@#)*#.2,*.@PD#*%3#6%?%(#)* 7%3:*,%(#%'# 2# -',:@#
;3%,/=+3/%(@# 8,# ?*:-?%:# 63',@R# .+(+# &2/;+3*2%3+# /',;# -+# .'(2%3+# .+,')*+# (%# 7%/.'(*# /%'# %(6# /*-+<*+# (%#
femele, cu anvergura de 38 - [\# 77"#L7*-%#+/;+# -+# .'(2%3+#.+,')*+, iar lateral brun-8,.M*/#)*#.%&'(#
32)*+;*.R# -23/%(# &3+?*,;@# 4# -',:* longitudinale brune, iar fiecare segment abdominal cu 3 - 4 negi
,+:3*.*2)*"# +/;+# /'6.*(*,-3*.@# )*# .'# !_# &*.*2%3+# <%(/+# %6-27*,%(+D# .'# .23&'(# 8,.2(@.*;# 8,# /&*3%(@D# &+# 2#
&%3;+D#.%3%.;+3#:+,+3%(#%(#=*+37*(23#.+,')**"#S',:*7+#[_#- \\#77"#a*6+3,+%?@#8,#/;%-*' -+#27*-@#=C3/;%#
a V-a sau a VI-a, n sol la 25-[_#7D#%3+#0#:+,+3%9**#&+#%,U#l!#8,#(',*(+#7%*#*'(*+#)*#l0 perioada august%&3*(*+D#*%3#8,#3+:*',*(+#7%*#3+.*#&3+?*,;@#2#/*,:'3@#:+,+3%9*+"

Euxoa segetum: - larva

- DF@4F<;);4;D;45)))

- AF5))))

- adult

H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 n primele 3 vrste, omizile rod epide37%# )*# &%3+,.M*7'(#
<3',?+(23# 6%?%(+# %(+# &(%,;+(23D# ;2%;@# ?*'%D# *%3# -*,# =C3/;%# %# Ij-%# %;%.@# ,'7%*# ,2%&;+%D# 7%*# %(+/# ?2,%#
.2(+;'('*# O&23'76D# /<+.(@PD# %&2*# <3',?+(+# 6%?%(+# )*# .M*%3# 3@-@.*,*(+# &(%,;+(23# .'(;'3*(23# -+# ;2%7,@R#
plantele preferate sunt cele cu fru,?+# .@3,2%/+D# 3@-@.*,2%/+(+# )*# ;'6+3.'(*<+3+(+D# %;%.'(# (%# &3@)*;2%3+#
fiind de-%#(',:'(#3C,-'3*(23#)*#8,#=+;3+"#
G%:'6+# 7%N*7+# .%'?+%?@# 27*?*(+# :+,+3%9*+*# %# II# %# %/'&3%# .'(;'3*(23# -+# ;2%7,@# )*# %#
&3@)*;2%3+(23#8,#&3*7@=%3@"#X,#:+,+3%(#(%3=+(+#l!#%;%.@#&3@)*;2%3+(+#O7%*#%(+/#&23'76'(#)*#/<+.(%PD#*%3#
27*?*(+# -*,# l0# %;%.@# .'(;'3*(+# -+# ;2%7,@R# &23'76'(# +/;+# %;%.%;# -+# (%# 3@/@3*3+# )*# &C,@# (%# !_# <3',?+D#
daune fiind de 15-30%.
Ord. Lepidoptera - Fam. Noctuidae
Buha gamma Plusia (Autographa, Phytometra ) gamma L.
Fluturii au aripile anterioare brun-.+,')**D# .'# (*,**#<*,+#;3%,/=+3/%(+#%(6*.*2%/+#)*# .+,;3%(#%'#',# -+/+,#
%3:*,;*'#8,#<237%#(*;+3+*#:3+.+);*#v#, iar cele posterioare brune. Anvergura: 30 - 42 mm.
Larve tip omidoform, cu numai 3 perechi de pseudopicioare abd27*,%(+# .+# -+;+37*,@#
-+&(%/%3+%#8,#%,/@R#.23&'(#=+3-+D#-23/%(#.'#[#(*,**#(2,:*;'-*,%(+#%(6-:@(6'*D#*%3#.%&'(#.%/;%,*'#)*#(',:@#
de 35-45 mm. Poate avea 2 - 4# :+,+3%9**k%,#)*#',+23*# .M*%3#[#- \#:+,+3%9**k%,D#&2%;+# M*6+3,%#8,#;2%;+#
stadiile de dezvoltare.

Mo('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?()0 L7*?*(+#%;%.@#<3',?+(+#.+,;3*&+;D#&32-'.#32/@;'3*#&C,@#(%#
/.M+(+;%3+%# %.+/;23%D# &32-'.C,-# -%',+# %&3+.*%6*(+# 7%*# %(+/# 8,# %,**# /+.+;2)*"# 5;%.@# &+/;+# g_#
/&+.**#-+#&(%,;+D#&3+<+3@#(+:'7*,2%/+(+#%,'%(+#)*#&+3+,+D#/<+.(%D#.%3;2<**D#<(2area soarelui, inul,
.C,+&%D#&(%,;+(+#7+-*.*,%(+D#=%3?%D#6';%)**#-*,#&+&*,*+3+#+;."

Autographa gamma: adult

- AF5))

46

- larv5

TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Ce sunt :38<E33)IR<E5?
B@/&',/U
P,'"1,,% 3@"1.% 350$% *#"7'*'% 50)"% -oleoptere denumite gndaci pocnitori,, din Ord.
Q)*')6$'"#%<#1%/*#$'",&#'2%350$%'&#<,-'%#$#-.%)"+#0'*'%359$'"#0'%#*'%6*#0$'*)"N%#5%-)"65*%
#*50+,$% 4,% #-)6'",$% &'% 50% $'+51'0$% 9,0'% -?,$,0,(#$% -'% 1."'4$'% "'(,3$'08#% *#% ,03'-$,-,&'N%
6"'<'".%3)*5",*'%#-,&'%4,%51ede.
2. Ce sunt viermii albi?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. \38<E33)IR<E5)C;D)H;<48)732)C;E3@3;):
a. Noctuidae
b. Scarabaeidae
c. Elateridae
d. Gryllotalpidae
e. Pieridae
Rezolvare : c
De rezolvat:
2. \38<E33)D82FG33)C;D)H;<48)7in familia :
a. Noctuidae
b. Scarabaeidae
c. Elateridae
d. Gryllotalpidae
e. Pieridae
Rezolvare:
5NMN)Q5F254A<33)D8<8;@8@A<
Ord. Thysanoptera - Fam. Phloethripidae
Tripsul grului - Haplothrips tritici Kurdj.
Retinem:Adultul are corpul moale, ar*&*(+#8,:'/;+D#.'#2#/*,:'3@#,+3='3@#)*#7%3:*,%(#.'#
&+3*)23*D# -+# .'(2%3+# 63',-,+:3*.*2%/@# )*# -+# !D[-!Dc# 77# (',:*7+"# S%3=%# +/;+# /'6.*(*,-3*.@D#
%&2-@D#-+#.'(2%3+#32)*+;*.@D#*%3#.%&'(#)*#&*.*2%3+(+#,+:3+#)*#(',:@#-+#_Dc-1,4 mm.

47

H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 5-'(9**# )*# (%3=+(+# 8,9+%&@# )*# /':# /+=%# -*,# <(23*# .%3+# /+#
'/'.@# )*# %&2*# %;%.@# 62%6+(+# .+# %'# ;+:'7+,;'(# -+.2(23%;D# .'# &',.;+# 63',+D# /&*.+(+# /+#
deformea?@D# *%3# %3*/;+(+# /',;# ?6C3(*;+D# 62%6+(+# 8,# (%&;+# )*);@=*;+# )*# 8,;3+%:%# *,<(23+/.+,9@#
-+.2(23%;@# - boala ,24$,>, spicului .+# ;3+&;%;# /+# '/'.@# %;%.@# 8,# :+,+3%(# .+3+%(+(+D# 8,# /&+.*%(#
:3C'(# O<3+.=+,9@# !_-!\iPD# %&2*# 23?'(# )*# 2=@?'(# O!-3%), iar orzul este atacat mai ales de
Haplothrips aculeatus.
Ord. Heteroptera - Fam. Scutelleridae
L@AG2368@8)D;C8233);@8)D8<8;@8@A<)- Eurygaster Lap.
5-'(9**# %'# .23&'(# 2=%(D# ;'3;*;# -23/2-ventral, acoperit de un tegument chitinizat, de
culoare galben-brunie, iar lungimea de 8-13 77# )*# \-c# 77# (@9*7+"# J&+.**# 7%*# *7&23;%,;+U#
Eurygaster maura, Eurygaster austriaca )*#Eurygaster integriceps.
G(2),*9%# :M+62%/@# %# .+3+%(+(23 - Eurygaster maura L. Adultul are pronotul
/'6;3*',:M*'(%3D# .'# /.';+('(# -+?=2(;%;# )*# /'6;3*',:M*'(%3D# +:%(# 8,# (',:ime cu abdomenul,
63',*'# )*# 8,# (',:*7+# -+# cD\-11 mm (5,0-dD\# (@9*7+P"# G3+-27*,@# 8,# $C7&*%# F',@3**# .'# 2#
<3+.=+,9@#-+#d\-`_i#<%9@#-+#Eurygaster austriaca (20-23%).
G(2),*9%# .+3+%(+(23 - Eurygaster austriaca J.M3%,b"# 5-'(;'(# %3+# .%&'(# %/.'9*;D# -+#
culoare cafeniu-maronie iar lungimea de 11-![# 77# )*# `-c# 77# (@9*7+"# H%*# 3@/&C,-*;@# 8,#
13%,/*(=%,*%#)*#$C7&*%#F',@3**"
G(2),*9%# grului - Eurygaster integriceps G';"# 5-'(;'(# .'# /.';+('(# .+# %.2&+3@#
majoritatea abdomenului, iar corpul brun-.+,')*'# )*# (',:# -+# !_-!4# 77"# B@/pndit n
F2632:+%D#%&2*#8,#$C7&*%#F',@3**#+;."

