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GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

(L.D. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING)


A Project Report On

PETROLIUM COKE
Under subject of
DESIGN ENGINEERING II A

B. E. III, Semester V
(CHEMICAL BRANCH)

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DESIGN ENGINEERING
(B.E. SEM-5 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING)

M. G. DESAI
(Faculty Guide)
Concern batch faculty

M. G. DESAI
Head of the Department

Academic year
(2016-2017)

Submitted by:
NAME

ENROLLMENT

SONI KEVIN
140280105054
SONI SAWRUP
140280105056
UMARALIYA KETAN
140280105057
VADIYA BHAVIN
140280105058
PARMAR VAIBHAVI
140280105059
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CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that
the students named with enrollment number

NAME

ENROLLMENT

SONI KEVIN
140280105054
SONI SAWRUP
140280105056
UMARALIYA KETAN
140280105057
VADIYA BHAVIN
140280105058
PARMAR VAIBHAVI
140280105059

Class has satisfactorily completed the course in


DESIGN ENGINEERING II A under the guidance of project guide.
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Project Guide

Head of the Department

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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INDEX
NO.
1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9

CONTENT
Introduction
Difference between coal and coke
Production of petcoke
Manufacturing of Petcoke
Proximate & Ultimate analysis
Health & Environment impact
Petcoke in Cement industry
Future aspects
References

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PAGE NO.
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8
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17

23
27
29
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INTRODUCTION
Design thinking is a methodology used by designers to
solve complex problems, and find desirable solution for clients.
Design thinking draws upon logic, intuition, imagination and
systematic reasoning, to explore possibilities of what could be,
and to create desired outcomes that benefits the end users.

PETROLEUM COKE:Petroleum coke is a carbonaceous solid delivered from oil


refinery cooker units or other coking process. Coking processes
that can be employed for making petcock include contact
coking, fluid coking, flexi coking and delayed coking. Other
coke has traditionally been delivered from coal.
This coke can either be fuel grade or anode grade The raw coke
directly out of the cooker is often referred to as green coke. In
this context, "Green" means unprocessed.
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The further processing of green coke by calcining in a


rotary kiln removes residual volatile hydrocarbons from the
coke. The calcined petroleum coke can be further processed in
an anode baking oven in order to produce anode coke of
the desired shape and physical properties.

Types of petroleum coke:There are at least four basic types of petroleum coke:
1) Needle coke
2) Honeycomb coke
3) Sponge coke
4) Shot coke
Different types of coke have different chemical
composition so their shape, properties, use varies according to
their operating variables.
Needle coke is a highly crystalline petroleum coke used in the
production of electrodes for the steel and aluminum industries.
Honeycomb coke has a lower coefficient of thermal
expansion and a lower electrical conductivity.

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Calcined Petroleum Coke


Calcined petroleum coke is the product from calcining
petroleum coke.
This coke is the product of the cooker unit in a crude oil
refinery. The calcined petroleum coke is used to make anodes
for the aluminum, steel industry.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COKE AND COAL:The basic difference between coal and coke is that coal is
the natural source and, coke is the derivative product produced
by destructive distillation. Both are used as fuel but coke
contains higher carbon content and few impurities. