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Most encryption algorithms are widely available and used in information security.

They can be categorized into

Symmetric (private) and Asymmetric (public) keys encryption. In Symmetric keys encryption or secret key
encryption, only one key is used to encrypt and decrypt data. In Asymmetric keys, two keys are used; private and
public keys [1]. Public key is used for encryption and private key is used for decryption (e.g. RSA). Public key
encryption is based on mathematical functions, computationally intensive. There are many examples of strong and
weak keys of cryptography algorithms like DES, AES. DES uses one 64-bits key while AES uses various
128,192,256 bits keys. Asymmetric key encryption or public key encryption is used to solve the problem of key
distribution. In Asymmetric keys, two keys are used; private and public keys. Public key is used for encryption and
private key is used for decryption (E.g. RSA and Digital Signatures). Because users tend to use two keys: public key,
which is known to the public and private key which is known only to the user. [2]

A user of RSA creates and then publishes a public key based on the two large prime numbers, along with a
supplementary value. The prime numbers must be kept secret. Anyone can use the public key to encrypt a message,
but with currently published methods, if the public key is large enough, only someone with knowledge of the prime
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the current standard for secret key encryption. AES was created by two
Belgian cryptographers, Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen, replacing the old Data Encryption Standard (DES). The
Federal Information Processing Standard 197 used a standardized version of the algorithm called Rijndael for the
Advanced Encryption Standard. The algorithm uses a combination of Exclusive-OR operations (XOR), octet
substitution with an S-box, row and column rotations, and a MixColumn. It was successful because it was easy to
implement and could run in a reasonable amount of time on a regular computer [4]. file:///C:/Users/jennifer
The cipher uses number of encryption rounds which converts plain text to cipher text. The output of each
round is the input to the next round. The output of the final round is the encrypted plain text known as cipher text.
The input given by the user is entered in a matrix known as State Matrix. [5]. file:///C:/Users/jennifer
Digital Signature works on the principle of public key cryptography Public key cryptography is based on a
concept of key pairs, private key and public key. Public and private keys are nothing but large prime numbers
generated by mathematical algorithms. The key pairs are used for both signing and encrypting the message. Public
key helps to prove unequivocally that you are who you claim to be. The reliability of Digital Signature is same as
that of a paper document with hand written Signature. file:///C:/Users/jennifer%20ong/Desktop/nee/2-AStudy-on-Efficient-Digital-Signature.pdf
ElGamal is nothing but the advance version of Diffie- Hellmen key exchange protocol.
ElGamal encryption is one of many encryption schemes which utilizes
Others file:///C:/Users/jennifer
Elgamal is an asymmetric key algorithm developed by Taher Elgamal in the year 1984. It is based on
DiffieHellman key exchange algorithm [5] and works over finite fields [6]. The security of this algorithm is based
on Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP). file:///C:/Users/jennifer%20ong/Desktop/nee/IJETCAS14336.pdf