0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

97 (de) vizualizări26 paginiAccepted in IEEE Transaction in Electron Device. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TED.2010.2053972
This paper presents a simple and direct method for computing the charge collection probability distribution by utilizing the reciprocity theorem. The proposed method simplifies the charge collection probability computation with the use of the finite difference method. We demonstrate the method by computing the charge collection probability distribution of two finite junction configurations, the L-shaped and the U-shaped junction wells and compare the computational results with that obtained from the analytical expression as well as with
experiment. Good agreements were found. This method has the potential of advancing our understanding of the photovoltaic devices as well as the semiconductor characterization techniques which make use of charge collection process.

Jun 28, 2010

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

Accepted in IEEE Transaction in Electron Device. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TED.2010.2053972
This paper presents a simple and direct method for computing the charge collection probability distribution by utilizing the reciprocity theorem. The proposed method simplifies the charge collection probability computation with the use of the finite difference method. We demonstrate the method by computing the charge collection probability distribution of two finite junction configurations, the L-shaped and the U-shaped junction wells and compare the computational results with that obtained from the analytical expression as well as with
experiment. Good agreements were found. This method has the potential of advancing our understanding of the photovoltaic devices as well as the semiconductor characterization techniques which make use of charge collection process.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

97 (de) vizualizări

Accepted in IEEE Transaction in Electron Device. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TED.2010.2053972
This paper presents a simple and direct method for computing the charge collection probability distribution by utilizing the reciprocity theorem. The proposed method simplifies the charge collection probability computation with the use of the finite difference method. We demonstrate the method by computing the charge collection probability distribution of two finite junction configurations, the L-shaped and the U-shaped junction wells and compare the computational results with that obtained from the analytical expression as well as with
experiment. Good agreements were found. This method has the potential of advancing our understanding of the photovoltaic devices as well as the semiconductor characterization techniques which make use of charge collection process.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Partial Differential Equations in MATLAB
- Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Finite Difference and Finite Volume Methods
- Lecture 2
- Differential Equations
- Electronics & Microprocessor Lab Manual
- Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
- Op to Electronic Engineering BOOK
- Electric Ty Semiconductors
- B. Tech. Automotive Curriculum & Syllabus
- ME55
- fulltext_37
- Introduction to Wavelets in Engineering
- Band Theory
- Solar cell operating principles
- Iaetsd-Design of a Robust Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Single-link Flexible Manipulator
- 1-s2.0-S0040609015003375-main
- MM-QB
- The Functional Variable Method to Some Complex Nonlinear Evolution Equations
- 88720140806
- A Study of Some Systems of Linear and Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (Pdes) Using Reduced Differential Transform Method

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 26

Theorem

Oka Kurniawan 1, Chee Chin Tan2, Vincent K. S. Ong2, Erping Li1 and

Colin J. Humphreys3

1

Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 117528

2

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block S2,

3

Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street,

Abstract

This paper presents a simple and direct method for computing the charge collection

probability distribution by utilizing the reciprocity theorem. The proposed method simplifies the

charge collection probability computation with the use of the finite difference method. We

demonstrate the method by computing the charge collection probability distribution of two finite

junction configurations, the L-shaped and the U-shaped junction wells and compare the

computational results with that obtained from the analytical expression as well as with

experiment. Good agreements were found. This method has the potential of advancing our

Introduction

Charge carrier generation is a physical phenomenon that has been studied since the

discovery of the semiconductor materials. The mechanism to generate charge carriers inside

and photodetectors, to semiconductor characterization techniques [1, 2]. Once the charge carriers

are generated inside a piece of semiconductor material by means of external excitation, our

interest is then focused on how the excess charge carriers are recombined in the bulk or collected

at the charge collecting junction. The recombination and collection processes usually have direct

In order to generate the charge carriers, an electron in the valance band must gain enough

energy to overcome the energy gap and excites itself into the conduction band while creating a

hole in the valence band [3]. This principle is true regardless of the type of the external

excitation. The external excitation can range from high energy photons to high energy electron

beams. The former is used in semiconductor photovoltaic devices while the latter is normally

used for semiconductor characterization in the scanning electron microscope. When a high

energy photon or electron impinges upon the device or sample, a large number of free carriers are

generated within the generation volume. These free charge carriers will tend to diffuse away from

the generation volume and annihilate themselves through a process known as recombination.

However, if they encounter a built-in electric field at the charge collecting junction, the minority

and the majority carriers are separated from one another, preventing them from recombining.