Eurygaster spp.
G(2),*9+(+# .%<+,**# %(+# .+3+%(+(23# %'# 8,# :+,+3%(# %.+(%)*# .*.('# +=2(';*="# a*6+3,+%?@# 8,#
/;%-*'(# -+# %-'(;# /'6# (*?*+3%# &@-'3*(23# /%'# %# &+3-+(+(23# -+# &32;+.9*+D# %&2*# 8,# 7*3*);*# +;."# %'# -+#
26*.+*#2#:+,+3%9*+#&+#%,"
Ord. Heteroptera - Fam. Pentatomidae
L@AG2368@8):5<B;48);@8)D8<8;@8@A<)- Aelia Fabr.
Genul Aelia W%63"# .'&3*,-+# /&+.**# .'# .23&'(# %(',:*;D# ;'3;*;# (%;+3%(# )*# -23/2-=+,;3%(# )*#
;+:'7+,;'(# .M*;*,*?%;D# -+# .'(2%3+# :@(6'*+# .'# ',+(+# -',:*# (2,:*;'-*,%(+# .%<+,**# C6*)40,8'%
7."+#$'A2 n lungime de 7-12 mm. Speciile mai importante sunt : Aelia acuminata S"#)* Aelia
rostrata Boh. a*6+3,+%?@#8,#/;%-*'(#-+#%-'(;#/'6#(*?*+3%#&@-'3*(23#/%'#%#&+3-+(+(23#-+#&32;+.9*+D#%&2*#8,#
7*3*);*#+;."#)*#%'#0#:+,+3%9**k%,.

Aelia acuminata L. Adultul are corpul ngust, de culoare


galben-.%<+,*+D# *%3# &32,2;'(# ;3%&+?2*-%(# )*# .'# 4# -',:*#
(2,:*;'-*,%(+# .+,')*'-:@(6'*D# 8,# (',:*7+# -+# `-!_# 77# )*#
[D4#77#(@9*7+"
Aelia rostrata Boh. are corpul +(*&;*.# )*# .%&'(# &3+(',:*;#
/'6# <237@# -+# 32/;3'7, de culoare galben-.+,')*+D# *%3#
lungimea de 10-!0#77"#H%*#<3+.=+,;@#-+.C;#A. acuminata
8,#$C7&*%#F',@3**"

48

H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?()' %;%.@#.%#(%3=@#)*#.%#%-'(;#&3*,#8,9+&%3+#)*#/':+3+#&@39*(+#
%+3*+,+# %(+# &(%,;+(23D# 8,# '37%# %;%.'('*U# &+# <3',?+# /%'# ;'(&*,*# %&%3# 7*.*# +N.3+/.+,9+# .2,*.+#
albicioase (conuri salivare); atacul de la baza s&*.'('*#-*,#;+%.@#2&3+);+#*+)*3+%#('*#-*,#6'3-'<D#
*%3# (%# %;%.# 7%*# ;%3-*=# /&*.'(# *+/+D# O<(23*(+# /',;# %=23;%;+P# )*# +/;+# -+.2(23%;# C#*9'#8#% 36,-5*5,AN
&%*'(# 8,9+&%;# -+%/'&3%# '(;*7'('*# ,2-# /+# 8,:@(6+,+);+# )*# ;3+&;%;# /&*.'(# /+# '/'.@"# G%:'6+#
apreciabile sunt cau?%;+#(%#62%6+U#(%#%;%.'(#*7+-*%;#-'&@#<+.',-%3+D#<(2%3+%#-+=*,+#/;+3*(@#*%3#
62%6+(+# 8,# (%&;+# /+# ?6C3.+/.R# -%',+# 7%N*7+# /',;# (%# %;%.'(# &32-'/# %/'&3%# 62%6+(23# 8,# &C3:@#
.%3+# ,'# /+# 7%*# -+?=2(;@# )*# %'# ',# &',.;# ,+:3'# O(2.'(# 8,9+&@;'3**P# 8,.2,V'3%;# -+# 2# %'3+2(@#
g@(6'*+"#G(2),*9+(+#.+3+%(+(23#/',;#/&+.**#2(*:2<%:+D#%;%.C,-#;2%;+#&@*2%/+(+D#-%3#7%*#%(+/#:3C'(D#
%&2*#23?'(D#/+.%3%#)*#2=@?'("#
Ord. Coleoptera - Fam. Carabidae
A4#$-3,>5$':Gndacul ghebos - Zabrus tenebroides Goeze.
Adultul are corpul dezvoltat, cu protoracele bombat ca un gheb, iar elitrele cu cte 9
/;3*'3*# (2,:*;'-*,%(+"# $'(2%3+%# +/;+# ,+:3*.*2%/@-brunie, iar antenele, pronotul, elitrele,
&*.*2%3+(+# )*# &%3;+%# =+,;3%(@# 63',-32).%;+D# 8,# (',:*7+# -+# !0-!d# 77"# S%3=%# +/;+# %(',:*;@D#
;'3;*;@# -23/2-ventral, de culoare alb-:@(6'*+# *%3# ;+3:*;+(+# .%/;%,**-63',**# )*# -+# 0c-35 mm.
a*6+3,+%?@#.%#(%3=@#-+#=C3/;%#%#II-a n sol la 25-[_#.7#%-C,.*7+"#53+#2#:+,+3%9*+#&+#%,"
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?() %-'(9**# 32-# 62%6+(+# 8,# (%&;+# )*# 8,# &C3:@D# *%3# (%3=+(+#
.2,/'7@# <3',?+(+# 6%?%(+D#%76+(+#/;%-**# <**,-# ,2.;'3,+"#lC,-%.**# /+#'3.@#&+#/&*.#)*# .2,/'7@#
62%6+(+#-+# (%#6%?@#/&3+#=C3<# *%3#.+(+# 8,#&C3:@#,'7%*# (%# =C3<"# 5;%.'(#+/;+# 8,#=+;3+#-%',+# 7%3*#
&32=2%.@# (%3=+(+D# 8,# 7+-*+# -+# !_-20% iar n monoculturi de 30-[_i# )*# .M*%3# d_-75%,
compro7*9C,-#.'(;'3%"#lC,-%.'(#:M+62/#+/;+#',#-@',@;23#2(*:2<%:D#%;%.C,-#7%*#%(+/#&@*2%/+(+#
-+#;2%7,@U#:3C'(#8,#/&+.*%(D#%&2*#23?'(#)*#/+.%3%#)*#7%*#&'9*,#.+3+%(+(+#-+#&3*7@=%3@U#23?D#2=@?#
)*#:3C'"

Zabrus tenebrioides - adult

- @;<:5

- plante atacate de larve

Ord. Coleoptera - Fam. Scarabaeidae


Genul Anisoplia Serv.
05<5?FG833)IH3D8@A< -+,'7*3+#-%;%#%-'(9*(23D#(%3=+(+#/',;#=*+37*#%(6*, mai periculoase
sunt speciile: Anisoplia segetum, Anisoplia austriaca, Anisoplia lata )* Anisoplia agricola.
Anisoplia segetum Herbst. Adultul %3+# .23&'(# %(',:*;D# -23/%(# .'# 2# &'6+/.+,9@# 7%*#
(',:@#)*#7%*#-+%/@#-+#&*:*-*'D#-+#.'(2%3+#,+%:3@-=+3?'*+D#.'#('.*'#&+#.%&D#&32,2;#)*#&*.*2%3+D#
iar elitrele castanii, n lungime de 9,5-12 mm. Larva este sc%3%6+*<237@"#S',:*7+U#0`-30 mm.
Anisoplia austriaca Herbst. Adultul %3+#.23&'(#7%/*=#)*#=+,;3%(#&'6+/.+,;D#-+#.'(2are
,+%:3@#*%3#+(*;3+(+#.%/;%,**-32).%;+#',*.2(23+#/%'#.'#2#&%;@#/.';+(%3@#,+:3*.*2%/@D#8,#(',:*7+#-+#
12-!\#77"#S%3=%#/.%3%6+*<237@#)*#(',:@#-+#4_-35 mm.
Anisoplia lata Et. Adultul are corpul lat, ,+:3'# )*# +(*;3+(+# .%/;%,*'-32).%;+# /%'#
negricioase, cu o p%;@#/.';+(%3@#&'6+/.+,;@D#*%3#(',:*7+%#-+#!0-14 mm.
Anisoplia agricola Poda. Adultul %3+#.23&'(#.2,=+N#-23/%(# /*# 7%*# 7'(;#/%'# 7%*#&'9*,#
&'6+/.+,;#O8,#%<%3%#+(*;3+(23PD#-+#.'(2%3+#,+%:3@#*%3#+(*;3+(+#.%/;%,**D#',+23*#,+:3*.*2%/+#

49

Anisoplia spp.
H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?() .@3@6')+**#.2,/'7@#62%6+(+#8,#(%&;+#)*#%&2*#.+(+#8,#&C3:@D#
&32=2%.@#-%',+#*,-*3+.;+#&3*,#/.';'3%3+%#62%6+(23#8,#;*7&'(#M3@,*3**#-%',+(+#=%3*%?@#8,;3+#4#)*#
4_iD# *%3# (%3=+(+# /',;# 3*?2<%:+# )*# .'# -%',+# 3+-'/+"# $@3@6')+**# .+3+%(+(23# %;%.@# 7%*# %(+/#
&@*2%/+(+# -+# ;2%7,@# O8,# /&+.*%(# :3C'(# )*# /+.%3%D# %&2*# .+(+# -+# &3*7@=%3@# O2=@?D# :3C'D# 23?P# )*#
:3%7*,++(+#-+#,';3+9#O5:32/;*/D#W+/;'.%D#G2%#+;."P
Ord. Coleoptera - Fam. Curculionidae Gyll.
&5<B5<36;))V<563GA;<;W)HA<FE?F@F3 - Tanymecus dilaticollis
A/;+# .2,/*-+3%;# &3*,.*&%('(# -@',@;23# %(# &23'76'('*# 8,# <+,2<%?%# 3@/@3*3**# &(%,;+(23D#
produce daune de 20-25% la porumb. Adultul are corpul oval-alungit, pronotul mai lat dect
(',:#)*#32/;3'(#&3+(',:*;#/'6# <237%#','*#.*2.#-+#3%9@#, *%3#.'(2%3+%#+/;+#.+,')*'-.%<+,*+# )*#-+#
5,8-8,0 mm lungime. Larva are corp vier7*<237D#3+.'36%;@#)*#%&2-@D#-+#.'(2%3+#%(6-:@(6'*+#)*#
(',:@#-+#`-!_#77"#a*6+3,+%?@#.%#%-'(;D#3%3#.%#(%3=@D#/'6#3+/;'3*#=+:+;%(+#-*,#.C7&#/%'#8,#/2(#
la 30-!__#.7#%-C,.*7+"#+/;+#2#/&+.*+#72,2=2(;*,@"

