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Food is a very important part of a Filipinos life.

No gathering would be complete

without the lechon and so many other Filipino delicacies that we so enjoy. Since
Filipinos are naturally hospitable and gregarious, food is the basis of their social life.
It can really be said that Filipinos seems to live simply for pleasure of eating. You
can't visit a home without being offered a drink and food from the people there. It
seems that food and the Filipino have been deeply rooted together. It may be that
through food that brings the Filipino family close together.
Filipinos are certified food lovers. Whether its breakfast, lunch and dinner, Filipinos
love to eat snacks at midmorning including merienda in the afternoon. In the
Philippines, street food is known among the Filipinos. And the variety of snacks for
those adventurous eaters. Feel and enjoy the gastronomic delights you will
encounter. There are over more than a hundred various ethnic groups in the
Philippines with a very unique cuisine that anyone can truly enjoy. When chinese
came to the Philippine , they introduced noodles and taught Filipino Chinese food
such as Pansit or noodles , lumpia , vegetables rolled in edible wrappers. When
spanish colonizers came to the Philippines, they introduced a diverse flavor and
ingredients . Among those foods are Paella which is a combination of different
spices and ingredients such as pork , chicken, sausages , sea foods and a lot more.
In addition other global influences like italian ,french , middle eastern, japanese
and Thai became part of Filipino foods.
According to the article Philippines : Philippine Food
fromhttp// , the traditional and real Filipino food came from
theadaptation of Chinese food and introduction of Spanish/Mexican. Spanish
cooking is themain influence in Philippine dishes. The Spanish made a lasting
impact on the way of life in the Philippines. They introduced many of their foods and
special festive dishes so thatnow the cuisine of the Philippines is as much influenced
by Spanish tastes as it is try theMalay and Chinese way of cooking said by
Despite the absence of an established Filipino cuisine, the Philippines is stillknown
for specific delicacies such as for sisig, ensalada, atchara, kilawin, for main
dishsinigang, kare-kare, adobo, lechon, and pinakbet and for dessert suman,
kutsinta, bibingka, puto, sapin-sapin. Whenever tourists visit Philippines, it has
become a traditionto offer them these foods. (
Based on the Department of Tourism Travel and Tourism Statistics 2011, Koreanand
American are the top two nationalities who frequently visited the Philippines.
TheDOT also specified their reasons for their visit such as for holiday vacations
and business-related transactions. During their stay in the Philippines, it is just
normal for them to try either one of the countrys delicacies. This study aims to
determine the perception and attitudes of foreigners towardsFilipino delicacies.
General Objective
The researchers basically want to determine the perception and attitudes of Korean
and American tourists towards Filipino delicacies in order to obtain which
amongthese Filipino delicacies would be marketable for future business owners,
specifically; itseeks to answer the following:1.What is the demographic profile of the
respondents in terms of:

a.Gender b.Nationalityc.Length of Stay2.What is the perception and attitude of the

respondents toward Filipino delicacynamely:

Appetizer (Ensalada, Atsara, Sisig, Kilawin)

Main Course (Sinigang, Kare-kare, Adobo, Lechon, Bicol Express)

Dessert (Puto, Bibingka, Suman, Kutsinta, Sapin-Sapin)3.What is the perception and

attitude of Americans and Koreans toward Filipinodelicacy when grouped according
to their demographic profile?
III.Significance of the Study
The study is all about American and Koreans perception and attitude
towardsFilipino delicacies. The study will influence on what Filipino delicacies are
mostfavourable by Americans and Koreans, making an outcome to those who want
to put up a business on what food or dishes could be included in the restaurant
menu that will besuitable to those Americans and Koreans that are settled or visits
our country. The studywould benefit the students and future researchers that will
serve as their guide and assource of information for the possible topic. It will also
help our government to have
some idea on how and what should improve to our delicacy that will pull up the
tourismin the Philippines.
CHAPTER IIReview of Related LiteratureIntroduction
Food is anything people eat that provides nourishment. The concept of food is
asvaried as there societal groupings. The incoming of food is multi-faceted. It is
somethingthat should not only alleviate hunger and nourish the body, but it must
also satisfy thehuman senses so that eating is pleasurable. According to McWilliams
and Heller (2003),food should not to be thought as just a way of attaining nutrients
that are essential to life;if that is the case the vital refinement of the things that
influence people to eat will be
overlooked. It will be overly simplistic if a meal will be given to a person according
tohis age and gender to provide the nutrients his body meets, regardless of the
pleasure thatthe food should add in a persons life. Preferred and all too familiar
flavors, texture, andaromas offer instant pleasure and also prompt happy memories
people and placesconnected with these facts.
People eat what they like. They like what they know and what tastes good tothem.
The knowledge about foods and meals is established for each person by his
culture,his family background, and his breadth of experiences, including his level of
education.According to Kittler & Sucher (2008), everyone has particular likes and
dislikes pertaining to foods that have evolved over time, and these preference
concerns the personal experience of a person, like encouragement to eat,
acknowledging familycustoms and rituals, product marketing, and personal attitude.
Another factor is thecultural influence. Cultural is widely defined as an accepted
values, beliefs, and attitude of a certain community or group of individuals. There is
a guideline that a cultural groupsets regarding what food is acceptable in their
society. Social influence is also one of thefactors influencing the behavior of an
individual. Included in the social factors involvedin eating habits of an individual are
the reference group such as family, friends, neighbor and co-worker (Kotler, 2003).

Economic influences are said to be part of the factors thatinfluence the eating
habits of people. Under economic influences are the money, values,and consumer
skills (
An important symbol of food function is cultural identity. One can be easilyclassified
in which group he belongs by the foods he eats. Like in Middle East, a person who
eats pork may be a Christian or Orthodox. A family that eats raviolis served
withroast turkey may be an Italian-American family while Mexican-American family
maydine with tamales and turkey. Foods that are connected with ones culture are
usuallyintroduced during childhood and give a feeling security. Thus, a person gives
a specialworth to the food. This food often refers as comfort food as they fulfill the
psychologicalneed for food familiarity (Kittler & Sucher, 2008). Also according to
Kittler & Sucher (2008), culture is acquired through learningand not inherited. It is
passed from one generation to another through the process calledenculturation.
Culture is adaptation of set of environmental condition and cultural behavior
patterns through isolation in a particular place or set apart by socio-economicstatus.
Cultural forces according to Bennion & Sucher (2008) mold ones food
behaviors.Foods are eaten in combination of other foods are in accordance with a
persons culture.Food customs also include the attitude of food preparation, the way
the food will bedevoured, the time and the place it will be consumed. In addition,
culture does not always stay as it is; it changes from time to time, in one place to
another according to socialdynamics. Ethnicity is the fusion of race, people or
cultural group (McWilliams & Heller,2003), associated with patterns of shared
behaviour, which includes food habits, dress,language, family structure and
religious affiliation. People from an ethnic group mayhave a common heritage
through locality or history that derives them to be involved inother cultural group in
larger social system. When a person belonging from one ethnicitymoved to another
area which possess a different cultural identity that he has, adaptationto the new
culture began. In the beginning, the person who moved to another area adapts
another norms which are far from he made to accept, but still surrounded by the
culturevalues and practices from his ethnic background origin (Kittler & Sucher,
During the Spanish colonization, Filipinos learned to eat Spanish food and
usedifferent kinds of spices. This was also the start of the spice trade between
Spain, thePhilippines, and Tidorein Maluka (Mollucas). The Chinese also traded with
the Filipinosas early as the 15Th century. Later on, Americans came and introduced
American foodwhich was welcomed and immediately embraced by the Filipinos.
According from the Philippine Fact Book, consumers select varying ways to
meettheir needs sometimes because of differences in perception, how we gather
and interpretinformation from the world around us. Based on Guzman (1985), many
factors affect the perception of the consumers towards food. Some are visual
perception, odor detection,taste stimuli and tactile sensation. Americans want their
food to be quick, convenient, and cheap; regardless of whether they buy it at a
supermarket or a local fast-food franchise. Americans like thingsthat are fast and
easy, requiring minimal personal or economic sacrifice. Americans alsovalue
looking good and choose foods that look good. Some are even willing to spenda
lot of money for food that makes them look good as when they eat in
expensiverestaurants. The characteristics of Americas dominant food culture are
cost, convenienceand appearance (Ikerd, 2012).
According to Wright (1980), in Korea more time is spent preparing
ingredients(chopping, slicing and marinating) than cooking. In many cases,

