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Idealism in education:

Idealism pervades all the creation and it is an underlying, unlimited and ultimate force which regions
supreme overall mind and matter. They all advocate its great importance in education and lay more
emphasis on aims and principles of education than on models, aids and devices.
To Ensure Spiritual Development:
Idealistic give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The
second aim of education is to develop the child mentally, morally and above all spiritually. Education
must enable mankind through its culture to enter more and more fully into the spiritual realm.
Self-realization or Exhalation of Personality:
According to the idealism man is the most creation of God. Self- realization involves full of knowledge of the self and it is the
first aim of education The aim of education especially associated with idealism is the exhalation of personality or self-realization
it is the making actual or real personalities of the self.
To Ensure Spiritual Development:
Idealistic give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. The second aim of education is to
develop the child mentally, morally and above all spiritually. Education must enable mankind through its culture to enter more
and more fully into the spiritual realm.
Development of Intelligences and Rationality:
In all things their regions an external law this all pervading energetic, self conscious and hence
eternal law this all pervading energetic. This unity is God. Education should lead and guide man to face
with nature and to unity and God.
Idealism and Curriculum
Idealists give more importance to thoughts, feelings ideals and values than to the child and his
activities. They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its
Views of Plato about curriculum
According to Plato the aim of life is to realize God. Which is possible only by pursing high ideals
namely Truth, Beauty, and Goodness. Three types of activities namely intellectual, aesthetic and moral
cancan attain these high ideals.
Views of Herbart Curriculum
According to Herbart the idealistic aim of education is the promotion of moral values. He gave prime
importance to subjects like Literature, History, Art, Music, and Poetry together with other humanities
and secondary place to scientific subjects.
History of Idealism
Plato is one of the first philosophers to discuss what might be termed idealism. Usually Plato referred
to as Platonic Realism. This is because of his doctrine describes forms or universals. (Which are
certainly non-material ideals in a broad sense). Plato maintained that these forms had their own
independent existence. Plato believed that full reality it is achieved only through thought and could
be describe as a non-subjective transcendental idealist. The term metaphysics literally means
beyond the physical This area of Philosophy a focuses on the nature of reality. Metaphysics
attempts to find unity across the domains of experiences thought. At the time metaphysical level there
are four broad philosophical schools of thought that apply to education today. They are idealism,
realism, pragmatism (sometimes called experientialism and existentialism). Plato was an idealist
philosopher who founded the first school of philosophy in Athens. His work forms the foundation of
western philosophy. His presentation of philosophical works in the form of Dialogues gave the world
of philosophy the dialectic. Plato took Socrates maxim virtue is knowledge and extrapolated it into
an elaborate theory of knowledge which envisaged a level of reality beyond that immediately available
to the senses but accessible to reason and intellect. The students of Platos academy the first school of
philosophy in Athens, were to go beyond the concrete world of perception and come to understand the
universal ideas or forms which represented a higher level of reality. Platos idealism extended to the
concept of an ideal state as outlined in his Republic. This was a state ruled by an intellectual elite of
philosopher kings.
Idealism and its impact on education / Major philosophical thoughtsof Idealims
AIMS OF EDUCATION The purpose of education is to contribute to the development of the mind and self of
the learner. The education-imparting institute should emphasize intellectualactivities, moral judgments, aesthetic
judgments, self-realization, individualfreedom, individual responsibility, and self-control in order to
achieve thisdevelopment.In an idealistic education system emphasis should be placed on developing themind, personal discipline,
and character development. A person should be literateand of good moral character The aim of education is to brings
the child as close to Absolute Truth as possible. Allof the aims of the idealist as educator find their ground in
the conception of Ultimate Reality and the students relation to this Reality.In idealism, the aim of education is
to discover and develop each individual'sabilities and full moral excellence in order to better serve societyMore
specifically, the school can take a leading role in defining and refining ourknowledge of Truth an the Absolute. The

school ha a responsibility to find and totrain future leaders. As will be seen, much of the curriculum for the idealist is
basedon the study of earlier leaders. Certainly the distinguishing between and thedevelopment of, leaders smacks
of education for followership (or subservience tothe state) is found in the Gentile reforms instituted in Italy in
the 1920s. The school, as one of the social institutions concerned with the Absolute must make judgments as to what
is right and what is wrong; thus, one of the aim of educationwould be to develop morality.Another aim of education is
the maintenance and transmission of the establishedvalues of the past. Once we have established that something is
good, or true, orbeautiful, it is a responsibility of the school to pass it one to succeedinggenerations. The Concept of
Student There is much in idealism of the personality cult. As Horne has pointed out, Nocivilization or culture of a
people surpasses that of its greatest leader. The learner is a spiritual being in the process of becoming. His is a finite
personalitywhich, with prober molding and guidance, might more like the Ideal or the Absolute.Man is, in a sense, a
small representation of the Absolute Self. The student mustbring himself closer to the Absolute through imitation of
the exemplar (the teacher)and through study of those subjects (the humanities) which best represent orsymbolize the
true ideas of which the human race has knowledge
In the educative process, the idealist emphasizes experience rather than nature, the self rather than facts. Therefore,
to him education is always the development from within. He regards the classroom as a meeting ground of
By the intercourse in the classroom the less mature self is stimulated to participate in the experience of the more
mature self the idealist teacher issues an invitation to the pupils to come and share in the wider and deeper and more
interesting experiences and thereby become broader, and deeper selves.
The method of teaching used by the idealist teacher is not based on logic of facts the main objective of the idealist
teacher is to help the student to obtain a deeper insight than what he already possesses, and to realize that behind all
his experiences there are attractive and inviting depths which he can attain for himself leading to further insights.
Education and philosophy are closely inter-related. Philosophy is love of knowledge and education is
acquisition of knowledge. Philosophy is the corner stone of the foundation of education. Education is
practical activity of philosophical thought. Without philosophy, education would be a blind effort and
without education, philosophy would be crippled. Philosophy answers thousands of questions
pertaining to the whole field of education.
Philosophy of education can refer to either the academic field of applied philosophy or to one of
any educational philosophies that promote a specific type or vision of education, and/or which examine
the definition, goals and meaning of education.The art of education will never attain complete
clearness without philosophy Fichte. Education is the Dynamic side of philosophy James Rose.
Idealism is the oldest philosophical thought. Human life has two dimensions- Spiritual and Material.
When the emphasis is on the spiritual life, it is called Idealism. The word idealism is derived from two
distinct sources- the idea and the ideal. Idea means true and testified knowledge. The word ideal
stands for the perfected form of an idea or ideas. An idealist does not have considerations for material
values of life. A thinker who idolizes Mind and Self is an idealist. Protagonists of idealism areSocrates, Plato, Descartes, Spinoza, Burkley, Kant, Fitche, Schelling, Hegel, Green, Gentile (the
Western); From Vedas and Upanishads to Aurobindo Gosh (the Eastern philosophers).
To make the meaning of Idealism more clear give below some important definitions as given by
eminent scholarsi.
Idealism holds that ultimate reality is spiritualism. D. M. Dutta
Idealistic philosophy takes many and varied forms, but the postulate underlying all this is
that mind or spirit is the essential world stuff, that the true reality of is of a mental character J. S.
The fundamental principles of idealism are as under-TWO FORMS OF THE WHOLE WORLD
Idealism believes in two forms of the world-(1).Spiritual world (2).Material world.
Idealists give more importance to spiritual world in comparison to the material world. They believe that
spiritual world is real and the ultimate truth where as the material world is transitory and mortal. To
know the reality of the spiritual world is to know the reality of mind and soul. It is a sort of selfrealization the main aim of human life. According to Horne- Idealism holds that the order of the
world is due to the manifestation in space and time of an eternal and spiritual reality.


According to Idealists, knowledge of mind and soul can be obtained through ideas only. Hence,
they have given more importance to ideas over the objects and material or later. In the ideas are
realities and ultimate entities of the material world. In the words of Plato-Ideas are of the ultimate
cosmic significance. They are rather the essences or archetypes which give form to cosmos. These
ideas are eternal and unchanging.


