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Release Date: April 2009 DOE/EIA

Next Release Date: April 2010

Renewable Energy Annual 2007

April 2009

Energy Information Administration


Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels
U.S. Department of Energy
Washington, DC 20585

This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent
statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information
contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should
not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy of the Department of Energy or any
other organization.
Contacts
This report was prepared by the staff of the Survey Operations Team, Coal, Nuclear, and
Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions
about the preparation and content of this report may be directed to Fred Mayes, Senior
Technical Advisor at e-mail fred.mayes@eia.doe.gov, (202) 586-1508 or Louise Guey-
Lee, at e-mail louise.guey-lee@eia.doe.gov, (202) 586-1293.

Energy Specific Contacts

Renewable Energy General Fred Mayes 202/586-1508


Fred.mayes@eia.doe.gov
Louise Guey-Lee 202-586-1293
Louise.guey-lee@eia.doe.gov
Biodiesel Mary Joyce 202/586-1468
Mary.joyce@eia.doe.gov
Anthony Radich 202/586-0504
Anthony.radich@eia.doe.gov
Biomass Energy Fred Mayes 202/586-1508
Fred.mayes@eia.doe.gov
Ethanol Mary Joyce 202/586-1468
Mary.joyce@eia.doe.gov
Anthony Radich 202/586-0504
Anthony.radich@eia.doe.gov
Geothermal Energy Mark Gielecki 202/586-1264
Mark.gielecki@eia.doe.gov
Geothermal Heat Pumps Peter Wong 202/586-7574
Peter.wong@eia.doe.gov
Susan Henry 202/586/1427
Susan.henry@eia.doe.gov
Hydroelectric Power Mark Gielecki 202/586-1264
Mark.gielecki@eia.doe.gov
Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Peter Wong 202/586-7574
Peter.wong@eia.doe.gov
Wave and Tidal Energy Mark Gielecki 202/586-1264
Mark.gielecki@eia.doe.gov
Wind Energy Louise Guey-Lee 202-586-1293
Louise.guey-lee@eia.doe.gov

ii Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Preface

The Renewable Energy Annual (2007) is the thirteenth in a series of annual publications
on renewable energy by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The 2007 edition
presents five chapters, accompanied with data tables, text and graphics covering various
aspects of the renewable energy marketplace:

• Renewable Energy Trends in Consumption and Electricity


• Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities
• Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Activities
• Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities
• Green Pricing and Net Metering Programs

This includes for the first time two separate chapters for solar energy and an expanded
chapter for geothermal heat pump manufacturing activities.

The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood, wood waste, municipal solid
waste, landfill gas, ethanol, biodiesel and other biomass); geothermal; wind; solar (solar
thermal and photovoltaic); and conventional hydropower.

Hydroelectric pumped storage facilities are excluded, because they usually use non-
renewable energy sources for their operation. Since the EIA collects data only on
terrestrial (land-based) solar energy systems, satellite and some military applications are
also excluded.

Definitions for terms used in this report can be found in EIA’s Energy Glossary:
http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/index.html. General information about all the EIA
surveys with data related to renewable energy and referenced in this report can be found
here: http://www.eia.doe.gov/oss/forms.html.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 iii


Contents

1. Renewable Energy Trends in Consumption and Electricity, 2007 .................................................................1

2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2007 .............................................................................43

3. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Activities 2007 .................................................................72

4. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities 2007 ............................................................................100

5. Green Pricing and Net Metering Programs, 2007.......................................................................................124

iv Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Tables

1. Renewable Energy Trends in Consumption and Electricity, 2007 .................................................................1

Table 1.1 U.S. Energy Consumption by Energy Source, 2003 - 2007 ...............................................................7

Table 1.2 Renewable Energy Consumption by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 - 2007 ...............8

Table 1.3 Renewable Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation by Energy Use Sector and Energy
Source, 2003 - 2007..........................................................................................................................................10

Table 1.4 Renewable Energy Consumption for Nonelectric Use by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source,
2003 - 2007.......................................................................................................................................................11

Table 1.5a Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 1989-1999 ................13

Table 1.5b Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 2000-2007 ................15

Table 1.5a and 5b Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 1989-2007.....17

Table 1.6 Biofuels Overview, 2003 - 2007.......................................................................................................18

Table 1.7 Waste Energy Consumption by Type of Waste and Energy Use Sector, 2007 ................................19

Table 1.8 Industrial Biomass Energy Consumption and Electricity Net Generation by Industry and Energy
Sources, 2007 ...................................................................................................................................................20

Table 1.9 Net Summer Capacity of Plants Cofiring Biomass and Coal, 2007 .................................................21

Table 1.10 Average Heat Content of Selected Biomass Fuels .........................................................................22

Table 1.11 Electricity Net Generation From Renewable Energy by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source,
2003 - 2007.......................................................................................................................................................23

Table 1.12 U.S. Electric Net Summer Capacity, 2003 - 2007 ..........................................................................24

Table 1.13 Renewable Electricity Net Generation by Energy Source and Census Division, 2007 ..................25

Table 1.14 Industrial Biomass Electricity Net Generation by Census Division and Energy Sources, 2007 ....26

Table 1.15 Renewable Electric Power Sector Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2006 ..................27

Table 1.16 Renewable Commercial and Industrial Sector Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 200628

Table 1.17 Total Renewable Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2006 ............................................29

Table 1.18 Renewable Electric Power Sector Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2007 ..................30

Table 1.19 Renewable Commercial and Industrial Sector Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 200731

Table 1.20 Total Renewable Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2007 ............................................32

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 v


Table 1.21 Renewable Electric Power Sector Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2006 .......33

Table 1.22 Renewable Commercial and Industrial Sector Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and
State, 2006 ........................................................................................................................................................34

Table 1.23 Total Renewable Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2006..................................35

Table 1.24 Renewable Electric Power Sector Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2007 .......36

Table 1.25 Renewable Commercial and Industrial Sector Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and
State, 2007 ........................................................................................................................................................37

Table 1.26 Total Renewable Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2007..................................38

Table 1.27 Renewable Market Share of Net Generation by State, 2006 and 2007...........................................39

Table 1.28 Renewable Portfolio Standards and State Mandates by State, 2007...............................................40

Table 1.A1 Other Non-Renewable Energy Consumption by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 -
2007..................................................................................................................................................................41

Table 1.A2 Other Non-Renewable Net Electricity Generation by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source,
2003 - 2007.......................................................................................................................................................42

2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2007 .............................................................................43

Table 2.1 Annual Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors, 1998 - 2007..........................................................50

Table 2.2 Annual Solar Thermal Collector Domestic Shipments, 1998 - 2007 ...............................................51

Table 2.3 Annual Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Type, 1998 - 2007............................................52

Table 2.4 Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors Ranked by Origin and Destination, 2007 ..........................53

Table 2.5 Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors Ranked by Origin and Destination, 2006 ..........................54

Table 2.6 Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Destination, 2006 and 2007..........................................55

Table 2.7 Import Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Type, 1999 - 2007.............................................57

Table 2.8 Distribution of U.S. Solar Thermal Collector Imports by Country, 2006 and 2007.........................58

Table 2.9 Export Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Type, 1999 - 2007.............................................59

Table 2.10 Distribution of U.S. Solar Thermal Collector Exports by Country, 2006 and 2007.......................60

Table 2.11 Distribution of Domestic Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Customer Type, 2006 and 200762

Table 2.12 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Quantity, Revenue, and Average Price, 2006 and
2007..................................................................................................................................................................63

vi Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.13 Domestic shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2006
and 2007 ...........................................................................................................................................................64

Table 2.14 Average Thermal Performance Rating of Solar Thermal Collectors by Type Shipped in 2007.....65

Table 2.15 Shipments of Complete Solar Thermal Collector Systems, 2006 and 2007 ...................................66

Table 2.16 Number of Companies Expecting to Introduce New Solar Thermal Collector Products in 2008 ..67

Table 2.17 Percent of Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by the 10 Largest Companies, 1998 - 2007..........68

Table 2.18 Employment in the Solar Thermal Collector Industry, 1998 - 2007 ..............................................69

Table 2.19 Companies Involved in Solar Thermal Collector Related Activities by Type, 2006 and 2007 ......70

Table 2.20 Solar-Related Sales as a Percentage of Total Company Sales Revenue, 2006 and 2007 ...............71

3. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Activities 2007 .................................................................72

Table 3.1 Annual Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules, 1998 - 2007 ...............................................79

Table 3.2 Annual Photovoltaic Domestic Shipments, 1998 - 2007 ..................................................................80

Table 3.3 Annual Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules, 1998 - 2007 ...............................................81

Table 3.4 Distribution of Domestic Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Customer Type, 2005 - 2007...........82

Table 3.5 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Type, 2005 - 2007 .....................................................83

Table 3.6 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipment Revenue by Type, 2006 and 2007 ...................................84

Table 3.7 Domestic Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Market Sector, End Use, and Type,
2006 and 2007 ..................................................................................................................................................85

Table 3.8 Average Energy Conversion Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules Shipped in 2007 ........86

Table 3.9 Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Origin, 2006 and 2007 .......................................87

Table 3.10 Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Destination, 2006 and 2007 .............................88

Table 3.11 Import Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Type, 1999 - 2007 ................................90

Table 3.12 Origin of U.S. Photovoltaic Cell and Module Import Shipments by Country, 2006 and 2007 ......91

Table 3.13 Export Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Type, 1999 - 2007 ................................92

Table 3.14 Destination of U.S. Photovoltaic Cell and Module Export Shipments by Country, 2006 and 200793

Table 3.15 Shipments of Complete Photovoltaic Module Systems, 2005 - 2007.............................................95

Table 3.16 Employment in the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Industry, 1998 - 2007 ........................................96

Table 3.17 Number of Companies Expecting to Introduce New Photovoltaic Products in 2008.....................97

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 vii


Table 3.18 Number of Companies Involved in Photovoltaic-Related Activities, 2006 and 2007 ....................98

Table 3.19 Photovoltaic-Related Sales as a Percentage of Total Company Sales Revenue, 2006 and 2007....99

4. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities 2007 ............................................................................100

Table 4.1 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Model Type, 1999 - 2007 ..................................................106

Table 4.2 Rated Capacity of Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Model Type, 1999 - 2007 ....................107

Table 4.3 Average Cooling Efficiency for Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments, 2006 and 2007....................108

Table 4.4 Average Heating Efficiency for Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments, 2006 and 2007 ....................109

Table 4.5 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Model Type, Quantity, Revenue, and Average Price, 2006
and 2007 .........................................................................................................................................................110

Table 4.6 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Destination, 2006 and 2007...............................................111

Table 4.7 Distribution of U.S. Geothermal Heat Pump Exports by Country of Destination, 2006 and 2007 113

Table 4.8 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Origin, 2006 and 2007.......................................................114

Table 4.9 Distribution of U.S. Geothermal Heat Pump Imports by Country of Origin, 2006 and 2007 ........115

Table 4.10 Geothermal Heat Pump Domestic Shipments by Customer Type and Model Type, 2006 and
2007................................................................................................................................................................116

Table 4.11 Geothermal Heat Pump Domestic Shipments by Sector and Model Type, 2007 .........................117

Table 4.12 Shipments of Complete Geothermal Heating/Cooling Systems, 2006 and 2007 .........................118

Table 4.13 Number of Companies Expecting to Introduce New Geothermal Heat Pump Products in 2008 .119

Table 4.14 Employment in the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry, 1998 - 2007..............................................120

Table 4.15 Companies Involved in Geothermal Heat Pump Activities by Type, 2006 and 2007 ..................121

Table 4.16 Geothermal Heat Pump-Related Sales as a Percentage of Total Company Sales Revenue, 2006
and 2007 .........................................................................................................................................................122

Table 4.17 Geothermal Direct Use of Energy and Heat Pumps, 1990 - 2007 ................................................123

5. Green Pricing and Net Metering Programs, 2007.......................................................................................124

Table 5.1 Estimated U.S. Green Pricing Customers by State and Customer Class, 2006 and 2007...............127

Table 5.2 Estimated U.S. Net Metering Customers by State and Customer Class, 2006 and 2007 ...............128

viii Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Illustrations

1. Renewable Energy Trends in Consumption and Electricity, 2007 .................................................................1

Figure 1.1 Renewable Energy Consumption in the Nation’s Energy Supply, 2007...........................................1

Figure 1.2 Biofuels Consumption, 2003-2007....................................................................................................2

Figure 1.3 Wind Net Electricity Generation, 2003-2007....................................................................................4

2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2007 .............................................................................43

Figure 2.1 Total Solar Thermal Collector Shipments, 1998-2007....................................................................44

Figure 2.2 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, 1998-2007...............................................................46

Figure 2.3 Solar Thermal Collector Average Price, 1998-2007 .......................................................................47

3. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Activities 2007 .................................................................72

Figure 3.1 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments, 1998-2007....................................................................72

Figure 3.2 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Type, 2003-2007......................................................74

Figure 3.3 Crystalline Silicon Shipment and Thin-Film Shipment Market Shares, 1998-2007 .......................75

Figure 3.4 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Average Prices, 2003-2007 ............................................................76

4. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities 2007 ............................................................................100

Figure 4.1 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments, 2002-2007 ............................................................................100

Figure 4.2 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Model Type, 2003-2007...................................................103

5. Green Pricing and Net Metering Programs, 2007.......................................................................................124

Figure 5.1 U.S. Green Pricing Customers, 2003-2007 ...................................................................................125

Figure 5.2 U.S. Net Metering Customers, 2003-2007 ....................................................................................126

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 ix


1. Renewable Energy Trends in Consumption and Electricity, 2007
Consumption

Total renewable energy consumption decreased by a modest 96 trillion British Thermal


Units (Btu) or 1 percent between 2006 and 2007 to a total of 6,813 trillion Btu (Table
1.1). Gains in biofuels and wind energy consumption were offset by losses in
hydroelectric power. Over the same period total U.S. energy consumption increased by
1,702 trillion Btu or 2 percent. Increases in natural gas consumption for the residential
and electric power sectors led the U.S. trend in non-renewable energy. As a result,
renewable energy consumption hovered at 7 percent of the U.S. total (Figure 1.1).

Figure 1.1 Renewable Energy Consumption in the Nation’s Energy Supply, 2007

Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and


Alternate Fuels.

Biomass energy consumption stood at 3,596 trillion Btu or 53 percent of the renewable
energy market in 2007 (Table 1.2). Hydroelectric consumption was 2.446 trillion Btu or
36 percent of the market. Due to low water levels, that was the lowest level hydroelectric
has been since 2001 which was also a low water year (Table 1.5b).

Some of the fastest annual rates of growth in consumption were for wind (29 percent) and
ethanol (26 percent). By 2007 biofuels consumption (biomass for the transportation
sector, primarily ethanol and biodiesel, and related losses and coproducts in the industrial
sector) totaled more than 1,000 trillion Btu for the year (Figure 1.2). Wind consumption
was 341 trillion Btu in 2007, all of it in the electric power sector.

1 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Figure 1.2 Biofuels Consumption, 2003-2007

Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and


Alternate Fuels.

For 2007 the share of total renewable energy used for electricity production was just 54
percent or 3,699 trillion Btu. Ninety-four percent of renewable energy consumed for
electricity generation in 2007 was by electric utilities and independent power producers
in the electric power sector; just 6 percent was in the industrial sector.1

Renewable energy consumed for nonelectric uses increased by 240 trillion Btu to 3,114
trillion Btu, or almost 46 percent of total renewable energy consumption (Tables 1.2 and
1.4). Nonelectric uses include applications such as wood for space heating, noncentral
station solar, process heat from biomass for manufacturers, geothermal heat pumps and
direct use of geothermal. While a small portion of the 240 trillion Btu increase between
2006 and 2007 was increased consumption of wood for heating in the residential sector,
most of the increase was for biofuels consumption in the transportation sector and the
related biofuel feedstocks in the industrial sector.

Ethanol consumption increased 26 percent from 462 to 580 trillion Btu in 2007, or 6,886
million gallons, an amount that easily exceeded the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
established by the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) 2005 (Table 1.6). The Energy
Independence and Security Act (EISA) passed in December 2007 raised the RFS. But
unfavorable market conditions in the recession of 2008-2009 may limit the industry’s
response. By early 2009 fully 9 percent of all ethanol plants in the U.S. had filed for
bankruptcy.2

1
See the data revisions section at the end of this chapter for an explanation of changes in methodology to
estimate energy consumption for electricity and energy consumption for useful thermal output at combined
heat and power (CHP) plants. This change was implemented starting with 2004 data and continues.
2
Energy Tribune, “Ethanol Bankruptcies Continue, 14 Studies Have Exposed the High Cost of Ethanol and
Biofuels,” February 4, 2009. See: http://www.energytribune.com/articles.cfm?aid=1281 .

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 2


EISA 2007 also set a standard of 500 million gallons for biodiesel consumption in 2009.
How close the U.S. is to meeting this standard is uncertain. In this report, because there
is no official trade data for biodiesel, consumption is assumed to equal production.
However, there are indications that exports were substantial. If trade is accounted for,
then the estimates of domestic biodiesel consumption could be considerably lower.

Biomass waste consumption stood at 430 trillion Btu for 2007, up from 414 trillion Btu in
2006 (Tables 1.2 and 1.7). More than half was consumed by independent power
producers. Landfill gas and MSW biogenic provided the largest shares (40 and 38 percent
respectively).

Industrial biomass consumption was only slightly higher at 2,012 trillion Btu in 2007
than in 2006 (Tables 1.2 and 1.8). Biomass consumption by the paper and allied products
industries accounted for 59 percent of this, followed by biorefineries with 19 percent.
Sixty-two power plants with total generating capacity of 8,121 megawatts (MW) reported
having 5,080 MW of capacity capable of cofiring biomass and coal (Table 1.9).

Electricity

Renewable energy provided about 353 billion kilowatthours of electricity in 2007, down
9 percent from the year before, mainly due to a decrease in hydroelectric power
generation partially offset by an increase in wind (Table 1.11 and Figure 1.3). In
contrast, total U.S. generation increased over 2 percent year to year to 4,157 billion
kilowatthours. Most of that increase was provided by natural gas.3 As a result
renewable’s share of total U.S. generation stood at 8.5 percent in 2007, down from 9.5
percent in 2006, while the nonhydro renewable share of generation moved from 2.4 to 2.5
percent (Table 1.27).

3
Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual 2007 (Washington, DC, January 2009), table
1.1. See: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html .

3 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Figure 1.3 Wind Net Electricity Generation, 2003-2007

Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and


Alternate Fuels.

Total U.S. electric net summer capacity grew by a net 8,673 megawatts (MW) between
2006 and 2007 (Table 1.12). The main drivers of this change were increases of 5,186
MW for wind and 4,582 MW for natural gas, which were partially offset by a decrease of
2,029 MW for petroleum.4 There was also an increase of 341 MW for landfill gas
capacity, but a large share of it was as a result of improving EIA’s coverage in its power
plant survey database for 2007. In addition, there was a 332 MW increase in capacity
primarily using wood and derived fuels. Central station solar thermal/PV capacity
increased 91 MW or 22 percent. A major share of this increase was the 64 MW Nevada
Solar One plant in Boulder City.

Table 1.13 shows that hydroelectric conventional generation was concentrated in the
Pacific Contiguous Division, where it accounted for 82 percent of the renewable
electricity provided to that market. Geothermal and solar/PV generation was found
mainly in the Pacific Contiguous and Mountain Divisions, while electricity from the
remaining renewable sources tended to be scattered across the nation. Table 1.14 shows
that generation from biomass including black liquor and wood/wood waste solids was
concentrated largely in the three southern Census Divisions.

State Electricity

Hydroelectric generation decreased by some 42 billion kilowatthours from 2006 to 2007.


Though losses were spread across the nation, California alone accounted for almost half
of this decrease (21 billion kilowatthours) (Tables 1.17 and 1.20). By contrast, wind

4
Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual 2007 (Washington, DC, January 2009), table
2.1. See: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html .

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 4


power experienced an 8 billion kilowatthour increase as more and more wind plants
became fully deployed and integrated into daily grid operations. Texas and Washington
contributed the most to this trend with increases of over 2 billion and 1 billion
killowatthours, respectively.

In 2007, Texas strengthened its position as the nation’s leader in installed wind capacity.
By the end of the year, Texas wind capacity increased by 1,752 MW to 4,490 MW
(Tables 1.23 and 1.26). But Texas was hardly alone; 17 other states expanded wind
capacity and three of those ( Maine, Massachusetts, and Missouri) added wind capacity
for the first time. While built on a smaller scale, solar power had some interesting
developments too, notably outside of California. Of the 91 MW increase nationally
Nevada accounted for 79 MW. That included the new Nevada Solar One 64 MW solar
thermal power plant and the Nellis Air Force 14 MW photovoltaic plant. Colorado also
added the SunE Alomosa 8 MW photovoltaic project.

Whether this kind of growth will continue is debatable. Preliminary data for 2008
indicates that wind capacity did continue its rapid expansion through the year. In fact,
the U.S may have reached first place for wind capacity worldwide, surpassing Germany.
However by early 2009, industry sources reported that “new projects and new orders for
turbines and components slowed to a trickle as the financial crisis hit the wind sector,” so
the future is uncertain.5

One of the ways states support renewable energy development is with renewable
portfolio standards (RPS) or state mandates. In 2008 three states (Ohio, South Dakota,
and Utah) adopted this type of provision for the first time and three others (Illinois,
Michigan, and Missouri) changed from voluntary to required standards. By the end of
2008 there were 35 states spread across the country with an RPS or state mandate (Table
1.28).

Federal Legislation

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 was signed into law in February
2009 to stimulate the American economy. Among the provisions supporting renewable
energy were:

• Extension of the wind energy production tax credit (PTC) to 2012 and the PTC
for municipal solid waste, qualified hydropower, biomass and geothermal energy
to 2013. The wind PTC had been set to expire by the end of 2009.
• Two-year extension of the PTC for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy
systems through 2013.
• Alternatively, the Act allows owners of non-solar renewable energy facilities to
make an irrevocable election to earn a 30 percent investment credit rather than the

5
See Global Wind Energy Council, Press Release, “U.S. and China in race to top of global wind industry”
(February 2, 2009), here: http://www.gwec.net/ and PV News, “2009 PV Market Opens with Signs of
Trouble” (February 2009).

5 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


PTC. The option remains in effect for the current period of the PTC (described
above).

Data Revisions

For the EIA’s Electric Power Annual 2007 and this report, EIA adopted a new method of
allocating fuel consumption between electric power generation and useful thermal output
(UTO) for combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The new method proportionately
distributes a CHP plant’s losses between the two output products (electric power and
UTO), assuming the same efficiency for production of electricity as UTO.6 The change
is reflected from 2004 onwards. For 2006 using the old methodology the percent of
renewable energy used for generating electricity was 61 percent; using the new
methodology it is less – 58 percent – as expected (Tables 1.2 and 1.3).7

In addition, information on residential wood energy consumption became available from


EIA’s quadrennial Residential Energy Consumption Survey for 2005, so residential wood
estimates for 2005-2007 in this report reflect benchmarking to this updated information.
That resulted in a lowering of the estimate of residential wood consumption by 60 trillion
Btu for 2005 and 80 trillion Btu for 2006. There was also a small adjustment to industrial
landfill gas consumption in 2006 as a result of updated information from the
Environmental Protection Agency’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program.

6
In historical data, UTO was consistently assumed to be 80 percent efficient and all other losses at the
plant were allocated to production of electric power.
7
For 2006 see Energy Information Administration, Renewable Energy Trends in Consumption and
Electricity 2006 (Washington, DC, July 2008), Table 1.2 and table 1.3. See:
http://www.eia.doe.gov/fuelrenewable.html .

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 6


Table 1.1 U.S. Energy Consumption by Energy Source, 2003 - 2007
(Quadrillion Btu)
Energy Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total 98.208 100.350 100.486 99.843 101.545


Fossil Fuels 84.078 85.830 85.817 84.657 86.212
Coal 22.321 22.466 22.797 22.447 22.776
Coal Coke Net Imports 0.050 0.137 0.045 0.061 0.025
Natural Gas1 22.897 22.931 22.583 22.191 23.637
Petroleum2 38.809 40.294 40.393 39.958 39.773
Electricity Net Imports 0.022 0.039 0.084 0.063 0.106
Nuclear Electric Power 7.959 8.222 8.160 8.214 8.415
Renewable Energy 6.150 6.261 6.424 6.909 6.813
Biomass3 2.817 3.024 3.134 3.361 3.596
Biofuels 0.414 0.513 0.595 0.795 1.024
Waste 0.401 0.389 0.403 0.414 0.430
Wood Derived Fuels 2.002 2.121 2.136 2.152 2.142
Geothermal Energy 0.331 0.341 0.343 0.343 0.349
Hydroelectric Conventional 2.825 2.690 2.703 2.869 2.446
Solar/PV Energy 0.064 0.064 0.066 0.072 0.081
Wind Energy 0.115 0.142 0.178 0.264 0.341
1
Includes supplemental gaseous fuels.
2
Petroleum products supplied, including natural gas plant liquids and crude oil burned as fuel.
3
Biomass includes: biofuels, waste (landfill gas, MSW biogenic, and other biomass), wood and wood derived fuels.
PV = Photovoltaic.
Notes: Data revisions are discussed in the Highlights section.
Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Sources: Non-renewable energy: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Monthly Energy Review (MER)
December 2008, DOE/EIA-0035 (2008/12) (Washington, DC, December 2008,) Tables 1.3, 1.4a and 1.4b;
Renewable Energy: Table 1.2 of this report.

