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Definiii ale culturii

Cultura reprezint totalitatea valorilor materiale i spirituale create de omenire i a


instituiilor necesare pentru comunicarea acestor valori. (DEX)
Cultura este totalitatea vestigiilor vieii materiale i spirituale prin intermediul crora
se reconstituie imaginea unei comuniti omeneti din trecut. (DEX)
Prin cultur de nelege ansamblu de activiti i modele de comportament proprii unui
grup social dat, transmisibile prin educaie. (DEX)
Definiia dat de UNESCO consider cultura ca "o serie de caracteristici distincte a
unei societi sau grup social n termeni spirituali, materiali, intelectuali sau emoionali".
Cultura reprezint o motenire ce se transmite cu ajutorul codurilor de comunicaie
specifice cum sunt gesturile ori cuvintele, scrisul i artele, mass media (presa, radioul,
televiziunea), media interactiv (telefonul). n acelai fel se transmit gesturile, ritualurile,
cunotinele teoretice, normele abstracte, religia. Cultura poate fi nsuita prin diverse forme
ale memoriei subiective (reflexe, cuvinte, imagini) dar i prin intermediul memoriei
obiective(obiecte, peisaje,cri, numere, reguli). (Wikipedia)
Un alt mod comun de nelegere a culturii este prin definirea acesteia n funcie de
prile ei componente: valori (idei), norme (comportamente), i artefacte (lucruri, sau pri ale
culturii materiale). (Achim Mihu, Antropologia Cultural)
Cultura este acel tot complex ce cuprinde tiinele, credinele, artele, morala, legile,
obiceiurile i celelalte aptitudini i deprinderi dobndite de om, ca membru al societii.
(Edward Tylor)

Coduri de comportament n Marea Britanie

The British are good at understanding English spoken in a foreign accent, and visitors
who speak English as a second language need not fear making mistakes. You may just get a
slightly blank look for a few seconds after the end of a sentence while they 'decode' it
internally. Most British people will not criticise or correct your language, although some are
very keen to PROMOTE British usages over American ones when talking to non-nativespeakers.
The use of affectionate terms between the sexes such as "darling", "love" or
"sweetheart" is common between strangers and is not meant in a sexist or patronising manner.
Furthermore, British people are prone to apologising for even the smallest things,
much to the amusement of some and can be considered perhaps rude to not do so. An example

such as bumping into you will warrant a "sorry" and is really more like "pardon" or "excuse
me".
The minimum age to PURCHASE tobacco is 18. Customers who appear younger than
25 will usually be asked to produce a passport or other identification.
Smoking is illegal in all enclosed public places and all places of work.
Do not sit at a TABLE in a pub expecting a waiter to take your order for food or
drinks: pubs nearly always work on a "queue at the bar for drinks: order at the bar for food"
basis. You go to the bar to request and pay for drinks and food.
Generally tips are given for above average customer service not as standard so never
feel pressured by staff to tip, and if you are dissatisfied with the service in any way, you are
under no obligation to pay the service charge. When tips are given, waiters generally expect
10% of the bill. In in some places this is AUTOMATICALLY listed on your bill, a practice
which many British people see as rude and assumptive, so feel free to ask for this to be
removed.
One of the most popular types of restaurant in the UK is the Indian restaurant. They
can be found in every city and most towns large and small.
The legal age to BUY and consume alcohol is 18, but many teenagers younger than 18
have seemingly little problem in purchasing alcohol in smaller pubs and from off licences.
Getting drunk is acceptable and often it is the objective of a party, though the police
often take a dim view on those causing alcohol-related trouble. Drinking is an IMPORTANT
part of the British culture and, even though it is frequently complained about, it is as popular
as ever.
The pub or public house is the most popular place to get a drink in the UK. Even small
villages will often have a pub, serving spirits, wines, beers, cider, and 'alcopops', accompanied
by crisps, nuts and pork scratchings. Many serve snacks or meals. The greater volume of
drinks served are various kinds of beer, mainly lagers, bitters, and porter / stout (ie Guinness).
Tipping is not a tradition in most pubs and you should take all of your change.
Especially in a 'local' pub, keep your voice down and avoid drawing attention to
yourself.
Waiting patiently at a bar is imperative. Pushing in line will not be tolerated and could
lead to confrontation.
The UK is famous for its etiquette, but tourists will usually be forgiven for getting
things wrong, since British etiquette is so precise. However, make sure to say 'sorry!' plenty of
times TO MAKE UP for any mistakes, and you'll be seen as a true Gentleman or Lady in no
time.