To Idealists, man is more important than material nature. It is because man can think and
experience about material objects and material phenomena. Hence, the thinker or the one who
experiences is more important than the object or the phenomena experienced. Man is endowed with
intelligence and a sense of discrimination. Thus, he is not a slave of the environment as animals are,
but the moulds and transforms the environment for his on good and welfare of the society. In short, he
creates his own world of virtue and his creativity achieves higher and higher levels of art in many
areas. The following words speak this truth-The spiritual and cultural environment of mans own
making, it is a product of mans creative activity. R. R. Rusk
According to Idealists, the prime aim of life is to achieve spiritual values. They are- Truth,
Beauty and Goodness. These spiritual values are undying and permanent. The realization of these
values is the realization of God. In the pursuit of these absolute values man rises higher and higher in
the moral plane till he attains Divinity. For the achievement of these spiritual values of all the
capacities of man are to be harnessed to the full. These capacities are knowing, feeling and willing.
By the fullest use of these capacities man can achieve the highest spiritual values and thus realize his
true and ultimate self. J.S. Ross also opines-Goodness, truth and beauty are seen to be absolutes each
existing in its own right and entirely desirable in it.
Idealists give much importance to the Self of the individual. Hence, they insist upon the fullest
development of the personality of an individual. According to them the development of personality
means achievement of Perfection. Plato rightly speak that each individual has an ideal Self. He tries to
develop that ideal Self more and more. This is self- realization in the true sense of the term. It may be
noted that self -realization means knowledge of the self or soul. The self -realization can only be
achieved in society. In short, Idealism believes in the welfare of whole human community.
Idealists give full support to the principle of Unity in Diversity. This underlying divine force
maintains the existence and working of all entities. Idealists call this power as God, the Supreme Force
which is omnipotent and omnipresent. Realization of this Supreme force in ones Self is to attain
divinity and fullest development of personality which may be called spiritual fulfillment.
The following are the aims of education according to the philosophy of Idealism.
According to Idealism, man is the most beautiful creation of God. Hence, the advocates of
Idealism lay great stress on the exhalation of human personality. By exhalation of human personality,
they mean self-realization. Self-realization involves full knowledge of the self. Hence, the first aim of
education according to Idealism is to develop the Self of the individual higher and higher till selfrealization is achieved.
Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments.
Thus, according to them, the second aim of education is to develop the child mentally, morally and
above all spiritually. Thus, the teacher should so organize education as to develop the child spiritually.
Idealists assert that to develop spiritual values in the individuals, pursuit of highest ideals
namely- Truth, Beauty and Goodness should be encouraged more and more. The more an individual
realizes these ideals, the more spiritually developed he will become. Hence, education should strive its
utmost in developing the child morally and spiritually so that he achieves self-realization.
The cultural heritage is of immense worth and value. It belongs to whole humanity and it is the
purpose of education to preserve, deserve, develop and transmit it. It is for education to acquaint the
child with cultural heritage so that he conserves, promotes and transmits it to the rising generation.
This is done through the process of self-estrangement.
Idealists hold the view that the inborn instincts and inherent tendencies of the child should be
sublimated into spiritual qualities and values. This is real development of the individuality. Only then, it
will be possible for the individual to attain fullest and highest development of personality.
In the words of Frobel the object of education is the realization of a faithful, pure, inviolable
and hence holy life. This may be possible by developing courtesy i.e. politeness good breeding,
urbanity, docrum, modesty, respect for public opinion, liberty etc; Justice i.e. honesty, speaking truth,
integrity, uprightness etc; respect for low.


Adams has defined education from the point of view of an Idealist. According to him there is a
purpose in all objects and natural phenomena. He has further said that the world is planned and wellorganized. There are set principles working in this creation. An Idealist always tries to discover and
understand this principle so that on the basis of moral elements the world remains organized.
The individual aim of education has been clearly expressed by Sir Pery Nunn; Nothing good
enters into the human world except in and through the free activities of individual men and women,
and the educational practice must be shaped to accord with the truth.
Education, therefore must serve for everyone the conditions under which individuality is most
completely developed.
While structuring curriculum, Idealists give more importance to thoughts, feelings, ideals and
values than to the child and his activities. They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with
the whole humanity and its experiences. These experiences can be imbibed by two ways namely- (1)
from the physical environment and (2) from contacts with other fellowmen. In this way, in an Idealistic
curriculum, both the scientific subjects as well as the humanities are included. In the following
discussion we are throwing light on the ideas of Plato, Herbart, Nunn and Ross about curriculum.
Plato was staunch idealist. According to him, the aim of life is to realize God which is possible
only by pursuing high ideals namely Truth, Beauty and Goodness. These high ideals can be attained by
three types of activities namely intellectual, aesthetic and moral.
According to Herbart the Idealistic aim of education is the promotion of moral values. Hence, he
gave prime importance to subjects like Literature, History, Art, Music, Poetry, together with other
Humanities and secondary place to scientific subjects.
Views of Nunn about curriculum are also based on the philosophy of Idealism. According to him,
it is the function of schools to promote and maintain morality and the historical tradition to preserve
and develop its achievements more and more. This is possible only when the school includes those
activities and subjects in its curriculum which reflect the achievements of human culture and
civilization. Hence, Nunn emphatically advocates the inclusion in the curriculum, those attainments
which reflect the highest creations of human mind and those activities which involve the noblest
expressions of human ingenuity and creative intelligence. Nunn has divided these activities into two
categories: (1) Physical, Social, Moral and Religious and (2) Literary and Aesthetic.
He holds the view that one can develop spiritually when he is developed physically and these
are both important for physical skill and health education. He wanted to teach physical exercise,
intellectual exercise with the help of literature, language, history, geography, science and mathematics
along with ethics for moral development. For spiritual development he wanted aesthetics to be taught
with fine arts and religion with religion and metaphysics.
In the realm of Idealism, the role of teacher is very important and glorious. Idealistic philosophy
believes that this planned creation has two parts-(1) The teacher and (2) The child as student. Both
aims at one target only- The development of the individual child in a spiritual way. The realization of
this great aim is possible only through education and the essential agent, the teacher. In reality an
Idealist teacher is imbued fully with high degree of self-knowledge, self-dynamism and essential
qualities of spiritualism. By his own model of life, he tries to shape the individuality of the child to a life
of purity, virtue and great achievements. He creates a wholesome conducive atmosphere by his own
activities and planned experiences for the child. He guides the child with such genuine love, affection
and sympathy that he attains his full mental and spiritual development. J. S. Ross aptly remarks- The
Naturalist may be content with the brains, but the Idealist wants fine roses. So the educator by his
efforts assists the educand, who is developing according to the laws of his nature to attain levels that
would otherwise be denied to him.
The aims of Idealism are concrete and definite. But there is no specific method for achieving
them. Socrates used Question-Answer method Plato emphasize Discourse Method and Aristotle
advocated Inductive-Deductive method. In the works of Hegel, Logical Measuring is evident.
Descrates employed the device of Simple to Complex. Pestalozzi laid stress on education of the
physical organs and allied activities. Herbart advocated Instruction Method. Frobel insisted upon Play
way Method. Not only this, other Idealists advocated many more methods namely Discussion,

Lecture, Talk in groups. In this way, according to Idealists no specific method is to be adhered to. In
their opinion any and every method may be employed to realize the ideals set and determined before.
Butler has rightly remarked Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods,
not devotees of someone method.
Discipline is to be inculcated through morals for which the following needs to be remembered.

Moral education is training in habits and not an inculcation of mere theoretical views.

A mechanical virtue, in which a youth exercise a minimum moral choice and obeys an external
rule prescribed for him, is to be inculcated. In this lowest species of moral discipline the youth learns
self denial and self control. There are to be inculcated as an elementary base of moral code of
Lack of discipline in a school scope the moral character of the pupil. It allows him to work merely as he
pleases, and he never can reinforce his feeble will by regularity, punctuality and sympathetic industry.
He grows up in such a way that neither he does unreasonable and nor allows others to do so.
Too strict discipline undermines moral character by emphasizing too much the mechanical duties and
especially the phase of obedience to authority, and it leaves the pupil in the state of perennial
minority. He does not assimilate the law of duty and makes it his own. The law does not touch his heart
but is on his lips only. He fears it but not love it. The tyrant teacher produces hypocrisy and deceit in
his pupils. Even when there is simple implicit obedience in the place of fraud, there is no independent
character development to take correct decision.
The best help that one can give to his follows is that which enables him to help them. The best school
is that which enables the teachers to help themselves. The best instruction is morality makes the pupil
a law up to himself.
School is a place where the capacities of logical thinking, reasoning and evaluating of the child
are progressively sublimated and developed by teachers and the school environment into desirable
channels so that high spiritual ideals and values are gained. Such noble mission, according to Idealism
may be achieved through proper guidance of teacher given in school. Hence, Idealists considered
school and its impressionistic environment as greatly essential
Proper evaluation of Idealism is possible only when one reviews its merits and demerits in
greater detail.
The common criticism regarding Idealism is that it is an abstract and vague doctrine. It avoids
the present realities and prepares the child for the next world. It is concerned with the ultimate end of
life. It avoids the real problem day to day living. Education should be such as to make individuals
capable to solve the problems to confront them from time to time and are able to lead happy and
contented life. Idealism lays more emphasis on thinking and mental activities. This increases the
importance of intellectualism unnecessarily. It emphasizes upon the achievement of immortal VALUES
NAMELY, Truth, Beauty and goodness. These values are not absolute. Idealistic education gives more
importance to teacher in relation to the child. Modern psychology emphasizes the prime and central
importance of child. Idealistic methods of teaching emphasize cramming and rote memory. In modern
education, these methods are given little importance. In idealistic education humanities are given
greater importance for the spiritual development of the child, while the present age of science lays
great stress upon scientific subjects in the curriculum.
In the realm of aims of education, Idealism has made signal contribution. It is only this
philosophy wherein a detailed exposition of aims has been emphasized. Idealistic education
emphasizes the inculcation of highest values namely, Truth, Beauty and Goodness. This will lead to the
development of a moral character of the child. It aims at self realization of all individuals by ones
own efforts. Hence, it promotes universal education. In the process of idealistic education, the teacher
assigned a very important role. The teacher influences the child by his high ideals of life and by his
sympathetic encouraging behavior. This achieves the fullest development of childs personality.
Idealism respects the individuality of the child and tries to stimulate his creative energies. Thus,
Idealism has influenced other philosophies as well. Idealism emphasizes the principle of self-discipline.
This principle leads to the development of the Self of an individual. Because of the Idealistic
philosophy and education, the school has grown into an important social organization.
The above discussion clearly shows that Idealism has merits as well as demerit. In the present
world of today which is full of stresses, strains, conflicts, envies and material struggles, the need of
idealistic education is greatly essential for peaceful living of human beings devoted to social good and
national welfare.

Idealism is basically a philosophy of life and it has exercised, like all philosophies of life, a
general rather than a specific influence on education. In philosophy it has taken many forms but all of
them agree to the view that the universe is an expression of intelligence and will; that there are certain
absolute and eternal truths of life; that the ultimate reality is in the nature of mind rather than in the
nature of mater. The latter is perishable and changing; it is an external manifestation of a reality which
is not affected by the phenomenon of change. Through the whole of the universe is running a spirit
which along is a reality, and knowledge of and reconciliation with that spirit of the individuals soul is
real knowledge. That is the real truth. Appreciation of that truth in its various forms is real art- a thing
of real beauty. Conformity of the human will with the moral administration of the universe is real
goodness. The difference between idealism and materialism is fundamental-whereas idealism regards
mind as the sole explainer of reality, materialism regards that as a phenomenon of matter.