7 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.2 Renewable Energy Consumption by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 - 2007
(Quadrillion Btu)
Sector and Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total 6.150 6.261 6.424 6.909 6.813


Biomass 2.817 3.024 3.134 3.361 3.596
Biofuels 0.414 0.513 0.595 0.795 1.024
Biodiesel1 0.002 0.004 0.012 0.032 0.062
Ethanol2 0.238 0.299 0.342 0.462 0.580
Losses and Coproducts 0.174 0.210 0.241 0.301 0.381
Biodiesel Feedstock3 * * * * 0.001
Ethanol Feedstock4 0.174 0.210 0.241 0.301 0.380
Waste 0.401 0.389 0.403 0.414 0.430
Landfill Gas 0.141 0.144 0.148 0.157 0.173
MSW Biogenic5 0.165 0.164 0.168 0.171 0.165
Other Biomass6 0.096 0.081 0.088 0.086 0.092
Wood and Derived Fuels7 2.002 2.121 2.136 2.152 2.142
Geothermal 0.331 0.341 0.343 0.343 0.349
Hydroelectric Conventional 2.825 2.690 2.703 2.869 2.446
Solar/PV 0.064 0.064 0.066 0.072 0.081
Wind 0.115 0.142 0.178 0.264 0.341

Residential 0.471 0.483 0.507 0.475 0.527


Biomass 0.400 0.410 0.430 0.390 0.430
Wood and Derived Fuels8 0.400 0.410 0.430 0.390 0.430
Geothermal 0.013 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.022
Solar/PV9 0.058 0.059 0.061 0.067 0.075

Commercial 0.113 0.118 0.119 0.117 0.117


Biomass 0.101 0.105 0.105 0.102 0.102
Biofuels 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002
Ethanol2 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002
Waste 0.029 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.031
Landfill Gas 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.003
MSW Biogenic5 0.022 0.025 0.025 0.026 0.021
Other Biomass6 0.005 0.007 0.007 0.007 0.007
Wood and Derived Fuels7 0.071 0.070 0.070 0.065 0.069
Geothermal 0.011 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.014
Hydroelectric Conventional 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

Industrial 1.731 1.861 1.884 2.007 2.032


Biomass 1.684 1.825 1.848 1.973 2.012
Biofuels 0.178 0.217 0.248 0.311 0.393
Ethanol2 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.010 0.012
Losses and Coproducts 0.174 0.210 0.241 0.301 0.381
Biodiesel Feedstock3 * * * * 0.001
Ethanol Feedstock4 0.174 0.210 0.241 0.301 0.380
Waste 0.142 0.132 0.148 0.147 0.162
Landfill Gas 0.076 0.076 0.081 0.081 0.093
MSW Biogenic5 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.006 0.006
Other Biomass6 0.062 0.050 0.061 0.061 0.063
Wood and Derived Fuels7 1.363 1.476 1.452 1.515 1.457
Geothermal 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.005
Hydroelectric Conventional 0.043 0.033 0.032 0.029 0.016
Solar/PV - - - - -
Wind - - - - -

Transportation 0.235 0.296 0.346 0.483 0.629


Biomass 0.235 0.296 0.346 0.483 0.629
Biofuels 0.235 0.296 0.346 0.483 0.629
Biodiesel1 0.002 0.004 0.012 0.032 0.062
Ethanol2 0.233 0.292 0.334 0.451 0.566

Electric Power10 3.601 3.503 3.568 3.827 3.508


Biomass 0.397 0.388 0.406 0.412 0.423
Waste 0.230 0.223 0.221 0.231 0.237
Landfill Gas 0.063 0.066 0.065 0.073 0.077
MSW Biogenic5 0.138 0.133 0.136 0.139 0.138
Other Biomass6 0.029 0.023 0.020 0.019 0.022
Wood and Derived Fuels7 0.167 0.165 0.185 0.182 0.186
Geothermal 0.303 0.311 0.309 0.306 0.308
Hydroelectric Conventional 2.781 2.656 2.670 2.839 2.430
Solar/PV 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.006
Wind 0.115 0.142 0.178 0.264 0.341
1
Biodiesel primarily derived from soy bean oil.
2
Ethanol primarily derived from corn.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 8


Table 1.2 Renewable Energy Consumption by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 - 2007
(Quadrillion Btu) (Continued)
Sector and Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

3
Difference between the energy in biodiesel feedstocks (principally soy bean oil) and the energy in biodiesel consumed in the
transportation sector.
4
Difference between energy in ethanol feedstocks (primarily corn) and its coproducts (wet and dry distiller grains), and the
energy in ethanol consumed in the transportation sector.
5
Includes paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings.
6
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
7
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
8
Wood and wood pellet fuels.
9
Includes small amounts of distributed solar thermal and photovoltaic energy used in the commercial, industrial and electric
power sectors.
10
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American
Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
* = Less than 500 billion Btu.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Data revisions are discussed in the Highlights section.
Revisions to biomass removed MSW non-biogenic and tires from renewable waste energy.
Sources: Analysis conducted by Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels
and specific sources described as follows. Residential: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-457A/G, "Residential
Energy Consumption Survey;" Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center; and Energy Information Administration,
Form EIA-63-A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey" and Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic
Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey." Commercial: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant
Report," Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report;"
and Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. Industrial: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-846 (A, B,
C) "Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey," Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat
and Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report;" and Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-
Heat Center; Government Advisory Associates, Resource Recovery Yearbook and Methane Recovery Yearbook;
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill Methane Outreach Program estimates; and losses and coproducts from the
production of biodiesel and ethanol calculated as the difference between energy in feedstocks and production. Biofuels for
Transportation: Biodiesel: 2001-2005: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Commodity Credit Corporation, Bioenergy Program
estimates of production assigned to consumption and 2006 and forward: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census,
Current Industrial Reports, Fats and Oils - Production, Consumption and Stocks, and Ethanol: 2001-2004: EIA, Petroleum
Supply Annual, Tables 2 and 16. Calculated as ten percent of oxygenated finished motor gasoline field production (Table 2)
plus fuel ethanol refinery input (Table 16). 2005-2007: EIA Petroleum Supply Annual (Various Issues), Tables 1 and 15.
Calculated as motor gasoline blending components adustments (Table 1), plus finished motor gasoline adjustments (Table 1),
plus fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs (Table 15). Small amounts of ethanol consumption are distributed to the
commercial and industrial sectors according to those sector`s shares of U.S. motor gasoline supplied. Electric Power: Energy
Information Administration, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant
Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

9 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.3 Renewable Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 - 2007
(Quadrillion Btu)
Sector and Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total 4.016 3.723 3.781 4.035 3.699


Biomass 0.768 0.574 0.585 0.591 0.598
Waste 0.249 0.230 0.230 0.241 0.245
Landfill Gas 0.066 0.069 0.068 0.076 0.080
MSW Biogenic1 0.148 0.142 0.144 0.147 0.146
Other Biomass2 0.035 0.019 0.018 0.018 0.019
Wood and Derived Fuels3 0.519 0.344 0.355 0.350 0.353
Geothermal 0.303 0.311 0.309 0.306 0.308
Hydroelectric Conventional 2.825 2.690 2.703 2.869 2.446
Solar/PV 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.006
Wind 0.115 0.142 0.178 0.264 0.341

Commercial 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.022 0.020


Biomass 0.020 0.019 0.020 0.021 0.020
Waste 0.019 0.019 0.020 0.021 0.019
Landfill Gas 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.002
MSW Biogenic1 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013
Other Biomass2 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.004
Wood and Derived Fuels3 * * * * *
Geothermal - - - - -
Hydroelectric Conventional 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Solar/PV - - - - -
Wind - - - - -

Industrial 0.419 0.231 0.226 0.219 0.208


Biomass 0.376 0.199 0.194 0.190 0.193
Waste 0.013 0.005 0.005 0.003 0.004
Landfill Gas 0.001 0.001 0.001 * *
MSW Biogenic1 * * * * 0.001
Other Biomass2 0.012 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.003
Wood and Derived Fuels3 0.362 0.194 0.189 0.187 0.188
Geothermal - - - - -
Hydroelectric Conventional 0.043 0.033 0.032 0.029 0.016
Solar/PV - - - - -
Wind - - - - -

Electric Power4 3.576 3.471 3.534 3.794 3.470


Biomass 0.372 0.356 0.371 0.379 0.386
Waste 0.216 0.206 0.205 0.216 0.221
Landfill Gas 0.063 0.066 0.064 0.072 0.077
MSW Biogenic1 0.135 0.129 0.131 0.134 0.132
2
Other Biomass 0.018 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.012
Wood and Derived Fuels3 0.156 0.150 0.166 0.163 0.165
Geothermal 0.303 0.311 0.309 0.306 0.308
Hydroelectric Conventional 2.781 2.656 2.670 2.839 2.430
Solar/PV 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.006
Wind 0.115 0.142 0.178 0.264 0.341
1
Includes paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
4
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American
Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the
public.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
* = Less than 500 billion Btu.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Starting with 2004 EIA adopted a new
method of allocating fuel consumption between electric power generation and useful thermal out put (UTO) for
combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The new method proportionately distributes a CHP plant`s losses between
the two output products (electric power and UTO) assuming the same efficiency for production of electricity as UTO.
Data revisions are discussed in the Highlights section.
Sources: Analysis conducted by Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate
Fuels and the following specific sources:
Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form
EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 10


Table 1.4 Renewable Energy Consumption for Nonelectric Use by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 - 2007
(Quadrillion Btu)
Sector and Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total 2.135 2.538 2.643 2.874 3.114


Biomass 2.049 2.449 2.549 2.770 2.998
Biofuels 0.414 0.513 0.595 0.795 1.024
Biodiesel1 0.002 0.004 0.012 0.032 0.062
Ethanol2 0.238 0.299 0.342 0.462 0.580
Losses and Coproducts 0.174 0.210 0.241 0.301 0.381
Biodiesel Feedstock3 * * * * 0.001
Ethanol Feedstock4 0.174 0.210 0.241 0.301 0.380
Waste 0.153 0.159 0.173 0.174 0.185
Landfill Gas 0.075 0.075 0.080 0.081 0.093
MSW Biogenic5 0.016 0.023 0.023 0.024 0.019
Other Biomass6 0.061 0.061 0.070 0.069 0.073
Wood and Derived Fuels7 1.483 1.777 1.781 1.802 1.789
Geothermal 0.027 0.030 0.034 0.037 0.041
Solar/PV 0.058 0.059 0.061 0.067 0.075

Residential 0.471 0.483 0.507 0.475 0.527


Biomass 0.400 0.410 0.430 0.390 0.430
Wood and Derived Fuels8 0.400 0.410 0.430 0.390 0.430
Geothermal 0.013 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.022
Solar/PV 0.058 0.059 0.061 0.067 0.075

Commercial 0.092 0.098 0.098 0.095 0.097


Biomass 0.081 0.086 0.085 0.081 0.082
Biofuels 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002
Ethanol2 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002
Waste 0.010 0.015 0.014 0.016 0.012
Landfill Gas - * * 0.001 0.001
MSW Biogenic5 0.009 0.012 0.012 0.013 0.008
Other Biomass6 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.003
Wood and Derived Fuels7 0.071 0.070 0.069 0.064 0.069
Geothermal 0.011 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.014

Industrial 1.312 1.629 1.658 1.788 1.824


Biomass 1.308 1.626 1.654 1.783 1.819
Biofuels 0.178 0.217 0.248 0.311 0.393
Ethanol2 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.010 0.012
Losses and Coproducts 0.174 0.210 0.241 0.301 0.381
Biodiesel Feedstock3 * * * * 0.001
Ethanol Feedstock4 0.174 0.210 0.241 0.301 0.380
Waste 0.129 0.127 0.143 0.144 0.157
Landfill Gas 0.075 0.074 0.079 0.080 0.093
MSW Biogenic5 0.004 0.006 0.007 0.006 0.005
Other Biomass6 0.050 0.047 0.057 0.058 0.060
Wood and Derived Fuels7 1.001 1.282 1.262 1.328 1.269
Geothermal 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.005
Solar/PV - - - - -

Transportation 0.235 0.296 0.346 0.483 0.629


Biomass 0.235 0.296 0.346 0.483 0.629
Biofuels 0.235 0.296 0.346 0.483 0.629
Biodiesel1 0.002 0.004 0.012 0.032 0.062
Ethanol2 0.233 0.292 0.334 0.451 0.566

Electric Power9 0.025 0.032 0.035 0.033 0.038


Biomass 0.025 0.032 0.035 0.033 0.038
Waste 0.014 0.017 0.015 0.014 0.016
Landfill Gas * * 0.001 * *
MSW Biogenic5 0.003 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006
Other Biomass6 0.011 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.010
Wood and Derived Fuels7 0.011 0.015 0.019 0.019 0.021
Geothermal - - - - -
Solar/PV - - - - -
1
Biodiesel primarily derived from soy bean oil.
2
Ethanol primarily derived from corn.
3
Difference between the energy in biodiesel feedstocks (principally soy bean oil) and the energy in biodiesel
consumed in the transportation sector.
4
Difference between energy in ethanol feedstocks (primarily corn) and its coproducts (wet and dry distiller grains),
and the energy in ethanol consumed in the transportation sector.
5
Includes paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings.
6
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
7
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.

11 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.4 Renewable Energy Consumption for Nonelectric Use by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 - 2007
(Quadrillion Btu) (Continued)
Sector and Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

8
Wood and wood pellet fuels.
9
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American
Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the
public.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
* = Less than 500 billion Btu.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Starting with 2004 EIA adopted a new
method of allocating fuel consumption between electric power generation and useful thermal out put (UTO) for
combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The new method proportionately distributes a CHP plant`s losses between
the two output products (electric power and UTO) assuming the same efficiency for production of electricity as UTO.
Data revisions are discussed in the Highlights section.
Revisions to biomass removed MSW non-biogenic and tires from renewable waste energy.
Sources: Analysis conducted by Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate
Fuels and specific sources described as follows. Residential: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-457A/G,
"Residential Energy Consumption Survey;" Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center; and Energy
Information Administration, Form EIA-63-A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey" and Form
EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey." Commercial: Energy Information
Administration, Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report" and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant
Operations Report;" and Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. Industrial: Energy Information
Administration, Form EIA-846 (A, B, C) "Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey," Form EIA-920, "Combined
Heat and Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report;" Oregon Institute of Technology,
Geo-Heat Center; Government Advisory Associates, Resource Recovery Yearbook and Methane Recovery Yearbook;
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill Methane Outreach Program estimates; and losses and coproducts
from the production of biodiesel and ethanol calculated as the difference between energy in feedstocks and
production. Biofuels for Transportation: Biodiesel: 2001-2005: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Commodity Credit
Corporation, Bioenergy Program estimates of production assigned to consumption and 2006 and forward: U.S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, Current Industrial Reports, Fats and Oils - Production, Consumption
and Stocks, and Ethanol: 2001-2004: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, Tables 2 and 16. Calculated as ten percent of
oxygenated finished motor gasoline field production (Table 2) plus fuel ethanol refinery input (Table 16). 2005-2007:
EIA Petroleum Supply Annual (Various Issues), Tables 1 and 15.
Calculated as motor gasoline blending components adustments (Table 1), plus finished motor gasoline adjustments
(Table 1), plus fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs (Table 15). Small amounts of ethanol consumption are
distributed to the commercial and industrial sectors according to those sector`s shares of U.S. motor gasoline
supplied. Electric Power: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant
Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 12


Table 1.5a Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 1989-1999
(Quadrillion Btu)
Sector and Source 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Total 6.391 6.206 6.238 5.993 6.262 6.155 6.705 7.168 7.178 6.657 6.681
Biomass 3.160 2.735 2.782 2.933 2.910 3.030 3.104 3.159 3.108 2.931 2.967
Biofuels1 0.126 0.111 0.129 0.146 0.171 0.190 0.202 0.145 0.187 0.205 0.213
Waste2 0.354 0.408 0.440 0.473 0.479 0.515 0.531 0.577 0.551 0.542 0.540
Wood and Derived Fuels3 2.680 2.216 2.214 2.313 2.260 2.324 2.370 2.437 2.371 2.184 2.214
Geothermal 0.317 0.336 0.346 0.349 0.364 0.338 0.294 0.316 0.325 0.328 0.331
Hydroelectric Conventional 2.837 3.046 3.016 2.617 2.892 2.683 3.205 3.590 3.640 3.297 3.268
Solar/PV4 0.055 0.060 0.063 0.064 0.066 0.069 0.070 0.071 0.070 0.070 0.069
Wind 0.022 0.029 0.031 0.030 0.031 0.036 0.033 0.033 0.034 0.031 0.046

Residential 0.978 0.641 0.674 0.706 0.618 0.590 0.591 0.612 0.503 0.452 0.462
Biomass 0.920 0.580 0.610 0.640 0.550 0.520 0.520 0.540 0.430 0.380 0.390
Wood and Derived Fuels 0.920 0.580 0.610 0.640 0.550 0.520 0.520 0.540 0.430 0.380 0.390
Geothermal 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.007 0.006 0.007 0.007 0.008 0.008 0.009
Solar/PV4 0.053 0.056 0.058 0.060 0.062 0.064 0.065 0.065 0.065 0.065 0.064

Commercial 0.102 0.098 0.100 0.109 0.114 0.112 0.118 0.135 0.138 0.127 0.129
Biomass 0.099 0.094 0.095 0.105 0.109 0.106 0.113 0.129 0.131 0.118 0.121
Biofuels5 0.001 0.001 * * * * * * * * *
Waste2 0.022 0.028 0.026 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.040 0.053 0.058 0.054 0.054
Wood and Derived Fuels3 0.076 0.066 0.068 0.072 0.076 0.072 0.072 0.076 0.073 0.064 0.067
Geothermal 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.007
Hydroelectric Conventional 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

Industrial 1.870 1.716 1.683 1.737 1.772 1.927 1.992 2.033 2.058 1.931 1.936
Biomass 1.840 1.683 1.651 1.704 1.740 1.862 1.935 1.970 1.997 1.873 1.883
Biofuels6 0.056 0.049 0.057 0.064 0.075 0.083 0.087 0.062 0.082 0.090 0.093
Waste2 0.200 0.192 0.185 0.179 0.181 0.199 0.195 0.224 0.184 0.180 0.171
Wood and Derived Fuels3 1.584 1.442 1.410 1.461 1.484 1.580 1.652 1.683 1.731 1.603 1.620
Geothermal 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.004
Hydroelectric Conventional 0.028 0.031 0.030 0.031 0.030 0.062 0.055 0.061 0.058 0.055 0.049
Solar/PV - - - - - - - - - - -
Wind - - - - - - - - - - -

Transportation 0.069 0.062 0.072 0.081 0.096 0.107 0.115 0.082 0.104 0.115 0.120
Biomass 0.069 0.062 0.072 0.081 0.096 0.107 0.115 0.082 0.104 0.115 0.120
Biofuels7 0.069 0.062 0.072 0.081 0.096 0.107 0.115 0.082 0.104 0.115 0.120

Electric Power8 3.372 3.689 3.710 3.360 3.662 3.420 3.889 4.305 4.375 4.032 4.034

Electric Utilities 2.983 3.151 3.114 2.712 2.953 2.714 3.173 3.553 3.620 3.279 3.123
Biomass 0.020 0.022 0.021 0.022 0.021 0.021 0.017 0.020 0.020 0.021 0.020
Waste2 0.010 0.013 0.014 0.013 0.011 0.013 0.010 0.012 0.013 0.013 0.013
Wood and Derived Fuels3 0.010 0.008 0.008 0.008 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.008 0.008 0.007 0.007
Geothermal 0.197 0.181 0.170 0.169 0.158 0.145 0.099 0.110 0.115 0.109 0.036
Hydroelectric Conventional 2.765 2.948 2.923 2.521 2.774 2.549 3.056 3.423 3.485 3.149 3.067
Solar/PV * * * * * * * * * * *
Wind * * * * * * * * * * *

Independent Power Producers 0.389 0.538 0.596 0.648 0.709 0.705 0.716 0.752 0.754 0.753 0.910
Biomass 0.211 0.295 0.333 0.381 0.394 0.413 0.405 0.418 0.426 0.424 0.433
Waste2 0.122 0.175 0.215 0.249 0.253 0.269 0.286 0.288 0.296 0.294 0.302
Wood and Derived Fuels3 0.089 0.120 0.118 0.132 0.141 0.144 0.119 0.130 0.129 0.129 0.131
Geothermal 0.111 0.145 0.165 0.168 0.193 0.180 0.181 0.191 0.194 0.202 0.276

13 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.5a Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 1989-1999
(Quadrillion Btu) (Continued)
Sector and Source 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Hydroelectric Conventional 0.043 0.066 0.062 0.065 0.087 0.072 0.093 0.104 0.096 0.092 0.151
Solar/PV 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
Wind 0.022 0.029 0.031 0.030 0.031 0.036 0.033 0.033 0.034 0.031 0.046

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 14


Table 1.5b Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 2000-2007
(Quadrillion Btu)
Sector and Source 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total 6.264 5.316 5.893 6.150 6.261 6.424 6.909 6.813


Biomass 3.013 2.627 2.706 2.817 3.024 3.134 3.361 3.596
Biofuels1 0.241 0.258 0.309 0.414 0.513 0.595 0.795 1.024
Waste2 0.511 0.364 0.402 0.401 0.389 0.403 0.414 0.430
Wood and Derived Fuels3 2.262 2.006 1.995 2.002 2.121 2.136 2.152 2.142
Geothermal 0.317 0.311 0.328 0.331 0.341 0.343 0.343 0.349
Hydroelectric Conventional 2.811 2.242 2.689 2.825 2.690 2.703 2.869 2.446
Solar/PV4 0.066 0.065 0.064 0.064 0.064 0.066 0.072 0.081
Wind 0.057 0.070 0.105 0.115 0.142 0.178 0.264 0.341

Residential 0.490 0.439 0.449 0.471 0.483 0.507 0.475 0.527


Biomass 0.420 0.370 0.380 0.400 0.410 0.430 0.390 0.430
Wood and Derived Fuels 0.420 0.370 0.380 0.400 0.410 0.430 0.390 0.430
Geothermal 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.013 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.022
Solar/PV4 0.061 0.060 0.059 0.058 0.059 0.061 0.067 0.075

Commercial 0.128 0.101 0.104 0.113 0.118 0.119 0.117 0.117


Biomass 0.119 0.092 0.095 0.101 0.105 0.105 0.102 0.102
Biofuels5 * * * 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002
Waste2 0.047 0.025 0.026 0.029 0.034 0.034 0.036 0.031
Wood and Derived Fuels3 0.071 0.067 0.069 0.071 0.070 0.070 0.065 0.069
Geothermal 0.008 0.008 0.009 0.011 0.012 0.014 0.014 0.014
Hydroelectric Conventional 0.001 0.001 * 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

Industrial 1.930 1.721 1.723 1.731 1.861 1.884 2.007 2.032


Biomass 1.884 1.684 1.679 1.684 1.825 1.848 1.973 2.012
Biofuels6 0.102 0.112 0.136 0.178 0.217 0.248 0.311 0.393
Waste2 0.145 0.129 0.146 0.142 0.132 0.148 0.147 0.162
Wood and Derived Fuels3 1.636 1.443 1.396 1.363 1.476 1.452 1.515 1.457
Geothermal 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.005
Hydroelectric Conventional 0.042 0.033 0.039 0.043 0.033 0.032 0.029 0.016
Solar/PV - - - - - - - -
Wind - - - - - - - -

Transportation 0.138 0.145 0.172 0.235 0.296 0.346 0.483 0.629


Biomass 0.138 0.145 0.172 0.235 0.296 0.346 0.483 0.629
Biofuels7 0.138 0.145 0.172 0.235 0.296 0.346 0.483 0.629

Electric Power8 3.579 2.910 3.445 3.601 3.503 3.568 3.827 3.508

Electric Utilities 2.607 2.063 2.529 2.615 2.522 2.530 2.688 2.356
Biomass 0.021 0.014 0.033 0.029 0.031 0.040 0.042 0.048
Waste2 0.014 0.008 0.022 0.012 0.011 0.013 0.015 0.016
Wood and Derived Fuels3 0.007 0.006 0.011 0.017 0.020 0.027 0.027 0.032
Geothermal 0.003 0.003 0.029 0.026 0.026 0.024 0.024 0.024
Hydroelectric Conventional 2.582 2.044 2.465 2.556 2.461 2.455 2.598 2.241
Solar/PV * * * * * * * *
Wind * 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.010 0.023 0.043

Independent Power Producers 0.972 0.847 0.916 0.986 0.981 1.038 1.139 1.152
Biomass 0.432 0.323 0.347 0.368 0.357 0.365 0.370 0.376
Waste2 0.305 0.202 0.208 0.218 0.212 0.208 0.216 0.221
Wood and Derived Fuels3 0.127 0.121 0.140 0.151 0.145 0.158 0.154 0.154
Geothermal 0.293 0.286 0.275 0.277 0.285 0.285 0.282 0.284

15 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.5b Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 2000-2007
(Quadrillion Btu) (Continued)
Sector and Source 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Hydroelectric Conventional 0.185 0.165 0.185 0.224 0.196 0.215 0.242 0.189
Solar/PV 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.006
Wind 0.057 0.068 0.103 0.111 0.138 0.168 0.240 0.297

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 16


Table 1.5a and 5b Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Sector and Energy Source, 1989-2007