Tanymecus dilaticollis
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 5-'(9**# %;%.@# 8,# 72-# .%3%.;+3*/;*.D# &3*,# 32/@;'3*#
marginale crenelate asupra frunzelor plantulelor de porumb (cu 2-4 frunze), iar la in<+/;@3*#
puternice pot reteza planta de la colet, pagube maxime (25-60%) nregistrndu-se mai ales n
.'(;'3*# /+7@,%;+# ;C3?*'"# I,;+,/*;%;+%# %;%.'('*# .3+);+# &C,@# (%# <+,2<%?%# %;%.'('*# -+# [-5 frunze,
.C,-#:@3:@3*9+(+#;3+.#&+#%(;+#.'(;'3*"#G+3*2%-%#.3*;*.@#-+#%;%.#+/;+#8,;3+#3@/@3*3+%#&23'76'('*#)*#
<+,2<%?%#-+#4#<3',?+D#*%3#%,**#-+#*,=%?*+#/',;#-'&@#*+3,*#6(C,-+#/*#&3*7@=+3*#/+.+;2%/+#)*#.%(-+"#
5;%.'(# (%3=+(23# .%3+# /',;# 3*?2<%:+D# ,'# &32=2%.@# &%:'6+"# Tanymecus dilaticollis este
/&+.*+# &2(*<%:@D# &%:'6+# 7%3*# .%'?Cnd culturilor de porumb, apoi la floarea soarelui, orez,
/<+.(@D#:3C'#-+#&3*7@=%3@D#;';',#+;."R#7%*#%;%.@#.+3+%(+(+#-+#;2%7,@D#;3*<2*'(D#('.+3,%D#/2*%#+;."
Ord. Diptera - Fam. Chloropidae
!FID;)28;B<5);)D8<8;@8@A< - Oscinella frit L.
Adultul are corpul negru - lucios C153-#%0'#+".A )*#%3*&*(+#M*%(*,+D#8,#(',:*7+#-+#!D\2,5 mm.

50

Larva +/;+# &'9*,# ;'3;*;@D# =*+37*<237@D# %&2-@D# -+# .'(2%3+# %(6# - :@(6'*+# )*# -+# [-5 mm
lungime. a*6+3,+%?@#.%#(%3=@#7%;'3@#8,#&'&%3*+#)*#',+23*#.%#&'&@D#%3+#2-4#:+,+3%9**#%,'%(+.
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 Atacul este
.%3%.;+3*/;*.# (%3=+(23# -+# 7');+# -@',@;2%3+#
&@*2%/+(23U#?2,%#6%?%(@#%#&(%,;+(23#;*,+3+#/+#'7<(@D#
*%3# 8,# .2,-*9**# <%=23%6*(+# -+# 7+-*'# /+ .2,/;%;@# 2#
8,<3@9*3+#+N%:+3%;@D#.%3+#8,/@#,'#<3'.;*<*.@"#$+(#7%*#
&+3*.'(2/#%;%.#+/;+#%(#:+,+3%9*+*#-+#;2%7,@#)*#%&2*#
%(#.+(+*#-+#&3*7@=%3@D#7%*#%(+/#%/'&3%#&(%,;+(23#-+#
3-4 frunze.
S%3=+(+#/+#(2.%(*?+%?@#8,#7':'3+(+#;+37*,%(#
*%3# <3',?%# .+,;3%(@# /+# 8,:@(6+,+);+# )*# ;3+&;%;#
<3',?+(+#/+#'/'.@R#7%*#;C3?*'#(%3=+(+#%;%.@#(@/;%3'(#
&3*,.*&%(D#?2,%#.2(+;'('*#/+#'7<(@#)*#%&%3#,'7+32)*#
<3%9*"# F%',+# 7%N*7+# O. frit &32=2%.@# (%# .+3+%(+(+#
de prim@=%3@#O2=@?#)*#23?PD#7%*#%(+/#8,#&+3*2%-+#-+#
/+.+;@# )*# %&2*# .+3+%(+(23# -+# ;2%7,@# O:3C'D# 23?D#
/+.%3@P":3%7*,++(+# /&2,;%,+# OAgropyrum, Poa,
Avena, Lolium, Festuca, etc.)

TEST DE EVALUARE
1. 0;<8)8I48)EA7F@)78);4;D);@)D5<5?FG83@A<)IH3D8@A<?
B@/&',/U
;&5*8,,%-)0351.%9)#9'*'2%,#"%*a"7'*'%350$%'&#<,-'%4,%",()<#+'M
2. Care 8I48)EA7F@)78);4;D);@)<563GA;<83)HA<FE?F@F3):
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. Gndacul ghebos face parte din ordinul:
a. Diptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Lepidoptera
d. Orthoptera
e. Neurophtera
Rezolvare : b
De rezolvat:
2. L@AG2368@8)D8<8;@8@A<)fac parte din ordinul:
a. Diptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Lepidoptera
d. Orthoptera
e. Heteroptera
Rezolvare:

51

5NPN))Q5F254A<33);@4A<)DF@4F<3);B<3DA@8
Ord. Thysanoptera - Fam. Thripidae
Tripsul tutunului - Thrips tabaci Lind.Ord.
Retinem:Adultul are corpul zvelt, aripile anterioare au 2 nervuri longitudinale,iar cele
posterioare unaD#%76+(+#&+3+.M*#8,?+/;3%;+#.'#<3%,V'3*#(',:*#&+#7%3:*,+%#*,<+3*2%3@#)*#&+3*#&+#
.+%#/'&+3*2%3@"#$'(2%3+%#)*#7@3*7+%#/',;#.%3%.;+3+#-+#-*723<*/7#/+N'%(U#<+7+(%#+/;+#.+,')*'63',*+#)* de 0,8-!D_#77D# *%3# 7%/.'('(#:%(6+,#-+/.M*/# )*#-+#_D`-0,8 mm. Larva are corpul de
.'(2%3+#:%(6+,@-&%(*-D#%=C,-#.%&'(#)*#;23%.+(+#7%*#8,.M*/+D#.'#2#(',:*7+#-+#!#77, poate avea
3-d#:+,+3%9**#&+#%,#8,#.C7&#',-+#%3+#-+#26*.+*#',#.*.('#%7<*:2,*.D#*%3#8,#/+3+#d-!0#:+,+3%9**#
O&%3;+,2:+,+;*.+P#M*6+3,+%?@#8,#;2%;+#/;%-**(+#-+#-+?=2(;%3+D#-%3#7%*#%(+/#.%#%-'(;"#

Thrips tabaci
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 5;%.@# 8,# .C7&# .C;# )*# 8,# /&%9**# &32;+V%;+ &3*,# 8,9+&%3+%#
(*76'('*# <2(*%3#)*# /':+3+%# /+=+*D#&32-'.C,-#&+;+#:%(6+,-.+,')**# *%3#&+# <3',?+#%&%3#-+<237@3*#
.'# %/&+.;# -+# .+.*-**D# 7%*# %(+/# (%# 3@/%-'3*# )*# &(%,;+# ;*,+3+"# G(%,;+(+# %;%.%;+# ,'# 7%*# =+:+;+%?@#
,237%(D#3@7C,#7*.*#)* &32-'.9*%#/.%-+#.'#!\-4_i#)*#',+23*#d_iD#8,#/&+.*%(# 8,#%,**#/+.+;2)*"#
Frunzele de tutun %;%.%;+#-+#;3*&)*#&+#&%3;+%#*,<+3*2%3@#/',;#7%*#')2%3+D#(%#'/.%;#3@7C,#=+3?*D#
*%3# (%# <+37+,;%3+# /+# /&%3:# )*# /+# 3'&# ')23D# &*+3-# %327%# )*# &';3+?+/.# 3+&+-+"# Specie polifa:@D#
atac@# peste 50 de plante (Solanacee, Cucurbitacee etc.). Este vector de transmitere a
virusurilor la solanacee.
Ord. Coleoptera - Fam. Chrysomelidae
Gndacul din Colorado - Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. Ord.
Adultul are corpul oval, convex dorsal, culoarea este galben-&23;2.%(*+#)*#.'#-+/+,+#)*#
linii negre &+#.%&#)*#&32,2;#*%3#&+#+(*;3+#.C;+#\#(*,**#(2,:*;'-*,%(+#&+#<*+.%3+. Lungime: 10-12
mm. Oul este portocaliu, de 1,0-1,2 mm. Larva are corpul arcuit 8,# 3+:*',+%# ;23%.*.@D# -+#
.'(2%3+# 32)*+-portocalie, (%;+3%(# .'# -2'@# 3C,-'3*# (2,:*;'-*,%(+# -+# &+;+# ,+:3+D# *%3# .%&'(D#
&32,2;'(#)*#&*.*2%3+(+#,+:3+" a*6+3,+%?@#8,#/;%-*'(#-+#%-'(;#8,#/2(, are 2-4#:+,+3%9**#%,'%(+"

Leptinotarsa decemlineata @;<:5;

- AF5])))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))- adult

H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?()0 5-'(9**#)*#(%3=+(+#32-#(%#8,.+&';#(*76'(#)*#;3+&;%;#.2,/'7@#
.27&(+;# <3',?+(+# 8,# %<%3%# ,+3='3*(23# :32%/+D# *%3# (%# *,<+/;@3*# &';+3,*.+# (arvele pot ataca