Idealism lays emphasis on the study of all subjects but stresses the importance of literature,
ethics and religion which are recognized to that degree by other philosophies. The teacher has a very
important role in education for it is he who leads the individual from darkness into light and who helps
him to exalt his personality. As a philosophy idealism with its old form has been sometimes dubbed as
rigid and conservative but the modern idealistic outlook is broader and the world is fast realizing how a
rejection of the eternal values of life is creating a vacuum into which have crept in so many evils and
which may be ultimately fatal to the whole civilization. In India idealism in the form of spiritualism was
developed very early as the sole philosophy of life and throughout the ages the same philosophy has
kept inspiring the Indian mind and evoking a reverence for it.
Essentialism in Education is a movement that stressed on the importance of teachers authority in the
classroom. It was started by William C. Bagleyas a counter act to the student center educational
institutes in 1930s and 1940s. The ones who are in favor of this movement hold the view that owing
to the student centered education environment, students were benefiting from the essential education
need for a prosperous future. They believe that the purpose of attending a school is to make students
capable of making valuable contribution to the society. They also condemn all styles of teaching other
than Essentialism.
The essentialists also criticized the Progressives, who stress on education based on the interests of the
students by means of hands-on activity. Furthermore, they hold the view that no matter students are
into a subject or not, their interest must be developed as it is an important for their future.
The Role of the Teacher
The importance of a teacher in the classroom cannot be denied as it is a teacher who instructs
students. Teachers also maintain discipline in class which is imperative for learning. They are also
responsible for the learning and development of students other than guiding them about their future
as young ones are not clear about their goals and how they should go about it. This is why a teacher
plays a critical role in educating kids. Also, other than instructing in a particular subject, teachers may
guide students in various other aspects of life that in turn help students to contribute positively to the
The Principles of Essentialism
Essentialism focuses on the importance of teaching students the knowledge of society and civilization
by following a core curriculum. This set of courses includes the study of the surrounding environment,
basic natural laws, and the disciplines that encourage a happier living. The goal of Essentialists is to
instill "essentials" of academic knowledge and patriotism within students. They give lot of importance
to character development by means of traditional approaches. This
Philosophies of education
Tuesday, March 6, 2012
Idealism,Realism,Pragmatism,Existentialism,Postmordernism ..oh my!
In class we have been discussing the types of teaching philosophies we can integrate into our own teaching
philosophies. The philosophies that we discussed so far are: Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, Existentialism, and
Postmodernism. These philosophies coincide with its own unique concepts, in which describes the approach that a
teacher can take in imparting knowledge upon students. As a teaching major it is important that I determine which
teaching philosophy to follow, so I am going to Explain each of the for mentioned philosophies and describe them
and explain why or why not I am going to follow it.
Idealism is the approach that focuses on a Subject Matter Curriculum that concentrates on the Cultures great and
enduring ideas; Values are universal, absolute and eternal. Idealist search for true ideas and believes that this is a
rational process. Idealists believe that students should strive for self-realization and thus strives to encourage honorable moral

character development. Idealist promote critical thinking , they focus on reading and writing to evoke creative and inventive
ideas, they also emphasize on both person expression and clear reasoning.
Realism is also a Subject Matter Curriculum. But, it concentrates on the humanistic and scientific Principals; and
it values are based on universal natural laws. Realist focuses on teaching their students the scientific method of
problem solving. The character development that realist hope that students will develop is: teaching students
accountability, rigor, and instilling practical knowledge. Idealist also believes in the direct teaching method that
is to be taught in a thoughtful and organized manner in which to impart organization skill to student. Also
idealist believes that student should be taught based upon their abilities and strength. Realists realize the
importance of technology and believe it should be used whenever possible. They also realist teacher should be
experts in their subject-matter.
Pragmatism's curriculum is based on problem solving according the scientific method and values are situational or
relative. Pragmatists believe that reality is constantly changing and that we learn best through applying our experiences and
thoughts to problems. Pragmatic teachers focus on hands-on problem solving projects. They believe that having students work in
groups is a highly effective teaching method. Pragmatist believes in focusing on solving problems in an interdisciplinary way.
