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MABALACAT CITY COLLEGE

The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performances

A Technical Paper to
Mrs. Ruby B. Gamboa

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements in


English for Academic and Professional Purposes

by :
Dayrit, Mary Allyson, S.
Paglinawan, Cheska, M.
Pangan, Kristine, A.
October 24, 2016

Table of Contents
Senior High School

The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performance

MABALACAT CITY COLLEGE


Title Page

Page
i

Table of Contents

ii

List of Tables and Figures

iii

Chapter 1. THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Introduction

Review of Related Literature

Statement of the Problem

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

Definition of Terms

Chapter 2. METHOD

Page

Research Design

10

Participants

11

Instrument

13

Data Collection Procedure

14

Data/Statistical Analysis

14

Chapter 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Results

15

Discussion

18

Statistical Results

20

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The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performance

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Chapter 4. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary

25

Conclusion

27

Recommendations

27

References

28

Appendices

THE PROBLEM AND RELATED LITERATURE


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Introduction
Gender is the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social
and cultural differences rather than biological ones). While inequality is the quality of
being unequal or uneven, lack of evenness, social disparity, disparity of distribution or
opportunity, and the condition of being variable. Academic achievement or
(academic) performance is the outcome of education the extent to which a student,
teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.
Academic performance is affected by a host of factors. These include individual
and household characteristics such as student ability, motivation, the quality of secondary
education obtained the like. The gender of the student may also be a factor in determining
student performance. Childhood training and experience, gender differences in attitudes,
parental and teacher expectations and behaviors, differential course taking and biological
differences between the sexes may all be instrumental in giving rise to gender differences
in achievement (Feingold, 1988).
Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on
their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles. However we
noticed that many person in the world experiencing gender inequality and its the same
problem happening in our country. It may be a better place to live but it is the hindrance
to people experiencing gender inequality.

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The researchers have observed that students have something to share about this
issue and worst is some of them face this kind of dilemma that might affect studies and
social life. An example of this is when a gender either male or female use its gender as
dominated , this is the beginning of what so called gender inequality. On the other side
instructors are also related to this controversial because some students find teachers bias
to particular gender.
So the UNESCOs post-2015 agenda requires a continued attention to gender
equality quoted These are recruiting and retaining well-trained and motivated teachers
who use inclusive, gender-responsive and participatory pedagogical approaches to ensure
effective learning outcomes and providing content that is relevant to all learners and to
the context in which they live. Thus, as targeted, there is a need to close the gap in
teacher training by employing and developing adequate teachers who are well-trained,
able to meet national standards and effectively deliver relevant content, with emphasis on
gender balance.
But of course there will be difficulties like what (Padhy, Emo, Djira & Deokar,
2015; Osguthorpe & Sanger, 2013; Topkaya & Uztosun, 2012, Sinclair, 2008; Watt,
2006) encoded that Recruiting and developing well-trained and gender-balanced
teachers is a tough job. Although there is considerable research on career choices of
students and recruitment to teacher education.
Such problem people encounter in daily living whether in school, community, or
even in society. Gender inequality becomes a problem when it keeps on repeating and
repeating to occur. Especially the gender who tends to suffer the most. The effects or
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impact to perseverance students to their academic performance or achievement purposes,
it is a big factor because education is a right that transforms lives when it is accessible to
all, relevant and underpinned by core shared values. Some studies says that In the
Philippines, Acedo (2002) reported that only about 25 percent of the high school seniors
who have good standing in the National Achievement Test (NAT) because of the
disconnection of gender gaps or equality.
Does the determined students will be aware to the living virus created by the
gender inequality in prestigious school is existing or maybe not?. This research aims to
find out if gender and gender-related experiences influence the academic performances of
the students. What is the percentage that school is facing this kind of problem, if it is
happening what are the possible effects and acts that students consider unequal treatment.
On the other hand, if it has a probability that some places or schools that are free from
gender inequality that can save them for effective productivity.
Related Literature
Foreign Literature
A shortage of female teachers, lack of proper training, inadequate delivery of
services and indifferent attitudes combine to add to gender inequality in education in this
small Himalayan nation. KATHMANDU IPS (2008).
"While we have noted some very positive aspects, such as that of girls coming
forward and eager to receive education. Still, the challenge on the secondary level is very

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huge," says Jyotsna Jha, advisor on gender and education and HIV/AIDS of the Britishbased Commonwealth Secretariat, which is part of UNGEI.
Communities still give priority to boys when it comes to quality education", says
Nora Fyles, senior advisor on education of the Canadian International Development
Agency, which is part of UNGEIs Global Advisory Committee.
"Most of them don't come to school regularly because of this. Also, parents can't
provide for their kids' educational material on time. Then there's also the question of early
marriage for girls, which prevents them from getting higher education," said Parsohiyas
Aryal. He also noted that girls are often sent to public schools while boys are sent to
better quality boarding schools. "This is the reason why you see more girls than boys on
level five," he pointed out.
According to Ministry of education records, the number of boys who joined
tertiary institutions last year stood at 100,831 while girls were only 78,738-indicating a
gap of 22,093. The report says the much touted political commitment to bridge the gender
gap in education had failed to translate into budget allocations and there was no robust
records and information management system put in place to track progress and the impact
of the interventions.