Notes and Sources

1
Biofuels and biofuel losses and coproducts.
2
Municipal solid waste biogenic, landfill gases, agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases. Includes municipal solid waste nonbiogenic and tires for 1989-2000.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
4
Includes small amounts of distributed solar thermal and photovoltaic energy used in the commercial, industrial and electric power sectors.
5
Ethanol primarily derived from corn.
6
Ethanol primarily derived from corn and losses and coproducts from production of biodiesel and ethanol.
7
Biodiesel primarily derived from soy bean oil and ethanol primarily derived from corn.
8
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or
electricity and heat, to the public.
PV = Photovoltaic.
* = Less than 500 billion Btu.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Sources: Analysis conducted by Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels and Specific sources described as follows. Residential: Energy Information
Administration, Form EIA-457A/G, "Residential Energy Consumption Survey;"Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center and Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63-A, "Annual Solar
Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey" and Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey." Commercial: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility
Power Producer Report," Form EIA-860B, " Annual Electric Generator Report - Nonutility," Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report," Form EIA-923,
"Power Plant Operations Report;" and Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center.Industrial: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-846 (A,B,C) "Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey,"
Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report," Form EIA-860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report - Nonutility," Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report", Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and
Power Report," Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report;" Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center; Government Advisory Associates, Resource Recovery Yearbook and Methane Recovery
Yearbook;
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill Methane Outreach Program estimates; and losses and coproducts from the production of biodiesel and ethanol calculated as the difference between energy in
feedstocks and production. Biofuels for Transportation: Biodiesel: 2001-2005: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Commodity Credit Corporation, Bioenergy Program estimates of production assigned to
consumption and 2006 and forward: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, Current Industrial Reports, Fats and Oils - Production, Consumption and Stocks, and Ethanol: 1989: EIA, Estimates of
U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 10, 1990-1992: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992, Table D2, 1993-2004: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, Tables 2 and 16. Calculated as ten
percent of oxygenated finished motor gasoline field production (Table 2) plus fuel ethanol refinery input (Table 16).2005-2007: EIA Petroleum Supply Annual (Various Issues), Tables 1 and 15. Calculated as
motor gasoline blending components adjustments (Table 1), plus finished motor gasoline adjustments (Table 1), plus fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs (Table 15).
Small amounts of ethanol consumption are distributed to the commercial and industrial sectors according to those sector`s shares of U.S. motor gasoline supplied. Electric Power: Energy Information
Administration, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report," Form EIA-860B, " Annual Electric Generator Report - Nonutility," Form EIA-906,
"Monthly Power Plant Report," Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

17 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.6 Biofuels Overview, 2003 - 2007
(Trillion Btu)
Type 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Ethanol
Feedstock1 410 497 570 712 930
Losses and Coproducts2 174 210 241 301 380
Production3 236 287 329 412 549
4
Net Imports 1 13 11 62 37
Stock Change5 -1 * -2 11 6
Consumption 238 299 342 462 580
Biodiesel
Feedstock6 2 4 12 32 63
Losses and Coproducts7 * * * * 1
Production8 2 4 12 32 62
1
Total corn and other biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol.
2
Losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol. Does not include natural gas, electricity, and other non-
biomass energy used in the production of fuel ethanol.
3
Fuel ethanol production.
4
Fuel ethanol imports. There are no exports.
5
Fuel ethanol stock change. A negative number indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive number indicates an increase.
6
Total soy bean oil and other biomass inputs to the production of biodiesel.
7
Losses and co-products from the production of biodiesel. Does not include natural gas, electricity, and other non-
biomass energy used in the production of biodiesel.
8
Production of biofuels for use as diesel fuel substitutes or additives. Biodiesel consumption equals biodiesel production.
* = Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Sources: (Note: For ethanol and biodiesel heat contents, see Table 10.) Ethanol Feedstock: Calculated as fuel ethanol production
multiplied by the approximate heat content of the corn and other biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol. Ethanol Losses and
Co-products: Calculated as ethanol feedstock minus fuel ethanol production. Ethanol Production: 2002 and forward: Energy
Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report," and predecessor form. Ethanol Net Imports, Stocks
and Stock Change: 2002-2005: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), annual reports. 2006: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM),
monthly reports. Ethanol Consumption: 2002-2004: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Tables 2 and 16. Calculated as ten percent of
oxygenated finished motor gasoline field production (Table 2), plus fuel ethanol refinery input (Table 16). 2005-2007: EIA, PSA
(Various Issues), Tables 1 and 15.
Calculated as motor gasoline blending components adjustments (Table 1), plus finished motor gasoline adjustments (Table 1), plus
fuel ethanol refinery blender net inputs (Table 15). Biodiesel Feedstock: Calcualted as biodiesel production multiplied by the
approximate heat content of the vegetable oil and other biomass inputs to the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel Losses and Co-
products: Calculated as biodiesel feedstock minus biodiesel production. Biodiesel Production: 2001-2005 U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Commodity Credit Corporation, Bioenergy Program records and 2006 and forward: U.S. Department of Commerce,
Bureau of Census, Current Industrial Reports, Fats and Oils - Production, Consumption and Stocks, and analysis conducted by Energy
Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 18


Table 1.7 Waste Energy Consumption by Type of Waste and Energy Use Sector, 2007
(Trillion Btu)
Sector
Electric Power
Type Independent
Commercial Industrial Electric Total
Power
Utilities
Producers

Total 31 162 16 221 430


Landfill Gas 3 93 9 69 173
MSW Biogenic1 21 6 5 134 165
2
Other Biomass 7 63 3 19 92
1
Includes paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Sources: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant
Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report;" Government Advisory Associates, Resource Recovery Yearbook and
Methane Recovery Yearbook; and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill Methane Outreach Program estimates.

19 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.8 Industrial Biomass Energy Consumption and Electricity Net Generation by Industry and Energy Sources, 2007

Biomass Energy Consumption (Trillon Btus)


Net Generation
For Useful
Industry Energy Source (Million
Total For Electricity Thermal
Kilowatthours)
Output

Total Total 2,012.016 192.598 1,819.418 28,919

Agriculture, Forestry Total 16.354 0.920 15.434 170


and Mining Agricultural Byproducts/Crops 16.354 0.920 15.434 170

Manufacturing Total 1,888.400 191.678 1,696.722 28,749

Food and Kindred Total 37.018 0.624 36.394 107


Products Agricultural Byproducts/Crops 33.776 0.178 33.597 37
Other Biomass Gases 0.284 0.092 0.192 7
Other Biomass Liquids 0.102 0.102 - 10
Wood/Wood Waste Solids 2.857 0.253 2.604 52

Lumber Total 259.626 9.495 250.131 1,214


Sludge Waste 0.013 0.002 0.011 s
Wood/Wood Waste Solids 259.613 9.493 250.120 1,214

Paper and Allied Total 1,192.958 180.070 1,012.888 27,338


Products Agricultural Byproducts/Crops 1.301 0.037 1.264 5
Black Liquor 829.070 116.140 712.930 18,344
Landfill Gas 0.062 0.007 0.055 1
Municipal Solid Waste Biogenic3 1.359 0.158 1.201 33
Other Biomass Gases 0.192 0.015 0.177 3
Other Biomass Liquids 0.011 0.002 0.009 s
Other Biomass Solids 4.173 0.476 3.697 96
Sludge Waste 6.257 1.233 5.024 210
Wood/Wood Waste Liquids 2.800 0.348 2.452 66
Wood/Wood Waste Solids 347.732 61.654 286.079 8,579

Chemicals and Total 2.959 0.871 2.088 35


Allied Products Landfill Gas 0.136 0.017 0.119 4
Municipal Solid Waste Biogenic3 0.706 0.706 - 3
Other Biomass Liquids 0.028 0.004 0.024 1
Other Biomass Solids - - - -
Sludge Waste 0.394 0.057 0.337 11
Wood/Wood Waste Solids 1.695 0.087 1.608 16

Biorefineries Total 380.947 - 380.947 -


Biofuel Losses and Coproducts4 380.947 - 380.947 -
Biodiesel Feedstock 0.863 - 0.863 -
Ethanol Feedstock 380.084 - 380.084 -

Other1 Total 14.891 0.618 14.274 55


2
Nonspecified Total 107.262 - 107.262 -
Ethanol 12.393 - 12.393 -
Landfill Gas 92.303 - 92.303 -
Municipal Solid Waste Biogenic3 2.566 - 2.566 -
1
Other includes Apparel; Petroleum Refining; Rubber and Misc. Plastic Products; Transportation Equipment; Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete Products;
Furniture and Fixtures; and related industries.
2
Primary purpose of business is not specified.
3
Includes paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings.
4
Losses and coproducts from production of biodiesel and ethanol calculated as the difference between energy in feedstocks and production.
s = Value is less than 0.5 of the table metric, but value is included in any associated total.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Starting with 2004 EIA adopted a new method of allocating fuel consumption
between electric power generation and useful thermal out put (UTO) for combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The new method proportionately distributes a
CHP plant`s losses between the two output products (electric power and UTO) assuming the same efficiency for production of electricity as UTO.
Sources: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-
923, "Power Plant Operations Report;" Government Advisory Associates, Resource Recovery Yearbook and Methane Recovery Yearbook; U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Landfill Methane Outreach Program estimates; ethanol and biofuel losses and coproducts: table 1.2 of this report; and analysis conducted by
the Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 20


Table 1.9 Net Summer Capacity of Plants Cofiring Biomass and Coal, 2007
(Megawatts)
Biomass/ Coal Total Plant
State Company Name Plant I.D. Plant Name County
Cofiring Capacity Capacity

AL DTE Energy Services 50407 Mobile Energy Services LLC Mobile 91 91


AL Georgia-Pacific Corp 10699 Georgia Pacific Naheola Mill Choctaw 31 78
AL International Paper Co 52140 International Paper Prattville Mill Autauga 49 90
AR Domtar Industries Inc 54104 Ashdown Little River 157 157
AZ Tucson Electric Power Co 126 H Wilson Sundt Generating Station Pima 173 559
DE Conectiv Delmarva Gen Inc 593 Edge Moor New Castle 252 710
FL International Paper Co-Pensacola 50250 International Paper Pensacola Escambia 83 83
FL Jefferson Smurfit Corp 10202 Jefferson Smurfit Fernandina Beach Nassau 74 128
FL Stone Container Corp-Panama Ci 50807 Stone Container Panama City Mill Bay 20 34
GA Georgia Pacific CSO LLC 54101 Georgia Pacific Cedar Springs Early 101 101
GA International Paper Co-Augusta 54358 International Paper Augusta Mill Richmond 85 85
GA SP Newsprint Company 54004 SP Newsprint Laurens 45 82
HI Hawaiian Com & Sugar Co Ltd 10604 Hawaiian Comm & Sugar Puunene Mill Maui 46 62
IA Ames City of 1122 Ames Electric Services Power Plant Story 109 109
IA Archer Daniels Midland Co 10860 Archer Daniels Midland Clinton Clinton 180 211
IA University of Iowa 54775 University of Iowa Main Power Plant Johnson 21 23
KY East Kentucky Power Coop, Inc 6041 H L Spurlock Mason 659 1,609
LA International Paper Co 54090 International Paper Louisiana Mill Morehouse 59 59
MD NewPage Corporation 50282 Luke Mill Allegany 65 65
ME NewPage Corporation 10495 Rumford Cogeneration Oxford 103 103
ME S D Warren Co.- Westbrook 50447 S D Warren Westbrook Cumberland 15 81
MI Decorative Panels International, Inc. 10149 Decorative Panels Intl Alpena 8 8
MI NewPage Corporation 10208 Escanaba Paper Company Delta 81 103
MI S D Warren Co 50438 S D Warren Muskegon Muskegon 51 51
MI TES Filer City Station LP 50835 TES Filer City Station Manistee 70 70
MN Minnesota Power Inc 10686 Rapids Energy Center Itasca 27 28
MN Minnesota Power Inc 1897 M L Hibbard St Louis 73 123
MO University of Missouri-Columba 50969 University of Missouri Columbia Boone 6 91
MS Weyerhaeuser Co 50184 Weyerhaeuser Columbus MS Lowndes 123 123
NC Carlyle/Riverstone Renewable Energy 10381 Coastal Carolina Clean Power Duplin 44 44
NC Corn Products Intl Inc 54618 Corn Products Winston Salem Forsyth 8 8
NC Domtar Paper Company LLC 50189 Domtar Paper Co LLC Plymouth NC Martin 162 162
NC Primary Energy of North Carolina LLC 10379 Primary Energy Roxboro Person 68 68
NY AES Greenidge 2527 AES Greenidge LLC Yates 113 163
NY AES Hickling LLC 2529 AES Hickling LLC Steuben 70 70
NY AES Jennison LLC 2531 AES Jennison LLC Chenango 60 60
NY Black River Generation LLC 10464 Black River Generation Jefferson 56 56
NY Niagara Generation LLC 50202 WPS Power Niagara Niagara 56 56
PA Domtar LLC 54638 Johnsonburg Mill Elk 54 54
PA P H Glatfelter Co 50397 P H Glatfelter York 6 110
SC International Paper Co-Eastovr 52151 International Paper Eastover Facility Richland 48 110
SC Smurfit-Stone Container Enterprises Inc 50806 Stone Container Florence Mill Florence 79 108
SC South Carolina Electric&Gas Co 7737 Cogen South Charleston 99 99
UT Desert Power LP 55858 Desert Power LP Tooele 43 135
VA Bassett Furniture Industries Inc 50911 Bassett Table Henry 2 2
VA GP Big Island LLC 50479 Georgia Pacific Big Island Bedford 8 8
VA International Paper 52152 International Paper Franklin Mill Isle of Wight 97 155
VA MeadWestvaco Corp 50900 Covington Facility Covington 105 105
VA Virginia Electric & Power Co 56808 Virginia City Hybrid Energy Center Wise 668 668
WA Tacoma City of 3920 Steam plant Pierce 50 50
WI Fox Valley Energy Center LLC 56037 Fox Valley Energy Center Winnebago 7 7
WI Madison Gas & Electric Co 3992 Blount Street Dane 100 188
WI Manitowoc Public Utilities 4125 Manitowoc Manitowoc 10 213
WI Mosinee Paper Corp 50614 Mosinee Paper Marathon 20 23
WI NewPage Corporation 10234 Biron Mill Wood 22 62
WI NewPage Corporation 10476 Whiting Mill Portage 4 4
WI NewPage Corporation 10477 Wisconsin Rapids Pulp Mill Wood 72 72
WI NewPage Corporation 54857 Niagara Mill Marinette 12 25
WI Northern States Power Co 3982 Bay Front Ashland 40 68
WI State of Wisconsin 54407 Waupun Correctional Central Heating Plt Dodge 2 2
WI State of Wisconsin 54408 Univ of Wisc Madison Charter Sreet Plant Dane 10 10
WI Thilmany LLC 54098 International Paper Kaukauna Mill Outagamie 33 45
Total 5,080 8,121
Note: State abbreviations are documented on the United States Postal Service website: http://www.usps.com/ncsc/lookups/usps_abbreviations.htm.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," Schedule 3, Part B.

21 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.10 Average Heat Content of Selected Biomass Fuels

Fuel Type Heat Content Units

Agricultural Byproducts 8.248 Million Btu/Short Ton


Biodiesel 5.359 Million Btu/Barrel
Black Liquor 11.758 Million Btu/Short Ton
Digester Gas 0.619 Million Btu/Thousand Cubic Feet
Ethanol 3.539 Million Btu/Barrel
Landfill Gas 0.490 Million Btu/Thousand Cubic Feet
MSW Biogenic 9.696 Million Btu/Short Ton
Methane 0.841 Million Btu/Thousand Cubic Feet
Paper Pellets 13.029 Million Btu/Short Ton
Peat 8.000 Million Btu/Short Ton
Railroad Ties 12.618 Million Btu/Short Ton
Sludge Waste 7.512 Million Btu/Short Ton
Sludge Wood 10.071 Million Btu/Short Ton
Solid Byproducts 25.830 Million Btu/Short Ton
Spent Sulfite Liquor 12.720 Million Btu/Short Ton
Utility Poles 12.500 Million Btu/Short Ton
Waste Alcohol 3.800 Million Btu/Barrel
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
Note: For detailed characteristics of biomass feedstocks, see the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,
website here: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/for_researchers.html .
Sources: Biodiesel and ethanol: Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review December 2008, DOE/EIA-0035 (2008/12)
(Washington, DC, October 2007), Table A3; MSW Biogenic: Energy Information Administration, Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid
Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy (Washington, DC, May 2007); and all other fuel types: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-
860B (1999), "Annual Electric Generator Report - Nonutility 1999."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 22


Table 1.11 Electricity Net Generation From Renewable Energy by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 - 2007
(Thousand Kilowatthours)
Sector/Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total 355,293,117 351,484,632 357,650,653 385,771,908 352,747,486


Biomass 53,341,090 53,537,453 54,276,810 54,860,621 55,538,578
Waste 15,811,993 15,420,570 15,420,393 16,098,525 16,524,554
Landfill Gas 5,077,451 5,128,425 5,142,111 5,677,040 6,157,750
MSW Biogenic1 8,306,065 8,150,974 8,330,471 8,477,571 8,303,838
Other Biomass2 2,428,477 2,141,171 1,947,810 1,943,913 2,062,966
Wood and Derived Fuels3 37,529,097 38,116,883 38,856,417 38,762,096 39,014,024
Geothermal 14,424,231 14,810,975 14,691,745 14,568,029 14,637,213
Hydroelectric Conventional 275,806,328 268,417,308 270,321,255 289,246,416 247,509,974
Solar/PV 534,001 575,155 550,294 507,706 611,793
Wind 11,187,467 14,143,741 17,810,549 26,589,137 34,449,927

Commercial 1,374,208 1,680,155 1,758,789 1,712,691 1,691,439


Biomass 1,301,964 1,575,188 1,672,752 1,619,245 1,614,160
Waste 1,288,914 1,561,794 1,656,755 1,598,646 1,598,799
Landfill Gas 151,801 172,029 217,632 172,590 202,547
MSW Biogenic1 716,921 945,344 953,093 955,910 962,496
Other Biomass2 420,192 444,421 486,031 470,146 433,756
Wood and Derived Fuels3 13,049 13,394 15,997 20,599 15,361
Hydroelectric Conventional 72,245 104,967 86,037 93,446 77,279

Industrial 32,926,240 32,412,566 32,198,528 31,871,511 30,508,807


Biomass 28,703,816 29,164,073 29,003,087 28,972,463 28,918,826
Waste 715,445 796,988 732,553 572,447 631,452
Landfill Gas 96,018 120,018 113,155 28,786 27,087
MSW Biogenic1 35,997 30,213 34,441 34,541 39,782
Other Biomass2 583,431 646,757 584,957 509,120 564,583
Wood and Derived Fuels3 27,988,371 28,367,085 28,270,534 28,400,016 28,287,374
Hydroelectric Conventional 4,222,424 3,248,493 3,195,441 2,899,048 1,589,981

Electric Power4 320,992,669 317,391,910 323,693,336 352,187,707 320,547,239


Biomass 23,335,310 22,798,191 23,600,971 24,268,913 25,005,592
Waste 13,807,633 13,061,787 13,031,084 13,927,432 14,294,304
Landfill Gas 4,829,632 4,836,377 4,811,325 5,475,664 5,928,117
MSW Biogenic1 7,553,146 7,175,417 7,342,938 7,487,120 7,301,560
Other Biomass2 1,424,854 1,049,993 876,822 964,648 1,064,627
Wood and Derived Fuels3 9,527,677 9,736,404 10,569,886 10,341,481 10,711,288
Geothermal 14,424,231 14,810,975 14,691,745 14,568,029 14,637,213
Hydroelectric Conventional 271,511,659 265,063,848 267,039,777 286,253,922 245,842,714
Solar/PV 534,001 575,155 550,294 507,706 611,793
Wind 11,187,467 14,143,741 17,810,549 26,589,137 34,449,927
1
Includes paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
4
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Data revisions are discussed in the Highlights section.
Revisions to biomass removed MSW non-biogenic and tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Electric Power: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report,"
and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

23 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.12 U.S. Electric Net Summer Capacity, 2003 - 2007
(Megawatts)
Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total 948,446 962,942 978,020 986,215 994,888


Renewable Total 96,847 96,357 98,746 101,934 107,954
Biomass 9,628 9,711 9,802 10,100 10,839
Waste 3,758 3,529 3,609 3,727 4,134
Landfill Gas 863 859 887 978 1,319
MSW1 2,442 2,196 2,167 2,188 2,218
Other Biomass2 453 474 554 561 598
Wood and Derived Fuels3 5,871 6,182 6,193 6,372 6,704
Geothermal 2,133 2,152 2,285 2,274 2,214
Hydroelectric Conventional 78,694 77,641 77,541 77,821 77,885
Solar/PV 397 398 411 411 502
Wind 5,995 6,456 8,706 11,329 16,515
Nonrenewable Total 851,599 866,585 879,274 884,281 886,934
1
Includes total capacity whose primary energy source is MSW.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste and other biomass solids, liquids and gases. Does not include tires.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Data revisions are discussed in the Highlights section.
Revisions to biomass capacity removed tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 24


Table 1.13 Renewable Electricity Net Generation by Energy Source and Census Division, 2007
(Thousand Kilowattthours)
Biomass
Waste Hydroelectric
Census Division Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
MSW Other Conventional
Landfill Gas Derived Fuels3
Biogenic1 Biomass2

Total 6,157,750 8,303,838 2,062,966 39,014,024 14,637,213 247,509,974 611,793 34,449,927 352,747,486
New England 394,977 1,943,271 78,898 5,391,892 - 6,815,108 - 109,582 14,733,728
Middle Atlantic 1,104,706 2,600,360 24,057 1,111,828 - 27,509,447 - 1,323,906 33,674,303
East North Central 1,723,434 257,066 49,068 2,876,659 - 3,800,171 - 791,181 9,497,579
West North Central 256,007 358,319 207,085 727,590 - 7,401,115 - 7,535,581 16,485,697
South Atlantic 592,421 2,606,046 637,049 10,768,125 - 11,085,581 - 167,588 25,856,811
East South Central 116,188 - 53,460 6,510,550 - 10,744,302 - 49,937 17,474,436
West South Central 355,710 3,721 135,809 5,669,471 - 8,773,694 - 10,855,527 25,793,931
Mountain 53,583 5,954 51,582 591,526 1,416,616 30,252,605 54,824 4,107,679 36,534,369
Pacific Contiguous 1,560,725 359,651 699,936 5,366,361 12,990,711 139,744,385 556,969 9,269,751 170,548,489
Pacific Noncontiguous - 169,450 126,023 s 229,886 1,383,566 - 239,196 2,148,143
1
Includes paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
s = Less than 500 kilowatthours.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant
Report."

25 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.14 Industrial Biomass Electricity Net Generation by Census Division and Energy Sources, 2007
(Thousand Kilowattthours)
Census Division
East West East West
Energy Source New Middle South Pacific Pacific
North North South South Mountain Total
England Atlantic Atlantic Contiguous Noncontiguous
Central Central Central Central

Total 1,975,026 653,064 1,686,598 506,949 9,434,098 6,358,302 5,699,297 516,242 2,072,464 16,786 28,918,826
Agricultural Byproducts/Crops - - - 13,507 167,595 5,017 19,291 - - 6,590 211,999
Black Liquor 836,436 481,823 1,044,402 322,214 6,746,917 4,257,883 3,683,644 335,015 635,531 - 18,343,866
Landfill Gases - - 22,162 - 1,404 3,520 - - - - 27,087
MSW Biogenic - - - - 36,061 - 3,721 - - - 39,782
Other Biomass Gases - - 3,197 7,245 - - - - - - 10,442
Other Biomass Liquids s 712 - - s - s - - 10,196 11,302
Other Biomass Solids s - 14,847 - 93,399 - - - - - 108,724
Sludge Waste 38,564 2,613 10,737 7,587 55,654 48,443 6,712 - 51,805 - 222,115
Wood/Wood Waste Liquids - 66,331 - - - - - - - - 66,331
Wood/Wood Waste Solids 1,099,354 101,584 591,252 156,396 2,332,970 2,043,439 1,985,827 181,226 1,385,129 - 9,877,177
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
s = Less than 500 kilowatthours.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 26


Table 1.15 Renewable Electric Power Sector Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2006
(Thousand Kilowattthours)
Biomass
Waste
Hydroelectric
State Landfill Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Other Conventional
Gas/MSW Derived Fuels3
Biomass2
Biogenic1

Alabama - - 206,459 - 7,251,786 - - 7,458,245


Alaska - - - - 1,223,607 - 788 1,224,395
Arizona 27,929 - 8,240 - 6,792,904 13,134 - 6,842,207
Arkansas 7,407 20,439 - - 1,550,558 - - 1,578,404
California 1,561,782 275,651 2,564,860 12,821,434 48,039,986 494,572 4,882,801 70,641,086
Colorado - 30,692 - - 1,791,207 - 865,536 2,687,435
Connecticut 754,776 - 8,544 - 543,892 - - 1,307,212
Delaware s - - - - - - s
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 1,824,337 242,575 471,831 - 203,422 - - 2,742,165
Georgia 14,908 - - - 2,545,504 - - 2,560,412
Hawaii - 129,092 - 212,276 81,792 - 79,674 502,834
Idaho - - 75,926 - 11,242,372 - 169,617 11,487,915
Illinois 581,899 11,993 - - 173,272 - 254,571 1,021,735
Indiana 173,991 - - - 489,515 - - 663,506
Iowa 100,268 - - - 909,348 - 2,317,821 3,327,437
Kansas - - - - 9,649 - 991,890 1,001,539
Kentucky 87,713 - - - 2,591,701 - - 2,679,414
Louisiana - 76,304 - - 713,215 - - 789,519
Maine 139,382 8,142 1,843,344 - 3,499,336 - - 5,490,204
Maryland 392,946 - - - 2,104,275 - - 2,497,221
Massachusetts 1,126,129 s 125,258 - 1,504,072 - - 2,755,819
Michigan 583,153 - 1,062,967 - 1,488,242 - 2,212 3,136,574
Minnesota 400,307 - 96,578 - 475,342 - 2,054,947 3,027,174
Mississippi - - - - - - - -
Missouri 15,195 - s - 199,214 - - 214,505
Montana - - - - 10,130,161 - 435,970 10,566,131
Nebraska 37,404 3,137 - - 893,386 - 261,247 1,195,174
Nevada - - - 1,343,711 2,057,626 - - 3,401,337
New Hampshire 156,399 - 580,433 - 1,523,637 - - 2,260,469
New Jersey 803,245 94,659 - - 34,076 - 15,991 947,971
New Mexico - 21,885 - - 198,211 - 1,255,436 1,475,532
New York 1,276,047 9,631 292,366 - 27,252,046 - 655,371 29,485,461
North Carolina 88,110 - 447,833 - 3,333,173 - - 3,869,116
North Dakota - - - - 1,521,034 - 369,485 1,890,519
Ohio 23,653 - 37,883 - 631,936 - 14,401 707,873
Oklahoma - - - - 623,579 - 1,712,441 2,336,020
Oregon 71,203 13,926 290,225 - 37,850,297 - 931,219 39,156,871
Pennsylvania 1,297,599 14,348 193,472 - 2,844,142 - 361,108 4,710,669
Rhode Island 148,913 - - - 5,909 - - 154,822
South Carolina 61,042 - 348,887 - 1,805,295 - - 2,215,224
South Dakota - - - - 3,396,833 - 148,965 3,545,798
Tennessee 23,675 1,286 - - 7,167,342 - 54,598 7,246,901
Texas 201,073 2,023 - - 661,971 - 6,670,515 7,535,582
Utah 6,158 - - 190,608 746,783 - - 943,549
Vermont - - 435,628 - 1,497,064 - 10,688 1,943,380
Virginia 443,218 - 482,711 - 1,344,890 - - 2,270,819
Washington 165,496 6,843 600,223 - 81,943,845 - 1,037,651 83,754,058
West Virginia - - - - 1,048,467 - 173,757 1,222,224
Wisconsin 367,010 1,662 167,715 - 1,474,692 - 101,376 2,112,455
Wyoming - - - - 843,316 - 759,061 1,602,377