This separation process is sometimes referred to as a collection process, and this charge collection

3

The electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) mode of the scanning electron microscope

(SEM) is a typical example of the aforementioned mechanism, and is one of the most widely used

techniques for semiconductor materials and devices characterization [2]. It is often used in the

characterization of the minority carriers transport properties, defect and failure analysis of

semiconductor devices, p-n junction profiling, and the imaging of recombination sites [5]. The

reasons for the popularity of this technique are its minimum sample preparation requirement, high

lateral resolution, and depth of resolution of the electron beam source, as well as the availability

of well derived analytical expressions of the EBIC profile. The availability of the analytical

expressions enhances the study of the EBIC technique and allows its many applications to

flourish.

The collected current I (x’, z’) is simply the charge collection probability Q (x, z)

convoluted with the generation volume distribution [6]. This can be simply expressed as

where g(x-x’, z/R) is the two dimensional (2-D) distribution of the generation volume. Different

types of generation volume models were studied and compared in [7]. Therefore, the collected

current and its analytical expression can be easily derived from the charge collection probability

once the generation volume distribution is known. For most configurations, the generation

volume is much smaller than the junction dimensions. For this case a point source charge

generation can be used [8], and this reduces the normalized collected current to simply the charge

The analytical expressions for charge collection probability for the two commonly

configuration, have been well derived in the literature [6, 9-14]. However, these analytical

4

expressions are not applicable to devices with finite junction dimensions such as the L-shaped and

the U-shaped junctions as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 respectively. This is because one has to

assume that the junction is infinitely deep and that the generation volume is near the surface in

order to use the analytical expression for the normal-collector configuration. One also has to

assume that the junction is very narrow in order to use the analytical expression for the planar-

collector configuration. These assumptions may introduce some inaccuracies if these analytical

Due to the continuing shrinking of semiconductor devices, the L-shaped and the U-

shaped junction configurations can now be easily found in many semiconductor devices such as

the bipolar transistor, field effect transistor, photodiode, phototransistor and charge-couple

devices [1]. There is a rising interest in the study of the charge collection probability in these

Soukup and Ekstrand [18] derived the analytical expressions for collection both on the

inside and outside of the junction well for the L-shaped junction well. Unfortunately, the derived

analytical expressions contain a non-elementary function, i.e., the Bessel function that introduces

some computational difficulties. Recently, the analytical expressions for charge collection within

the junction well for the L-shaped and the U-shaped junction wells were derived by utilizing the

Green’s function method to solve the continuity equation [16]. Despite the difficulties involved in

the derivation, the resulting analytical expressions involved only elementary functions. The

analytical expressions were found to have a good match with the simulation results.

It was noticed that the charge collection probability for devices with finite junction

dimensions is conventionally derived by solving the continuity equation to obtain the carrier

concentration. The current density is then calculated from the gradient of the carrier

5

concentration. Once the current density is known, the charge collection probability is obtained by

integrating the current density along the collecting junction. The derived analytical solution,

however, is only applicable for a particular collecting junction shape. This is one of the major

In this paper, a new computational method for calculating the charge collection

probability distribution from within the collecting junction is presented. This method uses the

reciprocity theorem and solves the respective partial differential equation (PDE) by using the

finite difference method. The main advantage of applying the reciprocity theorem is that it allows

a shortcut in the calculation of the charge collection probability to be taken. This is achieved by

bypassing the procedure of having to find the charge carrier density distribution. With the

reciprocity theorem, one can directly obtain the charge collection probability from the

homogenous continuity equation. In this way the computational difficulties of having to find the

carrier density can be avoided and this simplifies the calculation significantly.

The verification of this method is done by computing the charge collection probability

distribution for both the L-shaped and the U-shaped junction wells and comparing them with the

one obtained by using the analytical expressions. In additional to that, the charge collection

probability distribution are convoluted with some generation volume models and compared with

that obtained from experiments in [18]. This method computes the charge collection probability

distribution directly regardless of the shape of the junction, provided that the boundary conditions

of the junction can be defined and that the drift diffusion model is valid.

from that found in the EBIC technique. However, the technique for computing the charge

collection probability remains unchanged. This is because the charge collection probability is

6

independent of the profile of the charge carriers’ generation volume. Therefore, by convoluting

the results of the proposed method with the generation volume distribution as in (1), the exact

induced current can be obtained. The induced current can refer to either the electron-beam-

7

Methods

In 2-D, i.e., in the x-z plane, the continuity equation for a point source generation volume