Despite being famous for its pubs, being drunk in public is not acceptable. Among
friends it can be frowned upon depending on the occasion and type of person.
Etiquette for a hug is somewhat complicated, so the best advice is to accept a hug
(regardless of the gender OFFERING it) if it is offered, otherwise a handshake is appropriate.
Kisses on both cheeks are not common but that could happen, so be prepared, especially when
dining.
Note that the British often use "Alright?" or "You all right?" as a greeting - it is not a
question, and they aren't asking about your feelings. The usual answer is simply responding
with the same "Alright?".
Most commonly, first names are used to refer to someone. However, in formal
situations, always refer to someone by their title and last name (i.e. Mr. Smith). For women, it
is polite to use the term 'Ms.', pronounced 'muzz' like 'buzz', (i.e. Ms. Smith), which avoids
referring to marital status.
The British are said to be reserved and reluctant to communicate with strangers. This
is not entirely true. You will find that most people are happy to help strangers with directions
and practical advice.
The weather and football (more amongst men) are popular conversation starters.
However, as in many other countries, it is best to avoid sensitive topics such as politics.
One thing worth noticing is that the British value privacy a lot, probably more than
any other countries. When meeting with them for the first few times, avoid asking personal
questions.
Allow some personal space between you and others in queues and elsewhere. It is said
that the British invented queueing, and they become very annoyed if anyone jumps the line.
When someone is right behind you when you open the DOOR, hold the door for a
second or two for the other person. This may not be a common practice for other countries but
this is quite common here. If you are that person behind, say 'thanks' or 'cheers' to the one
holding the door for you.
The British are famous for tea, and wherever a kettle is AVAILABLE (usually at work
or at home), people will ask if you would like a cup of tea. You should do the same when
inviting a British person to your house if you live in the UK.
Firstly, putting your knife and fork aligned together on the plate after eating is seen as
basic politeness. Also, do not start eating when others have not yet started. When eating with
other people make sure to keep eye contact and conversation going, and avoid using
technology such as TV, MOBILE PHONES or laptops, as it is seen as disrespectful to the
other person.
Brits really do talk about the weather a lot

When in Rome, do as the Romans do. This proverb is so true that Ive gathered 10 British
etiquette and customs that I think international student ought to know. There is a proper way
to act in most situations and the British are sticklers for adherence to protocol.
1) Visiting.
In most houses in Britain, the door are usually kept closed. It is customary to visit people at a
pre-arranged time and day. As a generalization, people are not comfortable if you just drop in.
2) Form of Greeting
In Britain the handshake is the common form of greeting. When you meet people for the first
time, it is normal to shake hands. A firm handshake is the norm; there are no issues over
gender in Britain. The usual formal greeting is How do you do? and a firm handshake, but
with a lighter touch between men and women.
How do you do? is a greeting not a question & the correct response is to repeat How do you
do? You say this when shaking hands with someone.
3) Gift Giving Etiquette.
During Birthday and Christmas celebrations, it is common for the British to exchange gifts
between family members and close friends. The gift need not be expensive, but it should
usually demonstrate an attempt to find something that is related to the recipients interests.
When invited to someones home, it is normal to take along a box of good chocolates, a good
bottle of wine or flowers. I have found from experience that the British love chocolates. Note
that Gifts are opened when received!
4) Queuing
Queuing is a unique part of the British culture. People in Britain usually form a queue or a
single line in a shop, or when they want to buy a ticket with the intention of allowing those
who arrived first to be served first.
5) Punctuality.
The Brits are generally punctual, especially the Scots. The Brits consider it rude and impolite
if you turn up late for an appointment. Punctuality is very important in business situations. In
most cases, the people you are meeting will be on time. Call even if you will be 5 minutes
later than agreed. If you have been delayed or cannot make the appointment , then make an
effort to contact the person to let them know. It is a good idea to telephone and offer your
apologies.
6) Dining Etiquette
If invited to a persons house for dinner, ensure you are punctual as already discussed. Do not
sit down at once when you arrive. The host may show you to a particular seat. Table manners
are Continental, i.e. the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the right while eating.

Do not rest your elbows on the table. When you finish eating, lay your knife and fork parallel
across the right side of your plate. remember If you have not finished eating, cross your knife
and fork on your plate with the fork over the knife.
If invited to a meal at a restaurant, the person extending the invitation usually pays.
8) Tipping
Tipping is not expected in the UK, in the way it is in the United States or Canada, but is much
appreciated.
10) Thank you/ Im Sorry/ Please
The Brits say thank you a lot, even for minor things. If you accidentally bump into someone,
say sorry. They probably will too, even if it was your fault! This is a habit and can be seen
as very amusing by an outsider.
sometime the Brits say cheers instead of thank you. You may hear cheers said instead of
good bye, what they are really saying is thanks and bye. There are no absolute rules about
when to use polite terms, but you should certainly use them when shopping or addressing
strangers.
Asking personal questions about salary, relationship status, weight or age (particularly in the
case of more mature ladies) is also frowned upon.
Social classes
Rules of etiquette are usually unwritten and passed down from generation to generation,
although in days gone by it was common for young ladies to attend a finishing school to
ensure their manners were up to scratch. An attribute which was felt particularly crucial in
securing a suitable husband!
Whilst today good manners and etiquette are seen as a sign of respect, particularly to those
more senior (in either age or position), in Victorian England when the class system was alive
and well, etiquette was often used as a social weapon in the interests of social advancement or
exclusion.
The evolution of etiquette
More recently, a rise in multiculturalism, a changing economy and the introduction of social
and gender specific equality laws have all played a part in Britain moving away from its rigid
class system of old and therefore a more informal attitude to social etiquette has arisen.
However, today - like the rest of the world - Britain has been influenced by the importance of
corporate etiquette, with a shift in focus from the social or household setting to an emphasis
on business etiquette and protocol. With the whole concept of etiquette being dependent on
culture, for a business to succeed internationally it is important to be aware that what is
considered good manners in one society may be rude to another.
http://www.elegantwoman.org/royal-etiquette.html

http://www.elegantwoman.org/tea-etiquette.html
http://www.ukstudentlife.com/Personal/Manners.htm