U.S. Total 12,962,784 964,648 10,341,481 14,568,029 286,253,922 507,706 26,589,137 352,187,707
1
Includes landfill gas and MSW biogenic (paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings).
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
s = Less than 500 kilowatthours.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass removed MSW non-biogenic and tires from renewable waste energy.
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

27 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.16 Renewable Commercial and Industrial Sector Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2006
(Thousand Kilowattthours)
Biomass
Waste
Hydroelectric
State Landfill Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Other Conventional
Gas/MSW Derived Fuels3
Biomass2
Biogenic1

Alabama 3,937 15,514 3,658,551 - - - - 3,678,002


Alaska - 6,149 516 - - - - 6,665
Arizona - 4,264 - - - - - 4,264
Arkansas - 5,580 1,689,379 - - - - 1,694,959
California 123,151 333,912 857,232 - 7,394 - - 1,321,689
Colorado - - - - - - - -
Connecticut - - - - - - - -
Delaware - - - - - - - -
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 955 283,834 1,507,157 - - - - 1,791,946
Georgia 9,710 32,090 3,362,210 - 23,333 - - 3,427,343
Hawaii 189,162 7,439 - - 38,295 - - 234,896
Idaho - - 444,414 - - - - 444,414
Illinois - s - - - - - s
Indiana 46,221 - - - - - - 46,221
Iowa - 36,628 - - - - - 36,628
Kansas - - - - - - - -
Kentucky - 1,724 369,361 - - - - 371,085
Louisiana - 5,128 2,880,930 - - - - 2,886,059
Maine 95,359 40,150 1,841,274 - 778,796 - - 2,755,579
Maryland 15,149 - 218,066 - - - - 233,215
Massachusetts - 27,082 - - 8,573 - - 35,654
Michigan 151,927 1,743 640,557 - 32,111 - - 826,338
Minnesota 11,212 2,748 493,092 - 96,388 - - 603,440
Mississippi - 6,480 1,534,602 - - - - 1,541,082
Missouri - 8,680 - - - - - 8,680
Montana - - 94,415 - - - - 94,415
Nebraska - 11,472 - - - - - 11,472
Nevada - - - - - - - -
New Hampshire - - 9,548 - 5,273 - - 14,821
New Jersey - 2,889 - - 1,360 - - 4,249
New Mexico - - - - - - - -
New York 133,763 - 229,463 - 92,609 - - 455,836
North Carolina - 3,631 1,288,732 - 505,839 - - 1,798,201
North Dakota - 3,544 - - - - - 3,544
Ohio - 10,468 372,209 - - - - 382,678
Oklahoma - - 297,283 - - - - 297,283
Oregon - 13,847 508,568 - - - - 522,415
Pennsylvania 113,341 3,420 489,658 - - - - 606,419
Rhode Island - - - - - - - -
South Carolina 45,011 - 1,455,497 - 1,653 - - 1,502,161
South Dakota - - - - - - - -
Tennessee - 33,221 697,819 - 581,308 - - 1,312,348
Texas 17,740 34,865 892,044 - - - - 944,649
Utah 8,710 - - - - - - 8,710
Vermont - - 3,594 - 21,601 - - 25,195
Virginia 218,611 16,578 1,297,332 - 6,304 - - 1,538,825
Washington - 11,674 680,966 - 63,784 - - 756,424
West Virginia - s - - 523,966 - - 524,262
Wisconsin 7,868 13,845 606,148 - 203,906 - - 831,767
Wyoming - - - - - - - -

U.S. Total 1,191,827 979,266 28,420,615 - 2,992,493 - - 33,584,201


1
Includes landfill gas and MSW biogenic (paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings).
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
s = Less than 500 kilowatthours.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass removed MSW non-biogenic and tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 28


Table 1.17 Total Renewable Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2006
(Thousand Kilowattthours)
Biomass
Waste
Hydroelectric
State Landfill Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Other Conventional
Gas/MSW Derived Fuels3
Biomass2
Biogenic1

Alabama 3,937 15,514 3,865,010 - 7,251,786 - - 11,136,248


Alaska - 6,149 516 - 1,223,607 - 788 1,231,060
Arizona 27,929 4,264 8,240 - 6,792,904 13,134 - 6,846,471
Arkansas 7,407 26,019 1,689,379 - 1,550,558 - - 3,273,363
California 1,684,932 609,563 3,422,093 12,821,434 48,047,380 494,572 4,882,801 71,962,775
Colorado - 30,692 - - 1,791,207 - 865,536 2,687,435
Connecticut 754,776 - 8,544 - 543,892 - - 1,307,212
Delaware s - - - - - - s
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 1,825,292 526,409 1,978,988 - 203,422 - - 4,534,112
Georgia 24,618 32,090 3,362,210 - 2,568,837 - - 5,987,755
Hawaii 189,162 136,530 - 212,276 120,087 - 79,674 737,729
Idaho - - 520,340 - 11,242,372 - 169,617 11,932,329
Illinois 581,899 12,362 - - 173,272 - 254,571 1,022,104
Indiana 220,212 - - - 489,515 - - 709,727
Iowa 100,268 36,628 - - 909,348 - 2,317,821 3,364,065
Kansas - - - - 9,649 - 991,890 1,001,539
Kentucky 87,713 1,724 369,361 - 2,591,701 - - 3,050,499
Louisiana - 81,432 2,880,930 - 713,215 - - 3,675,578
Maine 234,741 48,292 3,684,618 - 4,278,132 - - 8,245,783
Maryland 408,095 - 218,066 - 2,104,275 - - 2,730,436
Massachusetts 1,126,129 27,442 125,258 - 1,512,645 - - 2,791,473
Michigan 735,080 1,743 1,703,524 - 1,520,353 - 2,212 3,962,912
Minnesota 411,518 2,748 589,670 - 571,730 - 2,054,947 3,630,614
Mississippi - 6,480 1,534,602 - - - - 1,541,082
Missouri 15,195 8,680 s - 199,214 - - 223,185
Montana - - 94,415 - 10,130,161 - 435,970 10,660,546
Nebraska 37,404 14,610 - - 893,386 - 261,247 1,206,647
Nevada - - - 1,343,711 2,057,626 - - 3,401,337
New Hampshire 156,399 - 589,981 - 1,528,910 - - 2,275,290
New Jersey 803,245 97,548 - - 35,436 - 15,991 952,220
New Mexico - 21,885 - - 198,211 - 1,255,436 1,475,532
New York 1,409,811 9,631 521,829 - 27,344,655 - 655,371 29,941,296
North Carolina 88,110 3,631 1,736,565 - 3,839,012 - - 5,667,317
North Dakota - 3,544 - - 1,521,034 - 369,485 1,894,063
Ohio 23,653 10,468 410,093 - 631,936 - 14,401 1,090,551
Oklahoma - - 297,283 - 623,579 - 1,712,441 2,633,303
Oregon 71,203 27,773 798,793 - 37,850,297 - 931,219 39,679,286
Pennsylvania 1,410,940 17,768 683,130 - 2,844,142 - 361,108 5,317,088
Rhode Island 148,913 - - - 5,909 - - 154,822
South Carolina 106,053 - 1,804,384 - 1,806,948 - - 3,717,385
South Dakota - - - - 3,396,833 - 148,965 3,545,798
Tennessee 23,675 34,507 697,819 - 7,748,650 - 54,598 8,559,249
Texas 218,813 36,888 892,044 - 661,971 - 6,670,515 8,480,231
Utah 14,868 - - 190,608 746,783 - - 952,259
Vermont - - 439,222 - 1,518,665 - 10,688 1,968,575
Virginia 661,829 16,578 1,780,043 - 1,351,194 - - 3,809,644
Washington 165,496 18,518 1,281,189 - 82,007,629 - 1,037,651 84,510,483
West Virginia - s - - 1,572,433 - 173,757 1,746,486
Wisconsin 374,878 15,507 773,863 - 1,678,598 - 101,376 2,944,221
Wyoming - - - - 843,316 - 759,061 1,602,377

U.S. Total 14,154,611 1,943,913 38,762,096 14,568,029 289,246,416 507,706 26,589,137 385,771,908
1
Includes landfill gas and MSW biogenic (paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings).
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
s = Less than 500 kilowatthours.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass removed MSW non-biogenic and tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

29 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.18 Renewable Electric Power Sector Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2007
(Thousand Kilowattthours)
Biomass
Waste
Hydroelectric
State Landfill Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Other Conventional
Gas/MSW Derived Fuels3
Biomass2
Biogenic1

Alabama - - 209,227 - 4,136,114 - - 4,345,341


Alaska - - - - 1,291,223 - 1,012 1,292,235
Arizona 28,507 - - - 6,597,671 8,649 - 6,634,827
Arkansas 33,438 5,091 - - 3,236,753 - - 3,275,282
California 1,538,096 346,943 2,536,524 12,990,711 27,314,363 556,969 5,584,933 50,868,540
Colorado - 31,105 - - 1,729,533 2,208 1,291,516 3,054,362
Connecticut 728,164 - 1,676 - 363,261 - - 1,093,100
Delaware 48,116 - - - - - - 48,116
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 1,793,086 281,067 409,908 - 154,446 - - 2,638,507
Georgia 12,808 - - - 2,217,013 - - 2,229,821
Hawaii - 109,237 - 229,886 54,611 - 238,184 631,918
Idaho - - 75,285 - 9,021,690 - 172,267 9,269,242
Illinois 603,225 16,348 - - 153,727 - 664,427 1,437,727
Indiana 189,853 - - - 449,936 - - 639,789
Iowa 122,715 - - - 962,346 - 2,756,676 3,841,737
Kansas - - - - 10,501 - 1,152,538 1,163,039
Kentucky 93,440 - - - 1,668,587 - - 1,762,027
Louisiana - 74,988 - - 826,642 - - 901,630
Maine 113,562 13,026 1,910,641 - 3,043,827 - 99,071 5,180,127
Maryland 383,974 - - - 1,652,216 - - 2,036,191
Massachusetts 1,094,431 - 119,157 - 778,232 - - 1,991,820
Michigan 555,824 s 1,014,377 - 1,243,903 - 2,723 2,816,882
Minnesota 413,529 135,303 248,844 - 558,269 - 2,638,812 3,994,757
Mississippi - - - - - - - -
Missouri 21,944 - s - 1,204,326 - - 1,226,390
Montana - - - - 9,364,336 - 495,776 9,860,112
Nebraska 46,184 2,837 - - 347,444 - 216,765 613,230
Nevada - - - 1,252,691 2,003,191 43,967 - 3,299,849
New Hampshire 152,816 - 970,038 - 1,260,733 - - 2,383,587
New Jersey 822,453 - - - 20,909 - 20,412 863,774
New Mexico - 15,994 - - 267,978 - 1,393,239 1,677,211
New York 1,312,795 7,416 270,749 - 25,190,534 - 833,476 27,614,970
North Carolina 85,745 - 432,033 - 2,974,677 - - 3,492,455
North Dakota - - - - 1,305,393 - 620,772 1,926,165
Ohio 10,972 - 31,210 - 410,436 - 14,748 467,366
Oklahoma - - - - 3,065,862 - 1,849,144 4,915,006
Oregon 88,363 - 242,017 - 33,587,439 - 1,246,994 35,164,813
Pennsylvania 1,324,739 13,314 191,340 - 2,235,982 - 470,018 4,235,393
Rhode Island 154,757 - - - 4,364 - - 159,121
South Carolina 63,842 - 375,755 - 1,555,213 - - 1,994,809
South Dakota - - - - 2,917,283 - 150,018 3,067,301
Tennessee 19,228 - - - 4,939,601 - 49,937 5,008,766
Texas 302,739 8,770 - - 1,644,437 - 9,006,383 10,962,329
Utah 5,954 - - 163,925 538,782 - - 708,662
Vermont - - 453,038 - 645,081 - 10,511 1,108,629
Virginia 498,237 - 459,154 - 1,241,501 - - 2,198,892
Washington 162,890 s 567,160 - 78,781,231 - 2,437,823 81,949,105
West Virginia - - - - 805,854 - 167,588 973,442
Wisconsin 403,251 3,132 193,035 - 1,335,840 - 109,283 2,044,541
Wyoming - - - - 729,424 - 754,881 1,484,305

U.S. Total 13,229,677 1,064,627 10,711,288 14,637,213 245,842,714 611,793 34,449,927 320,547,239
1
Includes landfill gas and MSW biogenic (paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings).
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
s = Less than 500 kilowatthours.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass removed MSW non-biogenic and tires from renewable waste energy.
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-
920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 30


Table 1.19 Renewable Commercial and Industrial Sector Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2007
(Thousand Kilowattthours)
Biomass
Waste
Hydroelectric
State Landfill Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Other Conventional
Gas/MSW Derived Fuels3
Biomass2
Biogenic1

Alabama 3,520 13,218 3,574,655 - - - - 3,591,393


Alaska - 10,196 s - - - - 10,218
Arizona - 4,483 - - - - - 4,483
Arkansas - 4,412 1,580,803 - - - - 1,585,215
California 119,002 301,187 870,891 - 13,388 - - 1,304,469
Colorado - - - - - - - -
Connecticut - - - - - - - -
Delaware - - - - - - - -
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 1,404 297,462 1,519,891 - - - - 1,818,757
Georgia 3,413 37,103 3,362,097 - 19,175 - - 3,421,789
Hawaii 169,450 6,590 - - 37,733 - - 213,773
Idaho - - 405,297 - - - - 405,297
Illinois - 752 - - - - - 752
Indiana 41,394 - - - - - - 41,394
Iowa - 28,368 s - - - - 28,384
Kansas - - - - - - - -
Kentucky - 1,973 370,210 - - - - 372,183
Louisiana - 6,524 2,898,371 - - - - 2,904,895
Maine 94,519 39,236 1,936,925 - 694,340 - - 2,765,020
Maryland 16,390 - 203,097 - - - - 219,487
Massachusetts - 26,636 - - 19,250 - - 45,886
Michigan 165,460 s 677,825 - 26,086 - - 869,854
Minnesota 9,953 7,587 478,610 - 95,553 - - 591,703
Mississippi - 5,017 1,488,348 - - - - 1,493,365
Missouri - 7,245 - - - - - 7,245
Montana - - 110,945 - - - - 110,945
Nebraska - 12,238 - - - - - 12,238
Nevada - - - - - - - -
New Hampshire - - s - 4,496 - - 4,914
New Jersey - 713 - - - - - 713
New Mexico - - - - - - - -
New York 129,135 - 221,512 - 62,022 - - 412,669
North Carolina - 1,100 1,153,341 - 9,482 - - 1,163,923
North Dakota - 13,507 - - - - - 13,507
Ohio - 10,045 368,169 - - - - 378,214
Oklahoma 3,721 - 276,133 - - - - 279,854
Oregon 12,026 38,345 600,549 - - - - 650,919
Pennsylvania 115,944 2,613 428,226 - - - - 546,784
Rhode Island - - - - - - - -
South Carolina 36,760 - 1,519,677 - 699 - - 1,557,136
South Dakota - - - - - - - -
Tennessee - 33,252 868,110 - - - - 901,361
Texas 19,532 36,023 914,164 - - - - 969,720
Utah 25,076 - - - - - - 25,076
Vermont - - - - 1,524 - - 1,524
Virginia 254,691 20,317 1,333,172 - 6,763 - - 1,614,943
Washington - 13,460 549,220 - 47,964 - - 610,644
West Virginia - - - - 448,543 - - 448,543
Wisconsin 10,520 18,252 592,044 - 180,243 - - 801,059
Wyoming - - - - - - - -

U.S. Total 1,231,911 998,339 28,302,736 - 1,667,260 - - 32,200,246


1
Includes landfill gas and MSW biogenic (paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings).
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
s = Less than 500 kilowatthours.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass removed MSW non-biogenic and tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-
920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

31 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.20 Total Renewable Net Generation by Energy Source and State, 2007
(Thousand Kilowattthours)
Biomass
Waste
Hydroelectric
State Landfill Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Other Conventional
Gas/MSW Derived Fuels3
Biomass2
Biogenic1

Alabama 3,520 13,218 3,783,882 - 4,136,114 - - 7,936,734


Alaska - 10,196 s - 1,291,223 - 1,012 1,302,453
Arizona 28,507 4,483 - - 6,597,671 8,649 - 6,639,310
Arkansas 33,438 9,503 1,580,803 - 3,236,753 - - 4,860,497
California 1,657,098 648,130 3,407,416 12,990,711 27,327,751 556,969 5,584,933 52,173,008
Colorado - 31,105 - - 1,729,533 2,208 1,291,516 3,054,362
Connecticut 728,164 - 1,676 - 363,261 - - 1,093,100
Delaware 48,116 - - - - - - 48,116
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 1,794,490 578,529 1,929,798 - 154,446 - - 4,457,264
Georgia 16,221 37,103 3,362,097 - 2,236,188 - - 5,651,610
Hawaii 169,450 115,827 - 229,886 92,343 - 238,184 845,691
Idaho - - 480,582 - 9,021,690 - 172,267 9,674,539
Illinois 603,225 17,100 - - 153,727 - 664,427 1,438,480
Indiana 231,247 - - - 449,936 - - 681,183
Iowa 122,715 28,368 s - 962,346 - 2,756,676 3,870,121
Kansas - - - - 10,501 - 1,152,538 1,163,039
Kentucky 93,440 1,973 370,210 - 1,668,587 - - 2,134,210
Louisiana - 81,512 2,898,371 - 826,642 - - 3,806,525
Maine 208,081 52,262 3,847,566 - 3,738,168 - 99,071 7,945,147
Maryland 400,364 - 203,097 - 1,652,216 - - 2,255,678
Massachusetts 1,094,431 26,636 119,157 - 797,482 - - 2,037,706
Michigan 721,284 538 1,692,202 - 1,269,989 - 2,723 3,686,736
Minnesota 423,482 142,889 727,455 - 653,822 - 2,638,812 4,586,460
Mississippi - 5,017 1,488,348 - - - - 1,493,365
Missouri 21,944 7,245 s - 1,204,326 - - 1,233,635
Montana - - 110,945 - 9,364,336 - 495,776 9,971,057
Nebraska 46,184 15,075 - - 347,444 - 216,765 625,468
Nevada - - - 1,252,691 2,003,191 43,967 - 3,299,849
New Hampshire 152,816 - 970,456 - 1,265,229 - - 2,388,501
New Jersey 822,453 713 - - 20,909 - 20,412 864,487
New Mexico - 15,994 - - 267,978 - 1,393,239 1,677,211
New York 1,441,930 7,416 492,261 - 25,252,555 - 833,476 28,027,639
North Carolina 85,745 1,100 1,585,374 - 2,984,159 - - 4,656,377
North Dakota - 13,507 - - 1,305,393 - 620,772 1,939,672
Ohio 10,972 10,045 399,378 - 410,436 - 14,748 845,579
Oklahoma 3,721 - 276,133 - 3,065,862 - 1,849,144 5,194,860
Oregon 100,389 38,345 842,565 - 33,587,439 - 1,246,994 35,815,732
Pennsylvania 1,440,683 15,928 619,567 - 2,235,982 - 470,018 4,782,178
Rhode Island 154,757 - - - 4,364 - - 159,121
South Carolina 100,602 - 1,895,432 - 1,555,912 - - 3,551,946
South Dakota - - - - 2,917,283 - 150,018 3,067,301
Tennessee 19,228 33,252 868,110 - 4,939,601 - 49,937 5,910,127
Texas 322,272 44,793 914,164 - 1,644,437 - 9,006,383 11,932,049
Utah 31,030 - - 163,925 538,782 - - 733,738
Vermont - - 453,038 - 646,605 - 10,511 1,110,153
Virginia 752,928 20,317 1,792,326 - 1,248,264 - - 3,813,835
Washington 162,890 13,461 1,116,380 - 78,829,195 - 2,437,823 82,559,749
West Virginia - - - - 1,254,397 - 167,588 1,421,985
Wisconsin 413,771 21,384 785,079 - 1,516,083 - 109,283 2,845,600
Wyoming - - - - 729,424 - 754,881 1,484,305

U.S. Total 14,461,588 2,062,966 39,014,024 14,637,213 247,509,974 611,793 34,449,927 352,747,486
1
Includes landfill gas and MSW biogenic (paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings).
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
s = Less than 500 kilowatthours.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass removed MSW non-biogenic and tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-
920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 32


Table 1.21 Renewable Electric Power Sector Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2006
(Megawatts)
Biomass
Waste Hydroelectric
State Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Landfill Other Conventional
Derived Fuels3
Gas/MSW1 Biomass2

Alabama - - - - 3,271 - - 3,271


Alaska - - - - 397 - 3 400
Arizona 4 - 3 - 2,720 9 - 2,736
Arkansas 5 4 - - 1,389 - - 1,397
California 263 49 436 2,032 10,078 402 2,255 15,514
Colorado - 10 - - 652 - 289 950
Connecticut 170 - - - 147 - - 316
Delaware 7 - - - - - - 7
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 447 75 67 - 55 - - 643
Georgia 2 - - - 2,020 - - 2,022
Hawaii - 46 - 31 18 - 43 138
Idaho - - 12 - 2,378 - 75 2,464
Illinois 111 13 - - 33 - 105 262
Indiana 22 - - - 60 - - 82
Iowa 11 - - - 131 - 921 1,064
Kansas - - - - 3 - 363 366
Kentucky 12 - - - 815 - - 827
Louisiana - 12 - - 192 - - 204
Maine 30 36 220 - 602 - - 888
Maryland 118 - - - 566 - - 684
Massachusetts 261 - 26 - 253 - - 540
Michigan 83 - 158 - 253 - 2 496
Minnesota 123 - 79 - 147 - 827 1,176
Mississippi - - - - - - - -
Missouri 3 - - - 552 - - 555
Montana - - - - 2,604 - 145 2,749
Nebraska 6 1 - - 272 - 73 352
Nevada - - - 188 1,047 - - 1,236
New Hampshire 31 - 128 - 512 - - 671
New Jersey 181 19 - - 5 - 8 212
New Mexico - 6 - - 82 - 494 582
New York 280 - 37 - 4,292 - 370 4,979
North Carolina 14 - 80 - 1,794 - - 1,889
North Dakota - - - - 443 - 164 607
Ohio 4 - 7 - 101 - 7 119
Oklahoma - - - - 851 - 594 1,446
Oregon 14 3 36 - 8,374 - 399 8,826
Pennsylvania 331 - 28 - 748 - 150 1,257
Rhode Island 24 - - - 4 - - 28
South Carolina 20 - - - 1,344 - - 1,364
South Dakota - - - - 1,516 - 43 1,559
Tennessee 5 2 - - 2,429 - 29 2,465
Texas 42 - - - 681 - 2,738 3,461
Utah 1 - - 23 255 - - 279
Vermont - - 72 - 304 - 5 381
Virginia 95 - 80 - 669 - - 843
Washington 35 4 136 - 21,148 - 821 22,145
West Virginia - - - - 163 - 66 229
Wisconsin 58 1 73 - 433 - 53 618
Wyoming - - - - 303 - 287 590

U.S. Total 2,812 282 1,677 2,274 77,104 411 11,329 95,888
1
Total capacity whose primary energy source is landfill gas or MSW.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass capacity removed tires from renewable waste energy.
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report."