+ − λ 2 q(x, z) = −

∂x 2

∂z 2

D (2)

where q is the minority carrier concentration for n-type samples i.e. holes, λ is the reciprocal of

the diffusion length i.e. λ = 1/L, D is the diffusion coefficient and the delta function refers to the

The charge collection current Q can be computed if the excess minority carrier

concentration due to the point source charge generation, which can be represented by a Green’s

function G, is known. The charge collection current is the product of the charge collection at the

boundary and the gradient of the Green’s function in the direction normal to the boundary. This is

simply written as

∂G

Q( x, z ) = ∫ Qs • dA (3)

∂n

where Qs is the value of the charge collection probability at the boundary, and ∂G/∂n is the

gradient of G with respect to a vector n that is perpendicular to the boundary dA. This equation

simply means that the charge collection probability is obtained by integrating the flux of the

Green’s function solution at the junction interface. Nevertheless, obtaining the charge collection

probability using (3) is not trivial as it involves multiple integration of the Green’s functions.

The reciprocity theorem [20-22] states that the charge collection current satisfies the

homogeneous version of the continuity equation similar to (2). Thus, the charge collection

8

∂ 2Q(x, z) ∂ 2Q(x, z)

+ − λ 2Q(x, z) = 0.

∂x 2

∂z 2

(4)

The charge collection current and hence the charge collection probability can be

computed directly by solving the partial differential equation (4) either analytically or with any

numerical technique once the boundary conditions are specified. It can be seen that by applying

the reciprocity theorem, the computation of the charge collection probability is greatly simplified

The partial differential equation (4) can be solved numerically by using the finite

difference method. In the finite difference method, the independent continuous variables are

replaced by discrete variables, having its values at each node point that spans the domain of

interest [23]. In a 2-D plane, the grid points where the approximate solutions are calculated are

defined to be

where xs and zs are the horizontal and vertical spacings between the grid points. A good

The centered difference approximation which gives a second order approximation for a

f '' (x) ≈ 2

. (6)

xs

2

+ 2

− λ 2Qi, j = 0. (7)

xs zs

Applying (7) all the node points in the domain of interest results in a system of equation that can

9

Ax = b (8)

where A contains the coefficients of the equations, x gives the solution of Qi,j and the boundary

The boundary conditions used to solve the partial differential equation (4) are the

surfaces enclosing the semiconductor volume. These include the free-semiconductor surface, the

contact and the charge collecting junction [20]. Q is unity at the charge collection junction

surface and zero at the ohmic contact. It is to be noted that for a high surface recombination

velocity surface, the boundary condition is similar to that in ohmic contact, i.e., equal to zero. At

∂Q

− = SQ

∂n (9)

recombination velocity and n is normal outward from the surface. The boundary conditions

The first derivative in (9) can be estimated by using the backward difference

f ( x) − f ( x − xs )

f ' ( x) ≈ .

xs (10)

Therefore, the boundary values at the free semiconductor surface can be easily determined using

(10).

Solving (8) with the given boundary conditions, one can obtain the numerical solution of

Q at each grid point. This can be easily done using any mathematical software such as Matlab.

10

Verification

Equation (8) is solved with its respective boundary conditions using the Matlab program

on a standard personal computer. The diffusion length of the sample is varied from 1 to 10 µm.

The number of vertical and the horizontal grid are both set to 30.

The analytical charge collection probability profile is computed by using the analytical

expressions derived in [19]. This is done numerically with the use of the Matlab program. The

after 600 terms. In practice, the truncation error can be decreased by increasing the number of

terms used, and we found that 600 terms is sufficient for the accuracy which is required in this

work.

The two finite junction geometries that were analyzed in this paper are the L-shaped and

the U-shaped junction wells. The charge collection probability profiles computed using the

proposed method is compared with the analytical profiles in order to verify the validity of the

proposed method.

An L-shaped junction well as shown in Fig. 1, with dimensions of 5 µm for both its

width and height is defined. Uniform mesh spacing is used for this junction well. For simplicity,

the Neumann boundary condition. This boundary is applied for the case of zero surface

recombination velocity. In practice, this zero surface recombination velocity surface can be

achieved by the etching process. At the top surface, a homogeneous boundary condition was used

because of the assumption that the ohmic contact spans completely over the well. The fringing

11

effect and the possibility of short circuiting the p-n junction are neglected in this case. The

Q = 1, for x = 0 and 0 ≤ z ≤ h

∂Q

= 0, for x = d and 0 ≤ z ≤ h

∂x (11)

Q = 0, for z = 0 and 0 < x < d

Q = 1, for z = h and 0 ≤ x ≤ d .

With these boundary conditions, eqn. (8) can be solved, and the charge collection probability

The verification using analytical expression is also done for a U-shaped junction well as

shown in Fig. 2, with dimensions of 5 µm for both its width and height is defined. Uniform mesh

spacing is also used for this case. Similar to the case of the L-shaped junction well, the ohmic

contact is assumed to span completely over the well so that fringing effects and the short

circuiting of the p-n junction are neglected. Thus, the boundary conditions for such a junction

Q = 1, for x = 0 and 0 ≤ z ≤ h

Q = 1, for x = d and 0 ≤ z ≤ h

(13)

Q = 0, for z = 0 and 0 < x < d

Q = 1, for z = h and 0 ≤ x ≤ d .

The charge collection probability of the U-shaped junction well is obtained once eqn. (8) is solved

12

B. Verification using experimental data

The charge collection probability of the L-shaped well with junction depth of 5 µm,

junction width of 16 µm and diffusion length of 10 µm is computed using the proposed method.

We use a uniform fine grid spacing of 0.01 µm and the boundary conditions are applied as

described in (11). A fine grid spacing is chosen so as to preserve the accuracy of the method to

obtain the induced current profile. The induced current profiles are obtained by convoluting the

charge collection probability generated using the proposed method with two generation models:

the uniform sphere and the pear shaped generation volume. These induced current profiles are

then compared with the one obtained experimentally from the L-shaped junction well of the

In the uniform sphere generation volume model, the generation rate inside the sphere is

made constant and uniform, while the generation rate outside the sphere is zero. The radius of the

uniform sphere generation volume used in the simulation is 1 µm and is tangential to the beam

entry surface. The pear-shaped generation volume used in this paper is the one modeled by

Λ( z / R) x2

g ( x, z ) = exp − 2 (14)

2π σR 2σ

3

σ 2 ( z , R) = 0.36d e 2 + 0.11 z R (15)

Λ (ξ ) = (16)

0; ξ > 1.1

where R is the electron range, de is the beam diameter, Λ(ξ) is the normalized depth-dose function

13

The electron range R used in the simulation is determined based on the parameters of the

uniform sphere generation volume used in [18] i.e., R is equal to the diameter of the sphere which

is 2 µm. The beam diameter is not given in [18] and is set to 100 nm in our calculation.

14

Results and Discussions

In order to quantify the advantage of our proposed method, we measured the time taken

to generate the charge collection probability profile of the U-shaped junction well. The following

parameters: h = 5 µm, d = 5 µm and L= 5 µm, and 900 node points are used. These nodes points

are distributed evenly within the region of interest. The time used in the proposed method and the

analytical expression are compared. Our proposed method used 1.513s to complete simulation

while the analytical expression, which involved the summation of 600 terms, used 7.301s. This

shows that the proposed method has shorten the time taken to generate the charge collection

probability profile significantly, i.e., more than 6 times faster than the analytical.

Now, we are ready to discuss the plot of the charge collection probability. Fig. 3 and

Fig. 4 show the charge collection probability distribution in the x-z plane with different minority

carrier diffusion lengths computed using the finite difference method for the L-shaped and U-

shaped junction wells respectively with both the junction width and depth being equal to 5 µm.

It can be seen that the maximum, or the unity charge collection probability, is located at the

collecting junction, and drops to the minimum at the top boundary, which is the ohmic contact.

This is in agreement with our intuitive understanding of how the charge collection probability

should behave.

These results also show that the changes in the charge collection probability distribution

are insignificant for L ≥ 5 µm. This suggests that the effect of the diffusion length is

imperceptible when the diffusion length is about the same dimension as the junction well or

larger. This is in agreement with [19]. This also indicates that the extraction of diffusion length

in devices with finite junction dimension is easier if the junction dimension is larger than the

diffusion length.