Local Literature

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Most studies show that, on average, girls do better in school than boys. Girls get
higher grades and complete high school at a higher rate compared to boys (Jacobs, 2002).
Standardized achievement tests also show that females are better at spelling and perform
better on tests of literacy, writing, and general knowledge (National Center for Education
Statistics, 2003).
The EFA-MDA Gender Equality in Education Progress Note (UNICEF,
2009) analysis revealed that boys enrolment rates were significantly lower
than those of girls in Malaysia, Mongolia, the Philippines and Thailand.
Plans (2011) research into gender expectations demonstrates that in
many settings boys and men are encouraged to be tough, are put under
pressure to be heads of households and often face institutionalized violence,
much at the hands of other men through choice of profession. Social
pressures to meet stereotypes of masculinity mean that men may suppress
non-masculine aspects of their personality. Men may miss out on rewarding
social opportunities, such as showing affection, child rearing, and caring for
others (Jha & Kelleher, 2006; Plan, 2011; UNESCO, 2004).
Boys make up the majority of out of school children (56.9 per cent
primary, 63.7 per cent secondary). Out-of-school boys are likely to be
engaged in economic activity. Likelihood of attendance is connected to
wealth. Boys functional literacy rates are lower both in and out of school.
(Toress 2011)
Girls outscore boys in all subjects in the National Achievement Test.
Boys underachievement is driven by parents and teachers low academic
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expectations for boys, the economic viability of boys, passive classroom
experience, gender bias, stereotyping and a lack of learning materials.
(Philippine Survey 2011)

Statement of the Problem (SOP)


The researchers study aims to provide reliable evidences and information about
the latest controversy Gender Inequality that the country is facing with. It adds to the
knowledge of individuals or more specific students if this kind of issue is occurring at the
ground school. To verify and validate what are the possible effects that can be experience
by the victim of this particular act. Such way the study will discover the facts about the
impact of gender inequality to the students academic performances.
Specifically, it will attempt to answer the following:
1. What are the impact of gender inequality to the students academic performances?
2. What are the types of prevention and possible effective solutions to the gender
inequality treatment?
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study will be conducted at Mabalacat City College because it is the only
public higher education institution in Mabalacat City and it is known for its high passing
rate in the Licensure Examination for Teachers. The respondents will be the current 150
fourth year students from the Institute of Teacher Education Programs with eight (8)
Fields of Speacialization. The information that will be gathered is delimited on the
English Proficiency Level of the Education graduating students.

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Definition of Terms
Accuracy
Conceptual: freedom from error (correctness), or closeness to the truth or fact
resulting from exercise of painstaking care or due diligence
(businessdictionary.com)
Operational: correctness in the use of English language both in written or spoken
form
Blue
Conceptual: of the color blue (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
Operational: represents the color of Institute of Teacher Education (Blue
Mentors) where the respondents, who will take the Pre-Service Training Program,
belongs
Fluency
Conceptual: ability to speak or write smoothly, easily or readily (dictionary.com)
Operational: ability to speak or write smoothly, easily or readily in English
Fields of Specialization
Conceptual: the act of specializing a particular line of study or work
(dictionary.com)

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Operational: the Fields of Specialization offered in the Bachelor of Secondary
Education Program at Mabalacat City College English, Filipino, Math,
Biological Science and MAPEH; the Fields of Specialization offered in the
Bachelor of Elementary Education Pre-school and General Education, and the
Field of Specialization offered in the Bachelor of Technical Teacher Education
Food Service Management
Green
Conceptual: of the color green (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
Operational: represents the enlightenment of the Education students on their
English Proficiency Level
Level
Conceptual: a position on a real or imaginary scale of amount, quantity extent or
quality (oxford dictionary)
Operational: English Proficiency Levels Starting out, Beginner, Advanced
Beginner and Intermediate
Pre-Service
Conceptual: relating to the period before a person takes a job that requires
training, especially in teaching (oxforddictionaries.com)
Operational: the period before the Education students will be deployed for
practice teaching
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Proficiency
Conceptual: mastery of a specific behaviour or skill demonstrated by consistently
superior performance, measured against establish or popular standards
(businessdictionary.com)
Operational: the students mastery of the English macro skills Reading, Writing,
and Speaking
Program
Conceptual: a plan of things that are done in order to achieve a specific result
(merriam-webster.com)
Operational: a plan of activities that are developed for the Education students at
Mabalacat City College to improve their English Proficiency Level
Reading Comprehension
Conceptual: it is the act of understanding what you are reading (k12reader.com)
Operational: the act of understanding what you are reading in English
Students
Conceptual: a student who attends a school, college or university
(MerriamWebster dictionary)
Operational: group of individuals who are taking Education Programs at
Mabalacat City College