52

;'6+3.'(**"# $+(+# 7%*# %;%.%;+# /&+.**# /',;U# .%3;2<'(D# =*,+;+(+# )*# ;27%;+(+D# %&2*# %3-+**# )*# ',+(+#
/&+.**#/&2,;%,+#O?C3,%D#7@;3@:',%#+;c.).
Ord. Coleoptera - Fam. Chrysomelidae
&R27;DF@)<AGF);@)<;H3683 - Entomoscelis adonidis L. Ord.
Adultul are corpul :!26'(2/D# .2,=+N# -23/%(# )*# -+# .'(2%3+# 63',@-.%<+,*+D# *%3# .%&'(# )*#
+(*;3+(+# 32)**D# .'# 4# -',:*# (2,:*;'-*,%(+# ,+:3+# )*# (',:ime de 7-10 mm. Larva este %(',:*;@D#
brun-,+:3*.*2%/@# -23/%(# )*# :%(6+,-63',*+# =+,;3%(D# .%&'(# ,+:3'# )*# .'# 4# 3C,-'3*# -+# negi
&'6+/.+,9* pe fiecare segment, iar lungimea de 11-13 mm. a*6+3,+%?@# 8,# /;%-*'(# -+# 2'# 8,#
/2('3*#')2%3+D#(%#0-8 cm, a3+#2#:+,+3%9*+#&+#%,"

Entomoscelis adonidis - adult

@;<:5)V7FH5)!;2A@;DY8)$NW

H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 lC,-%.**# O;2%7,%P# )*# (%3=+(+# O&3*7@=%3%P# 32-# &C,@# (%#
scheletare frunzele plantelor, atacul este n vetre, iar daunele ajung la 25-40%, cultura fiind
.27&327*/@#(%#*,<+/;@3*#&';+3,*.+"#lC,-%.**#,2'#%&@3'9*#O(',%#7%*P#%;%.@#<3'nzele dar mai ales
bobocii f(23%(*# )*#/*(*.=+(+"#A/;+#',#-@',@;23#&2(*<%:D#%;%.@ 8,#/&+.*%(#.3'.*<+3+(+#O3%&*9%D#%&2*#
7');%3'(D#3*-ichile etc.), sfecla, napii, cerealele etc.
Ord. Coleoptera - Fam. Curcullionidae
#563GA;<; sfeclei Tanymecus palliatus Fabr.
Adultul are corpul oval-alungit, pronotul mai lung dect lat,
32/;3'(#.%#',#.*2.#-+#3%9@D#.'#+(*;3+(+#7%*#(%;+#(%#6%?@#-+.C;#&32,2;'(D#
*%3# .'(2%3+%# +/;+# ,+%:3@# -23/%(# )*# .+,')*+# =+,;3%(D# .'# 2# &'6+/.+,9@#
brun-.+,')*+#)*#.'#/2(?*D# lungime 8-12 mm. Larva +/;+#/'6.*(*,-3*.@#
)*#%&2-@D#%(6*.*2%/@#*%3#.%&'(#63',#)*#(',:@#-+#!0-!d#77"#a*6+3,+%?@
8,#&3*7'(#%,#.%#(%3=@#)*#8,#%(#-2*(+%#.%#%-'(;D#8,#/2(#/%'#/'6#3+/;'3*(+#
vegetale din cmp, a3+#2#:+,+3%9*+#(%#0#%,*"
H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?()0 5-'(9**#32-#<3',zele plantulelor,
7%3:*,%(#)*#.3+,+(%;D# *%3# (%# *,<+/;@3*#&';+3,*.+#&2;#3+;+?%#&(%,;+(+#-+#
la colet, provocnd pagube de 20% - [_i"#S%3=+(+#%;%.@#3@-@.*,*(+#
/+.',-%3+# )*# ?2,%# .2(+;'('*D# -%',+(+# <**,d mai reduse. G3+<+3@
culturile -+#/<+.(@#-+#?%M@3#)*#-+#,';3+9D#floarea-soarelui, soia etc.
Tanymecus palliatus Fabr.
Ord. Lepidoptera -Fam. Noctuidae
A4#$-3,>5$':Buha verzei - Mamestra brassicae L.
Adultul are corpul gros, brun-.+,')*'# )*# -+# !c-21 mm, cu aripile anterioare brune,
.+,;3%(#.'#2#7%.'(@#3+,*<237@#8,.2,V'3%;@#.'#(*,**#<*,+#%(6+D#*%3#.+(+#&2/;+3*2%3+#.+,')**#)*#.'#
franjuri marginale. Anvergura de 40-45 mm. Larva /'6.*(*,-3*.@-27*-2<237@D#=+3-+-c+,')*+#
)*#-23/%(#.'#4#(*,**#(2,:*;'-*,%(+#%(6-:@(6'*D#*%3#.%&'(#)*#&32,2;'(#.%/;%,*'-63',*'D#(',:@#-+#4c46 mm. H*6+3,+%?@#8,#/;%-*'(#-+#.3*/%(*-@#8,#/2(#(%#\-!0#.7#%-C,.*7+D#*%3#8,#&3*7@=%3@#<(';'3**#
%&%3#(%#8,.+&';'(#(',**#7%*#)*#?623'(#(23#/+#+)%(2,+%?@ &C,@#8,#*',*+"#53+#-+#26*.+*#0#:+,+3%9**#
pe an.

53

Mamestra brassicae
H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?()0 S%3=+(+#:+,+3%9*+*#I#%;%.@#(%#8,.+&';#+&*-+37%#*,<+3*2%3@#
a frunzelor, iar apoi rod neregu(%;# &%3+,.M*7'(# )*# (*7bul de la centru spre margini, &C,@# (%#
/.M+(+;%3+R#(%#/<C3)*;'(#/;%-*'('*D#27*?*(+#%;%.@#)*#.@&@9C,%#&3*,#:%(+3**#,+3+:'(%;+"#S%3=+(+#l0#
%;%.@# 8,# /&+.*%(# .@&@9C,%# 8,# <237%3+# %# =+3?+*# -+# ;2%7,@D# (%# 8,.+&';# &+3<23C,-# <3',?+(+#
marginale; -+#%/+7+,+%#32-#*,<(23+/.+,9%#/+7*,.+3*(23"#5;%.'(# (%3=+(23#+/;+# 7%N*7# ,2%&;+%"#
F%',+(+#/',;#7%3*#&3*,#3+-'.+3+%#7%/+*#<2(*%3+D#%#8,;3+3'&+3**#8,#.3+);+3+#%#&(%,;+*#)*#<237%3+%#
.@&@9C,**# -%3# 7%*#%(+/#&3*,#&+3<23%3+%#.@&@9C,**#&3*,#:%(+3**#)*#'7&(+3+%# (23#cu excrementele
&32&3**D# .@&@9C,%# *,;3C,-# 8,# &';3+<%.9*+R# -+# %/+7+,+%# -%',+# %&3+.*%6*(+# &32-'.+# )*# %/'&3%#
semincerilor. E/;+# 2# /&+.*+# &2(*<%:@D# %;%.C,-# ,'7+32%/+# &(%,;+U# &3+<+3@# .3'.*<+3+(+#
legumicole: =%3?%D# .2,2&*-%D# :'(*%D# 3%&*9%D# +;.", sfecla, floarea /2%3+('*D# ;';','(D# 7%?@3+%D#
daliile, salata, inul, ceapa, tomatele, soia, etc.
Ord. Lepidoptera - Fam. Pieridae
Fluturele alb al verzei - Pieris brassicae L.
Adultul are corpul negricios de 18-20 mm, .'# %76+(+# %3*&*# %(6+# O%(6*(*9%PD# *%3# =C3<'(#
,+:3'#)*#&+#.+(+#&2/;+3*2%3+#.'#.C;+#2#7%.'(@#,+%:3@R#&3+?+,9%#&+#%3*&*(+#%,;+3*2%3+#%#4#7acule
,+:3+# *,-*.@# /+N'(# <+7+(. Anvergura: 50-65 mm. Larva de tip omidoform, culoare verde:@(6'*+D#.%&'(#.+,')*'#)*#.'#0#-',:*#(2,:*;'-*,%(+#(%;+3%(+#)*#',%#-23/%(@#-+#&',.;+#,+gre, negi
&'6+/.+,9*#-23/%(D#lungime de 45-52 mm. a*6+3,+%?@#8,#/;%-*'(#-+#.3*/%(*-@#8,#.2.2,#=+3?'*#.'#
&+;+# ,+:3+# -+# 4\# 77D# 7@;@/2/D# <*N%;# &+# :%3-'3*D# %3623*D# +;."# )*# 7%*# 3%3# .%# (%3=@# )*# %3+# 0-3
:+,+3%9**k%,"

Pieris brassicae
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 S%3=+(+# ;*,+3+# 32-# +&*-+37%# *,<+3*2%3@# )*# &%3+,.M*7'(#
<2(*%3# )*# 7%*# ;C3?*'# %;%.@# (*76'(# &C,@# (%# /.M+(+;%3+# 8,# -*3+.9*+# .+,;3*&+;@"# L7*?*(+# l0# )*# l4#
%;%.@#<3',?+(+#.+# 8,=+(+/.#.@&@9C,%#)*#%&2*#.@&@9C,%# 8,# <237%3+D#&3*,#32%-+3+#-+#:%(+3**#.+# (+#
umplu pa39*%(#.'#-+V+.9**(+#&32&3**"#P. brassicae %;%.@#8,#/&+.*%(#=%3?%#%(6@D#32)*+D#-+#E3'N+((+/D#
%&2*#.2,2&*-%D#:'(*%D#3%&*9%D#+;."
Ord. Diptera - Fam. Muscidae

54

Musca verzei - Delia (Chorthophila) brassicae Bouche


Adultul seam@,@# .'# 7'/.%# -+# .%/@D# cu corpul zvelt .+,')*'D# &@32/# )*# -+# \-7 mm
lungime. Larva =*+37*<237@D# %&2-@D# :@(6'*-%(6*.*2%/@# )*# (',:@# -+# `-9 mm. a*6+3,+%?@# 8,#
/;%-*'(#-+#&'&@#8,#/2(#(%#0#- d#.7D#*%3#7');+(+#%&%3#8,#&3*7@=%3@#(%#/<C3)*;'(#(',**#%&3*(ie. Are de
obicei 4#:+,+3%9**/an.