15

Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 show the relative difference between the results computed using the

finite difference method and the one computed using the analytical expressions derived in [19]

for the L-shaped and the U-shaped junction wells at L = 1µm, h = 5 µm and d = 5µm. The

relative difference profile for the other values of minority carrier diffusion lengths have similar

The statistical summary of the absolute difference between the 2 results for the L-

shaped and the U-shaped junction wells are tabulated in Table I and Table II respectively. It can

be seen in Table I and Table II that the results computed using the finite difference method has

good agreement with the results computed analytically. The maximum difference between the

computed results is 0.025. The mean absolute difference is about 0.0025 for the L-shaped

junction well and 0.004 for the U-shaped junction well. The slight difference can be explained

by the inaccuracies caused by the approximations used in both methods. It can also be observed

in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 that the discrepancies between the two methods are more pronounced at the

vertical junction. This may be due to the coarse grid spacing used at that location, which happen

to have a steep charge collection probability gradient. The accuracy in this region can be

improved by increasing the number of grid points at the appropriate locations. The U-shaped

junction well has an extra vertical junction compared to the L-shaped junction well, thus the U-

shaped junction well is expected to have a larger mean value for the absolute difference. This is

Fig. 7 shows the normalized EBIC profiles generated by convoluting the charge

collection probability distribution obtained using the proposed method with the uniform sphere

generation volume and the pear-shaped generation volume. The results agree with the

16

experimental data found in [18]. This validates the use of the proposed method to generate the

It is to be noted that, with this new method, one only needs to define the junction shape,

which serves as the boundary conditions, and the charge collection probability distribution within

the collecting junction well will be obtained by solving the system of equations. This means that

17

Conclusion

We have presented a simple and direct method for the computation of charge collection

probability distribution by utilizing the reciprocity theorem and solving the respective partial

differential equations with the use of the finite difference method. This paper discussed how the

proposed method simplifies the charge collection probability computation and avoids the

as the drift-diffusion model is valid. One of the major advantages of this new proposed method is

that it is readily applicable to any other junction well configuration, provided that the boundary

References

[1] S.M.Sze and K. K.Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3rd ed. New Jersey: John

Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2007.

[2] H. J. Leamy, "Charge collection scanning electron microscopy," Journal of Applied

Physics, vol. 53, pp. 51-80, 1982.

[3] D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor physics and devices : basic principles, 3rd ed. Boston:

McGraw-Hill, 2003.

[4] D. B. Holt, Quantitative Scanning Electron Microscopy. London, U.K: Academic, 1974.

[5] J. Hanoka and R. O. Bell, "Electron-beam-induced current in semconductor," Annual

Review of Materials Science vol. 11, p. 353, 1981.

[6] C. Donolato, "On the analysis of diffusion length measurements by SEM," Solid-State

Electronics, vol. 25, pp. 1077-1081, 1982.

[7] O. Kurniawan and V. K. S. Ong, "Choice of generation volume models for electron beam

induced current computation," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 56, pp. 1094-

1099, 2009.

[8] D. B. Wittry and D. F. Kyser, "Cathodoluminescence at p-n Junctions in GaAs," Journal

of Applied Physics, vol. 36, pp. 1387-1389, 1965.

[9] O. von Roos and K. L. Luke, "Analysis of the interaction of an electron beam with back

surface field solar cells," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 54, pp. 3938-42, 1983.

[10] F. Berz and H. K. Kuiken, "Theory of life time measurements with the scanning electron

microscope: steady state," Solid-State Electronics, vol. 19, pp. 437-45, 1976.

[11] K. L. Luke and O. von Roos, "An EBIC equation for solar cells," Solid-State Electronics,

vol. 26, pp. 901-6, 1983.

18

[12] D. E. Ioannou and C. A. Dimitriadis, "A SEM-EBIC minority-carrier diffusion-length

measurement technique," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 29, pp. 445-50,

1982.

[13] C. Donolato, "Charge collection in a Schottky diode as a mixed boundary-value

problem," Solid-State Electronics, vol. 28, pp. 1143-51, 1985.

[14] J. Boersma, J. J. E. Indenkleef, and H. K. Kuiken, "A diffusion problem in semiconductor

technology," Journal of Engineering Mathematics, vol. 18, pp. 315-33, 1984.

[15] C. Jim-Yong and H. C. Gatos, "Nondestructive determination of the depth of planar p-n

junctions by scanning electron microscopy," IEEE Transactions On Electron Devices,

vol. ED-24, pp. 1366-8, 1977.

[16] A. Boudjani, G. Bassou, T. Benbakhti, M. Beghdad, and B. Belmekki, "Direct

measurement of minority carrier diffusion length in planar devices," Solid-State

Electronics, vol. 38, pp. 471-475, 1995.

[17] A. Boudjani, B. Sieber, and L. Boudjani, "EBIC determination of lateral dopant diffusion

and junction depth in planar devices," Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 10,

pp. 1151-5, 1995.

[18] R. J. Soukup and J. P. Ekstrand, "Electron-beam-induced currents collected by a p-n

junction of finite junction depth," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 57, pp. 5386-95, 1985.