33 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.22 Renewable Commercial and Industrial Sector Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2006
(Megawatts)
Biomass
Waste Hydroelectric
State Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Landfill Other Conventional
Derived Fuels3
Gas/MSW1 Biomass2

Alabama - - 581 - - - - 581


Alaska - - - - - - - -
Arizona - - - - - - - -
Arkansas - 2 292 - - - - 293
California 12 96 148 - 6 - - 262
Colorado - - - - - - - -
Connecticut - - - - - - - -
Delaware - - - - - - - -
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida - 89 276 - - - - 365
Georgia 2 44 450 - 7 - - 504
Hawaii 60 3 - - 5 - - 68
Idaho - - 64 - - - - 64
Illinois - 3 - - - - - 3
Indiana 9 - - - - - - 9
Iowa - 3 - - - - - 3
Kansas - - - - - - - -
Kentucky - - 43 - - - - 43
Louisiana - 3 318 - - - - 321
Maine 24 - 389 - 117 - - 530
Maryland 7 - 2 - - - - 9
Massachusetts - 9 - - 5 - - 14
Michigan 67 - 52 - 4 - - 122
Minnesota 4 - 49 - 29 - - 82
Mississippi - - 229 - - - - 229
Missouri - - - - - - - -
Montana - - 17 - - - - 17
Nebraska - 3 - - - - - 3
Nevada - - - - - - - -
New Hampshire - - 14 - s - - 14
New Jersey - 1 - - - - - 1
New Mexico - - - - - - - -
New York 33 - - - 15 - - 48
North Carolina - - 244 - 160 - - 403
North Dakota - 10 - - - - - 10
Ohio - - 57 - - - - 57
Oklahoma 16 - 63 - - - - 78
Oregon - - 158 - - - - 158
Pennsylvania 28 - 80 - - - - 108
Rhode Island - - - - - - - -
South Carolina 10 - 220 - 1 - - 231
South Dakota - - - - - - - -
Tennessee - - 147 - 209 - - 356
Texas - 16 130 - - - - 145
Utah 3 - - - - - - 3
Vermont - - 4 - 5 - - 8
Virginia 76 - 330 - 2 - - 408
Washington - - 190 - 8 - - 198
West Virginia - - - - 101 - - 101
Wisconsin 4 - 147 - 43 - - 195
Wyoming - - - - - - - -

U.S. Total 354 280 4,695 - 717 - - 6,046


1
Total capacity whose primary energy source is landfill gas or MSW.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
s = Less than 500 kilowatts.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass capacity removed tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 34


Table 1.23 Total Renewable Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2006
(Megawatts)
Biomass
Waste Hydroelectric
State Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Landfill Other Conventional
Derived Fuels3
Gas/MSW1 Biomass2

Alabama - - 581 - 3,271 - - 3,852


Alaska - - - - 397 - 3 400
Arizona 4 - 3 - 2,720 9 - 2,736
Arkansas 5 6 292 - 1,389 - - 1,691
California 275 145 584 2,032 10,083 402 2,255 15,776
Colorado - 10 - - 652 - 289 950
Connecticut 170 - - - 147 - - 316
Delaware 7 - - - - - - 7
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 447 163 343 - 55 - - 1,008
Georgia 5 44 450 - 2,027 - - 2,526
Hawaii 60 49 - 31 24 - 43 206
Idaho - - 75 - 2,378 - 75 2,528
Illinois 111 15 - - 33 - 105 264
Indiana 31 - - - 60 - - 91
Iowa 11 3 - - 131 - 921 1,067
Kansas - - - - 3 - 363 366
Kentucky 12 - 43 - 815 - - 871
Louisiana - 15 318 - 192 - - 525
Maine 53 36 609 - 719 - - 1,418
Maryland 126 - 2 - 566 - - 693
Massachusetts 261 9 26 - 259 - - 554
Michigan 149 - 210 - 257 - 2 618
Minnesota 127 - 129 - 175 - 827 1,259
Mississippi - - 229 - - - - 229
Missouri 3 - - - 552 - - 555
Montana - - 17 - 2,604 - 145 2,766
Nebraska 6 4 - - 272 - 73 355
Nevada - - - 188 1,047 - - 1,236
New Hampshire 31 - 141 - 512 - - 685
New Jersey 181 20 - - 5 - 8 212
New Mexico - 6 - - 82 - 494 582
New York 313 - 37 - 4,307 - 370 5,027
North Carolina 14 - 324 - 1,954 - - 2,292
North Dakota - 10 - - 443 - 164 617
Ohio 4 - 64 - 101 - 7 175
Oklahoma 16 - 63 - 851 - 594 1,524
Oregon 14 3 195 - 8,374 - 399 8,984
Pennsylvania 359 - 108 - 748 - 150 1,365
Rhode Island 24 - - - 4 - - 28
South Carolina 29 - 220 - 1,345 - - 1,594
South Dakota - - - - 1,516 - 43 1,559
Tennessee 5 2 147 - 2,638 - 29 2,821
Texas 42 16 130 - 681 - 2,738 3,607
Utah 4 - - 23 255 - - 282
Vermont - - 76 - 309 - 5 390
Virginia 170 - 410 - 671 - - 1,251
Washington 35 4 326 - 21,156 - 821 22,343
West Virginia - - - - 264 - 66 330
Wisconsin 62 1 220 - 476 - 53 813
Wyoming - - - - 303 - 287 590

U.S. Total 3,166 561 6,372 2,274 77,821 411 11,329 101,934
1
Total capacity whose primary energy source is landfill gas or MSW.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass capacity removed tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report."

35 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.24 Renewable Electric Power Sector Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2007
(Megawatts)
Biomass
Waste Hydroelectric
State Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Landfill Other Conventional
Derived Fuels3
Gas/MSW1 Biomass2

Alabama - - - - 3,272 - - 3,272


Alaska - - - - 397 - 3 400
Arizona 4 - 3 - 2,720 9 - 2,736
Arkansas 5 4 - - 1,321 - - 1,330
California 367 47 435 1,940 10,035 404 2,312 15,538
Colorado - 10 - - 665 8 1,063 1,746
Connecticut 163 - - - 122 - - 285
Delaware 7 - - - - - - 7
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 463 105 67 - 55 - - 690
Georgia 7 - - - 2,025 - - 2,032
Hawaii - 46 - 31 18 - 64 159
Idaho - - 12 - 2,367 - 75 2,454
Illinois 131 13 - - 33 - 740 916
Indiana 30 - - - 60 - - 90
Iowa 11 - - - 131 - 1,170 1,313
Kansas - - - - 3 - 363 366
Kentucky 15 - - - 817 - - 833
Louisiana - 11 - - 192 - - 203
Maine 30 36 220 - 601 - 42 929
Maryland 124 - - - 590 - - 714
Massachusetts 264 - 26 - 253 - 2 545
Michigan 90 - 179 - 245 - 2 516
Minnesota 124 55 111 - 146 - 1,139 1,575
Mississippi - - - - - - - -
Missouri 3 - - - 552 - 57 612
Montana - - - 22 2,620 - 149 2,792
Nebraska 6 2 - - 273 - 25 305
Nevada - - - 189 1,048 78 - 1,315
New Hampshire 29 - 139 - 494 - - 662
New Jersey 182 19 - - 4 2 8 215
New Mexico - 6 - - 82 - 494 582
New York 291 - 37 - 4,286 - 425 5,039
North Carolina 18 - 80 - 1,955 - - 2,053
North Dakota - - - - 486 - 383 869
Ohio 41 - 7 - 101 - 7 157
Oklahoma - - - - 851 - 689 1,540
Oregon 17 3 37 - 8,385 - 885 9,327
Pennsylvania 351 - 28 - 748 - 293 1,421
Rhode Island 24 - - - 4 - - 28
South Carolina 20 - - - 1,336 - - 1,356
South Dakota - - - - 1,463 - 43 1,506
Tennessee 8 2 - - 2,635 - 29 2,673
Texas 72 5 - - 673 - 4,490 5,240
Utah 1 - - 33 255 - - 289
Vermont - - 72 - 304 - 5 381
Virginia 178 - 83 - 672 - - 933
Washington 36 - 86 - 21,328 1 1,162 22,612
West Virginia - - - - 163 - 66 229
Wisconsin 65 1 73 - 444 - 44 626
Wyoming - - - - 303 - 287 590

U.S. Total 3,176 364 1,694 2,214 77,532 501 16,515 101,996
1
Total capacity whose primary energy source is landfill gas or MSW.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass capacity removed tires from renewable waste energy.
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 36


Table 1.25 Renewable Commercial and Industrial Sector Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2007
(Megawatts)
Biomass
Waste Hydroelectric
State Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Landfill Other Conventional
Derived Fuels3
Gas/MSW1 Biomass2

Alabama - - 574 - - - - 574


Alaska - - - - - - - -
Arizona - - - - - - - -
Arkansas - 2 292 - - - - 293
California 13 56 162 - 6 - - 236
Colorado - - - - - - - -
Connecticut - - - - - - - -
Delaware - - - - - - - -
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida - 71 287 - - - - 358
Georgia 3 44 621 - 7 - - 675
Hawaii 60 3 - - 5 - - 68
Idaho - - 60 - - - - 60
Illinois - - - - - - - -
Indiana 9 - - - - - - 9
Iowa - 3 - - - - - 3
Kansas - - - - - - - -
Kentucky - - 47 - - - - 47
Louisiana - 3 380 - - - - 383
Maine 24 - 392 - 117 - - 533
Maryland 7 - 3 - - - - 9
Massachusetts - 9 - - 6 - - 15
Michigan 67 - 52 - 4 - - 122
Minnesota 4 - 49 - 30 - - 83
Mississippi - - 229 - - - - 229
Missouri - - - - - - - -
Montana - - 17 - - - - 17
Nebraska - 3 - - - - - 3
Nevada - - - - - 1 - 1
New Hampshire - - 1 - s - - 2
New Jersey - 1 - - - - - 1
New Mexico - - - - - - - -
New York 33 - - - 15 - - 49
North Carolina - - 243 - 5 - - 248
North Dakota - 10 - - - - - 10
Ohio - - 57 - - - - 57
Oklahoma 16 - 63 - - - - 78
Oregon 3 15 178 - - - - 196
Pennsylvania 28 - 80 - - - - 108
Rhode Island - - - - - - - -
South Carolina 10 - 220 - 1 - - 231
South Dakota - - - - - - - -
Tennessee - - 165 - - - - 165
Texas - 16 130 - - - - 145
Utah 3 - - - - - - 3
Vermont - - 4 - 5 - - 8
Virginia 76 - 335 - 3 - - 413
Washington - - 210 - 5 - - 215
West Virginia - - - - 101 - - 101
Wisconsin 7 - 159 - 44 - - 210
Wyoming - - - - - - - -

U.S. Total 360 235 5,010 - 353 1 - 5,958


1
Total capacity whose primary energy source is landfill gas or MSW.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
s = Less than 500 kilowatts.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass capacity removed tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report."

37 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.26 Total Renewable Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and State, 2007
(Megawatts)
Biomass
Waste Hydroelectric
State Wood and Geothermal Solar/PV Wind Total
Landfill Other Conventional
Derived Fuels3
Gas/MSW1 Biomass2

Alabama - - 574 - 3,272 - - 3,846


Alaska - - - - 397 - 3 400
Arizona 4 - 3 - 2,720 9 - 2,736
Arkansas 5 6 292 - 1,321 - - 1,623
California 380 102 596 1,940 10,041 404 2,312 15,774
Colorado - 10 - - 665 8 1,063 1,746
Connecticut 163 - - - 122 - - 285
Delaware 7 - - - - - - 7
District of Columbia - - - - - - - -
Florida 463 176 354 - 55 - - 1,048
Georgia 10 44 621 - 2,032 - - 2,706
Hawaii 60 49 - 31 24 - 64 227
Idaho - - 71 - 2,367 - 75 2,514
Illinois 131 13 - - 33 - 740 916
Indiana 39 - - - 60 - - 99
Iowa 11 3 - - 131 - 1,170 1,316
Kansas - - - - 3 - 363 366
Kentucky 15 - 47 - 817 - - 880
Louisiana - 14 380 - 192 - - 586
Maine 53 36 612 - 718 - 42 1,462
Maryland 130 - 3 - 590 - - 723
Massachusetts 264 9 26 - 259 - 2 560
Michigan 156 - 231 - 249 - 2 638
Minnesota 128 55 161 - 176 - 1,139 1,658
Mississippi - - 229 - - - - 229
Missouri 3 - - - 552 - 57 612
Montana - - 17 22 2,620 - 149 2,809
Nebraska 6 5 - - 273 - 25 308
Nevada - - - 189 1,048 79 - 1,316
New Hampshire 29 - 140 - 494 - - 663
New Jersey 182 20 - - 4 2 8 215
New Mexico - 6 - - 82 - 494 582
New York 324 - 37 - 4,301 - 425 5,087
North Carolina 18 - 324 - 1,960 - - 2,301
North Dakota - 10 - - 486 - 383 879
Ohio 41 - 64 - 101 - 7 213
Oklahoma 16 - 63 - 851 - 689 1,618
Oregon 20 18 215 - 8,385 - 885 9,523
Pennsylvania 379 - 108 - 748 - 293 1,529
Rhode Island 24 - - - 4 - - 28
South Carolina 29 - 220 - 1,337 - - 1,587
South Dakota - - - - 1,463 - 43 1,506
Tennessee 8 2 165 - 2,635 - 29 2,838
Texas 72 21 130 - 673 - 4,490 5,385
Utah 5 - - 33 255 - - 293
Vermont - - 76 - 308 - 5 389
Virginia 254 - 418 - 675 - - 1,347
Washington 36 - 296 - 21,333 1 1,162 22,828
West Virginia - - - - 264 - 66 330
Wisconsin 71 1 232 - 488 - 44 836
Wyoming - - - - 303 - 287 590

U.S. Total 3,536 598 6,704 2,214 77,885 502 16,515 107,954
1
Total capacity whose primary energy source is landfill gas or MSW.
2
Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases.
3
Black liquor, and wood/woodwaste solids and liquids.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
PV = Photovoltaic.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Revisions to biomass capacity removed tires from renewable waste energy.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 38


Table 1.27 Renewable Market Share of Net Generation by State, 2006 and 2007
(Thousand Kilowatthours)
2006 2007
Percent Percent
State Total Percent Total Percent
NonHydro NonHydro
Generation Renewable Generation Renewable
Renewable Renewable

Alabama 140,895,441 7.9 2.8 143,826,271 5.5 2.6


Alaska 6,674,197 18.4 0.1 6,821,392 19.1 0.2
Arizona 104,392,528 6.6 0.1 113,340,970 5.9 *
Arkansas 52,168,703 6.3 3.3 54,596,236 8.9 3.0
California 216,798,688 33.2 11.0 210,847,581 24.7 11.8
Colorado 50,698,353 5.3 1.8 53,907,492 5.7 2.5
Connecticut 34,681,736 3.8 2.2 33,171,209 3.3 2.2
Delaware 7,182,179 * * 8,534,163 0.6 0.6
District of Columbia 81,467 - - 75,251 - -
Florida 223,751,621 2.0 1.9 225,416,060 2.0 1.9
Georgia 138,010,208 4.3 2.5 145,155,158 3.9 2.4
Hawaii 11,559,174 6.4 5.3 11,533,350 7.3 6.5
Idaho 13,386,085 89.1 5.2 11,484,091 84.2 5.7
Illinois 192,426,958 0.5 0.4 200,260,681 0.7 0.6
Indiana 130,489,788 0.5 0.2 130,637,999 0.5 0.2
Iowa 45,483,462 7.4 5.4 49,789,217 7.8 5.8
Kansas 45,523,736 2.2 2.2 50,122,196 2.3 2.3
Kentucky 98,792,014 3.1 0.5 97,225,319 2.2 0.5
Louisiana 90,921,829 4.0 3.3 92,578,329 4.1 3.2
Maine 16,816,173 49.0 23.6 16,128,567 49.3 26.1
Maryland 48,956,880 5.6 1.3 50,197,924 4.5 1.2
Massachusetts 45,597,775 6.1 2.8 47,075,975 4.3 2.6
Michigan 112,556,738 3.5 2.2 119,309,936 3.1 2.0
Minnesota 53,237,789 6.8 5.7 54,477,646 8.4 7.2
Mississippi 46,228,847 3.3 3.3 50,043,686 3.0 3.0
Missouri 91,686,343 0.2 * 91,153,081 1.4 *
Montana 28,243,536 37.7 1.9 28,931,493 34.5 2.1
Nebraska 31,669,969 3.8 1.0 32,442,699 1.9 0.9
Nevada 31,860,022 10.7 4.2 32,669,736 10.1 4.0
New Hampshire 22,063,695 10.3 3.4 23,277,171 10.3 4.8
New Jersey 60,700,139 1.6 1.5 62,671,245 1.4 1.3
New Mexico 37,265,625 4.0 3.4 35,985,333 4.7 3.9
New York 142,265,432 21.0 1.8 145,878,687 19.2 1.9
North Carolina 125,214,784 4.5 1.5 130,115,301 3.6 1.3
North Dakota 30,881,137 6.1 1.2 31,224,105 6.2 2.0
Ohio 155,434,075 0.7 0.3 155,155,545 0.5 0.3
Oklahoma 70,614,880 3.7 2.8 72,819,095 7.1 2.9
Oregon 53,340,695 74.4 3.4 55,077,794 65.0 4.0
Pennsylvania 218,811,595 2.4 1.1 226,088,340 2.1 1.1
Rhode Island 5,967,725 2.6 2.5 7,049,844 2.3 2.2
South Carolina 99,267,606 3.7 1.9 103,402,142 3.4 1.9
South Dakota 7,132,243 49.7 2.1 6,136,605 50.0 2.4
Tennessee 93,911,102 9.1 0.9 95,113,409 6.2 1.0
Texas 400,582,878 2.1 2.0 405,492,296 2.9 2.5
Utah 41,263,324 2.3 0.5 45,372,575 1.6 0.4
Vermont 7,084,344 27.8 6.4 5,823,582 19.1 8.0
Virginia 73,069,537 5.2 3.4 78,360,507 4.9 3.3
Washington 108,203,155 78.1 2.3 106,990,217 77.2 3.5
West Virginia 93,815,804 1.9 0.2 93,933,109 1.5 0.2
Wisconsin 61,639,843 4.8 2.1 63,390,630 4.5 2.1
Wyoming 45,400,370 3.5 1.7 45,633,486 3.3 1.7

U.S. Total 4,064,702,227 9.5 2.4 4,156,744,724 8.5 2.5


* = Less than 0.05 percent.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Electric Power: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form EIA-906,
"Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

39 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.28 Renewable Portfolio Standards and State Mandates by State, 2007

RPS or
State
Mandate

Alabama -
Alaska -
Arizona X
Arkansas -
California X
Colorado X
Connecticut X
Delaware X
District of Columbia X
Florida1 X
Georgia -
Hawaii X
Idaho -
Illinois X
Indiana -
Iowa X
Kansas -
Kentucky -
Lousiana -
Maine X
Maryland X
Massachusetts X
Michigan X
Minnesota X
Mississippi -
Missouri X
Montana X
Nebraska -
Nevada X
New Hampshire X
New Jersey X
New Mexico X
New York X
North Carolina X
North Dakota X
Ohio X
Oklahoma -
Oregon X
Pennsylvania X
Rhode Island X
South Carolina -
South Dakota X
Tennessee -
Texas X
Utah X
Vermont X
Virginia X
Washington X
West Virginia -
Wisconsin X
Wyoming -
1
In Florida the RPS is not statewide.
- = No RPS or state mandate for that state.
Note: In some states, including North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont and Virginia, the renewable portfolio
standard (RPS) is voluntary.
Source: North Carolina Solar Center, Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE) website:
http://www.dsireusa.org (January 28, 2009).

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 40


Table 1.A1 Other Non-Renewable Energy Consumption by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 - 2007
(Quadrillion Btu)
Sector and Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total 0.280 0.273 0.259 0.259 0.262


Commercial 0.018 0.021 0.020 0.021 0.017
MSW Non-Biogenic1 0.018 0.021 0.020 0.020 0.017
Other Non-Biogenic2 0.001 0.001 * * 0.001
Industrial 0.121 0.113 0.116 0.114 0.121
MSW Non-Biogenic1 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.004
Other Non-Biogenic2 0.117 0.109 0.110 0.109 0.116
Electric Power3 0.140 0.138 0.123 0.125 0.124
MSW Non-Biogenic1 0.113 0.109 0.107 0.109 0.108
Other Non-Biogenic2 0.028 0.029 0.016 0.015 0.016
1
Includes glass, steel, aluminum, other nonferous metals, plastic, rubber, other materials, and miscellaneuos
inorganic wastes.
2
Tires and other (nonspecified).
3
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American
Classification System (NAICS) 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to
the public.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
* = Less than 500 billion Btu.
Note: Details of EIA`s analysis that revised MSW consumption are found in the Energy Information Administration
(EIA) report, Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenenic Energy
(Washington, DC, May 2007). After 2003 small amounts of other non-renewable energy consumption in the
industrial sector for certain plants, including those that capture energy from exothermic chemical and manufacturing
processes, are no longer included due to a change in EIA survey reporting requirements.
Sources: Analysis conducted by Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate
Fuels and the following specific sources:
Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form
EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

41 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 1.A2 Other Non-Renewable Net Electricity Generation by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2003 - 2007
(Thousand Kilowatthours)
Sector and Source 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Total 14,044,507 14,232,401 12,821,059 12,974,399 12,231,131


Commercial 593,868 780,803 755,987 758,464 764,083
MSW Non-Biogenic1 586,572 773,464 748,861 751,077 756,260
Other Non-Biogenic2 7,296 7,340 7,126 7,388 7,823
Industrial 4,843,169 5,129,158 5,136,905 5,103,173 4,690,087
MSW Non-Biogenic1 29,452 24,722 27,059 27,138 31,258
Other Non-Biogenic2 4,813,717 5,104,436 5,109,845 5,076,035 4,658,829
Electric Power3 8,607,470 8,322,440 6,928,167 7,112,762 6,776,960
MSW Non-Biogenic1 6,179,847 5,870,804 5,769,465 5,882,743 5,736,991
Other Non-Biogenic2 2,427,623 2,451,636 1,158,702 1,230,019 1,039,970
1
Includes glass, steel, aluminum, other nonferous metals, plastic, rubber, other materials, and miscellaneuos inorganic wastes.
2
Tires and other (nonspecified).
3
The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-power (CHP) plants within North American Classification
System (NAICS) 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
MSW = Municipal Solid Waste.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Details of EIA`s analysis that revised MSW consumption are found in the Energy Information Administration (EIA) report,
Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenenic Energy (Washington, DC, May 2007).
Sources: Analysis conducted by Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels and the
following specific sources:
Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms: Form EIA-906, "Power
Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 42


2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2007

Overview

After 3 years of rapid growth, solar thermal collector shipments reported to EIA declined
substantially in 2007 (Figure 2.1). Growth during 2003-2006 was largely due to the rise
in energy prices, concerns about global warming and dependence on foreign sources for
oil, and the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006, H.R. 6111. This Act extended the
solar investment tax credit for one additional year through December 31, 2008.8
Simultaneously however, many foreign solar companies have been eyeing U.S. solar
thermal market investment opportunities. They believe that the U.S. solar thermal market
is poised to take off, especially utility-scale solar thermal power and domestic solar water
heating. As a result, these companies began seriously competing for the U.S. solar
thermal market in 2007. This is likely a factor in the slowdown in the U.S. solar thermal
collector market experienced in 2007, and it is not yet clear whether this is the beginning
of a general decline or merely a brief interruption in a long-term upward trend.

Industry Status

In 2007, there were 60 manufacturers and/or importers active in manufacturing,


importing, and/or exporting solar thermal collectors, a significant increase from the 44
companies operating in 2006. These companies shipped 15.2 million square feet of solar
thermal collectors in 2007, compared with 20.7 million square feet in 2006 (Figure 2.1
and Table 2.1).

The 60 companies reporting solar thermal collector shipments in 2007 also reported being
involved in one or more of the following solar-related activities:

• 37 companies were involved in the design of collectors or systems,

• 23 were developing prototype collectors,

• 22 were developing prototype systems,

• 49 were involved in wholesale distribution,

• 24 were involved in retail distribution, and

• 16 were offering installation of their collectors (Table 2.19).

8
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 established tax credits to homes and businesses that install solar thermal
systems (The tax credit does not apply to solar water heating for swimming pools or hot tubs). Initially
scheduled to expire on December 31, 2007, they were extended through December 31, 2008, by Section
206 of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 (H.R. 6111)

43 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Figure 2.1 Total Solar Thermal Collector Shipments, 1998-2007

22,000
20,000
Thousand Square Feet

18,000
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thertmal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

Of the 60 companies active in 2007, nine are planning to introduce new low-temperature
collectors, 17 are planning new medium-temperature collectors, and 10 expect to
introduce new high-temperature collectors in 2008 (Table 2.16). This latter statistic is
particularly significant, as it indicates efforts are underway to develop collectors for
utility-scale power.

In 2007, employment in solar-thermal-related activities decreased by 383 person-years to


686 person-years, a 36 percent drop from the 2006 employment level. The decrease was
largely attributable to the completion of the Nevada Solar One project, the first
concentrated solar power facility built in the United States in more than 15 years (Table
2.18).

Thirty-six companies had 90 percent or more of their total company-wide sales revenue
in solar collectors, 9 companies had 50 to 89 percent, 8 companies had 10 to 49 percent,
and 7 companies had less than 10 percent (Table 2.20).

In 2007, the solar thermal industry remained highly concentrated, with the 5 largest
companies accounting for 86 percent of total shipments. However, this concentration
was the lowest since 1998 (Table 2.17). The drop is likely due to new firms developing
new products for utility scale power plants.

Solar thermal collectors are divided into the categories of low-, medium-, and high-
temperature collectors.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 44


Low-temperature collectors provide low-grade heat (less than 110 degrees Fahrenheit),
through either metallic or nonmetallic absorbers and are used in such applications as
swimming pool heating and low-grade water and space heating.

Medium-temperature collectors provide medium-to-high grade heat (greater than 110


degrees Fahrenheit, usually 140 to 180 degrees Fahrenheit), either through glazed flat-
plate collectors using air or liquid as the heat transfer instrument or concentrator
collectors that concentrate the heat of incident insolation to greater than “one sun,” and
are mainly used for domestic hot water heating.9 Evacuated-tube collectors are also
included in this category.

High-temperature collectors are parabolic dish or trough collectors designed to operate at


a temperature of 180 degrees Fahrenheit or higher and are primarily used by utilities and
independent power producers to generate electricity for the grid.

The solar thermal collector performance rating is an analytically-derived set of numbers


representing the characteristic all-day energy output of the solar thermal collector under
standard rating conditions measures in Btu per square foot per day (Btu/ft2 day). In 2007,
the average solar thermal performance rating for low-temperature collectors (metallic and
nonmetallic) was 1,248 Btu/ft2 day, medium-temperature (air) was 918 Btu/ft2 day,
medium-temperature (thermosiphon) was 926 Btu/ft2 day, medium-temperature (flat-
plate) was 979 Btu/ft2 day, medium-temperature (evacuated-tube) was 851 Btu/ft2 day,
medium-temperature (concentrator) was 2,150 Btu/ft2 day, and high-temperature
(parabolic dish/trough) was 1,000 Btu/ft2 day (Table 2.14).