Delia brassicae
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0 Larvele G1 32-# ;'(&*,*(+# 3@/%-'3*(23# # 8,# /&+.*%(# ?2,%#
coletului, iar apoi &@;3',-# 8,# *,;+3*23#)*# %;%.@#3@-@.*,%#&*=2;%,;@#/'6# <237@#-+#:%(+3**D#-%3#)*#
/*/;+7'(# 3%-*.'(%3# /+.',-%3"# F%;23*;@# %;%.'('*D# &(%,;'(+(+# ,'# 7%*# =+:+;+%?@# ,237%(D# /+#
=+);+V+/.#;3+&;%;D#.%-#(%#/2(#)*#/+#'/'.@"#G%:'6+(+#.+(+#7%*#7%3*#/',;#.%'?%;+#-+#(%3=+(+#l!D#-*,#
.%'?%#/+,/*6*(*;@9**#&(%,;'(+(23D ele ajungnd de la 5 la 4_iD#7%*#%(+/#8,#&3*7@=+3*#/+.+;2%/+.
Larvele G2 ata.@#?2,%#.2(+;'('*D#3@-@.*,%#/%'#;'(&*,%#&(%,;+(23#;*,+3+#)*#7%*#&'9*,#<3',?+(+#.+#
8,=+(+/.#.@&@9C,%"#S%3=+(+#l4#%;%.@#8,#/&+.*%(#?2,%#.2(+;'('*#)*#;'(&*,%#&3*,#:%(+3**#%/.+,-+,;+D#
%&2*# .@&@9C,%# =+3?+*# -+# ;2%7,@D# -+# %/+7+,+%# /+7*,.+3**# -+# =%3?@# )*# -+# .2,2&*-@D# 3+-'.C,-#
&32-'.9*%#-+#/@7C,9@#-+#(%#!\-30% la 40-60%. Delia brassicae %;%.@#8,#/&+.*%(#=%3?%#%(6@#)*#
/+7*,.+3**# -+# =%3?@# )*# .2,2&*-@D# %&2*# .2,2&*-%# &(%,;%;@# ;*7&'3*'D# :'(*%# )*# 3*-*.M*(+D# 3%&*9%D#
7');%3'(D#+;."
Diptera - Fam. Anthomyidae
Musca cepei - Hylemyia (Delia) antiqua Meig.
Adultul are corpul zvelt, %3*&*# M*%(*,+# :@(6'*D# -+# .'(2%3+# .+,')*+-:@(6'*+D# .'# &+;+# )*#
-',:*# ,+:3*.*2%/+# )*# &*.*2%3+(+# ,+:3+D# *%3# (',:*7+%# -+# d-7 nun. Larva +/;+# =*+37*<237@D#
galben-7'3-%3# )*# -+# d-8 mm. a*6+3,+%?@# 8,# /;%-*'(# -+# &'&@# 8,# /2(# (%# !_-15 cm, iar n
&3*7@=%3@#(%#8,.+&';'(#(',**#7%*#%&%3#7');+(+, are de obicei 2-3 :+,+3%9**#&+#%,.
H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?()0 Larvele G1 rod galerii n frunzele plantelor tinere de-a
lungul nervurilor, consumnd mai ales epiderma superi2%3@# )*# &%3+,.M*7'(D# *%3# apoi larvele
%;%.@#6'(6**#;*,+3*"#S%3=+(+#:+,+3%9*+*#%#II-%#)*#%#III-%#%;%.@#7%*#%(+/#/+7*,.+3**#&3*,#32%-+3+%#
*,<(23+/.+,9+*D#-%',+(+#<**,-#7%*#3+-'/+#-+.C;#(%#l!"#H. antiqua %;%.@#8,#:+,+3%(#(*(*%.++(+D#8,#
special ceapa, prazul )i usturoiul )*#7%*#&'9*,#(%(+%'%"

Delia antiqua

55

Ord. Homoptera - Fam. Aleurodidae


!FIDF@36;);@?5)78)I8<5 - Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw.
Adultul are corpul ?=+(;D# :@(6'*# )*#
%.2&+3*;# .'# 2# /'6/;%,9@# .+32%/@# %(6@#
O7'/.'(*9%#%(6@PD#.'#%3*&*#M*%(*,+D#%(6*.*2%/+#
)*# (',:# -+# !D0-1,6 mm. Larva +/;+# 2=%(@D#
(%;+3%(# .'# .*(*D# -+# .'(2%3+# :%(6+,@# )*#
%.2&+3*;@# .'# ',# /;3%;# .+32/D# -+# _D`\-0,
J&+.*+#%-%&;%;@#7%*#%(+/#.2,-*9**(23#-+#/+3@D#
unde are 3-\#:+,+3%9**#&+#%,"#a*6+3,+%?@#8,#
toate stadiile de dezvoltare.
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()0
576+(+# /;%-**# 8,9+%&@# )*# /':# /+=%# )*# /'.'(#
.+('(%3# -*,# 9+/';'3*R# %;%.'(# +/;+# 8,# :3'&D# &+#
&%3;+%#*,<+3*2%3@#%#(*76'('*#.+#&3+?*,;@#&+;+#:@(6'* )*#;3+&;%;#/+#+;*2(+%?@D#'/'.@#)*#.%-"#
L3:%,+(+#=+:+;%(+#%;%.%;+#/',;#%.2&+3*;+#.'#32'%#-+#7*+3+#/+.3+;%;@#-+#(%3=+#.+#3+-'.+#
3+/&*3%9*%# )*# ;3%,/&*3%9*%D# <%=23*?C,-# -+6*(*;%3+%# &(%,;+(23"# J&+.*%# +/;+# ','(# -*,# &3*,.*&%(**#
-@',@;23*#%*#&(%,;+(23#-+#/+3@#-*,#9%3%#,2%/;3@D#&%:'6+(+#/',;#7@3*;+#)*#&+,;3'#.@#/',;#=+.;23*#
de transmitere a virusurilor la cartofi, tomate, etc. T. vaporariorum +/;+#',#-@',@;23#&2(*<%:#.+#
%;%.@# &+/;+# !__# /&+.**# -+# &(%,;+# <(23*.2(+# )*# (+:'7*.2(+# -+# /+3@# -*,# 0g# <%7*(**D# 7%*# %(+/U#
7').%;+D#6+:2,**D#&3*7'(+D#J%(=*%#/&&"D#;27%;+D#.%/;3%=+9*D#%3-+*D#=*,+;+D#&+&+,*#:%(6+,*D#;';',D#
Phaseolus spp., dalii, trandafir, Cyclamen spp., Myrtus spp., Datura spp., etc.
Ord. Acarina - Fam. Eriophyidae
L53;2[82F@)V8<32AJ;) :3683)78):38 - Eriophyes vitis Nal.
Adultul %3+# .23&'(# %(',:*;D# (*&/*;# -+# 2.M*# )*# .'# 0# &+3+.M*# -+# &*.*2%3+D# -+# .'(2%3+# %(6:@(6'*+#)*#(',:#-+#_D!4-0,18 mm. a*6+3,+%?@#.%#%-'(;#8,#.3@&@;'3*(+#/.2%39+*#6';'.*(23#=*9+*#-+#
=*+#/%'#8,#<3',?+(+#.@?';+#(%#/2(D#*%3#8,#&3*7@=%3@D#/&3+#/<C3)*;'(#(',**#%&3*(*+D#&@*%,V+,**#%&%3#)*#
/+#(2.%(*?+%?@#&+#&%3;+%#*,<+3*2%3@#%#<3',?+(23#',-+#8,.+&#%;%.'(, are 3-[#:+,+3%9**#%,'%(+D#-*,#
care 2-4#:+,+3%9**#&%3;+,2-:+,+;*.+#)*#2#:+,+3%9*+#/+N'%;@"

Eriophyes vitis
Mod de atac 85' <2,"&$ @,?()0 5.%3*+,**# %;%.@# 8,# coolonii &+# &%3;+%# *,<+3*2%3@# %#
<3',?+(23# &3*,# 8,9+&%3+# )*# /':+3+%# /+=+*D# .2,.27*;+,;# .'# inocularea salivei toxice care
%.9*2,+%?@# %/'&3%# 9+/';'3*(23# <237C,-'-/+# &+# &%3;+%# /'&+3*2%3@# %# (*76'('*# '7<(@;'3*# :%(*.2(+#
monoloculare, verzi, cu diametrul de 4-c#77#.+#-%'#-+,'7*3+%#62(**#-+#6@)*.%3+%#/%'#+3*,2?%#
=*9+*#-+#=*+"#X,#-3+&;'(#%.+/;23#'7<(@;'3*#%3+#(2.#2#M*&+3;32<*+3+#%#&+3*(23#.+#-%'#,%);+3+#(%#&+;+#
psloase de 5-20 mm n diametru . La nceputul atacului (mai-iunie) aceste macule psloase
/',;#:@(6'*-%(6*.*2%/+D#8,#*'(*+#.%<+,**#)*#7%*#-+,/+#*%3#(%#/<C3)*;'(#=+3**#-+=*,#63',**"#F%;23*;@#
%;%.'('*#7+;%62(*/7'(#/.%-+D#<3',?+(+#/+#+;*2(+%?@#)*#;3+&;%;#.%-D#<(23*(+#%=23;+%?@D#*%3#.2%3-+(+#
&2;#-+:+3%#&+/;+#*%3,@D#-%',+(+#<**,-#-+#4-10%. Eriophyes vitis %;%.@#,'7%*#=*9%#-+#=*+, daune