[19] O. Kurniawan and V. K. S. Ong, "Charge collection from within a collecting junction

well," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 55, pp. 1220-1228, 2008.

[20] C. Donolato, "A reciprocity theorem for charge collection," Applied Physics Letters, vol.

46, pp. 270-2, 1985.

[21] C. Donolato, "An alternative proof of the generalized reciprocity theorem for charge

collection," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 66, pp. 4524-5, 1989.

[22] C. Donolato, "Reciprocity theorem for charge collection by a surface with finite

collection velocity: application to grain boundaries," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 76,

pp. 959-66, 1994.

[23] X. S. Yang, Introduction to computational mathematics, World Scientific 2008.

[24] M. T. Heath, Scientific Computing : an introductory survey, 2nd ed. Boston: : McGraw-

Hill 2002.

[25] C. Donolato, "An analytical model of SEM and STEM charge collection images of

dislocations in thin semiconductor layers: I. Minority carrier generation, diffusion, and

collection," Physica Status Solidi (a), vol. 65, pp. 649-658, 1981.

[26] T. E. Everhart and P. H. Hoff, "Determination of kilovolt electron energy dissipation vs

penetration distance in solid materials," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 42, pp. 5837-46,

1971.

19

Figures

20

Figure 3. Charge collection probability distribution in the x-z plane computed using the finite

difference method for the L-shaped junction well with h = 5µm and d = 5µm. (a) L = 1 µm, (b)

21

Figure 4. Charge collection probability distribution in the x-z plane computed using the finite

difference method for the U-shaped junction well with h = 5µm and d = 5µm. (a) L = 1 µm, (b)

22

Figure 5. Relative difference in the charge collection probability distribution with respect to the

distribution computed using analytical solutions in the x-z plane for the L-shaped junction well

Figure 6. Relative difference in the charge collection probability distribution with respect to the

distribution computed using the analytical solutions in the x-z plane for the U-shaped junction

23

Figure 7. The normalized EBIC profiles of an L-shaped junction well of h = 5 µm, d = 16 µm,

and L = 10 µm, in comparison with the data obtained from [18]. The uniform sphere generation

volume is of radius 1 µm while the R and d e used in the Donolato’s model on the generation

24

Tables

Table I. Statistic summary table for the absolute difference in the computed charge collection

probability distribution with respect to the analytical expression for the L-shaped junction well

L = 1 µm L = 3 µm L = 10 µm

Mean 0.002453 0.002559 0.002585

deviation

Maximum 0.024649 0.025036 0.025077

Table II. Statistic summary table for the absolute difference in the computed charge collection

probability distribution with respect to the analytical expression for the U-shaped junction well

L = 1 µm L = 3 µm L = 10 µm

Mean 0.004118 0.004076 0.004076

deviation

Maximum 0.024668 0.025058 0.0251

25

Author Biographies

Oka Kurniawan received the B.Eng. degree in electronics and the Ph.D.

degree from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, in 2004 and 2008, respectively.

Currently, he is with the Institute of High Performance Computing (A∗STAR), Singapore, as a Research Engineer.

Since 2004, he has been working on the parameter extraction of semiconductor materials and devices using the

electron beam-induced current (EBIC). His research interests include parameters extraction from semiconductor

devices and the modeling of the physical properties of the EBIC measurements, modeling and simulation of

nanodevices, particularly for optoelectronic applications.

Chee Chin Tan received the B. Eng degree (with honors) in electrical and electronic engineering from Nanyang

Technological University, Singapore, in 2008,

Upon his graduation, he joined School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological

Univerisity as Research Student. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree. Since 2008, he has been working on

the semiconductor materials and devices characterization with the use of EBIC technique. His research interests

include the application and the modeling of electron beam induced current.

Vincent K. S. Ong received the B.Eng. degree (with honors) in electrical engineering and the M.Eng. and Ph.D.

degrees in electronics, from National University of Singapore, in 1981, 1988, and 1995, respectively.

He held a variety of positions in the manufacturing and testing of integrated circuits with Hewlett Packard

Company, both in Singapore and the U.S., for 11 years between 1981 and 1992. In 1992, he was with the Faculty

of Engineering, National University of Singapore, to manage a research center, and to work on research relating

to electron beam effects on integrated circuits. Since 1997, he has been with Nanyang Technological University,

Singapore, where he was first a Senior Lecturer with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and

where he is currently an Associate Professor.