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Training
Conceptual: an organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or
instruction to improve the recipients performance to help him/her attain a
required level of knowledge or skill (businessdictionary.com).
Operational: an organized activity that aims to improve the English skills of the
Education students at Mabalacat City College
Yellow
Conceptual: of the color yellow (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
Operational: represents the confusion of the Education students on their English
Proficiency Level

Chapter 2

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METHODOLOGY

Research Design
Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world,
rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. One might say that the goal of the
applied scientist is to improve the human condition (www.sjsu.edu). It is also can be
conducted on any level, like by, government organizations, agencies, institutions, and
even on a personal level too. There are various types of applied research and it can be
explanatory, exploratory, descriptive or confirmatory. In the industries, applied research is
conducted to bring new ideas about products and test the efficiency of some of the
products. Applied research is conducted on a daily basis in the industries. In marketing,
surveys and observations are conducted to benefit the business. In colleges and
universities, applied research is conducted to examine and search the facts that are
already present, but hidden. Applied research, provides vital benefits to the countries
economy (readingcraze.com)

Participants

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A total of 129 participants 56 participants from Avicenna (HUMSS) , 24 from
Ramsay (Cookery) , 16 participants from Columbus (Tourism) and , 33 participants
coming from Tesla (STEM) who are current grade 11 Senior High School students of
Mabalacat City College, will take the test about the impact of gender inequality to the
students academic performances.

Sampling Design
The study will make use of the total population of Grade 11 Senior High School
students of Mabalacat City College for the Academic Year 2016-2017. Thus, the
researchers will not make use of any sampling design or technique.
Instrument
The instrument that will be used in this study is Survey Form which is created by
the researcher to know information needed to research. It contains 6 questions including
elaboration, answerable by yes or no, and explanatory items. That can provide helpful
outcome for the specific intentions of researchers to evaluate what kind of acts are
occurring at the current environment that Senior High School have.

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Data Collection Procedures


The researchers will gather data on the Senior High School of Mabalacat City
College for the Academic Year 2016-2017 by conducting a Survey like form to them
upon the approval of the Institute of Senior High School instructors, the researchers will
examine and perceive the significance of the results of the Gender Inequality Survey
Form which will be the basis of the researchers in analyzing the data if the current Senior
High School are experiencing this king of act and what are the following possible effects
that can be observed.

Data Analysis
The researchers use descriptive quantitative in essence and the data will be
scrutinize using the frequency percentage, standard deviation, and mean. The English
Proficiency Levels (cited by Macapagal, 2011) are the following: Starting Out scored
between 0-72, Beginner scored between 75-102, Advanced Beginner scored between
105-132, and Intermediate scored between 135-150.

Chapter 3

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The results, discussion and interpretation of data in relation to the Statement of


the Problem are hereby presented.
1. Respondents English Proficiency Level
Table 1 shows the mean point of the respondents from each field of specialization
and its equivalent English Proficiency Level (EPL). The respondents from Biological
Science got a mean point of 118.90, respondents from English got a mean point of
121.14, respondents from Filipino got a mean point of 105.90, respondents from General
Education got a mean point of 110.23, respondents from MAPEH got a mean point of
106.24, respondents from Math got a mean point of 105.28, and respondents from
preschool got a mean point of 109.88 which gives them an EPL of Advanced Beginner.
However, the respondents from Food Management Service got a mean point of 102.00
that is why they have an EPL of Beginner.
This means to say that the English Proficiency Level of the current fourth year
Education students of Mabalacat City College is Advanced Beginner because most of the
respondents scored between 105-132 out of 150 points in the English Proficiency Test.
The implication of the result is the respondents can use the English Language but
based from the English Proficiency Test they still need to improve on either Grammar,
Vocabulary or Reading Comprehension to achieve their expected English Proficiency