56

7%3*# <**,-# 8,# =+3*# /+.+;2%/+# )* calde, mai ales asupra soiurilor sensibile: Riesling italian,
Cabernet Sauvigon, Pinot gris, etc.
Ord. Homoptera - Fam. Aphididae
L57FDY33)78)C<F2J8 - Fam. Aphididae
5<*-+(+#<237+%?@ ','(#-*,;3+#.+(+#7%*#<3+.=+,;+#)*#&+3*.'(2%/+#:3'&'3*#-+#-@',@;23*#%i
(*=+?*(23"#J&+.**#.'#<237+#%&;+3+#)*#%3*&%;+D#%=C,-#.23&'(#%.2&+3*;#-+#',#;+:'7+,;#/'69*3+D#.'#
%&%3%;# -+# 8,9+&%;# )*# -*7+,/*',*# 3+-'/+D# -+# !D4-4D\# 77# )*# .%3+# /+.3+;@# # 32'%# -+# 7*+3+"# J',;#
insecte amfigonice, cu 4-!_# :+,+3%9**# &%3;+,2:+,+;*.+# )*# !# :+,+3%9*+ /+N'%;@, putnd avea o
/*,:'3@# &(%,;@# :%?-@# sau mai multe"# 5;%.@# 8,# colonii, (*76'(# <2(*%3# &+# &%3;+%# *,<+3*2%3@D# ca
'37%3+#/+#26/+3=@#8,.3+9*3+%#7%3:*,*(23#(*76'('*D 3@/'.*3+%#=C3<'('*#)*#876'.M+;%3+%#<3',?+(23#
-+# (%# =C3<'(# (@/;%3*(23. S+.3+;@# # 32'%# -+# 7*ere cu care acoper@ (*76'(# )*# care constituie
/'6/;3%;'(#&+#.%3+#/+#-+?=2(;@#ciuperca: fumagina (Capnodium salicinumP#/+#87&*+-*.@#astfel
;3%,/&*3%9*%# )*# 3+/&*3%9*%# <3',?+lor, <2;2/*,;+?%# )*+/;+# -+3+:(%;# 7+;%62(*/7'(# &(%,;+(23"Fam.
Aphididae cuprinde nume32%/+#/&+.**#-@',@;2%3+#(*=+?*(23D#7%*#importante fiind: Aphis pomi,
Myzodes persicae, Hyalopterus pruni, Myzus cerasi etc.
L57FDY8@8):8<78);@)E5rului - Aphis pomi De Geer.
Virginogenele aptere au corpul
piriform, verde-:@(6'*#)*#-+#!D\#- 2,0 mm.
Virgin2:+,+(+# %3*&%;+# %'# .%&'(# )*#
;23%.+(+# ,+:3'# )*# %6-27+,'(# =+3-+D#
%3*&*(+#;3%,/&%3+,;+#.'# ,+3=%9*%# =+3-+D#-+#
2,0 - 2,5 mm lungime. J&+.*+# 72,2*.@#
,+7*:3%;2%3+D#.+#M*6+3,+%?@#8,#/;%-*'(#-+#
2'#-'3%6*(#8,#.3@&@;'3*(+#/.2%39+*#&27*(23D#
la baza mugurilor, etc. n perioada de
veget%9*+D# &2;# +=2('%# c-!0# :+,+3%9**#
&%3;+,2:+,+;*.+# %&;+3+# )*# %3*&%;+# )*# .M*%3#
15-!c#:+,+3%9**.
H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?() %;%.@#
&3*,#8,9+&%3+#)*#/':+3+%#/+=+*#)*#%#/'.'('*#
.+('(%3#7':'3**#)*#%&2*#<3',?+(+"#5;%.'(#pe <3',?+#/+#.%3%.;+3*?+%?@#prin pete de decolorare n
.+,;3'(#(*76'('*D#7%3:*,*(+#(*76'('*#/+#8,.3+9+/.D#*%3#=C3<'(#/+#3@/'.+);+D#%;%.'(#+/;+#7%N*7#(%#
<3',?+(+# 7%*# ;*,+3+D# -+# (%# =C3<'(# (@/;%3*(23# .%3+# &3*,# <237%3+%# &/+'-2.+.*-**(23# /+#
mb'.M+;+%?@D# <3',?+(+# ,'# 7%*#.3+/.D# /+# 8,:@(6+,+/.# 7+;%62(*/7'(# +/;+#3+-'/D# (@/;%3**#3@7C,#
.3'?*D#&';C,-#-+:+3%#&+/;+#*%3,@#)*#<3'.;*<*.%9*%#+/;+#3+-'/@"#F%',+#7%N*7+#/',;#8,#&+&*,*+3+#)*#
8,# &(%,;%9**(+# ;*,+3+# &+# 32-D# +/;+# ',# -@',@;23# 2(*:2<%:D# %;%.C,-# ,'7+32%/+# /&+.**# -+# &27*# )*#
%36');*#<3'.;*<+3*#)*#ornamentali, mai ales din fam. Rosaceae, printre care: Malus pumila var.
domestica (soiurile cultivate), Pyrus communis (soiurile cultivate), apoi Crataegus
oxyacantha, Crataegus monogyna, Rosa spp, etc.
Ord. Homoptera - Fam. Diaspididae
L57FDY8@8)732)San Jos - Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock.
Femela are corpul subcircular, lipsit de apendici, cu rostrul bine dezvoltat, de culoare
galben-&23;2.%(*+# )*# -23/%(# .'# ;3+*# &+3+.M*# -+# :(%,-+# /+3*.*:+,+# %# .@323# /+.3+9*+# %/*:'3@#
formarea carapacei, de 0,8-!D0# 77"# $%3%&%.+%# +/;+# .*3.'(%3@D# .+,')*+# )*# .'# o pat@ .+,;3%(@#
portocalie, n diametrul de 1,5-2,2 mm. Masculul are corpul alungit, nzestrat cu apendici
(antene, oceli, picioare, aripi), dar lipsit de aparat bucal, de culoare brun-:@(6'*+#)*#_D`\-0,85
mm. Carapacea este oval-%(',:*;@D# .+,')*+# )*# -+# !D0-1,5 mm n diametru. P3+?*,;@# !-3
gen+3%9**k%,D#M*6+3,+%?@#.%#(%3=@#7%;'3@#/'6#/.';#&32;+.;23"
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?() (%3=+(+# /+# <*N+%?@# &+# /.2%39%# 3%7'3*(23# )*# %# .3+,:*(23D#
',-+# <237+%?@# .3'/;+# .2,;*,'*D# -%3# %;%.@# )*# <3',?+(+# )*# <3'.;+(+"# F%;23*;@# %;%.'('*# *,;+,/#

57

7+;%62(*/7'(#&27*(23#+/;+#3+-'/D#<3',?+(+#/+#+;*2(+%?@#;3+&;%;#)*#.%-D#<(23*(+#%=23;+%?@D#<3'.;+(+#
3@7C,# 7*.*# )* n scurt timp pomii /+#'/'.@"#G%:'6+(+#&32=2.%;+#-+#&@-'.M+(+#-*,#J%,# p2/r#
var*%?@#-+#(%####\-10% la 20-4_iD#<**,-#7%N*7+#8,#(*=+?*(+#-+#7@3"#G'*+9**#)*#pomii tineri sunt
mai sensibili la atac.
Quadraspidiotus perniciosus: 1- .2(2,*+#-+#&@-'.M*R#0#(%3=@#-+#&3*7%#=C3/;@R#4#- 3%7'3@D#<3',?+#)*#<3'.;#%;%.%;+R#[#fruct atacat; 5 - 7%/.'(#O-'&@#J@=+/.'P"
Caracteristic +/;+# <237%3+%# ',+*# %'3+2(+# 32)*+;*.+=*2(%.++# 8,# V'3'(# .%3%&%.+*D# .+# +/;+# 3+?'(;%;'(# 3+%.9*+*#
9+/';'3*(23#<%9@#-+#+,?*7+(+#-*,#/%(*=%#;2N*.@#%#&@-'.M+('*#se
&32-'.# )* 72-*<*.@3*# <*?*2(2:*.+# .+# -+;+37*,@# ,+.32?%3+%# )*#
m2-*<*.%3+%# 9+/';'3*(23"# E/;+# ',# -@',@;23# &2(*<%:# .+# %;%.@#
&+/;+#0__#/&+.**#-+#&(%,;+D#(%#,2*#8,#9%3@#<**,-#/+7,%(%;#&+#..%#
80 specii prefer@ &27**# )*# %36');**# <3'.;*<+3*# )*# 23,%7+,;%(*D#
%&2*# %3623**# <23+/;*+3*# )*# &(%,;+(+# *+362%/+"# F*,;3+# /&+.**(+#
prefera;+#/+7,%(@7U# 7@3'(D#&@3'(D#:';'*'(D#.2%.@?'(D#%:3*)'(D#
.@&)','(D# ;3%,-%<*3'(D# &3','(D# .%*/'(D# .*3+)'(D# =*)*,'(D# 7*:-%('(D# /%(.*%D# &(2&'(D# =*9%# -+# =*+D#
fragul, murul, castanul, dudul, nucul, etc.
Ord. Lepidoptera - Fam. Tortricidae
Viermii fructelor - Laspeyresia Huhner
5-'(9**# -+,'7*9*# 72(**# O<(';'3*# -+# -*7+,/*',*# 3+-'/+P# 3@/&C,-*9*# 7%*# %(+/# 8,# ?2,%#
;+7&+3%;@D#S%3=+(+#-+#;*&#27*-2<237D#-+#.'(2%3+#-+/.M*/@"#######
Viermele merelor - Cydia (Laspeyresia, Carpocapsa) pomonella L
Adultul are aripile anterioa3+# /'63+;%,:'(%3+D# .+,')**-63',**# )*# (*,**# /*,'2%/+#
;3%,/=+3/%(+# 7%*# 8,.M*/+# )*# %&*.%(# .'# 2# 7%.'(@# 2=%(@D# 63',@D# /&+.*<*.@D# *%3# .+(+# &2/;+3*2%3+#
.+,')**#)*#.'#<3%,V'3*#7%3:*,%(+"#Larva +/;+#/'6.*(*,-3*.@D#27*-2<237@D#-+#.'(2%3+#&23;2.%(*+32).%;@D#.%&'(#)* &32,2;'(#63',+"#a*6+3,+%?@#.%#(%3=@#7%;'3@#8,;3-',#.2.2,#.3*/%(*-%(#7@;@/2/#
(2.%(*?%;# 8,# .3@&@;'3*(+# /.2%39+*# &27*(23# -+# (%# 6%?%# ;3',.M*'('*# 8,# /&+.*%(D# %&2*# (%# /'&3%<%9%#
/2('('*D#/'6#(*;*+3@D#+;."#53+#-+#26*.+*#0#:+,+3%9**k%,"#
H+(' ($' ,&,%' 85' <2,"&$' @,?()' (%3=+(+# &@;3',-# 8,# <3'.;+(+# 8,# <237%3+# )*# 32-# &'(&%# /'6#
<237%# ',23# :%(+3**# 8,# V'3'(# (2V*(23# /+7*,%(+D# .2,/'7@# /+7*,9+(+# 8,# <237%3+"# W3'.;+(+# %;%.%;+#
.%-# &3+7%;'3# (%# /2(# )*# %'# 2# .2%.+3+# &3+7%;'3@# )*# /+# 3+.',2/.# &3*,# <3',?%# (*&*;@# 8,# -3+&;'(#
orificiului ga(+3*+*# (%3=%3+# .'# 2# /'6/;%,9@# .(+*2%/@"# G3+<+3@# /@7C,92%/+(+U7@3'(D# p@rul, caisul,
piersicul, nucul, migdalul, cire)'(D#&3','(D#.%/;%,'(D#+;."