Pragmatists believe that learners should apply their knowledge to real situations through experimental inquiry. This prepares
students for citizenship, daily living, and future careers.
Existentialism's curriculum is based on classroom a dialogue in which stimulates awareness that each person
creates a self-concept through significant choices; the values are based on human free-will.Teachers who practice
existentialism view students as a learner must confront others' views to clarify his or her own. Character development that
existentialist hope that their students would achieve is individual responsibility, having their students develop thoughtfulness, and
having the ability to examine life through authentic and genuine learning experiences. Existentialists are opposed to thinking
about students as objects to be measured, or standardized.
Postmodernism's curriculum emphasizes the democratic criticism and social change that is meant to empower
dominated groups. The values that postmodernism focuses on is the values of marginalized people.
Which Philosophy did I choose???!!???
After reviewing these teaching philosophies the three that I found the most appealing is: Idealism, Existentialism,
and Pragmatism. I find the combination of the three very complementary. I will explain first the reasons why I did
not pick Realism and Postmodernism before I explain the reason I chose my combination philosophy.
While I wanted to also include Realism into my philosophy combination, I found it difficult to explain why it should
be there so, I chose not to include. The reason behind not including realism is because while I do agree with
elements of the philosophy and have seen a few teachers attempt to follow this philosophy (I have never seen it
executed in a successful way). I believe the reason behind realism not being executed successfully is because of its
direct teaching method. I believe the direct teaching method is uninventive especially because teacher teaching
the subject matter are experts in their field. I feel that if a teacher is an expert in their field that they are wasting
their talent teaching in such a rigid manner. The reason I did not add to my philosophy combination post
modernism is because I did not agree with the bases of the theory that states schools are the site of democratic
criticism and social change to empower dominated groups.
The reason I chose my philosophy combination that include idealism, existentialism, and pragmatism is
because they complement each other very well. Idealism focuses on three elements that I find lacking in many
classrooms today: culture, self-realization, and moral development. These three elements if taught in a
successfully can reduce school violence and develop students into more cultural and self-aware people. The reason
I chose existentialism is because it helps students become more self-aware of their free will. I also appreciated the
fact the existentialism exposed students to many different views and allows the student pick which view they
would like to believe in this allows the student to become their own individual. I also agree with this philosophy
because a teacher who follows existentialism is opposed to viewing their child as a standardized test result which
is critical todays political-educational climate. The last installment to my philosophy combination is pragmatism,

the reason I chose pragmatism is because while like realism it focuses on the Scientific method, but unlike realism
it is creative and allows students to work in groups and hands on activities. Another reason that I chose pragmatism
is because the philosophy prepares students for the real world which is huge importance in my teaching
Informs and raises the quality of curriculum, teaching methods and the overall educational experience. To improve
education and its systems and methods for the betterment of humanity. To improve its methods and the
applications in society. To study the process and discipline of education in order to understand how it works.
3. Aimed at teaching students ways of thinking that will secure individual freedoms, human rights, and responsibilities
through the nature. Perennialism teaches concepts and focuses on knowledge and the meaning of knowledge.
The ideas are relevant, and meaningful. The most conservative, traditional or flexible philosophy. Perennialism
is based on the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and St. Thomas Aquinas. PERENNIALISM
4. The teacher set everything based on the syllabus. More focus on the curriculum and nature need. The teacher
is not concern at the students interest. Emphasize the importance of transferring knowledge, information and skills
from the older generation to the younger one. WHY IS IT CALLED TEACHER-CENTERED?
5. TEACHER-CENTERED PHILOSOPHIES Focus on curriculum .Education Sample al classroomLeaders.
PERENNIALISM activity. Goals for Role of Students. Teacher.
6. Focus On Sample Role of Goals for Educational Curriculum Classroom Teacher Students Leaders Activityuniversal and - instill respectunchanging for authority,truth. perseverance, - train the duty, students- to espouse
consideration, intellect andpersonal and moral - Robertdevelopment practicality. development. Maynardand internal
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Remember that progressivism believes that education comes from the experience of the child. As such, children are
the focus of a progressive classroom.