particularly vegetables, the ingredients are literally shown to the pan and taken out
again. The Koreans like to eattheir vegetables almost raw and their meat and fish
are usually so finely sliced that thesetoo, take very little time to cook. Korean
cookery, great is placed on very fine cutting.This art, coupled with the decorative
cutting of vegetables for garnish and fresh fruit for pure beauty, is the first element
of cuisine learned by a Korean girl. In addition to thatgarnishes are used to enhance
the attractiveness of a dish and stimulate ones appetite(Korean Tourism
Organization, 2008). Korean food has many different flavors, from chili-hot to
delicately subtle, but theoverall impression for the new comer to the Korean table is
one of the sweetness, foundin such dishes as Bulgogi and Thak Tuigim Jang. The
taste of Korean food is unique, butnot so remote from Western dishes which
combine sweet foods, such as fruit, with meatand poultry. The sweetness, or maybe
the sheer satisfaction of eating Korean food maybethe reason why desserts as we
know them do not feature in a Korean meal. In factKoreans will often eat fruit and
rice cakes before a meal, and will finish with a platedecoratively cut fruit. (Wright,
1980) Tourist and expatriates may be pleasantly surprised when scanning prices in
thelocal food markets and restaurants. Even though the Organization for
EconomicCooperation and Development reported a high increase in food costs for
2009 (7.6 percent compared to the United States 0.5 percent increase), you can
still eat very well inKorea for a small amount of money. Korean restaurants are
usually very inexpensive. Inthe United States, patrons often pay high prices for a
fancy ambiance and one-of-a-kinddishes. However, locals will tell you that the best
Korean food is often served at acrowded corner eatery
A mixture of Malay, Chinese and Spanish, with just a touch of Americaninfluence, is
the combination that makes the food of the Philippines and the peoplethemselves
the exotic blend of East and West that they are (Solomon, 1976). Accordingto
Fernando (1976), Spanish cooking is the main influence in Philippine dishes.
TheSpanish made a lasting impact on the way of life in the Philippines. They
introducedmany of their foods and special festive dishes so that now the cuisine of
the Philippines isas much influenced by Spanish tastes as it is try the Malay and
Chinese way of cooking The more than 7,100 islands of the Philippines Archipelago
and the fact that theforeigners landed in different parts of the islands with
Malaysian concentrating in theMindanao and Visayan and the Chinese, Indians and
Arabians in the Luzon Islands, arethe main reasons why there are pronounced
variations in the dishes served in the differentareas of the country. The Spaniards,
Americans, Japanese, in the course of their colonization brought along their own
characteristics ways of cooking and eating. TheFilipinos were able to adopt the
foreign ways without discarding their own (Belmonte &Mundo, 1987).
According to Fernandez (1994), the Filipino is often hard to put to say just
whatPhilippine food is. In his home and restaurant menus are found dishes with
vernacular names like laing amd paklay, Spanish names like embutido and
mechado, Chinese names like tokwa and bihon all companionably coexisting. The
reason for the confusion is thatPhilippine cuisine, dynamic as any live and growing
phase of culture, has changedthrough history, absorbing influences, indigenizing,
adjusting to new technology andtastes, and thus evolving. The particular aspect of
cultural borrowing and change bearsinvestigation; not only are the results of
immediate and gut-level concern to everyFilipino, but the process is one in which
not only a few, but the greater majority of Filipinos, participated. It was a conscious
and yet unconscious cultural reaction, in that borrowers knew that they were

