Sunteți pe pagina 1din 3

IMPACT OF TERRORISM ON TOURISM

Posted on October 25, 2009 | Leave a comment


ABSTRACT
Tourism is a critical source of revenue generation and therefore a major component of
economic development, a relationship that rewards states when positive conditions such as a
strong global economy exist. But what happens when negative conditions exist, such as
terrorism?
The impact of terrorism on a states economy may be enormous, leading to unemployment,
homelessness, deflation, crime and other economic and social ills. The contribution of
tourism and travel to both industrialized and developing countries is now so great that any
downturns in the level of activity in the industry are a cause of concern. The repercussions
extend beyond activities directly associated with tourism, notably airlines, hotels and
catering, to sectors that supply intermediate or final goods that are purchased by firms and
employees in the industry, so that all sectors of the economy are affected to a greater or lesser
extent.
International tourism is an industry that lives on personal contacts and has a message: to
enable and facilitate a face-to-face intercultural dialogue. A successful tourism industry needs
political stability, peace, security, and the potential for dialogue between different groups of
people without mental or physical restrictions. Terrorism against tourists and in tourist
destinations aims, among other things, to prevent intercultural contacts and dialogue. It seeks
to hinder a possible, better and deeper understanding of the others. Terrorism against
tourists in general is either a politically or a culturally motivated act. There are various
instances which show the impact of terrorism on tourism: like various attacks in Srinagar,
Mumbai, Delhi, Assam, Varanasi, London, Egypt, Arabian countries etc. It will be the
Endeavour of those who wish to hurt world to use terror tactics to scare tourists away. It does
not require clairvoyance to figure that out. Hence, both the government and other sections of
society interested in promoting tourism, both domestic and in-bound, must have a forwardlooking policy on dealing with terrorism that does not hurt tourism.
INTRODUCTION
Tourism is an industry that lives on personal contacts and has a message: to enable and
facilitate a face-to-face intercultural dialogue. A successful tourism industry needs political
stability, peace, security, and the potential for dialogue between different groups of people
without mental or physical restriction. It is a dynamic and competitive industry that requires
the ability to constantly adapt to customers changing needs and desires, as the customers
satisfaction, safety and enjoyment are particularly the focus of tourism businesses. It is the
activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not
more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other
purposes.
IMPACT ON TOURISM

Conflicts and crisis are part of our everyday lives. They have always been here and they
always will. The impact of terrorism on a states economy may be enormous, leading to
unemployment, homelessness, deflation, crime and other economic and social ills. The
contribution of tourism and travel to both industrialized and developing countries is now so
great that any downturns in the level of activity in the industry are a cause of concern. The
repercussions extend beyond activities directly associated with tourism, notably airlines,
hotels and catering, to sectors that supply intermediate or final goods that are purchased by
firms and employees in the industry, so that all sectors of the economy are affected to a
greater or lesser extent. In the contemporary world, when no place is a safe haven, issue of
terrorism influencing tourism industry is of a great significance.
Tourist arrivals to India were down by more than 17 percent in January, 2009 due to the
global economic crisis. In December 2008, about 521,990 tourists came to India a 12.5
percent decline compared to December 2007. In January this year, 487,262 travelers came to
India, which was 17.6 percent decline compared to the same month of 2008.
Though the growth rate in Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTAs) in 2008 over 2007 was lower (5.6
percent) as compared to that of 14.3 percent in 2007 over 2006, the total number of FTAs in
2008 was 5.37 million which is higher than the FTAs of 5.08 million in 2007, The lower
growth rate in 2008, particularly in November and December, may be due to various reasons
terrorist.
Due to reduction in foreign tourist in India many tourism industry workers are losing their
jobs. The International Labour Organization estimates that as many as 9 million of the
worlds 200 million hotel and tourism workers could lose their jobs in the wake of the
attacks.
Tourism Industry is adversely affecting by the drop in demand. On average, as much as 50
percent of tourism earnings ultimately leak out of the developing world-in the form of
profits earned by foreign-owned businesses, promotional spending abroad, or payments for
imported goods and labor.
For many countries in the developing world, tourism is a critical source of revenue generation
and major component of economic development
When it comes to economic issues, Mumbai the countrys financial capital is likely to
feel the impact of the terrorist attacks, much as New York City did after September 11,
2001.Mumbai brings in 40% of foreign trade, 60% of customs duty collections, 40% of
income tax collections, 20% of central excise collections and $10 billion in corporate taxes,
says Rangar of IndusView. Chakrabarti notes: The Mumbai terror attack has been the most
dramatic in a long series of terror events in India.
Areas Impacted:

The impact on airline-related business, the aircraft and parts manufacturers and
tourism which in turn affects hotels, restaurants and tourist attractions.

Border clearance costs start to rise, with delays and tighter inspections and, in
addition, there are increasing demands for greater security on oil and gas pipelines
and electricity transmission lines, which also represent higher costs. And commercial

travel hence trade in services could also be constrained due to delays and difficulties
on cross-border flights.

The cost of insurance and reinsurance has increased and many private sector insurers
were not willing to cover terrorist attacks.

Increased spending on border and airport security, including technology, and the
military, along with intelligence and law enforcement in turn increases passenger fares

The decline in airline travel since the terrorist attacks has affected the car rental
industry and can easily affect the auto makers if rental companies cancel orders for
new vehicles. Rental operators shall cutting hours at some operations, trimming staff,
delaying new vehicle deliveries and accelerating sales of their existing vehicles. for
e.g. after Sep 11. Airport rentals were down 20 per cent to 25 per cent.

CONCLUSION
Disasters create difficult, often tragic, situations for the afflicted area and its residents. For a
tourist destination, this period can represent a tourism crisis, which can threaten the normal
operation and conduct of tourism related businesses; damage a tourist destinations overall
reputation for safety, attractiveness, and comfort by negatively affecting visitors perceptions
of that destination; and, in turn, cause a downturn in the local travel and tourism economy,
and interrupt the continuity of business operations for the local travel and tourism industry,
by the reduction in tourist arrivals and expenditures.
Many governments and businesses, local communities, and tourists themselves are already
paying more attention to the social, cultural, and environmental impacts of their activities.
Such changes can save money as well. Some hotels, tour operators, and other businesses are
taking formal steps to restructure their management and operations along environmental
lines-often at considerable cost savings. The Green Hotels Association reports that hotels that
have adopted various conservation measures, Government & other forces are also taking
extra precaution in security issues.
Every person deliberately uses violence or threatens to use violence causing terror or
wide fear against person or causing massive victims, by taking others freedom or the loss
of life, property of others, or causing damage and destruction against vital and/ or strategic
installations or environment or public facility or international facility, shall be penalized
with a death penalty or life imprisonment or at least four years imprisonment and
maximum 20 years imprisonment.
Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch
the foundation of India. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of India
resolve.