Erping Li (S’91–M’92–SM’01–F’08) received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Sheffield Hallam

University, Sheffield, U.K., in 1992.

From 1989 to 1992, he was a Research Associate/Fellow in the School of Electronic and Information Technology at

Sheffield Hallam University. Between 1993 and 1999, he was a Senior Research Fellow, Principal Research Engineer, and

the Technical Director at the Singapore Research Institute and Industry. Since 2000, he has been with the Singapore

National Research Institute of High Performance Computing, where he is currently Head of the Advanced Electronic

Systems and Electromagnetics Department. He is also a Guest Professor at Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China, and a

Guest Professor of Peking University, Beijing, China. He authored or coauthored over 150 papers published in the referred international journals

and conferences, and five book chapters. He holds and has filed a number of patents at the US patent office. His research interests include fast

and efficient computational electromagnetics, micro/nano-scale integrated circuits and electronic package, electromagnetic compatibility, signal

integrity and nanotechnology.

Dr. Li is a Fellow of IEEE, and a Fellow of the Electromagnetics Academy. He was the recipient of 2006 IEEE EMC Technical Achievement

Award, the 2007 Singapore IES Prestigious Engineering Achievement Award, and the prestigious Changjiang (Yangtze) Chair Professorship

Award from the Ministry of Education in China in 2007. He is an elected IEEE EMC Distinguished Lecturer for 2007 to 2008. He is currently an

Associate Editor for the IEEE MICROWAVE ANDWIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS and IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EMC. He has been a Technical

Chair, Session Chair for many international conferences. He was the President for the International Zurich Symposium on EMC held in 2006 and

2008 in Singapore, the General Chair for the 2008 Asia-Pacific EMC Symposium and the Chairman of the IEEE EMC Singapore Chapter for

2005–2006. He has been invited to give numerous invited talks and keynote speeches at various international conferences and forums.

26

- Partial Differential Equations in MATLABÎncărcat deAli Al-hamaly
- Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Finite Difference and Finite Volume MethodsÎncărcat deED DK KA
- Lecture 2Încărcat desaketguptanitk
- Differential EquationsÎncărcat deMichael Ezeanaka.O.
- Electronics & Microprocessor Lab ManualÎncărcat deCyril Robinson Azariah John
- Charge Carriers in SemiconductorsÎncărcat deMohammad Gulam Ahamad
- Op to Electronic Engineering BOOKÎncărcat deUmair Siddique
- Electric Ty SemiconductorsÎncărcat dehalegria_1
- B. Tech. Automotive Curriculum & SyllabusÎncărcat deAkash Soni
- ME55Încărcat desoumyasss
- fulltext_37Încărcat denguyengiaohung
- Introduction to Wavelets in EngineeringÎncărcat denitrosc16703
- Band TheoryÎncărcat deRavi Verma
- Solar cell operating principlesÎncărcat deSrinivas Sai
- Iaetsd-Design of a Robust Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Single-link Flexible ManipulatorÎncărcat deiaetsdiaetsd
- 1-s2.0-S0040609015003375-mainÎncărcat deBhabani Sankar Swain
- MM-QBÎncărcat deVinay Kandula
- The Functional Variable Method to Some Complex Nonlinear Evolution EquationsÎncărcat deSEP-Publisher
- 88720140806Încărcat deSurya Negara
- A Study of Some Systems of Linear and Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (Pdes) Using Reduced Differential Transform MethodÎncărcat deinventionjournals
- Stabilization of a solid propellant rocket instability.pdfÎncărcat depraveen
- GEM 601 Lecture Slides (PDEs Derivation )Încărcat deAly Arquillano Jr
- PH6251 Phy NotesÎncărcat deDEEPAK
- Application of Chemical Fractionation Methods for Characterisation of BoifuelsÎncărcat deAnonymous knICax
- Organic Light Emitting DiodesÎncărcat deRochelle Lee
- 241 OscilloscopeÎncărcat deFootball Mania
- Partial Differential Equations of Fluid DynamicsÎncărcat deinsan
- Bellassoued, M., Yamamoto, M. Carleman Estimates And Application to Inverse Problems For Hyperbolic Systems..pdfÎncărcat dev1ct0rhug023
- Finite Element MethodÎncărcat deflgrhn
- 536Încărcat deraul yondo