cooking foreign dishes while making it their own. For example, pancit from a
Chinese noodle dish, is now the signature of many a town or region (pancit Malabon,
pancit Marilao, pancit habhab of Lucban). That certainly showsthat both evolution
and creation have been involved.
In the Philippines as in the rest of Asia, the parts of a meal are not divided
intoappetizers, soups, and so on. Rather, all the dishes are served on the table and
one manyfreely partake of the food in no particular order. The different courses
may be takensimultaneously and repeatedly. Furthermore, for Filipinos appetizers
are not customary asthey are thought to reduce ones appetite for the main meal.
The closest thing to theWestern appetizer is
pulutan or pampagana
, or food to accompany an alcoholic drink, or a side dish similar to the Spanish
tapas. Note that by serving small portions, one canmake an appetizer as well out of
the kinilaw and sisig. (Alejandro, 2004)
The Filipino delicacies in terms of their main course are consists of soups, poultry,
meat and vegetables. According to Alejandro (2004), the traditional Filipino wayof
taking soup is neither at the start of a meal is Western fashion , nor at the end of
themeal in Chinese fashion rather, it is taken throughout the meal and together with
the other dishes laid out family style on the table. Traditional Filipino soups cannot
be divorcedfrom the main course as it is often the try-product of cooking the main
course, for boilingis one of the time-honored cooking methods common throughout
the country. One of the best examples is sinigang.
Before the year 2000, Korean cooking, let alone Korean restaurants were practically unheard of in
the Philippines. It took television, specifically the Korean drama Jewel in the Palace to introduce
what Korean cuisine is all about. The gradual opening of Korean restaurants was originally intended
to cater to Korean expatriates in the Philippines. However, as curiosity among Filipinos brought them
to Korean restaurants, the general shock brought by spicy fermented vegetables or kimchi created
the imagined concept that Korean food is altogether spicy. While it created an othering
exoticisation of Korean culture, it created at least two divergent attitudes among Filipino consumers:
(1) dilution, or the search for toned down or Filipinised version of Korean cuisine, and (2) authenticity
or the desire for authentic Korean cooking. From these attitudes can be derived the opening that
Korean culture can be understood through by Filipinos through a sustained fascination towards this
foreign culture. Hansik is a product of millennia of cultural ecology in which Koreans created
thousands of recipes based on topographic-environmental, religious-philosophical, and
socioeconomic realities. This historical reality however lacks the necessary cultural interpretation
and explanation. It is at this juncture that this paper explores the transmission and reception of hallyu
through food production (cooking), presentation, and promotion in commercial restaurants, popular
media, and government agencies such as the Korean Cultural Center in the Philippines and the
Korea Tourism Organization. This paper looks at the Filipino imagining of Korean culture through the
consumption of Korean cuisine, diluted or authentic

Filipinos love to eat, and since they're naturally hospitable and gregarious, food is the basis of
their social life. Because the feeling of fulfillment after eating rice, their staple ingredient, is
relatively short-lived, they eat three meals a day and two snacks in between. Filipinos, especially
country folk, rise early. Some will eat a segundo almuerzo (second breakfast) around 10:30, plus
a merienda, or mid-afternoon snack. Rural folk eat their main meal at midday, while city
dwellers emphasize the evening meal. The diet of poor families is usually rice, fish, vegetables,
interspersed with starchy snacks. At fiesta time, all families try to eat meat.

Since few provincial households own a refrigerator, ingredients are customarily either fresh or
salted. Housewives go to the market daily to buy their immediate requirements. Leftovers rarely
remain after a meal. Extra food is eaten by servants, helpers, and hangers-on, and scraps go to
the dog or pig. Food isn't served in courses; people like the complete meal laid out before them
so that they can eat simultaneously from all dishessoup, meat, and vegetablesat random.
Cooks provide condiments, flavorings, and dipping sauces to be used at the diner's discretion.
Food is eaten with a fork in one hand and a spoon in the other, knives are seldom used. Rural
Filipinos prefer to use their hands. Some upscale native restaurants in Manila serve food this
way (kamayan-style).
Like the culture in general, Filipino food is basically of Malay origin, with Spanish, Chinese, and
American influences. Regardless of origin, lechon, lumpia, and pork adobo are now considered
national dishes. Regional variations in the fresh ingredients available account for provincial
specialties. Centuries of Spanish rule have resulted in about 80% of Filipino dishes being of
Spanish derivation. Interestingly, there was relatively little Mexican influence, despite the ties to
a Mexican-based administration and the galleon trade. The Spanish colonialists preferred
Iberian dishes, such as arroz valenciana, to those of the Mexican Indians. Adobo preparation is
the only exception as the tomato, corn, avocado, and potato in adobo were all introduced from
The most obvious Chinese contribution is noodles, which form the basis of the popular pancit
dishes. The Chinese also gave the Philippines lumpia and chop suey. Some standard dishes, such
as the coconut-based ginataan, have retained their Malay origin. The Muslims never entered the
Spanish sphere, so their cooking has remained heavily Malay. It's spicy, and marked by the use
of coconut milk and chilis, the prevalence of cassava as well as rice and seafood, and the absence
of pork.