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The word Calculus is the Latine name for u u  
   ,calculus is a
branch of mathematics , focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, andinfinite series.
This subject constitutes a major part of modernmathematics education. It has two major
branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental
theorem of calculus.

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xell, calculus is not a just vocational training course. In part, students should study calculus for
the same reasons that they study Darwin, Marx, Voltaire, or Dostoyevsky: These ideas are a
basic part of our culture; these ideas have shaped how we perceive the world and how we
perceive our place in the world. To understand how that is true of calculus, we must put calculus
into a historical perspective; we must contrast the world before calculus with the world after
calculus.

Don¶t buy into this misconception. Sure calculus is difficult ² I¶m not going to lie to you ² but
it¶s manageable, doable. You made it through algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. xell,
calculus just picks up where they leave off ² it¶s simply the next step in a logical
progression.And calculus is not a dead language like Latin, spoken only by academics. It is the
language of engineers, scientists, and economists ² okay, so it¶s a couple steps removed from
your everyday life and unlikely to come up at a cocktail party. But the work of those engineers,
scientists, and economists has a huge impact on your day to-day life ² from your microwave
oven, cell phone, TV, and car to the medicines you take, the workings of the economy, and our
national defense. At this very moment, something within your reach or within your view has
been impacted by calculus

Calculus is essential for many areas of science and engineering. Both make heavy use of
mathematical functions to describe and predict physical phenomena that are subject to continual
change, and this requires the use of calculus. Take our car example: if you want to design cars,
you need to know how to calculate forces, velocities, accelerations, and positions. All require
calculus. Calculus is also necessary to study the motion of gases and particles, the interaction of
forces, and the transfer of energy. It is also useful in business whenever rates are involved. For
example, equations involving interest or supply and demand curves are grounded in the language
of calculus.

Calculus also provides important tools in understanding functions and has led to the development
of new areas of mathematics including real and complex analysis, topology, and non-euclidean
geometry.


   
There are two primary branches of calculus: differential calculus and integral calculus.

  involves any problem that may be graphed when the desired result is a
single point on that graph. For example, if a rancher wants to construct a corral with a limited
amount of fence, he can vary the lengths of the sides of the corral. Using calculus, he could
determine which lengths would enclose the greatest area and make the largest corral. A graph
could be drawn using every possible combination of lengths, and the highest point on that graph
± the maximum ± would signify the greatest area.

c , or integration, deals with areas and volumes of complex figures, such as
determining the greatest amount of space or volume beneath a dome in a stadium design in order
to incorporate as many seats as possible. To find the area beneath a curve, integration breaks the
area beneath the curve into minute pieces, determines the area of each piece, and adds them all
together, or integrates them, into a final answer.

Another example of integration would be determining the exact volume of water necessary to fill
a wading pool in a zoo exhibit. The pool may have varying depths and irregular edges, and it
would be extremely difficult to determine how much water is needed without being able to use
the infinite sums that integration calculates.?

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Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences,actuarial science, computer


science, statistics, engineering,economics, business, medicine, demography, and in other fields
wherever a problem can be mathematically modeledand an optimal solution is desired.

Both differential and integral calculus are useful to a wide variety of careers. The examples
below are only a fraction of the ways professionals regularly use calculus.

Credit card companies use calculus to set the minimum payments due on credit card statements
at the exact time the statement is processed by considering multiple variables such as changing
interest rates and a fluctuating available balance.

Biologists use differential calculus to determine the exact rate of growth in a bacterial culture
when different variables such as temperature and food source are changed. This research can
help increase the rate of growth of necessary bacteria, or decrease the rate of growth for harmful
and potentially threatening bacteria.

An electrical engineer uses integration to determine the exact length of power cable needed to
connect two substations that are miles apart. Because the cable is hung from poles, it is
constantly curving. Calculus allows a precise figure to be determined.

Space flight engineers frequently use calculus when planning lengthy missions. To launch an
exploratory probe, they must consider the different orbiting velocities of the Earth and the planet
the probe is targeted for, as well as other gravitational influences like the sun and the moon.
Calculus allows each of those variables to be accurately taken into account.

A physicist uses calculus to find the center of mass of a sports utility vehicle to design
appropriate safety features that must adhere to federal specifications on different road surfaces
and at different speeds. Physics makes particular use of calculus; all concepts inclassical
mechanics are interrelated through calculus,as well as the total energy of an object within a
conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. In the subfields
electricity and magnetism calculus can be used to find the total flux of electromagnetic fields.

An operations research analyst will use calculus when observing different processes at a
manufacturing corporation. By considering the value of different variables, they can help a
company improve operating efficiency, increase production, and raise profits.
A graphics artist uses calculus to determine how different three-dimensional models will behave
when subjected to rapidly changing conditions. This can create a realistic environment for
movies or video games.

Obviously, a wide variety of careers regularly use calculus. Universities, the military,
government agencies, airlines, entertainment studios, software companies, and construction
companies are only a few employers who seek individuals with a solid knowledge of calculus.
Even doctors and lawyers use calculus to help build the discipline necessary for solving complex
problems, such as diagnosing patients or planning a prosecution case.

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1) rere are some examples.xith regular math you can determine the length of a buried
cable that runsdiagonally from one corner of a park to the other. xith calculus you
candetermine the length of a cable hung between two towers that has the shape of a
2    which is different, by the way, from a simple circular arc or a parabola).
Knowing the exact length is of obvious importance to a powercompany planning
hundreds of miles of new electric cable
2) if you're in a car, the velocity is the speed at which you're going in a certain direction. As
you accelerate  increase your speed), you get pushed back into your seat. As you brake
 decelerate) you get pulled forward. This is an example of the first derivative.
3) A more historical example of the use of calculus in physics isNewton's second law of
motion, it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative:  rate
of change   
    
 
 2 2       
     2  Even the common expression of Newton's second law as
Force = Mass × Acceleration involves differential calculus because acceleration can be
expressed as the derivative of velocity. Maxwell's theory
of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativityare also expressed in the
language of differential calculus.

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