- Improved Calculation of Charge Collection Probability From Within the Junction WellÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Digital World: A Freshmore Course for Computational Thinking at SUTDÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Integrated System-Level Electronic Design Automation (EDA) for Designing Plasmonic nanoCircuitsÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Fourier-Transform K•P Method For Modeling Electronic Structures And Optical Properties Of Low Dimensional HeterostructuresÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Praise and Worship in a Catholic SettingÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- free space optics for antenna beamformingÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Analysis of Wetting Layer Effect on Electronic Structures of Truncated-pyramid Quantum DotsÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Generation of Surface PlasmonÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Integration of Plasmonics Into Nanoelectronic CircuitsÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Non-equilibrium Green's Function Calculation of Optical Absorption in Nano Optoelectronic DevicesÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Vocation to Married LifeÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Factors affecting the extraction efficiency of surface plasmon polariton from an elliptical microdiskÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Poster for Computation of Charge Collection Probability for Any Collecting Junction ShapeÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Surface Plasmon Hybridization of Whispering Gallery Mode Microdisk Laser - AbstractÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Surface Plasmon Hybridization of Whispering Gallery Mode Microdisk Laser-SlidesÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Surface Plasmon Hybridization of Whispering Gallery Mode Microdisk Laser - full paperÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Errata to "Charge Collection from Within a Collecting Junction Well," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1220, 2008.Încărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Simplified Model for Ballistic Current-Voltage Characteristic in Cylindrical NanowiresÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Modeling and Simulation of Active Plasmonics with the FDTD method by using Solid State and Lorentz-Drude Dispersive ModelÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- freefallballÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Computation of Charge Collection Probability for Any Collecting Junction ShapeÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Charisms, Signs, and Gifts of a Teacher (of the faith)Încărcat deOka Kurniawan
- scientificmethodÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Marriage and FamilyÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Henrickson’s Derivation for Electron-Photon Self-EnergyÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Presentation slides for Study of a Single Coaxial Silicon Nanowire for On-Chip Integrated Photovoltaic ApplicationÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Pentecost Today: a scriptural reflection on the story of PentecostÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Schrodinger and Maxwell Equations: on their similaritiesÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan
- Study of a Single Coaxial Silicon Nanowire for On-Chip Integrated Photovoltaic ApplicationÎncărcat deOka Kurniawan

- Sealed Air Corporation's Leveraged RecapitalizationÎncărcat deKumar
- ASTM D1415 Standard Test Method for Rubber Property -International Hardness.pdfÎncărcat deManikanda Saravanan
- Project TitlesÎncărcat deSourav Poddar
- Gas Turbine Start SystemÎncărcat dehumane28
- 804480r4.pdfÎncărcat deDimas Zamora
- Paper1 Pooja LambaÎncărcat depoo235
- Sakurai&Napolite CH 5- 5.38Solutions 18Apr12Încărcat deradwanhasan
- Aluminum Bulk Carrier SuperstructureÎncărcat deCésar Venegas
- Article Reviews (Service Management)Încărcat deAnkit Bhasin
- Direct MethodÎncărcat deScoalaCornea
- Introduction to Linguistics - CSD 080 OL1 - Course SyllabusÎncărcat deContinuing Education at the University of Vermont
- Lesson Plan on Summary LeadsÎncărcat deAbby Valencia
- Cognos External Repository ControlÎncărcat demadhuthemoon
- 5 daftar pustakaÎncărcat derizamunawar
- Rutland Online CatalogÎncărcat debmccown
- Q400 Flashcards _ Quizlet_5Încărcat deAnish Shakya
- TQM.P1Încărcat deAtiqah Idrus
- 01 Pengembangan Obat - Aspek Umum & Regulasi.pdfÎncărcat devinda
- Fallout Wasteland Warfare - Rules of PlayÎncărcat deJérôme Chaniol
- Corrosion Issue89 LowResÎncărcat deLvision
- 07a10591 Engineering DrawingÎncărcat deNizam Institute of Engineering and Technology Library
- Rnl-A-10 Rollover of Bus Sml IsuzuÎncărcat deNavas Azeez
- Attività scientifica di renato brunettaÎncărcat deBeniamino Murgante
- Outline_Internship Report_ Bui Hoang LongÎncărcat deBùi Hoàng Long
- A Contribution to the Modeling of Metal Plasticity and FractureÎncărcat deLamlon Lin
- Chem162 Models Report 123011Încărcat deDiana RU
- ALCOAÎncărcat deakshaylakhiani
- Anthony Tricoli Leads Sustainability Success at GPCÎncărcat deilocirta
- g8m4l8- word problems linear equations 3Încărcat deapi-276774049
- Eras 2011 App BrochureÎncărcat deSergey Moldavskiy

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.