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Level, which is Intermediate, as college students and future teachers. Out of 137
respondents, 78 (60%) need improvement in Grammar, 61 (45%) need improvement in
Vocabulary, and 73 (53%) need improvement in Reading Comprehension because they
got scores below 75% of the points from each part. They need to be proficient in English
Language to be able to use it effectively as their medium of instruction, except for the
respondents from Filipino, in reading and writing formal English correspondence and
documents and in communicating with Education personnel and English speakers in
formal gatherings.
The literature says that teachers must be proficient enough in using the language
to effectively teach students in becoming critical and analytical communicators of
English (Suelto, n.d.). The Center for Public Education (2007) says that there is no
common benchmark for English language proficiency however, the Teachers of English
to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL) (2006) states that the English language
proficiency standards are as follows: English language learners communicate for social,
intercultural, and instructional purposes within the school setting, and English language
learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in
the area of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. In addition, TESOL
describes a student who is proficient in English as someone who can express himself
fluently and spontaneously on a wide range of personal, general, academic, or social
topics in a variety of contexts in an environment with native speaking peers. Errors are
minimal, difficult to spot, and generally corrected when they occur. The National Board
for Professional Teaching Standards (2002) states that the fundamental requirements for
proficient teaching are relatively clear: a broad grounding in the liberal arts and sciences;

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knowledge of the subjects to be taught, of the skills to be developed, and of the curricular
arrangements and materials that organize and embody that content; knowledge of general
and subject-specific methods for teaching and for evaluating student learning; knowledge
of students and human development; skills in effectively teaching students from racially,
ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds; and the skills, capacities and
dispositions to employ such knowledge wisely in the interest of students. (This
paragraph is not relevant)
Table 1
Respondents English Proficiency Level
Major

Mean

English Proficiency Level

Biological Science

118.90

Advanced Beginner

English

121.14

Advanced Beginner

Filipino

105.90

Advanced Beginner

Food Management Service

102.00

Beginner

General Education

110.23

Advanced Beginner

MAPEH

106.24

Advanced Beginner

Math

105.28

Advanced Beginner

Preschool

109.88

Advanced Beginner

Legend:
Starting Out
Beginner
Advanced Beginner
Intermediate

scored between 0-72


scored between 75-102
scored between 105-132
scored between 135-150

* The English Proficiency Test consisted of 50 items. Each correct answer was worth three points.

2. Pre-Service Training Program

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The researchers are able to design and develop a 10-day Pre-Service Training
Program (PSTP) which is intensive in nature because it largely aims at dealing with
urgent language training needs within a short period of time. Its duration is two compact
course weeks with five (5) four-hour classes per week (Philippine International
Communicators, 2016). It has three (3) parts: Grammar, Vocabulary and Reading
Comprehension. The Grammar part covers all parts of speech and Subject-Verb
Agreement. The Vocabulary part covers the most necessary vocabulary learning
strategies. And the Reading Comprehension part covers three (3) reading techniques and
reading comprehension skills. The arrangement of the topics is from simple to complex.
Discussion is not a main part of PSTP. What the students will do is accomplish
different activities wherein each task has a focus topic. Right after each activity will be
the checking, correction and feedback. The last part of each class will be the evaluation.
The Rationale of PSTP is: This intensive Pre-Service Training Program is
designed and developed to aid the fourth year Education students master the parts of
speech and subject-verb agreement and improve their vocabulary and reading
comprehension skills by providing them various activities to achieve their expected
English Proficiency Level.
The objectives of PSTP are: (1) At the end of 16 hours instruction on Grammar,
the fourth year Education students will be able to: memorize the parts of speech and their
functions; identify the parts of speech in a sentence accurately; use the parts of speech in
a sentence correctly; memorize the rules in subject-verb agreement; identify the subject/s
in a sentence accurately; use appropriate verbs in sentences; and construct sentences
using correct subject-verb agreement. (2) At the end of 12 hours instruction on

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Vocabulary the fourth year Education students will be able to: recognize the different
vocabulary learning strategies; analyze the root of a word; define words by using affixes,
antonyms, synonyms and context clues; use other vocabulary learning strategies in
unlocking unfamiliar words; and acquire wider vocabulary. And (3) At the end of 12
hours instruction on Reading Comprehension, the fourth year Education students will be
able to: use reading techniques such as skimming, scanning and SQ3R; note details
properly; identify the topic, main idea and supporting details in a paragraph; make
appropriate inferences; draw appropriate conclusions; summarize a text correctly;
recognize the authors purpose in writing; identify the arguments presented in a text;
analyze expository texts and other essays; identify figurative language in a text; identify
the authors tone in a text; and analyze poems and short stories.
The PSTP is shown in the Appendix 5.