Solar Thermal Collector Shipments

Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors totaled 15.2 million square feet in 2007,
more than a 27-percent decrease from the 2006 shipments of 20.7 million square feet, and
lower than the 16.0 million square feet shipped in 2005 (Table 2.1).

In 2007, low-temperature collector shipments totaled 13.3 million square feet, which is
2.2 million square feet less than low-temperature collector shipments in 2006 (Figure 2.2
and Table 2.3). Approximately 99 percent of low-temperature collectors are used for
residential solar thermal pool heating (Table 2.13). Several solar thermal pool heating
manufacturers described the 2007 solar swimming pool heating market as flat, slow, or
even declining due to the poor economy. While the effect of the economy and the
housing slowdown on the low-temperature market is not yet clear, the future of
residential solar thermal pool heating sales is a matter of concern for manufacturers.

Shipments of medium-temperature collectors totaled slightly less than 1.8 million square
feet in 2007, a 34-percent increase from the 2006 shipments of 1.3 million square feet in
2006 (Figure 2.2 and Table 2.3). Approximately 80 percent of medium-temperature
collectors are used for hot water heating (Table 2.13). The increase in medium-
temperature collectors is believed to be mainly due to the Federal tax credits and state
9
One sun: Natural solar insolation falling on an object without concentration or diffusion of the solar rays

45 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


incentives. A typical residential solar water heater costs between $2,000 and $3,000.
Taking advantage of the Federal tax credits and state incentives can reduce solar hot
water heater capital costs by at least 30 percent.

In 2007, there was an enormous decline in high-temperature collectors shipments to 33


thousand square feet (Figure 2.2 and Table 2.3), highlighted by a substantial decline in
parabolic dish/troughs used by electric utilities and independent power producers to
generate electricity for the grid. Overall, shipments have declined by more than 99
percent compared with the 2006 level. The decrease was entirely caused by the
completion of the Nevada Solar One project.

In contrast to the market during 2007 when no solar thermal power plants were started, a
handful of commitments to build concentrating solar power (CSP) plants were announced
during 2007.10 The wave of announced plans to build new large solar power facilities
throughout the United States seems to indicate that relatively large-scale systems could
become more common. As of July 2008, the Federal Bureau of Land Management has
processed 125 applications for future potential solar development on public lands and
will continue to accept applications.11

Figure 2.2 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, 1998-2007

16,000
Low-Temperature
14,000
Medium-Temperature
12,000
Thousand Square Feet

High-Temperature
10,000

8,000
6,000

4,000

2,000

0
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

10
See page 23 to 26 EIA Renewable Energy Trends in Consumption and Electricity (Issue in Focus:
Central Station Solar Thermal Electricity) for an overview of the completed and proposed CSP projects
released July, 2008
11
In response to public interest in solar energy development, the Bureau of Land Management has
announced plans to continue accepting applications for future potential solar development on public lands.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 46


Total Revenue and Average Price

Sluggish shipments adversely affected revenue. The total revenue of solar thermal
collector shipments was $ 59.8 million in 2007 (Table 2.12). This was an almost 51
percent decrease, compared with the revenue of total shipments in 2006, caused by the
sharp drop in high-temperature collector shipments.

Revenue of low-temperature collector shipments was $26.3 million, a decrease of 13


percent, compared with the revenue in 2006. This was the lowest revenue received for
low-temperature solar thermal collectors since 2003. The revenue from medium- and
high-temperature collector shipments was $33.5 million, a 63-percent decrease compared
to $90.8 million in 2006.

The average price for low-temperature collectors was $1.97 per square foot in 2007,
virtually unchanged from $1.95 in 2006. The average price for medium- and high-
temperature collectors increased from $17.47 to $18.33 per square foot. However, the
overall average price for total shipments decreased more than 32 percent, from $5.84 per
square foot in 2006 to $3.95 per square foot in 2007 (Figure 2.3 and Table 2.12). The
cause of the fluctuation was heavily influenced by custom-made collectors, which are
high-temperature collectors. These collectors are designed for limited, specialized
applications, and their average prices are much higher than the conventional collectors.

Figure 2.3 Solar Thermal Collector Average Price, 1998-2007

6.00
5.60
5.20
Dollars Per Square Foot

4.80
4.40
4.00
3.60
3.20
2.80
2.40
2.00
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Form EIA-63A, "Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

47 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Domestic Shipments

Corresponding to the decrease in total shipments, domestic shipments of solar thermal


collectors plunged more than 29 percent to 13.8 million square year during 2007 (Table
2.2). On the whole, total and domestic shipments of solar thermal collectors fell back to
the 2004 level.

The residential sector is the largest domestic market in the United States for solar thermal
collectors. Solar thermal collectors shipped to the residential sector in 2007 totaled 12.8
million square feet, approximately 93 percent of total domestic shipments (Table 2.13).
This market sector primarily involves the use of low-temperature solar collectors for pool
heating and medium-temperature solar collectors for water heating. The second largest
domestic market for solar thermal collectors in 2007 was the commercial sector, which
accounted for 7 percent of total domestic shipments.

The largest end use for solar thermal collectors shipped in 2007 was for swimming pool
heating. Pool heating accounted for 88 percent of the total domestic shipments. The
second-largest end use in 2007 was for domestic hot water heating, which accounted for
10 percent of the total domestic shipments (Table 2.13).

More than half (56 percent) of the total domestic shipments in 2007 were sent to the
wholesale market, 33 percent to retail distribution, 3 percent to exporters, 6 percent to
installers, and about 2 percent directly to end-users (Table 2.11).

Complete Systems

Of the 60 active companies, 34 companies accounted for shipments of 59,914 complete


solar thermal systems. These systems accounted for 3.8 million square feet, or 25 percent
of total solar thermal collectors shipped in 2007. The revenue value from these solar
thermal system shipments was reported as $30 million (Table 2.15).

Origin of Shipments

Imports of solar thermal collectors totaled 3.9 million square feet in 2007 (Table 2.7).
Almost 90 percent of all imports were low-temperature collectors (3.5 million square
feet). These imports originated in seven foreign countries, and about 3.7 million square
feet of the solar thermal collectors were imported from Israel (Table 2.7 and Table 2.8).

In 2007, 72 percent (10.9 million square feet) of all solar thermal collectors were
manufactured in five states: California, New Jersey, Florida, Pennsylvania, and
Connecticut, with 62 percent (9.4 million square feet) of the total shipped from California
and New Jersey (Table 2.4 and Table 2.6).

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 48


Destination of Shipments

Export shipments totaled 1.4 million square feet in 2007. More than 1.3 million square
feet, or 97 percent of total exports, were low-temperature solar thermal collectors (Table
2.9). The export market accounted for 9 percent of total shipments and was dominated
by sales to Canada (37 percent of exports), Mexico (20 percent), and Brazil (18 percent)
(Table 2.10).

In 2007, 13.8 million square feet of domestic solar thermal shipments went to all 50
States within the U.S., together with the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, Guam,
and Puerto Rico (Table 2.6). Over two-thirds were shipped to the top five destinations
(states): California, Florida, Arizona, Oregon, and Illinois. California and Florida
received nearly 54 percent of total shipments (Table 2.4 and Table 2.6). Notably, there
was a dramatic decrease in shipments to several states in 2007, including Alabama,
California, Florida, Nevada, New York, and North Carolina. This mainly was caused by
the sharp decrease in demand as reported by a number of companies.

49 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.1 Annual Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors, 1998 - 2007
(Thousand Square Feet)
Number of Collector Shipments
Year
Companies Total1 Imports Exports

1998 28 7,756 2,206 360


1999 29 8,583 2,352 537
2000 26 8,354 2,201 496
2001 26 11,189 3,502 840
2002 27 11,663 3,068 659
2003 26 11,444 2,986 518
2004 24 14,114 3,723 813
2005 25 16,041 4,546 1,361
2006 44 20,744 4,244 1,211
2007 60 15,153 3,891 1,376
1
Includes shipments of solar thermal collectors to the government, including some military, but
excluding space applications.
Note: Total shipments as reported by respondents include all domestic and export shipments and
may include imported collectors that subsequently were shipped to domestic or foreign
customers.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector
Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 50


Table 2.2 Annual Solar Thermal Collector Domestic Shipments, 1998 - 2007
(Thousand Square Feet)
Solar Thermal
Year
Collectors1

1998 7,396
1999 8,046
2000 7,857
2001 10,349
2002 11,004
2003 10,926
2004 13,301
2005 14,680
2006 19,532
2007 13,777

U.S. Total 116,870


1
Total shipments minus export shipments.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Total shipments include those made in or shipped to U.S. Territories.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal
Collector Manufacturers Survey."

51 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.3 Annual Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Type, 1998 - 2007
(Thousand Square Feet)
Low-Temperature Medium-Temperature High-Temperature Other
Year Total Average per Total Average per 2 Total
Total Shipments
Shipments1 Manufacturer Shipments Manufacturer Shipments2

1998 7,292 607 443 23 21 -


1999 8,152 627 427 21 4 -
2000 7,948 723 400 25 5 -
2001 10,919 1,092 268 16 2 -
2002 11,126 856 535 31 2 -
2003 10,877 906 560 33 7 -
2004 13,608 1,512 506 30 - -
2005 15,224 1,522 702 41 115 -
2006 15,546 1,413 1,346 38 3,852 -
2007 13,323 1,025 1,797 35 33 -
1
Includes shipments of solar thermal collectors to the government, including some military, but excluding space applications.
2
For high-temperature and other collectors, average annual shipments per manufacturer are not disclosed.
- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 52


Table 2.4 Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors Ranked by Origin and Destination, 2007

2007 Shipments
Origin/Destination Thousand Square Percent of
Feet U.S.Total

Origin
Top Five States 10,902 72
California 5,114 34
New Jersey 4,313 28
Florida 1,125 7
Pennsylvania 225 1
Connecticut 125 1
Other Domestic 360 2
Imported 3,891 26

U.S. Total 15,153 100

Destination
Top Five States 9,991 66
California 4,179 28
Florida 3,933 26
Arizona 768 5
Oregon 625 4
Illinois 486 3
Other Domestic 3,786 25
Exported 1,376 9

U.S. Total 15,153 100


Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
U.S. total includes territories.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers
Survey."

53 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.5 Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors Ranked by Origin and Destination, 2006

2006 Shipments
Origin/Destination Thousand Square Percent of
Feet U.S.Total

Origin
Top Five States 16,225 78
New Jersey 5,606 27
California 5,442 26
Nevada 3,845 19
Florida 1,041 5
Tennessee 290 1
Other Domestic 275 1
Imported 4,244 20

U.S. Total 20,744 100

Destination
Top Five States 15,054 73
Florida 4,841 23
California 4,610 22
Nevada 4,215 20
Arizona 780 4
New York 607 3
Other Domestic 4,479 22
Exported 1,211 6

U.S. Total 20,744 100


Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
U.S. total includes territories.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers
Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 54


Table 2.6 Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Destination, 2006 and 2007
(Square Feet)
Destination 2006 2007

Alabama 55,330 7,955


Alaska 75 103
Arizona 780,175 768,366
Arkansas 66,359 33,481
California 4,609,807 4,178,544
Colorado 93,347 79,132
Connecticut 382,215 336,456
Delaware 1,203 43,604
District of Columbia 159 866
Florida 4,841,469 3,933,319
Georgia 50,750 36,285
Guam - 948
Hawaii 434,650 447,950
Idaho 17,867 10,805
Illinois 521,528 485,952
Indiana 54,074 34,601
Iowa 21,152 11,489
Kansas 19,590 10,755
Kentucky 17,858 10,424
Louisiana 24,226 38,631
Maine 57,774 35,350
Maryland 26,557 26,738
Massachusetts 90,741 113,176
Michigan 260,001 261,395
Minnesota 37,929 37,684
Mississippi 560 6,426
Missouri 20,314 13,183
Montana 762 1,094
Nebraska 17,985 13,013
Nevada 4,215,471 300,666
New Hampshire 25,633 23,918
New Jersey 583,468 448,696
New Mexico 39,207 37,911
New York 606,613 425,428
North Carolina 171,552 52,557
North Dakota 3,394 444
Ohio 45,246 28,835
Oklahoma 13,305 8,248
Oregon 505,860 625,279
Pennsylvania 266,645 253,185
Puerto Rico 109,666 104,292
Rhode Island 16,413 14,179
South Carolina 2,729 15,779
South Dakota 1,504 792
Tennessee 2,921 9,144
Texas 51,559 59,816
Utah 8,460 18,675
Vermont 26,287 26,339
Virgin Islands of the U.S. 2,431 3,848
Virginia 240,857 248,267
Washington 5,491 12,497
West Virginia 14,529 13,027
Wisconsin 67,238 67,509
Wyoming 1,468 120
Shipments to United States/Territories 19,532,404 13,777,176
Exported 1,211,241 1,375,779

Total Shipments 20,743,645 15,152,955

55 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.6 Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Destination, 2006 and 2007
(Square Feet) (Continued)
Destination 2006 2007

- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 56


Table 2.7 Import Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Type, 1999 - 2007
(Thousand Square Feet)
Type
Year Low- Medium- High- Total
Other
Temperature Temperature Temperature

1999 2,350 2 - - 2,352


2000 2,188 10 2 - 2,201
2001 3,500 2 - - 3,502
2002 3,066 2 - - 3,068
2003 2,984 2 - - 2,986
2004 3,702 21 - - 3,723
2005 4,513 33 - - 4,546
2006 3,979 265 - - 4,244
2007 3,501 390 - - 3,891
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector
Manufacturers Survey."

57 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.8 Distribution of U.S. Solar Thermal Collector Imports by Country, 2006 and 2007
(Square Feet)
Percent of U.S.
Region/Country 2006 2007
Imports 2007

Asia
China 41,964 98,176 2.52
Israel 4,122,040 3,655,012 93.94
Total 4,164,004 3,753,188 96.46
Australia & Oceania
Australia 36,981 33,000 0.85
Total 36,981 33,000 0.85
Europe
Federal Republic of
31,689 84,339 2.17
Germany
Turkey 1,654 3,444 0.09
United Kingdom 9,633 5,664 0.15
Total 42,976 93,447 2.40
North America
Canada - 11,190 0.29
Total - 11,190 0.29

U.S. Total 4,243,961 3,890,825 100.00


- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers
Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 58


Table 2.9 Export Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Type, 1999 - 2007
(Thousand Square Feet)
Type
Year Low- Medium- High- Total
Other
Temperature Temperature Temperature

1999 491 45 - - 537


2000 486 10 s - 496
2001 827 13 - - 840
2002 654 3 2 - 659
2003 510 5 2 - 518
2004 809 4 - - 813
2005 1,349 10 2 - 1,361
2006 1,169 42 - - 1,211
2007 1,338 33 5 - 1,376
s = Value is less than 0.5 of the table metric, but value is included in any associated total.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector
Manufacturers Survey."

59 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.10 Distribution of U.S. Solar Thermal Collector Exports by Country, 2006 and 2007
(Square Feet)
Percent of U.S.
Region/Country 2006 2007
Exports 2007

Africa
Morocco - 22,648 1.65
Nigeria - 400 0.03
South Africa - 42 *
Tunisia - 139 0.01
Total - 23,229 1.69
Asia
China - 3,000 0.22
Japan 5,000 2,000 0.15
Malaysia 2,715 - -
Saudi Arabia - 3,532 0.26
United Arab Emirates 11,220 - -
Total 18,935 8,532 0.62
Australia & Oceania
Australia 66,953 89,005 6.47
New Zealand - 14,906 1.08
Total 66,953 103,911 7.55
Central America
Antigua and Barbuda 1,900 1,188 0.09
Aruba 217 248 0.02
Bahamas 3,108 2,349 0.17
Barbados - 1,981 0.14
Bermuda 80 266 0.02
British Virgin Islands 912 - -
Cayman Islands 1,136 - -
Costa Rica 8,416 9,678 0.70
Dominican Republic 1,778 - -
Guatemala 11,144 12,064 0.88
Honduras - 1,723 0.13
Jamaica 620 1,528 0.11
Mexico 205,117 274,326 19.94
Netherlands Antilles 170 1,993 0.14
Nicaragua 40 - -
Panama 64 - -
Saint Lucia 140 - -
Trinidad and Tobago 434 5,236 0.38
Total 235,276 312,580 22.72
Europe
Belgium 21,577 - -
Czech Republic 12,000 13,200 0.96
Denmark 3,000 - -
Federal Republic of
75,000 288 0.02
Germany
France 148,541 38,944 2.83
Italy 15,891 15,509 1.13
Portugal - 9,400 0.68
Romania - 176 0.01
Russia - 1,080 0.08
Spain 64,000 - -
Sweden 24,894 53,334 3.88
United Kingdom 8,090 19,558 1.42
Total 372,993 151,489 11.01
North America
Canada 513,699 512,889 37.28
Total 513,699 512,889 37.28
South America
Argentina - 3,115 0.23
Bolivia 480 - -

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 60


Table 2.10 Distribution of U.S. Solar Thermal Collector Exports by Country, 2006 and 2007
(Square Feet) (Continued)
Percent of U.S.
Region/Country 2006 2007
Exports 2007

Brazil - 253,038 18.39


Chile 1,775 36 *
Ecuador 1,131 3,960 0.29
Peru - 3,000 0.22
Total 3,386 263,149 19.13

U.S. Total 1,211,242 1,375,779 100.00


* = Less than 0.01 percent.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers
Survey."

61 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.11 Distribution of Domestic Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Customer Type, 2006 and 2007
(Thousand Square Feet)
Shipments
Customer Type
2006 2007

Wholesale Distribution - 7,727


Retail Distributers - 4,493
Exporters - 464
Installers - 872
End Users - 221

U.S. Total - 13,777


- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
U.S. total includes territories.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 62


Table 2.12 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Quantity, Revenue, and Average Price, 2006 and 2007

2006 2007
Average Price Average Price
Type Quantity (Thousand Revenue (Thousand Quantity (Thousand Revenue (Thousand
(Dollars per Square (Dollars per Square
Square Feet) Dollars) Square Feet) Dollars)
Feet) Feet)

Low-Temperature
Liquid and Air 15,546 30,324 1.95 13,323 26,276 1.97
Medium/High Temperature 5,198 90,792 17.47 1,829 33,539 18.33
Medium
Air 6 W W 15 W W
Liquid
ICS/Thermosiphon 238 5,793 24.34 231 5,598 24.27
Flat Plate 1,043 16,613 15.93 1,304 21,915 16.80
Evacuated Tube 55 1,422 25.71 243 4,210 17.36
Concentrator 4 W W 5 W W
High
Parabolic Dish and Trough 3,852 W W 33 W W
Other - - - - - -

U.S. Total 20,744 121,116 5.84 15,153 59,815 3.95


W = Data withheld to avoid disclosure of proprietary company data.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

63 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.13 Domestic shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2006 and 2007
(Thousand Square Feet)
Low- High-
Medium-Temperature
Temperature Temperature
2006
Type Liquid/Air Liquid Other 2007 Total
Parabolic Total
Metallic and Air Flat-Plate Evacuated
ICS/Thermosiphon Concentrator Dish/Trough
Nonmetallic (Pumped) Tube

Market Sector
Residential 11,352 13 217 1,052 166 - - - 12,799 -
Commercial 633 2 9 207 76 5 s - 931 -
Industrial - - - 18 - - 27 - 46 -
Electric Power 1 - - - - - - - 1 -
Transportation - - - - - - - - - -

U.S. Total 11,986 15 225 1,277 243 5 27 - 13,777 -

End Use
Pool Heating 11,917 - - 158 - - - - 12,076 -
Hot Water 4 - 225 951 213 - s - 1,393 -
Space Heating 63 15 - 99 12 - - - 189 -
Space Cooling - - - - 13 - - - 13 -
Combined Space and Water Heating - - - 68 5 - - - 73 -
Process Heating - - - - - - 27 - 27 -
Electricity Generation 1 - - - - 5 - - 6 -

U.S. Total 11,986 15 225 1,277 243 5 27 - 13,777 -


s = Value is less than 0.5 of the table metric, but value is included in any associated total.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 64


Table 2.14 Average Thermal Performance Rating of Solar Thermal Collectors by Type Shipped in 2007
(Btu/ft2day)
Type
Low- High-
Medium-Temperature
Temperature Temperature
Year
Liquid/Air Liquid Other
Parabolic
Metallic and Air Flat-Plate Evacuated
ICS/Thermosiphon Concentrator Dish/Trough
Nonmetallic (Pumped) Tube

2007 1,248 918 926 979 851 2,150 1,000 -


- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

65 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.15 Shipments of Complete Solar Thermal Collector Systems, 2006 and 2007

Shipment Information 2006 2007

Complete Collector Systems


Shipped 79,903 59,914
Thousand Square Feet 6,587 3,773
Percent of Total Shipments 32 25
Number of Companies 29 34
Revenue of Systems (Thousand Dollars) 31,297 30,019
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 66


Table 2.16 Number of Companies Expecting to Introduce New Solar Thermal Collector Products in 2008

Number of
New Product Type
Companies

Low-Temperature Collectors 9
Medium-Temperature Collectors 17
High-Temperature Collectors 10
Noncollector Components 7
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers
Survey."

67 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.17 Percent of Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by the 10 Largest Companies, 1998 - 2007

Shipments Percent of
Company
Year (Thousand Total
Rank
Square Feet) Shipments

1998 1-5 6,938 89


6-10 613 8
1999 1-5 7,813 91
6-10 563 7
2000 1-5 7,521 90
6-10 567 7
2001 1-5 10,732 96
6-10 325 3
2002 1-5 10,755 92
6-10 670 6
2003 1-5 10,485 92
6-10 700 6
2004 1-5 13,291 94
6-10 664 5
2005 1-5 14,801 92
6-10 934 6
2006 1-5 18,535 89
6-10 1,484 7
2007 1-5 13,015 86
6-10 1,202 8
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector
Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 68


Table 2.18 Employment in the Solar Thermal Collector Industry, 1998 - 2007

Person
Year
Years

1998 207
1999 288
2000 284
2001 256
2002 356
2003 287
2004 317
2005 353
2006 1,069
2007 686
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal
Collector Manufacturers Survey."

69 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 2.19 Companies Involved in Solar Thermal Collector Related Activities by Type, 2006 and 2007

Type of Activity 2006 2007

Collector or System Design 37 37


Prototype Collector Development 19 23
Prototype System Development 19 22
Wholesale Distribution 38 49
Retail Distribution 20 24
Installation 19 16
Noncollector System Component Manufacture 19 18
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 70


Table 2.20 Solar-Related Sales as a Percentage of Total Company Sales Revenue, 2006 and 2007

Percent of Total Number of Companies


Sales Revenue 2006 2007

90-100 27 36
50-89 7 9
10-49 4 8
Less than 10 6 7

U.S. Total 44 60
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector
Manufacturers Survey."

71 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


3. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Activities 2007

Overview

Government incentives, rising energy costs, and the growing concern over climate
change have fueled rapid growth in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in the United States.
Subsequent to the investment tax credit for solar installations that went into effect in
January 2006 as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the PV industry has experienced
two consecutive years of enormous growth in total shipments of PV cells and modules.
Shipments increased about 50 percent each year between 2005 and 2007. As a result, the
industry is more than 10 times the size it was in 1998 (Figure 3.1, Table 3.1, and Table
3.3). Simultaneously, the significant growth of the PV market caused a silicon shortage
within the PV industry. Nevertheless, supply shortages have led PV manufacturers to
find ways to use silicon more effectively and efficiently. It has stimulated the
development of thin-film technologies that do not rely on silicon and are less expensive
to manufacture than the crystalline silicon technologies.

Figure 3.1 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments, 1998-2007

550,000
500,000
450,000 Cell Module
400,000
Peak Kilowatts

350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

Industry Status

The number of active PV manufacturers and/or importers that ship PV cells and modules
increased from 41 companies in 2006 to 46 companies in 2007. These new companies
increased overall PV production to meet the expected increase in demand internationally.
During 2007, PV cell and module shipments reached a record high of 517,684 peak

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 72


kilowatts, a 53 percent increase from 337,268 peak kilowatts in 2006 (Figure 3.1 and
Table 3.1). Exports accounted for most of the increase.

The companies reporting PV shipments in 2007 also reported being involved in one or
more of the following photovoltaic-related activities:

• A total of 24 companies were involved in module and/or cell manufacturing,

• 25 were designing modules or systems,

• 16 were developing prototype modules,

• 13 were developing prototype systems,

• 25 were involved in wholesale distribution,

• 14 were involved in retail distribution, and

• 13 were offering installation of their products (Table 3.18).

Of the 46 companies active in 2007, up to 19 are expecting to introduce crystalline silicon


products, up to 6 companies are planning to introduce new thin-film products, and 2
companies are expecting to provide new concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) products in
2008 (Table 3.17). This indicates that the silicon shortage has opened the opportunity for
the thin-film market and for companies to create new innovations to close the gap
between thin-film PV and conventional crystalline silicon PV.

Corresponding to the strong growth of the PV shipments, employment in PV-related


activities increased 53 percent, from 4,028 person-years in 2006 to 6,170 person-years in
2007 (Table 3.16). Of the 46 companies, 28 had 90 percent or more of their total
company-wide revenues in PV-related activities, 7 had 50 to 89 percent, 7 had 10 to 49
percent, and 4 companies had less than 10 percent (Table 3.19).

PV cells and modules can be made from different semiconductor materials, varying in
cost and performance. Shipments of PV cells and modules are divided into three main
categories by product type (Figure 3.2): (1) crystalline silicon, a type of photovoltaic
cell/module made from a wedge of single-crystal or polycrystalline silicon, based on
crystal-producing processes such as single-crystal, cast, and ribbon; (2) thin-film,
photovoltaic cell/module made from layers of semiconductor material, such as
amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), or copper indium gallium selenide
(CIGS); and (3) concentrator, a type of photovoltaic cell/module including a reflective or
refractive device (such as lenses that gather and concentrate sunlight onto the
photovoltaic cell).