Take Jonah, for example: when he was in school, the teacher was the focus of the classroom. The teacher stood in
the front and told the students what he or she wanted them to know. The center of gravity of the classroom was with
the teacher; everything revolved around him or her.
But in a progressive classroom, the center of gravity is within each child. That is, progressive education revolves
around the child's needs, not around the teacher or a prescribed curriculum. If Jonah wants to teach fractions, but one
of the students is still struggling with basic division, then Jonah will have to work with that student on division until he
or she is ready to move on to fractions.
Another major part of progressivism is teaching the whole child. That is, teaching students to be good citizens and not
just good learners. For example, Jonah could design a unit that explores issues like human rights or why voting is
important. He could choose literature that teaches students values, like honesty and justice. In this way, he would be
teaching the children how to be good citizens and not just teaching them facts and figures.
A final concept of progressivism that focuses on children is the idea that children live and learn in a community. That
is, children aren't isolated from others in the real world, and they shouldn't be isolated from others in their learning
community. In progressive education, children often collaborate on projects and learn from one another.
How can Jonah use the learning community to help his students? He could design assignments so that the students
are working in pairs or groups so that they can learn together. He can also encourage a community that values
learning and encourages students to talk about what they are doing in class, even when they are in the lunchroom or
on the playground.
Social reconstructionism as a philosophy of education refers to an approach to teaching that strives to bring about a
change in society and encourages students to question social inequalities. An important component of this approach
to learning is the concept of praxis, in which action based on sound reasoning and ethical ideals can bring about a
viable and positive change in the world. Social reconstructionism in education allows for the discussion of
controversial issues in the classroom and promotes the understanding of multiple perspectives.
What are the benefits of using demonstration as a teaching method?

Social reconstructionism as an approach to teaching also places a focus on the use of the products and applications
derived from the most current advances in technology. The intent is to prepare students to use these tools effectively
in their everyday lives and careers in a modern and technology-based society. Community-based learning and
students' personal experiences are integrated into the classroom environment as a means of developing a practical
understanding of everyday societal functions and issues.
The Edmodo education program is also available as a mobile app for convenient access to members of an
educational group or to view assignments, feedback and grades. Students have the ability to earn award badges,
post discussion topics, participate in pools and socialize with one another.
The program is designed to reinforce the lessons in the classroom for kindergarten through twelfth-grade students
and teachers.
The teacher's edition focuses on a four-step assessment plan that monitors student progress throughout the school
year. The program's educational tools include trade books, phonics exercises and a database of practice reading
material matched to a student's ability. Each item responds to the student's current level of competency to create a
personalized education for each student.
TEACHERS AS KEY PLAYERS Teachers become key participants in the learning process. As Palmer
explains, teachers need to resume their traditional roles as mentors (1997). According to Ayers (2009),
Education in a democracy is geared toward and powered by a particularly precious and fragile ideal
(p. 31). This ideal is founded on the belief that every person possesses an infinite and incalculable
value (Ayers, 2009). Based on this premise, the role of the educator becomes much more complex
than that of simple transmitter of information. I personally find troubling the perspectives on education
implying that, given the right training, most educators should be able to deliver the same type of conFALL2010 35 Know Thyself: The Importance of Humanism in Education tent in analogous fashion. By
denying the uniqueness of the learners, as well as of the educators, we are utterly denying the values
of civilizations that have deeply believed in the transforming power of knowledge as an internal
process of growth and self-discovery, the know thyself of the Socratic tradition. We are also denying
the power of education as an agent of change (Hohr, 2002; Plaut, 2010). As Ayers (2009) so eloquently
explains, the pedagogy of questioning is part of a concerted effort to liberate and humanize education
(p. 32). Furthermore, Ayers (2009) advocates for the end of standardized testing that makes young
individuals and their communities losers or winners based on questionable pseudo-scientific criteria.
Standardization appears indeed to be a problematic aspect of educational practices.