Chapter 4

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

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This study aimed to determine the English Proficiency Level (EPL) of the current
fourth year Education students of Mabalacat City College as a basis for developing a PreService Training Program. The instrument used in this study was the English Proficiency
Test with 50 items wherein each item was equivalent to three (3) points for a total of 150
points. There were 137 students who were able to take the test. The data gathered from
the test was analyzed using mean. The result showed that majority of the respondents got
scores between 105-132 thus, the equivalent EPL of the result was Advanced Beginner
which was not the highest level. To improve the EPL of the Education students, the
researchers designed and developed an intensive 10-day Pre-Service Training Program
which has the same parts like of the test Grammar, Vocabulary and Reading
Comprehension.

Conclusions
Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions were reached.
1. The English Proficiency Level of the fourth year Education students of
Mabalacat City College for the Academic Year 2016-2017 is Advanced Beginner.
2. A 10-day Pre-Service Training Program is essential to elevate the English
Proficiency Level of Education students.

Recommendations

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The following recommendations are offered based on the significant finding of
the study.
1. For administrators, they must use the Pre-Service Training Program that the
researchers developed to elevate the English Proficiency Level (EPL) of the
Education students. They must consider to administer the English Proficiency Test
as part of the entrance exam of the first year students to determine their EPL
already and address their needs in terms of Grammar, Vocabulary and Reading
Comprehension. They must formulate other school programs and develop
language and literature curriculums that will help improve the English proficiency
of the students.
2. For teachers of English, they must utilize the findings of the study in
reviewing and evaluating their current practices or strategies and techniques used
in teaching English language and literature for them to choose or create
appropriate ones and apply them for their students to learn Grammar and enhance
Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension skills effectively.
3. For students, the Pre-Service Training Program of the study provide them aid
to elevate their Grammar, Vocabulary skills and Reading Comprehension skills
and achieve the highest level of English proficiency because they are future
teachers. They must realize the importance of the English language in their
personal and professional lives thus, they must study it seriously.
4. Future researchers must use the finding of the study as basis for conducting
new researches with a more elaborate scope in terms of respondents and schools.
They must discover and develop new pre-service training programs to help the

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Education students improve not only in Grammar, Vocabulary skills and Reading
Comprehension skills but also in speaking and listening skills since these two (2)
are also macro skills needed in teaching.

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Retrieved from: http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/asia-pacific/teachersblamed-as-english-standards-fall-in-philippines

Published Thesis
Macapagal, R. (2011). Bilingual Instruction versus English Only as a Medium of
Instruction in Communication Arts 1.

Senior High School

The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performance

MABALACAT CITY COLLEGE

Senior High School

The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performance

MABALACAT CITY COLLEGE

Senior High School

The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performance

MABALACAT CITY COLLEGE

Senior High School

The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performance

MABALACAT CITY COLLEGE

The
word
REFERE
NCES
should
be
written
in Caps
Lock
Form
and it
should
be on
the
center of
the
Arrange
page.
the
The
referenc
referenc
es
es base
page
on their
category
;
Literatur
e,
Studies,
Magazin
es,
Journal

REFERENCES
Literature
Calmorin, L. P. et al. (2007). Research methods and thesis writing, Second Edition;
Manila. Rex Book Store, Inc.
Fredriksson, U. (2004). Quality education: the key role of teachers. Education
International Working Papers no. 14. pp 4
Goudreau, K. A. (2001). The community college and the impact of technique: toward a
critical voice. Highland Community College

Senior High School

The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performance

MABALACAT CITY COLLEGE


Illinois Community Colleges Board, 2007. Driving economic development: The impact of
the Illinois Community College system; the impact of Illinois Community
Colleges on transitioned through postsecondary education
Ruff, K. (2006). Community colleges have a mission: Northeast Pennsylvania Business
Journal

Studies
Danao, C. P. The medium-term higher education development and the local college and
universities
Mancao, M. C. T. (2001). Inside-out and outside-in view of PNU: some bases for
institutional planning. (Research Series #54) Manila: Philippine Normal
University. Center of Research and Development in Education
Mancao M.C.T. (2005). Inside-out view of PNU, Part 2.( Research Series # ) Manila:
Philippine Normal University. Center of Research and Development in
Education
Shah, R. (2007). International business and economic research journal; impact of higher
education on earnings of women in the public sector educational institutions in
Pakistan. Volume 6, number 11
Orata, P.T. The Urdaneta Community College: a social invention

Webliography
http://cp2b.i.ph/blogs/cp2b/2008/06/16/rocking-with-calliope/

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The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performance

MABALACAT CITY COLLEGE


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The Impact of Gender Inequality to the Students Academic Performance