Cydia pomonella:1 - adult; 2 - larva; 3 fruct atacat de G1; 4 - 7@3#%;%.%;#O-'&@#J@=+/.'P"

58

Viermele prunelor - Grapholitha (Laspeyresia) funebrana Tr.


Molia are aripile anterioare brun-.+,')**# )*# <3%,V'3%;+D# *%3# .+(+# &2/;+3*2%3+# .+,')**# .'#
<3%,V'3*#)*#%,=+3:'3%#-+#!4-16 mm. Larva 27*-2<237@#32)*+;*.@D# *%3#.%&'(#)*#&(@.*(+#;23%.*.+#
brun-negricioase, de 10-!4# 77# (',:*7+"# # a*6+3,+%?@# 8,# /;%-*'(# -+# 27*-@# 7%;'3@# 8,;3-un
.2.2,# 7@;@/2/# 8,# .3@&@;'3*(+# /.2%39+*# &27*(23# /%'# /'6# (*;*+3@D# %3+# -+# 26*.+*# -2'@# :+,+3%9**#
%,'%(+D#-%3#8,#.2,-*9**#-+#.(*7@#7%*#3+.*#&3+?*,;@#2#/*,:'3@#:+,+3%9*+"#
H+('($',&,%'85'<2,"&$'@,?()'+/;+#%/+7@,@;23#.'#%(#=*+37+('*#7+3+(23D#+/;+#',#-@',@;23#
al smburoaselor, n special al genului Prunus (P. domestica - prunul, P. avium - =*)*,'(D#%&2*#
piersicul, caisul, etc.)

TEST DE EVALUARE
1. Care este modul de atac al afidelor?
B@/&',/U
;$#-.% F0% -)*)0,,2% *,195*% <)*,#"% 6'% 6#"$'#% ,0<'",)#".2% -#% 5"1#"'% 3'% )93'"7.% F0-"'8,"'#%
1#"+,0,*)"% *,195*5,2% ".35-,"'#% 7@"<5*5,% 4,% F195-?'$#"'#% <"50('*)"% &'% *#% 7@"<5*% *.3$#",*)"M%
E'-"'$.% % ")5#% &'% 1,'"'% % -5% -#"'% #-)6'".% *,195*% 4,% -#"'% -)03$,$5,'% 3593tratul pe care se
&'(7)*$.% -,56'"-#:% <51#+,0#% CQ#60)&,51% 3#*,-,051A% 3'% F16,'&,-.% #3$<'*% $"#036,"#8,#% 4,%
"'36,"#8,#%<"50('*)"2%<)$)3,0$'(#%4,'3$'%&'"'+*#$%1'$#9)*,315*%6*#0$'*)"M
2. Care este modul de atac al viermilor fructelor?
B@/&',/U

DE$-%5>55C
Exemplu rezolvat:
1. L57FDY33)C<F2J8@A<)V;C378@8WIF24)92D;7<;48)92)A<732F@):
a. Homoptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Lepidoptera
d. Orthoptera
e. Heteroptera
Rezolvare : a
De rezolvat:

59

2. Gndacul din Colorado face parte din ordinul:


a. Diptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Lepidoptera
d. Orthoptera
e. Heteroptera
Rezolvare:

REZUMATUL TEMEI
]G(%,;+(+#%:3*.2(+#/',;#%;%.%;+#-+#/&+.**#-+#-@',@;23*#-*,#-*<+3*;+#23-*,+D#&*+3-+3*(+#-+#
3+.2(;@#/'<+3*;+#8,#',+(+#.%?'3*#,+#-+;+37*,@#/@#('@7#2#/+3*+#-+#7@/'3*D#*%3#&3*7%#-*,;3+#acestea
+/;+#.',2%);+3+%#723<2(2:*+*#%#6*2(2:*+*#)*#%#72-'('*#-+#%;%.#/&+.*<*."
]#F@',@;23**#&2(*<%:*#%;%.@#.%# (%3=@# )*#',+23*#.%#%-'(;#-*<+3*;+#23:%,+#%(+#/&+.**(23#-+#
&(%,;+# -*,# -*<+3*;+# <%7*(**# 62;%,*.+"# G3*,.*&%(+(+# /&+.**# &2(*<%:+# O=*+37*# /C37@ fam.
Elateridae, viermi albi fam. scarabeidae )*#=*+37*#.+,')**- fam. Noctuidae) au n general o
=*%9@#+-%<*.@#)*#,+.+/*;@#7@/'3*#*,;+:3%;+#O&32<*(%.;2-terapeutice) de combatere.
]F@',@;23**# .+3+%(+(23# :3'&+%?@# /&+.**# 2(*:2<%:+# -*,# -*<+3*;+# 23-*,+# OL3;M2&;+3a,
Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera),
.%3+#%;%.@#-*<+3*;+#23:%,+#%(+#.+3+%(+(23#&@*2%/+#/%'#&3@)*;2%3+"#

60

TEST RECAPITULATIV
1. Ce sunt insectele?
a. animale nevertebrate
b. animale cu corp segmentat
c. animale de dimensiuni reduse cu snge rece
d. animale care <%.#&%3;+#-*,#8,.3+,:@;'3%#53;M32&2-%D#.(%/%#I,/+.;%
e. animale vertebrate de dimensiuni reduse
2. Care sunt tipurile de cap la insecte?
a. ortognat
b. triunghiular
c. hipognat
d. globulos
e. prognat
3. Care sunt <8B3F23@8)D;HF@F3)H8)H;<48;)7A<I;@5?
a. tmplele (tempora)
b. occipitalul (occiput)
c. fruntea (frons)
d. .3+);+;'(#(vertex)
e. clipeul (clypeus)
4. Care sunt <8B3F23@8)D;HF@F3)H8)H;<48;):824<;@5?
a. obrajii (genae)
b. tmplele (tempora)
c. &239*',+%#6%?*(%3@#Ogula)
d. clipeul (clypeus)
e. 6'?%#*,<+3*2%3@#O(%6*'7P
5. Care sunt I8BE8248@8)D8);@D54F38ID)antena la insecte?
a. flagel
b. pedicel
c. stemate
d. ommatidie
e.scapus
6. Care sunt I8BE8248@8)D8);@D54F38ID)toracele la insecte?
a. mezotorace
b. maxitorace
c. protorace
d. metatorace
e.pretorace
^N)0FE)I8)D@;I3C3D5)H3D3A;<8@8)7FH5)I4<FD4F<;)@A<?
a. de s@&%;#)*#/.2372,*;
b. de alergat
c. prehensile
d. de mers
+"-+#*,2;#)*#=C/(*;

61

8. 0FE)I8)D@;I3C3D5);<3H3@8)7FH5 omogenitatea structurii lor?


a. hemielitre
b. membranoase
c. omogene
d. elitre
e.heterogene
9. Care sunt tipurile de abdomen?
a. /'/9*,';
b. suspendat
c. voluminos
d. sesil
e.&+9*2(%;
10. 0;<8)IF24)I4<;4F<3@8)D;<8)CA<E8;J5)48BFE824F@?
a. hypoderma (epiderma)
b. teguderma
c. 7+763%,%#6%?%(@
d. exicuticula
e. cuticula
11. Care sunt particF@;<34563@8)I4;73F@F3)78)AF?
a. semimobilitate
b. forma de ou
c. imobilitate
d. M*/;2:+,+?@
e.+763*2:+,+?@
10. 0;<8)IF24)H;<43DF@;<34563@8)I4;73F@F3)78)@;<:5?
a. mobilitate
b. semimobilitate
c. %'#-2'@#;*&'3*#-+#%&%3%;#6'.%(
d. voracitate
e.exuviere
11.0;<8)IF24)H;<43DF@;<34563@8)I4;73F@F3)78)HFH5?
a. M*/;2:+,+?@
b. trofic inactiv
c. semimobilitate
d. M*/;2(*?@
e. imobilitate
12. 0;<8)IF24)H;<43DF@;<34563@8)I4;73F@F3)78 adult?
a. imobilitate
b. %/*:'3@#3%/&C,-*3+%#8,#;+3*;23*'
c. trofic activ
d. %/*:'3@#&+3&+;'%3+%
e. mobilitate