73 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Figure 3.2 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Type, 2003-2007

210,000
Single-Crystal
180,000 Cast & Ribbon
150,000 Thin-Film
Pear Kilowatts

Concentrator
120,000

90,000

60,000

30,000

0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

The performance of a photovoltaic cell/module can be described in terms of its energy


conversion efficiency, the percentage of incident solar energy (input) that the cell
converts to electricity (output) under standard rating conditions. In 2007, the average
energy conversion efficiencies were as follows: crystalline silicon (single crystal) PV
cell/module, 17 percent; crystalline silicon (cast) PV cell/module, 14 percent; crystalline
silicon (ribbon) PV cell/module, 12 percent; thin-film (amorphous silicon) PV
cell/module, 8 percent; thin-film other (special photovoltaic material such as CdTe, and
CIGS) PV cell/module, 12 percent; and concentrator PV cell/module, 35 percent (Table
3.8).

Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments

Photovoltaic (PV) cell and module shipments reached 517,684 peak kilowatts in 2007, a
53 percent increase from the 2006 shipments of 337,268 peak kilowatts. Cell shipments
accounted for 23,535 peak kilowatts, while module shipments accounted for 494,148
peak kilowatts (Figure 3.1 and Table 3.3). Shipments of cells have generally declined
over the past decade, while module shipments have increased more than tenfold.

Despite the shift in focus to thin-film technologies, crystalline silicon cells and modules
continued to dominate the PV industry in 2007, accounting for 60 percent of the total
shipments (Table 3.5). However, this represents a considerable decline from its 76
percent market share in 2005. In particular, single-crystal silicon totaled 128,542 peak
kilowatts, an increase of more than 50 percent compared with corresponding 2006
shipments. Cast and ribbon silicon shipments total 181,788 peak kilowatts in 2007,
nearly a 23 percent increase from the corresponding 2006 shipments.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 74


Shipments of thin-film PV doubled to 202,519 peak kilowatts in 2007, compared to
101,766 peak kilowatts in 2005. The market share for thin-film PV has grown rapidly
over the past several years. In 2007, thin-film accounted for nearly 40 percent of the
market, compared to approximately 10 percent in 2003 (Figure 3.3 and Table 3.5). If
thin-film PV continues at its same growth rate (doubling in each of the past four years),
its market share may surpass that of crystalline silicon PV by 2010.

Figure 3.3 Crystalline Silicon Shipment and Thin-Film Shipment Market Shares,
1998-2007

100%
90%
80%
70%
Market Share

60%
Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

Over the last few years, there has been increasing interest in concentrator photovoltaic
(CPV) technology. Although concentrator shipments only accounted for about 1 percent
of the total in 2007, the shipments of 4,835 peak kilowatts are noteworthy, representing
an increase of 144 percent when compared with corresponding 2006 shipments (Table
3.5).

Total Revenue and Average Price

Total revenue of photovoltaic cell and module shipments grew 49 percent from $1.16
billion in 2006 to $1.72 billion in 2007 (Table 3.6). Revenue includes charges for
cooperative advertising and warranties, but does not include excise taxes and the cost of
freight or transportation12.

The average price for modules (dollars per peak watt) decreased about 4 percent, from
$3.50 in 2006 to $3.37 in 2007. For cells, the average price increased more than 9
percent, from $2.03 in 2006 to $2.22 in 2007.

12
See the EIA glossary.

75 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Figure 3.4 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Average Prices, 2003-2007

$5.00
Cell Module
$4.50
$4.00
Dollars per Paek Watt

$3.50
$3.00
$2.50
$2.00
$1.50
$1.00
$0.50
$0.00
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell
Manufacturers Survey."

Domestic Shipments

Rising energy costs during the past few years and the public perception of potentially
large energy savings combined with the availability of various incentives have increased
the demand for PV. During 2007, domestic shipments continued to surge rapidly,
totaling 280,475 peak kilowatts, nearly a 36 percent increase from 206,511 peak
kilowatts in 2006 (Table 3.2).

In 2007, domestic shipments to the commercial sector accounted for 140,434 peak
kilowatts or 50 percent of the domestic market. Of the domestic shipments to the
commercial sector, 81 percent were crystalline silicon, and about 19 percent were thin-
film PV. Less than 0.2 percent was concentrator PV (Table 3.7). The residential sector
was the second-largest domestic market in the United States in 2007, accounting for
68,417 peak kilowatts or about 24 percent of the domestic market share. This market
purchased 80 percent crystalline silicon and 20 percent thin-film PV. The electric power
sector, with 13 percent of domestic shipments, was the third-largest domestic sales
market, totaling 35,294 peak kilowatts. About 93 percent were crystalline silicon, 5
percent were thin-film PV, and 2 percent were concentrator PV. Shipments to the
industrial sector amounted to 32,702 peak kilowatts, or about 12 percent of the domestic
market share. Crystalline silicon accounted for 67 percent of the industrial shipments and
thin-film PV accounted for 33 percent.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 76


Electricity generation, which consists of both grid-interactive (those connected to the
electric power grid)13 and remote applications (those not connected), continues to be the
predominant end use for PV cells and modules. In 2007, PV cell and module shipments
to the electric generation market totaled 263,968 peak kilowatts or about 94 percent of
domestic shipments. Domestic shipments to original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
and transportation end uses were the second and third-largest end uses, respectively,
totaling more than 3 percent. Domestic shipments to consumer goods and health end
users hold small market shares, totaling less than 0.4 percent (Table 3.7).

During 2007, PV shipments to installers, the largest customer type, totaled 110,009 peak
kilowatts, nearly 40 percent of the domestic market share. Shipments to the second-
largest customer type, wholesale distributors, amounted to 109,015 peak kilowatts, or
nearly 39 percent of the domestic market share (Table 3.4).

Complete Systems

A complete PV system is defined as a power supply unit that satisfies all the power
requirements of an application. Such a system is made up of different components,
including one or more PV modules, a power conditioning unit to process the electricity
into the form needed by the application, wires, and other electrical connectors. Batteries
for back-up power supply are an option. Some large-scale PV systems use concentrators
to focus incident insolation onto small PV cells and tracking systems to track the sun.
These large-scale systems convert sunlight directly into electricity and produce the
greatest amounts of power during the afternoon, when electricity demand is high.

During 2007, the number of shipments of complete PV systems decreased sharply to


10,600 systems from 67,172 systems in 2006. In contrast, the total value of complete
systems increased 155 percent to $491.7 million in 2007. The total peak kilowatts of
complete system surged from 28,099 in 2006 to 80,560 in 2007 (Table 3.15). These
statistics indicate companies are becoming more involved in developing larger PV
systems with high demand and market growth potential.

Origin of Shipments

Imports of PV cells and modules totaled 238,018 peak kilowatts or 46 percent of total
shipments in 2007 (Table 3.11). The predominant type of import shipment was
crystalline silicon cells and modules, accounting for 90 percent (214,457 peak kilowatts)
of total imports. Japan, China, and Germany accounted for 85 percent of total imports
(Table 3.12).

In 2007, a total of 279,666 peak kilowatts of PV cells and modules were manufactured in
the United States; manufacturers in Ohio, Michigan, California, and Maryland produced
85 percent of total (Table 3.9).

13
See the EIA glossary.

77 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Destination of Shipments

Exports of PV cells and modules totaled 237,209 peak kilowatts in 2007, an 81 percent
increase from the 2006 exports of 130,757 peak kilowatts (Table 3.13). The predominant
type of export shipment was thin-film cells and modules, accounting for about 63 percent
(149,977 peak kilowatts) of total exports. The export market accounted for 46 percent of
total shipments and was dominated by sales to Germany (more than 64 percent of
exports), Spain (about 13 percent), and Italy (about 4 percent) (Table 3.14).

In 2007, a total of 280,475 peak kilowatts of domestic PV cell and module shipments
went to all 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico (Table
3.10). About 86 percent of domestic PV cell and module shipments (241,712 peak
kilowatts) went to five States: California, Nevada, Colorado, New Jersey, and Arizona,
with 75 percent (209,031 peak kilowatts) of the total shipments sent to California and
Nevada.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 78


Table 3.1 Annual Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules, 1998 - 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Number of Photovoltaic Cell and Modules Shipments
Year
Companies Total Imports Exports

1998 21 50,562 1,931 35,493


1999 19 76,787 4,784 55,585
2000 21 88,221 8,821 68,382
2001 19 97,666 10,204 61,356
2002 19 112,090 7,297 66,778
2003 20 109,357 9,731 60,693
2004 19 181,116 47,703 102,770
2005 29 226,916 90,981 92,451
2006 41 337,268 173,977 130,757
2007 46 517,684 238,018 237,209
Note: Total shipments as reported by respondents include all domestic and export shipments and may
include imported cells and modules that subsequently were shipped to domestic or foreign customers.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell
Manufacturers Survey."

79 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.2 Annual Photovoltaic Domestic Shipments, 1998 - 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Photovoltaic Cells
Year
and Modules1

1998 15,069
1999 21,201
2000 19,838
2001 36,310
2002 45,313
2003 48,664
2004 78,346
2005 134,465
2006 206,511
2007 280,475

U.S. Total 886,193


1
Total shipments minus export shipments.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Total shipments include those made in or shipped to U.S. Territories.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell
Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 80


Table 3.3 Annual Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules, 1998 - 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Year Cells Modules Total

1998 18,249 32,313 50,562


1999 33,714 43,073 76,787
2000 33,213 55,007 88,221
2001 30,633 67,033 97,666
2002 47,677 64,413 112,090
2003 29,295 80,062 109,357
2004 37,842 143,274 181,116
2005 21,920 204,996 226,916
2006 17,060 320,208 337,268
2007 23,535 494,148 517,684
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic
Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

81 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.4 Distribution of Domestic Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Customer Type, 2005 - 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Shipments
Customer Type
2005 2006 2007

Wholesale Distribution - - 109,015


Retail Distributers - - 19,748
Exporters - - 1,513
Installers - - 110,009
End Users - - 38,686
Module Module Manufacturers - - 1,504

U.S. Total - - 280,475


- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 82


Table 3.5 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Type, 2005 - 2007

Shipments (Peak Kilowatts) Percent of Total


Type
2005 2006 2007 2005 2006 2007

Crystalline Silicon
Single-Crystal 71,901 85,627 128,542 32 25 25
Cast and Ribbon 101,065 147,892 181,788 45 44 35
Subtotal 172,965 233,518 310,330 76 69 60
Thin-Film 53,826 101,766 202,519 24 30 39
Concentrator 125 1,984 4,835 * 1 1
Other1 - - - - - -

U.S. Total 226,916 337,268 517,684 100 100 100


1
Other includes categories not identified by reporting companies.
* = Less than 0.5 percent.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

83 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.6 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipment Revenue by Type, 2006 and 2007

2006 2007
Type Revenue (Thousand Average Price (Dollars per Peak Watt) Revenue (Thousand Average Price (Dollars per Peak Watt)
Dollars) Modules Cells Dollars) Modules Cells

Crystalline Silicon
Single-Crystal 339,859 4.09 2.09 478,355 3.74 3.06
Cast and Ribbon 529,176 3.66 2.39 645,964 3.62 2.65
Subtotal 869,035 3.82 2.28 1,124,319 3.67 2.74
Thin-Film W W W W W W
Concentrator W W W W W W
Other1 - - - - - -

U.S. Total 1,155,002 3.50 2.03 1,716,096 3.37 2.22


1
Other includes categories not identified by reporting companies.
W = Data withheld to avoid disclosure of proprietary company data.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 84


Table 3.7 Domestic Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2006 and 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Crystalline Thin-Film Concentrator
Sector and End Use Other 2007 Total 2006 Total
Silicon1 Silicon Silicon

Market Sector
Residential 54,793 13,624 - - 68,417 -
Commercial 113,780 26,404 250 - 140,434 -
Industrial 22,064 10,638 - - 32,702 -
Electric Power 32,682 1,876 737 - 35,294 -
Transportation 3,627 - - - 3,627 -

U.S. Total 226,946 52,542 987 - 280,475 -

End Use
Electricity Generation
Grid Interactive 201,588 50,613 900 - 253,101 -
Remote 10,726 54 87 - 10,867 -
Communication 2,336 500 - - 2,836 -
Consumer Goods 29 560 - - 589 -
Transportation 4,018 - - - 4,018 -
Water Pumping 3,818 34 - - 3,852 -
Cells/Modules to OEM 4,022 780 - - 4,802 -
Health 410 - - - 410 -

U.S. Total 226,946 52,542 987 - 280,475 -


1
Includes single-crystal and cast and ribbon types.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

85 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.8 Average Energy Conversion Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules Shipped in 2007
(Percent of Energy Converted)
Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Silicon Concentrator
Year Other
Single Crystal Cast Ribbon Amorphous Silicon Other Silicon

2007 17 14 12 8 12 35 -
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 86


Table 3.9 Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Origin, 2006 and 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Origin 2006 2007

Arizona - 6,000
California - 45,236
Delaware - 18,412
Iowa - 1,147
Maryland - 28,323
Massachusetts - 8,264
Michigan - 47,647
New Jersey - 1,578
New Mexico - 2,752
New York - 107
Ohio - 116,500
Pennsylvania - 3,700
Shipments from United States/Territories - 279,666
Imports - 238,018

Total Shipments - 517,684


- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

87 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.10 Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Destination, 2006 and 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Destination 2006 2007

Alabama - 25
Alaska - 40
Arizona - 8,198
Arkansas - 14
California - 180,272
Colorado - 14,178
Connecticut - 813
Delaware - 754
District of Columbia - 6
Florida - 6,342
Georgia - 138
Hawaii - 3,085
Idaho - 56
Illinois - 396
Indiana - 277
Iowa - 50
Kansas - 52
Kentucky - 12
Louisiana - 132
Maine - 116
Maryland - 1,068
Massachusetts - 2,904
Michigan - 140
Minnesota - 381
Mississippi - 2
Missouri - 221
Montana - 439
Nebraska - 41
Nevada - 28,759
New Hampshire - 517
New Jersey - 10,305
New Mexico - 1,529
New York - 4,536
North Carolina - 985
North Dakota - 23
Ohio - 229
Oklahoma - 264
Oregon - 1,640
Pennsylvania - 953
Puerto Rico - 10
Rhode Island - 765
South Carolina - 250
South Dakota - 34
Tennessee - 53
Texas - 6,048
Utah - 113
Vermont - 1,443
Virgin Islands of the U.S. - 1
Virginia - 174
Washington - 668
West Virginia - 52
Wisconsin - 828
Wyoming - 147
Shipments to United States/Territories - 280,475
Exported - 237,209

Total Shipments - 517,684


- = No data reported.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 88


Table 3.10 Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Destination, 2006 and 2007
(Peak Kilowatts) (Continued)
Destination 2006 2007

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

89 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.11 Import Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Type, 1999 - 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Crystalline Thin-Film Concentrator
Item/Year Other Total
Silicon Silicon Silicon

Cells
1999 150 4 - - 154
2000 3,779 3 24 - 3,805
2001 3,169 6 - - 3,175
2002 915 4 - - 919
2003 439 3 - - 442
2004 33,607 - - - 33,607
2005 46,538 - - - 46,538
2006 74,290 - - - 74,290
2007 64,757 - 95 - 64,852
Modules
1999 3,530 1,100 - - 4,630
2000 4,383 633 - - 5,016
2001 6,681 348 - - 7,029
2002 6,119 259 - - 6,378
2003 9,027 262 - - 9,289
2004 14,096 - - - 14,096
2005 33,081 11,337 25 - 44,443
2006 84,308 14,170 1,209 - 99,687
2007 149,699 23,466 - - 173,165

Totals

1999 3,680 1,104 - - 4,784


2000 8,161 636 24 - 8,821
2001 9,850 354 - - 10,204
2002 7,034 263 - - 7,297
2003 9,466 265 - - 9,731
2004 47,703 - - - 47,703
2005 79,619 11,337 25 - 90,981
2006 158,598 14,170 1,209 - 173,977
2007 214,457 23,466 95 - 238,018
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell
Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 90


Table 3.12 Origin of U.S. Photovoltaic Cell and Module Import Shipments by Country, 2006 and 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Percent of U.S.
Region/Country 2006 2007
Imports 2007

Asia
China 33,363 59,405 24.96
Hong Kong 3,759 3,429 1.44
India 4,850 4,976 2.09
Japan 102,465 102,791 43.19
Philippines 606 364 0.15
Taiwan 12,766 583 0.24
Total 157,810 171,547 72.07
Australia & Oceania
Australia 657 - -
Total 657 - -
Central America
Mexico 2,338 23,961 10.07
Total 2,338 23,961 10.07
Europe
Federal Republic of
7,295 41,265 17.34
Germany
France 2,000 - -
Spain 215 - -
Sweden 3,645 - -
United Kingdom 18 4 *
Total 13,173 41,268 17.34
North America
Canada - 1,241 0.52
Total - 1,241 0.52

U.S. Total 173,977 238,018 100.00


* = Less than 0.01 percent.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers
Survey."

91 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.13 Export Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Type, 1999 - 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Crystalline Thin-Film Concentrator
Item/Year Other Total
Silicon Silicon Silicon

Cells
1999 31,031 - 9 - 31,040
2000 32,019 - 86 - 32,105
2001 26,899 - 174 - 27,073
2002 33,952 - 267 - 34,219
2003 30,337 - 127 - 30,464
2004 36,492 - - - 36,492
2005 20,434 - - - 20,434
2006 12,960 838 400 - 14,198
2007 16,592 1,500 3,753 - 21,845
Modules
1999 23,587 958 - - 24,545
2000 35,440 837 - - 36,277
2001 29,660 4,622 - - 34,282
2002 29,987 2,572 - - 32,559
2003 25,190 5,039 - - 30,229
2004 52,938 13,341 - - 66,278
2005 39,992 32,000 25 - 72,017
2006 47,681 68,880 - - 116,561
2007 66,791 148,477 95 - 215,364

Totals

1999 54,618 958 9 - 55,585


2000 67,460 837 86 - 68,382
2001 56,559 4,622 174 - 61,356
2002 63,939 2,572 267 - 66,778
2003 55,527 5,039 127 - 60,693
2004 89,430 13,341 - - 102,770
2005 60,426 32,000 25 - 92,451
2006 60,640 69,718 400 - 130,757
2007 83,383 149,977 3,848 - 237,209
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell
Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 92


Table 3.14 Destination of U.S. Photovoltaic Cell and Module Export Shipments by Country, 2006 and 2007
(Peak Kilowatts)
Percent of U.S.
Region/Country 2006 2007
Exports 2007

Africa
Angola 1 s *
Egypt 307 - -
Gambia - 1 *
Kenya 172 17 *
Namibia - 38 0.02
Nigeria 6 174 0.07
South Africa 385 619 0.26
Tanzania 6 42 0.02
Uganda - 27 0.01
Total 876 918 0.39
Asia
Afghanistan 83 147 0.06
Cambodia - 156 0.07
China 4,403 7,238 3.05
Hong Kong 2,116 5,427 2.29
India 1,946 2,795 1.18
Indonesia 13 - -
Israel 55 174 0.07
Japan - 1,032 0.44
Korea, South 4,021 3,444 1.45
Malaysia 3 4 *
North Korea 42 - -
Oman - 14 *
Saudi Arabia 1 11 *
Singapore 2,349 698 0.29
Taiwan 5 1,111 0.47
Thailand 45 - -
United Arab Emirates 12 18 *
Total 15,093 22,269 9.39
Australia & Oceania
Australia 1,562 2,757 1.16
French Polynesia 93 15 *
New Zealand 70 9 *
Total 1,725 2,781 1.17
Central America
Bahamas 1 - -
Bermuda 1 1 *
British Virgin Islands - 6 *
Costa Rica 347 - -
Dominican Republic 1 33 0.01
El Salvador 1 - -
Grenada 32 - -
Guadeloupe 31 - -
Guatemala 101 3 *
Haiti 24 20 *
Honduras 111 26 0.01
Jamaica - 43 0.02
Martinique - 1 *
Mexico 723 116 0.05
Nicaragua 50 30 0.01
Panama 85 4 *
Trinidad and Tobago 8 4 *
Total 1,515 288 0.12
Europe
Austria 328 118 0.05
Belgium 1 147 0.06

93 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.14 Destination of U.S. Photovoltaic Cell and Module Export Shipments by Country, 2006 and 2007
(Peak Kilowatts) (Continued)
Percent of U.S.
Region/Country 2006 2007
Exports 2007

Bulgaria - 15 *
Denmark 3 - -
Federal Republic of
80,583 152,654 64.35
Germany
Finland 6 10 *
France 1,447 10,228 4.31
Iceland - 1 *
Ireland 28 - -
Italy 1,475 10,364 4.37
Luxembourg 324 - -
Netherlands 138 451 0.19
Norway 256 292 0.12
Portugal 6,605 647 0.27
Slovakia - 5 *
Spain 15,242 31,384 13.23
Sweden 2,501 1,333 0.56
Switzerland 23 109 0.05
United Kingdom 186 11 *
Total 109,144 207,768 87.59
North America
Canada 1,536 1,246 0.53
Total 1,536 1,246 0.53
South America
Argentina 43 90 0.04
Bolivia 89 89 0.04
Brazil 79 1,359 0.57
Chile 85 140 0.06
Colombia 226 52 0.02
Ecuador 1 58 0.02
Guyana 60 - -
Peru 240 141 0.06
Uruguay 45 - -
Venezuela 1 9 *
Total 869 1,939 0.82

U.S. Total 130,757 237,209 100.00


* = Less than 0.01 percent.
s = Value is less than 0.5 of the table metric, but value is included in any associated total.
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers
Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 94


Table 3.15 Shipments of Complete Photovoltaic Module Systems, 2005 - 2007

Shipment Information 2005 2006 2007

Complete Photovoltaic Module System Shipped 37,115 67,172 10,600


Peak Kilowatts 6,583 28,099 80,560
Percentage of Total Module Shipments 3 9 16
Revenue of Systems (Thousand Dollars) 43,029 192,928 491,740
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

95 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.16 Employment in the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Industry, 1998 - 2007

Number of Number of
Year
Companies Person-Years

1998 21 1,988
1999 19 2,013
2000 21 1,913
2001 19 2,666
2002 19 2,696
2003 20 2,590
2004 19 2,916
2005 29 3,198
2006 41 4,028
2007 46 6,170
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic
Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 96


Table 3.17 Number of Companies Expecting to Introduce New Photovoltaic Products in 2008

Number of
New Product Type
Companies

Crystalline Silicon
Single-Crystal Silicon Modules 11
Cast Silicon Modules 6
Ribbon Silicon Modules 2
Thin-Film
Amorphous Silicon Modules 3
Other (Thin Film) 3
Other (Flat Plate) 1
Concentrators 2
Nonmodule System Components 1
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers
Survey."

97 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 3.18 Number of Companies Involved in Photovoltaic-Related Activities, 2006 and 2007

Number of Companies
Type of Activity
2006 2007

Module or Cell Manufacturing 16 24


Module or Systems Design 26 25
Prototype Module Development 18 16
Prototype Systems Development 10 13
Wholesale Distribution 29 25
Retail Distribution 12 14
Installation 4 13
Noncollector System Component Manufacture 5 6
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 98


Table 3.19 Photovoltaic-Related Sales as a Percentage of Total Company Sales Revenue, 2006 and 2007

Percent of Total Sales Number of Companies


Revenue 2006 2007

90-100 - 28
50-89 - 7
10-49 - 7
Less than 10 - 4

U.S. Total - 46
- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell
Manufacturers Survey."

99 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


4. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities 2007

Overview

For the past four years, the U.S. Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP) industry has seen double-
digit growth each year, fueled in part by the soaring energy prices for traditional fuels as
well as the desire for reliable and clean energy alternatives. In 2007, total geothermal
heat pump shipments surged 36 percent to 86,396 units (Table 4.1), while capacity
shipped rose 19 percent to 291,300 tons (Table 4.2). While 2007 capacity growth was
substantial, it was below growth in 2006, which was 53 percent. Total rated capacity of
geothermal heat pumps shipped in 2006 was 245,603 tons, compared to 160,402 tons in
2005 (Table 4.2 and Figure 4.1). Despite costing more initially than traditional heating
and cooling systems, the high efficiency and ongoing cost-saving potential of GHP has
resulted in GHP becoming the heating and cooling system of choice for many consumers.

Figure 4.1 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments, 2002-2007

300,000
280,000
Rated Capacity in Tons

260,000
240,000
220,000
200,000
180,000
160,000
140,000
120,000
100,000
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

Industry Status

In 2007, there were about 17 known domestic manufacturers of geothermal heat pumps,
including brand-name manufacturers14 that shipped geothermal heat pumps manufactured
by others under contract.

14
Brand name manufacturer is defined as a name used to identify a product in the consumer marketplace,
which attributes the product to the owner of the name as the manufacturer.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 100


Almost all manufacturers have their geothermal heat pumps tested and certified by the
Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) for their cooling capacities
and their operating efficiencies. In general, geothermal heat pumps are rated based on
one of the four standards by the AHRI. These standards are ARI-320 (ARI/ISO 13256-1
Water-Source Heat Pumps), ARI-325 (ARI/ISO 13256-1 Ground Water-Source Heat
Pumps), ARI-330 (ARI/ISO 13256-1 Ground-Source Heat Pumps), and ARI-870 (Direct
Geoexchange Heat Pumps) 15.

Out of 86,369 GHP units shipped in 2007, a total of 8,112 were ARI-320 rated, 66,863
were ARI-325 or ARI-330 rated, and 809 were ARI-870 rated. ARI-rated shipments
increased to 75,784 units in 2007, while the number of other non-rated units shipped
more than doubled to 10,612 in 2007 (Table 4.1).

The manufacturers reporting GHP shipments in 2007 also reported being involved in one
or more of the following geothermal heat pump-related activities (Table 4.15):

• A total of 12 manufacturers were involved in the design of geothermal heat


pumps or systems,

• 10 were developing prototype geothermal heat pumps only,

• 4 were developing prototype systems, which include pumps and other


components,

• 12 were involved in wholesale distribution,

• 4 were involved in retail distribution,

• 3 were offering installation of their GHP products, and

• 2 were involved in the manufacture of system components.

Of the 17 manufacturers active in 2007, 6 are planning to introduce new ARI-320 rated
water-source heat pumps, 6 are planning new ARI-325 rated ground water-source heat
pumps, 8 are planning to introduce new ARI-330 rated ground source closed-loop heat
pumps, and 1 is expecting to introduce new ARI-870 rated direct geoexchange heat
pumps in 2008 (Table 4.13). These statistics indicate that increasing public demand for
alternative energy systems has created business opportunities for the geothermal heating
and cooling industry.

In 2007, direct employment in the geothermal heat pump manufacturer industry


accounted for 1,219 person-years16 (Table 4.14). Of the 17 manufacturers, 8 had 90
15
For explanation of ARI standards 320, 325, 330, and 870 see survey form instructions at
http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/forms/inst902.pdf.
16
See the EIA glossary.

101 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


percent or more of their total company-wide revenues in geothermal heat pump-related
activities, 1 had 50 to 89 percent, 4 had 10 to 49 percent, and 4 manufacturers had less
than 10 percent (Table 4.16).

Direct use geothermal energy (e.g., low-temperature water from conventional geothermal
sources for crop drying) and energy consumed by GHP both increased in 2007. GHP
energy consumption increased 15 percent in 2007 to an estimated 32 trillion Btu, while
direct use inched upward from 9.1 to 9.4 trillion Btu (Table 4.17)17.

Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments

The total rated capacity of geothermal heat pumps shipped in 2007 was 291,300 tons,
approximately 19 percent more than the 2006 shipments of 245,603 tons (Table 4.2).
The average unit size shipped in 2007 was 3.37 tons, compared to an average unit size of
3.86 tons in 2006 (Table 4.1 and Table 4.2).

In 2007, water-source heat pump (ARI-320 rated) shipments totaled 15,667 tons, which is
almost 50 percent less than water-source heat pump shipments in 2006 (Figure 4.2 and
Table 4.2). The decrease occurred because one manufacturer classified its equipment
differently in 2007 than in 2006.

Shipments of ground water-source heat pumps and ground-source heat pumps (ARI-
325/330 rated) continued to dominate the GHP industry in 2007, accounting for 73
percent of the total shipments (Figure 4.2 and Table 4.2). The shipments of ARI-325 and
ARI-330 were 212,739 tons, a 37 percent increase from the corresponding 2006
shipments.

Shipments of direct geoexchange heat pump (ARI-870 Rated) totaled 3,412 tons in 2007
(Figure 4.2 and Table 4.2).

Despite a doubling of unit sales, capacity of non-ARI rated heat pump shipments in 2007
rose only slightly more than 1 percent (59,482 tons) over 2006 shipments (Figure 4.2 and
Table 4.2).

17
Data provided by Dr. John W. Lund, Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo Heat Center.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 102


Figure 4.2 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Model Type, 2003-2007

240,000
ARI-320
210,000
ARI-325/330
Rated Capacity in Tons

180,000 ARI-870
150,000 Other Non-ARI Rated
120,000

90,000

60,000

30,000

0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

Total Revenue and Average Price

The total revenue for shipments of geothermal thermal heat pumps was approximately
$219 million in 2007 (Table 4.5). Revenue includes charges for cooperative advertising
and warranties, but does not include excise taxes and the cost of freight or transportation.

The average price (dollars per ton) for water-source heat pumps (ARI-320 rated) was
$735.60, ground water-source heat pumps and ground-source heat pumps (ARI-325/330
rated) was $781.08, direct geoexchange heat pumps (ARI-870 rated) was $1,002.36, and
other non-ARI rated heat pumps was $636.50 (Table 4.5).

Domestic Shipments

As prices for electricity, natural gas and heating oil continue to rise, geothermal heat
pumps for heating and cooling are becoming increasingly viable. During 2007, domestic
shipments continued to surge rapidly, with rated capacity totaling 238,870 tons, an 11
percent increase from 215,166 tons in 2006 (Table 4.6).

During 2007, GHP shipments to domestic wholesale distributors, the largest customer
category, totaled 130,275 tons or 55 percent of the domestic market share. Shipments to
the second-largest customer category, installers, amounted to 102,241 tons, or 43 percent
of the domestic market share (Table 4.10).

In 2007, domestic shipments to the residential sector accounted for 110,115 tons or 46
percent of the domestic market. Of the domestic shipments to the residential sector, 2
percent were ARI-320 rated, 89 percent were ARI-325/330 rated, 3 percent were ARI-

103 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


870 rated, and 6 percent were non-ARI rated (Table 4.11). The commercial sector was
the largest domestic market in the United States in 2007, accounting for 122,699 tons or
more than 51 percent of the domestic market share. Ten percent of the purchases for this
sector were ARI-320 rated GHP, more than 68 percent ARI-325/330 rated GHP, less than
0.2 percent ARI-870 rated GHP, and about 21 percent non-ARI rated GHP. The industrial
sector, with less than 3 percent of domestic shipments, was the smallest domestic market.

Complete Systems

In general, geothermal heating/cooling systems provide space heating and cooling, as


well as water heating. A complete geothermal heating/cooling system is defined as a unit
with all the necessary functional components, except for installation materials. The
system includes three principal components (listed below) and a device called
“desuperheaters” which can be added to provide hot water when the system is providing
heat or air conditioning.

• Geothermal earth connection subsystem: Using the earth as the heat source and
heat sink, this subsystem consists of a series of pipes which are commonly called
a “loop.” They carry a fluid used to connect the geothermal system's heat pump to
the earth near the building to be conditioned.

• Geothermal heat pump subsystem: An electric heat pump that exchanges heat
between the fluid and the air that conditions the building.

• Geothermal heat distribution subsystem: An air-delivery system that delivers the


conditioned air to the building.

Of the manufacturers reporting 2007 shipments, the majority of these manufacturers sell
only geothermal heat pump subsystems (geothermal heat pump units), and only two
manufacturers reported selling complete systems. These systems accounted for 623 tons,
or 0.2 percent of total GHP shipped in 2007 (Table 4.12).

Origin of Shipments

During the year 2007, there were no GHP import shipments reported. All GHP units (a
total of 291,300 tons) were manufactured in the United States. The top five
manufacturing states were: Florida, Indiana, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Texas, with 54
percent (157,958 tons) of the total shipped from Indiana and Oklahoma (Table 4.8).

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 104


Destination of Shipments

Exports of GHP shipments totaled 52,430 tons in 2007. The export market accounted for
18 percent of total shipments and was dominated by sales to Canada, with 61 percent
(32,104 tons) of total exports (Table 4.7).

In 2007, a total of 238,870 tons of domestic GHP shipments went to all 50 States and the
District of Columbia (Table 4.6). About 52 percent of domestic GHP shipments (124,152
tons) went to ten States: Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio,
Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, with 15 percent (36,470 tons) of the total
shipments sent to Illinois and New York.

105 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 4.1 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Model Type, 1999 - 2007
(Number of Units)
Model Type
Year Other Non-
ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870 Total
ARI Rated

1999 7,910 31,631 - 2,138 41,679


2000 7,808 26,219 - 1,554 35,581
2001 NA NA NA NA NA
2002 6,445 26,802 - 3,892 37,139
2003 10,306 25,211 - 922 36,439
2004 9,130 31,855 - 2,821 43,806
2005 9,411 34,861 - 3,558 47,830
2006 10,968 47,440 - 5,274 63,682
2007 8,112 66,863 809 10,612 86,396
NA = Not available. No survey was conducted for 2001
- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump
Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 106


Table 4.2 Rated Capacity of Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Model Type, 1999 - 2007
(Tons)
Model Type
Year Other Non-
ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870 Total
ARI Rated

1999 27,970 153,947 - 9,735 191,651


2000 26,469 130,132 - 7,590 164,191
2001 NA NA NA NA NA
2002 16,756 96,541 - 12,000 125,297
2003 29,238 89,731 - 5,469 124,438
2004 23,764 100,317 - 20,220 144,301
2005 28,064 110,291 - 22,047 160,402
2006 31,198 155,736 - 58,669 245,603
2007 15,667 212,739 3,412 59,482 291,300
NA = Not available. No survey was conducted for 2001
- = No data reported.
Note: One ton of capacity is equal to 12,000 Btus per hour.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump
Manufacturers Survey."

107 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 4.3 Average Cooling Efficiency for Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments, 2006 and 2007
(Average EER)
Model Type
Year Other Non-
ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870
ARI Rated

2006 12.9 19.3 - 13.1


2007 12.5 18.1 18.4 13.2
- = No data reported.
Notes: One ton of capacity is equal to 12,000 Btus per hour.
Efficiency is expressed as btus of output per watthours of input. The higher the EER the more efficient
the unit is.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump
Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 108


Table 4.4 Average Heating Efficiency for Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments, 2006 and 2007
(Average COP)
Model Type
Year Other Non-
ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870
ARI Rated

2006 4.4 3.9 - 3.4


2007 4.1 3.9 4.2 3.7
- = No data reported.
Notes: One ton of capacity is equal to 12,000 Btus per hour.
Efficiency is expressed as btus of output per watthours of input. The higher the COP the more efficient
the unit is.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump
Manufacturers Survey."

109 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 4.5 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Model Type, Quantity, Revenue, and Average Price, 2006 and 2007

2006 2007
Quantity (Rated Revenue Average Price Quantity (Rated Revenue Average Price
Model Type
Capacity in (Thousand (Dollars per Capacity in (Thousand (Dollars per
Tons) Dollars) Ton) Tons) Dollars) Ton)

ARI-320 GHP Only 31,198 - - 15,667 11,525 735.60


ARI-325/330 155,736 - - 212,739 166,167 781.08
ARI-870 - - - 3,412 3,420 1,002.36
Other (Non-ARI Rated) 58,669 - - 59,482 37,860 636.50

U.S. Total 245,603 - - 291,300 218,972 751.70


- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
One ton of capacity is equal to 12,000 Btus per hour.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 110


Table 4.6 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Destination, 2006 and 2007
(Rated Capacity in Tons)
Destination 2006 2007

Alabama 1,513 1,259


Alaska 15 5
Arizona 3,896 4,926
Arkansas 2,897 3,028
California 8,918 5,499
Colorado 2,752 4,899
Connecticut 1,240 3,101
Delaware 794 1,464
District of Columbia 2,453 1,432
Florida 15,522 9,841
Georgia 2,707 3,744
Hawaii 125 15
Idaho 1,239 327
Illinois 17,175 20,296
Indiana 12,277 11,118
Iowa 8,214 8,288
Kansas 1,712 2,094
Kentucky 6,196 9,632
Louisiana 1,488 1,704
Maine 398 103
Maryland 7,286 9,472
Massachusetts 2,089 4,188
Michigan 10,653 6,031
Minnesota 7,048 7,669
Mississippi 482 545
Missouri 6,635 4,123
Montana 903 623
Nebraska 4,426 5,456
Nevada 4,559 1,371
New Hampshire 891 2,406
New Jersey 2,720 2,807
New Mexico 534 1,296
New York 12,210 16,174
North Carolina 2,439 2,527
North Dakota 1,388 2,044
Ohio 11,715 14,304
Oklahoma 4,940 9,210
Oregon 1,407 1,671
Pennsylvania 9,997 15,032
Puerto Rico 3 -
Rhode Island 147 93
South Carolina 2,854 3,403
South Dakota 629 744
Tennessee 4,255 8,200
Texas 7,687 8,719
Utah 2,411 2,167
Vermont 414 61
Virgin Islands of the U.S. 13 -
Virginia 7,331 9,073
Washington 2,203 2,980
West Virginia 465 289
Wisconsin 2,812 3,135
Wyoming 89 282
Shipments to United States/Territories 215,166 238,870
Exported 30,437 52,430

Total Shipments 245,603 291,300

111 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 4.6 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Destination, 2006 and 2007
(Rated Capacity in Tons) (Continued)
Destination 2006 2007

- = No data reported.
Note: "Export" in Table 4.6 and "Exporter" in Table 4.10 are different. "Export" refers to shipments outside of the country, while
"Exporter" is the type of customer.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 112


Table 4.7 Distribution of U.S. Geothermal Heat Pump Exports by Country of Destination, 2006 and 2007
(Rated Capacity in Tons)
Percent of U.S.
Region/Country 2006 2007
Exports 2007

Asia
China - 110 0.21
India - 15 0.03
Korea, South - 2,180 4.16
Palestinian Authority - 8 0.02
Total - 2,313 4.41
Australia & Oceania
Australia - 5,186 9.89
Total - 5,186 9.89
Central America
Mexico - 342 0.65
Total - 342 0.65
Europe
Czech Republic - 181 0.35
Estonia - 20 0.04
Italy - 1,863 3.55
Latvia - 69 0.13
Lithuania - 152 0.29
Poland - 970 1.85
Romania - 426 0.81
Russia - 905 1.73
Spain - 55 0.10
Turkey - 75 0.14
United Kingdom - 7,769 14.82
Total - 12,485 23.81
North America
Canada - 32,104 61.23
Total - 32,104 61.23

U.S. Total - 52,430 100.00


- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers
Survey."

113 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 4.8 Geothermal Heat Pump Shipments by Origin, 2006 and 2007
(Rated Capacity in Tons)
Origin 2006 2007

Arkansas - 1,867
Florida - 44,328
Indiana - 99,166
Michigan - 30,179
Minnesota - 8,524
Ohio - 2,401
Oklahoma - 58,792
Pennsylvania - 943
Tennessee - 581
Texas - 44,519
Shipments from United States/Territories - 291,300
Imported - -

Total Shipments - 291,300


- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 114


Table 4.9 Distribution of U.S. Geothermal Heat Pump Imports by Country of Origin, 2006 and 2007
(Rated Capacity in Tons)
Percent of U.S.
Region/Country 2006 2007
Imports 2007

U.S. Total - - -
- = No data reported.
Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers
Survey."

115 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 4.10 Geothermal Heat Pump Domestic Shipments by Customer Type and Model Type, 2006 and 2007
(Rated Capacity in Tons)
Customer 2006 2007

Exporter 206 91
Wholesale Distributor 130,342 130,275
Retail Distributor 1,566 5,629
Installer 82,721 102,241
End-User 331 634

U.S. Total 215,166 238,870


Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 116


Table 4.11 Geothermal Heat Pump Domestic Shipments by Sector and Model Type, 2007
(Rated Capacity in Tons)
Model Type
Destination Other Non-
ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870 Total
ARI Rated

Residential 2,210 98,026 2,911 6,968 110,115


Commercial1 12,461 83,934 192 26,112 122,699
Industrial - 70 - 5,986 6,056
Electric Power - - - - -
Transportation - - - - -

U.S. Total 14,671 182,030 3,103 39,066 238,870


1
Including government.
- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

117 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 4.12 Shipments of Complete Geothermal Heating/Cooling Systems, 2006 and 2007

Shipments Information 2006 2007

Complete Systems
Shipped - 157
Rated Capacity (Tons) - 623
Percent of Total Shipments - s
Number of Companies - 2
Revenue of Systems (Thousand Dollars) - W
s = Value is less than 0.5 of the table metric, but value is included in any associated total.
W = Data withheld to avoid disclosure of proprietary company data.
- = No data reported.
Note: Complete geothermal heating/cooling system is defined as geothermal heat pump unit with all the necessary functional
components, except for installation materials. These include geothermal heat pump, air handler, heat exchanger, and system
kits.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 118


Table 4.13 Number of Companies Expecting to Introduce New Geothermal Heat Pump Products in 2008

Number of
New Product Type
Companies

ARI-320 Water-Source Heat Pumps 6


ARI-325 Ground Water-Source Heat Pumps 6
ARI-330 Ground Source Closed-Loop Heat Pumps 8
ARI-870 Direct Geoexhange Heat Pumps 1
Other (Non-ARI Rated) 3
Non-Geothermal Heat Pump System Components -
- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

119 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 4.14 Employment in the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry, 1998 - 2007

Person
Year
Years

1998 -
1999 -
2000 -
2002 -
2003 -
2004 -
2005 -
2006 -
2007 1,219
- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat
Pump Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 120


Table 4.15 Companies Involved in Geothermal Heat Pump Activities by Type, 2006 and 2007

Type of Activity 2006 2007

Geothermal Heat Pump or System Design - 12


Prototype Geothermal Heat Pump Development - 10
Prototype Systems Geothermal Development - 4
Wholesale Distribution - 12
Retail Distribution - 4
Installation - 3
Manufacture of System Components - 2
- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey."

121 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 4.16 Geothermal Heat Pump-Related Sales as a Percentage of Total Company Sales Revenue, 2006 and 2007

Percent of Total Sales Number of Companies


Revenue 2006 2007

90-100 - 8
50-89 - 1
10-49 - 4
Less than 10 - 4

U.S. Total - 17
- = No data reported.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump
Manufacturers Survey."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 122


Table 4.17 Geothermal Direct Use of Energy and Heat Pumps, 1990 - 2007
(Quadrillion Btu)
Year Direct Use Heat Pumps Total

1990 0.0048 0.0054 0.0102


1991 0.0050 0.0060 0.0110
1992 0.0051 0.0067 0.0118
1993 0.0053 0.0072 0.0125
1994 0.0056 0.0076 0.0132
1995 0.0058 0.0083 0.0141
1996 0.0059 0.0093 0.0152
1997 0.0061 0.0101 0.0162
1998 0.0063 0.0115 0.0178
1999 0.0079 0.0114 0.0193
2000 0.0084 0.0122 0.0206
2001 0.0090 0.0135 0.0225
2002 0.0090 0.0147 0.0237
2003 0.0086 0.0188 0.0274
2004 0.0086 0.0212 0.0298
2005 0.0088 0.0240 0.0328
2006 0.0091 0.0276 0.0367
2007 0.0094 0.0317 0.0411
Note: Direct use includes applications such as: district heating, aquaculture pond and raceway
heating, greenhouse heating and agricultural drying.
Source: John Lund, Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center (Klamath Falls,
Oregon, March 2008).

123 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


5. Green Pricing and Net Metering Programs, 2007
Background

Green pricing/marketing programs allow electricity customers to voluntarily pay the


additional costs for renewable energy through direct payments on their monthly bills. In
return, the electricity provider guarantees that it will provide either directly or by contract
that amount of renewable-based electricity.

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects information about green pricing
programs on the Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Power Industry Report,” which is a
survey of electric industry participants.18 All respondents, except independent power
producers and qualifying facilities, are asked to report their number of customers in green
pricing programs by state and customer class.

Net metering programs usually permit customers - typically residential - operating very
small generators for some of their needs to purchase extra electricity when needed and to
sell back any excess power to the utility if available. Provisions vary by state and utility
and often apply to solar or wind energy. In addition, pricing schemes vary by individual
utility and customer circumstance. This system facilitates the ease of operating
intermittent generators, such as those using solar and wind energy, and improves their
economics. The EIA collects information on net metering on the Form EIA-861 in much
the same manner as it does green pricing.

2007 Year in Review

Green Pricing Programs

After a dismal year in 2006 when the number of green pricing customers fell by almost
300,000, the market for green pricing customers rebounded across the nation in 2007
(Table 5.1 and Figure 5.1). The number of customers in green pricing programs
increased by 192,795 to 835,651 in 2007. Texas led this increase with 41,384 new
customers, which brought its total to 142,334 or 17 percent of the market. Oregon and
Maryland followed with 19,862 and 18,906 new customers respectively. By year’s end,
537 electric industry participants in 46 states and the District of Columbia reported
having green pricing customers. Ninety-three percent of the customers were residential.

The two states with the most customers, Texas and Oregon, accounted for 29 percent of
green pricing customers nationwide. Of all the states with a sizeable number of green
pricing customers, only New York and North Dakota experienced any significant decline
in number of customers.

18
“Electric industry participants” include electric utilities, wholesale power marketers, energy service
providers, and electric power producers.

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 124


Figure 5.1 U.S. Green Pricing Customers, 2003-2007

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Power


Industry Report.”

Net Metering Programs

Although the number of customers in net metering programs remains a tiny share of total
customers, growth has been rapid (Figure 5.2). The total number of customers in net
metering programs increased by 45 percent to 48,820 in 2007 (Table 5.2). California,
already the largest source of net metering customers with 72 percent of the national total,
had the largest increase of 8,779 customers, while New Jersey increased by 1,223
customers. California and New Jersey’s success in 2007 was due in some measure to
their support of solar energy development, which included the promotion of favorable
rebate programs and other incentives.

In 2007, 288 electric industry participants in 47 states and the District of Columbia
reported having green pricing customers. Ninety-two percent of the customers were
residential.

125 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Figure 5.2 U.S. Net Metering Customers, 2003-2007

Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Power


Industry Report.”

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 126


Table 5.1 Estimated U.S. Green Pricing Customers by State and Customer Class, 2006 and 2007

Participating Customers
Electric Industry 2007 2006
State
Participants 20071 Non-
Residential Total Total
Residential

Alabama 9 580 5 585 163


Alaska 1 520 10 530 356
Arizona 5 9,125 160 9,285 1,933
Arkansas - - - - -
California 11 56,380 2,296 58,676 47,527
Colorado 23 55,635 1,866 57,501 48,093
Connecticut 3 90 6 96 -
Delaware 9 7,322 1,592 8,914 2,732
District of Columbia 3 1,351 3,503 4,854 3,716
Florida 6 37,536 297 37,833 29,301
Georgia 19 8,135 173 8,308 5,983
Hawaii 3 4,698 40 4,738 4,466
Idaho 6 4,669 148 4,817 4,130
Illinois 8 3,859 33 3,892 2,770
Indiana 14 4,244 55 4,299 2,039
Iowa 45 8,385 808 9,193 8,562
Kansas 1 1 - 1 -
Kentucky 13 1,322 16 1,338 889
Louisiana - - - - -
Maine 2 2,266 228 2,494 2,146
Maryland 4 40,058 15,896 55,954 37,048
Massachusetts 5 5,882 273 6,155 5,655
Michigan 8 13,002 194 13,196 7,992
Minnesota 106 43,428 606 44,034 32,342
Mississippi 1 3 - 3 3
Missouri 17 1,417 22 1,439 459
Montana 13 974 21 995 460
Nebraska 5 6,831 60 6,891 4,887
Nevada 3 513 1 514 379
New Hampshire 1 - 1 1 -
New Jersey 3 146 295 441 363
New Mexico 13 19,339 1,934 21,273 15,577
New York 10 20,142 1,715 21,857 22,431
North Carolina 22 11,992 394 12,386 9,480
North Dakota 10 5,065 21 5,086 5,846
Ohio 14 1,784 5 1,789 252
Oklahoma 10 10,645 642 11,287 10,161
Oregon 17 97,400 3,195 100,595 80,733
Pennsylvania 4 38,301 798 39,099 37,355
Rhode Island 2 4,776 111 4,887 4,516
South Carolina 14 4,362 404 4,766 3,535
South Dakota 7 615 17 632 640
Tennessee - - - - -
Texas 18 125,849 16,485 142,334 100,950
Utah 6 22,873 533 23,406 20,188
Vermont 2 4,281 236 4,517 4,537
Virginia 2 1,304 2 1,306 1,334
Washington 25 42,949 936 43,885 35,986
West Virginia - - - - -
Wisconsin 60 34,252 2,092 36,344 31,335
Wyoming 8 9,090 4,135 13,225 3,606

U.S. Total 537 773,391 62,260 835,651 642,856


1
Includes entities with green pricing programs in more than one state.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal the sum of the components due to independent rounding.
Non-residential may include some customers for whom no customer class is specified.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report."

127 Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007


Table 5.2 Estimated U.S. Net Metering Customers by State and Customer Class, 2006 and 2007

Participating Customers
Electric Industry
State 2007 2006
Participants 20071
Residential Non-Residential Total Total

Alabama - - - - -
Alaska 1 1 - 1 -
Arizona 8 1,092 54 1,146 188
Arkansas 7 19 - 19 4
California 21 32,509 2,401 34,910 26,131
Colorado 18 255 24 279 138
Connecticut 2 336 28 364 181
Delaware 1 117 24 141 50
District of Columbia 2 11 1 12 2
Florida 8 160 25 185 48
Georgia 3 20 - 20 1
Hawaii 4 355 59 414 207
Idaho 4 51 9 60 34
Illinois 4 5 4 9 11
Indiana 4 26 16 42 20
Iowa 10 20 9 29 17
Kansas 3 10 - 10 19
Kentucky 5 9 3 12 5
Louisiana 1 9 1 10 -
Maine 1 5 5 10 3
Maryland 6 97 2 99 13
Massachusetts 6 820 160 980 558
Michigan 7 14 1 15 13
Minnesota 27 325 24 349 252
Mississippi - - - - -
Missouri 6 10 - 10 6
Montana 3 303 106 409 46
Nebraska 1 - 1 1 -
Nevada 3 311 33 344 236
New Hampshire 4 110 34 144 97
New Jersey 5 2,863 352 3,215 1,992
New Mexico 10 241 16 257 23
New York 4 1,807 8 1,815 1,143
North Carolina 5 6 14 20 -
North Dakota 3 4 - 4 2
Ohio 10 106 36 142 52
Oklahoma 1 10 - 10 31
Oregon 13 637 77 714 540
Pennsylvania 7 221 48 269 174
Rhode Island 2 95 11 106 102
South Carolina 1 1 3 4 -
South Dakota 1 1 1 2 -
Tennessee - - - - -
Texas 11 562 37 599 412
Utah 5 134 9 143 111
Vermont 6 302 42 344 232
Virginia 12 108 5 113 60
Washington 20 451 183 634 158
West Virginia 4 8 - 8 1
Wisconsin 14 278 65 343 279
Wyoming 8 51 3 54 27

U.S. Total 288 44,886 3,934 48,820 33,619


1
Includes entities with green pricing programs in more than one state.
- = No data reported.
Notes: Totals may not equal the sum of the components due to independent rounding.
Non-residential may include some customers for whom no customer class is specified.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report."

Energy Information Administration/Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 128