62

13. 0FE)I8)D@;I3C3D5)32I8D48@8)92)CF2D638)78)H<8C8<326;)H824<F)FE3734;48?
a. mezofile
b. higrofile
c. umidofile
d. secetofile
e. xerofile
14. Care sunt subzonele Z. A. B. ?
a. subzona (+;%(@
b. subzona rece
c. s'6?2,%#2&;*7@
d. subzona ferbinte
e. s'6?2,%#.%(-@
15. Ce este L<;BF@)8DA2AE3D)78)75F2;<8 (P.E.D.) ?
a. 3%&23;'(#-*,;3+#,'7@3'(#-e plante sau organe atacate )*#,'7@3'(#;2;%(#-+#&(%,;+#sau organe
de plante analizate
b. -+,/*;%;+#-+#-@',@;23*#/%'#',#,*=+(#-+#%;%.#&+#&(%,;%#-+#.'(;'3@D#.%3+#&32-'.+#2#&*+3-+3+#-+#
&32-'.9*+#+:%(@#.'#.2/;'(#;3%;%7+,;'('*
c. 3+&3+?*,;@#2#+N&3+/*+#.%,;*;%;*=@D#+.2,27*.@#%#%;%.'('*#&32-'/#-+#-@',@;23*D#.%3+#/+#3+<+3@#(%#
&32-'.9*%# 269*,';@D# 3+&3+?+,;C,-# -*<+3+,9%# -*,;3+# &32-'.9*%# 269*,';@# (%# 2# .'(;'3@# ,+%;%.%;@# )*#
',%#%;%.%;@
d. +/;+#3+?'(;%;'(#-%',+*D#.2,.3+;*?%;#&3*,#/.@-+3+%#/%'#&*+3-+3+%#-*,#3+.2(;@
e. &32.+,;'(# 8,# .%3+# 2# &(%,;@# /%'# ',# 23:%,# %(# &(%,;+*# +/;+# %;%.%;# /%'# &*+3-+3+%# -+# &32-'.9*+#
8,3+:*/;3%;@#-+#2#&(%,;@#/%'#-+#2#.'(;'3@#&+#',*;%;+%#-+#/'&3%<%9@
16. (H;<;48@8)?FD;@8)D;<8)H<A7FD)7;F28)378243C3D;48)H<32)<AI54F<3)IF24:
a. 5&%3%;'(#6'.%(#&+,;3'#8,9+&%;#)*#/'&;
b. 5&%3%;'(#6'.%(#&+,;3'#3'&;D#(*,/#)*#/'&t
c. Aparatul bucal de lins si supt
d. 5&%3%;'(#6'.%(#-+#3'&;#)*#7%/;*.%;
e. Aparatul bucal de lins
17. Aparatul bucal 78)<FH4)G3)E;I43D;4 8I48);@D54F34)732=
a. buza sup+3*2%3@ labrum
b. oceli
c. mandibulele
d. 6'?%#*,<+3*2%3@ (labium)
e. maxilele
18. P3D3A<F@)@;)32I8D48)8I48);@D54F34)732:
a. coxa
b. femur
c. trochanter
d. tars
e. tibia

63

19. Epiderma:
a. e/;+#<237%;@#-*,;3-',#/;3%;#-+#.+('(+#-+#<237@#.*(*,-3*.@#/%'#.'6*.@
b. este stratul extern al tegumentului
c. are rolul de a secreta cuticula )* are .+('(+#;3*.M2:+,+#.%3+#:+,+3+%?@#&+3**#/+,?23*%(*
d. e/;+#8,#:+,+3%(#%.+('(%3@#/%'#<237%;@#-*,#.+('(+#/;+(%;+#
e. este stratul interior al tegumentului
20. $F2D633@8)48BFE824F@F3)IF24:
a. -+<*,+);+#.'(2%3+%#.M*7*.@#)*#<*?*.@
b. 23:%,#-+#/*79#;%.;*(#)i olfactiv
c. 3+&3+?*,;@#+N2/.M+(+;'(#.23&'('* )*#8,=+(*)'(#&32;+.;23#<%9@#-+#<%.;23**#+N;+3,*
d. organ de reproducere
e. .2,9*,+#-*<+3*;+#:(%,-+#)*#:+,+3+%?@#%,'7*;+#<237%9*',*
21. ,8EH8<;4F<;)E;U3E5)78)78J:A@4;<8)V,W)<8H<8J3245=)
a. prag biologic inferior
b. prag de prolificitate
c. prag biologic superior
d. prag termic optim
e. prag termic optimal
21. XA2;)DFH<32I5)924<8)D8@8)7AF5)H<;BF<3)?3A@AB3D8=)4 0 G3),)<8H<8J3245=
a. /'6?2,%#2&;*7@
b. ?2,%#%.;*=*;@9**#6*2(2:*.+
c. prag biologic superior
d. zona (+;%(@
e.zona subletala
22. 12363)denumirile insectelor fitofage cu organele plantelor H8)D;<8)@8);4;D5 :
a. insecte folifage
/+#M3@,+/.#.'#(+7,#/%'#.'#/.2%39@
b. insecte xilofage
se M3@,+/.#.'#+(+7+,;+(+#<(23%(+
c. insecte florifage
.2,/'7@#%&aratul foliar
d. insecte cletrofage
/+#M3@,+/.#.'#.*'&+3.*
e. insecte micofage
.2,/'7@#/+7*,9+(+
23. Avertizarea ;H@3D5<33)4<;4;E8248@A<)C34AI;234;<8)I8)C;D8)7FH5=
a. Criteriul biologic
b. Criteriul fizico-chimic
c. Criteriul matematic
d. Criteriul ecologic
e. Criteriul fenologic
24. QFH5)EA7F@)78);D63F28K)32I8D43D378@8)IF24=)
a. de ingestie
b. de contact
c. -+#3+/&*3%9*+
d. .'#%.9*',+#;+37*.@
e. .'#%.9*',+#.27&(+N@

64

25. 12363)DF)A)@3238)43HF<3@8)JAAD378)DF)B<FHF@)78)75F254A<3)H8)D;<8-i combat :


a. insecticide
folosite pentru combaterea nematozilor
b. acaricide
folosite pentru combaterea insectelor
c. nematocide
folosite pentru combaterea melcilor
d. moluscocide
<2(2/*;+#&+,;3'#.276%;+3+%#32?@;2%3+(23####
e. raticide
folosite pentru combaterea acarienilor
26. 12363)DF)A)@3238)C8<AEA233)78);D63F28)DF);D63F28)H8)D;<8)A)78D@;2G8;J5:
a. f+3272,**#-+#2=*&2?*9*+
7%3.M+%?@#;3%/+'('*#-+#-+&(%/%3+#/&3+#/'3/%#-+#M3%,@
b. feromonii de balizaj
%/*:'3@#',*;%;+%#<%7*(*+*#(%#/&eciile sociale
c. feromonii de agregare
7%3.M+%?@#(2.'3*(+#&32&*.+k*,;+3?*/+#&+,;3'#-+&',+3+%#&2,;+*
d. f+3272,**#-+#%(%37@
*,;+37+-*%?@#3+(%9**(+#-*,;3+#&%3;+,+3**#/+N'%(*
e. feromonii sexuali
-+;+37*,@#3@/&C,-*3+%#&2&'(%9*+*#(%#%;%.'(#','*#&3@-@;23
26. \38<E33)IR<E5)C;D)H;<48)732)C;E3@3;):
a. Noctuidae
b. Scarabaeidae
c. Elateridae
d. Gryllotalpidae
e. Pieridae
27. \38<E33)D82FG33)C;D)H;<48)732)C;E3@3;):
a. Noctuidae
b. Scarabaeidae
c. Elateridae
d. Gryllotalpidae
e. Lasiocampidae
28. L@AG2368@8)D8<8;@8@A<)C;D)H;<48)732)A<732F@:
a. Diptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Lepidoptera
d. Orthoptera
e. Heteroptera
29. L57FDY33)C<F2J8@A<)V;C378@8W sunt ncadrate n ordinul :
a. Homoptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Lepidoptera
d. Orthoptera
e. Heteroptera
30. Viermii albi fac parte din familia :
a. Noctuidae
b. Scarabaeidae
c. Elateridae
d. Gryllotalpidae
e. Pieridae

65

BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Andriescu L., Bobrnac B., Perju T., Ghizdavu L., !"#$#$% &'% ())*)+,'% #+",-)*.% Editura
Academiei Romne, Bucu3+);*D 2001
0"#E%*.'#1"D#J@=+/.'# 5"D#J*/;+7+#-+#.276%;+3+# *,;+:3%;@#%#62(*(23#)*#-@',@;23*(23#&+#.'(;'3*"#
Editura Ceres, 1986.
4"#E%*.'#1"D#J@=+/.'#5"D#&3%:'3*(+#+.2,27*.+#-+#-@',%3+#)*#32('(#(23#8,#.276%;+3+%#*,;+:3%;@#%#
62(*(23# )*# -@',@;23*(23# .'(;'3*(23# -+# .C7&"# G32-'.9*%# =+:+;%(@D# .+3+%(+# )*# &(%,;+#
tehnice,Vol. XLI, 2, pg.43-48 1986.
4.Ghizdavu I., )*#.2(%6", Entomologie a+",-)*."#A-*;"#F*-%.;*.@#)*#G+-%:2:*.@#B"5"DE'.'3+);*.,
1997.
5. Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%+'0'"#*.2 Editura SITECH Craiova, 1998.
6. Mitrea I., /0$)1)*)+,'%#+",-)*.2 Editura Universitaria Craiova, 2005.
7. H*;3+%#I"D#J;%,#$"D#K'.@#L"D Entomologie vol. 1, Editura Reprograph Craiova, 2008.
8. H*;3+%#I"D#J;%,#$"D#K'.@#L" /0$)1)*)+,'%+'0'"#*., Editura Reprograph Craiova, 2010.
9. Perju 1"#)*#.2(%6"#!"#$#$%&'%())*)+,'%#+",-)*.. Vol. V, Editura Academiei Romne, 2001.
10. B2).%#I"D#D")+0)(#2%#7'"$,(#"'#%4,%-#"#0$,0#%<,$)3#0,$#".%#%&.50.$)",*)"%&,0%#+",-5*$5"..
Editura Geea, B'.'3+);*D#0___"
11. B2).%#I"D#Entomologie ?)"$,-)*.%36'-,#*.. Ed*;'3%#F*-"#)*#G+-"#B"5"D#E'.'3+);*D#0__!
12. B2).%#I"D#/0$)1)*)+,'%+'0'"#*.. A-*;'3%#J^(=*D#E'.'3+);*D#0__!"
13"#B2).%#I"D#/0$)1)*)+,'%#+",-)*.%36'-,#*."#A-*;'3%#F*-"#)*#G+-"#B"5"D#E'.'3+);*D#0__4
14"#B2).%#I"D#/0$)1)*)+,'%36'-,#*."#A-*;'3%#F*-"#)*#G+-"#B"5"D#E'.'3+);*D#0__`
15. Rosca I., C. Stan si colab. D")$'-8,#% 9,)&,7'"3,$.8,,% F0% 6",0-,6#*'*'% #+")'-)3,$'1'2 Edit.
1L15S#G'6(*/M*,:D#E'.'3+);*#0__c"

66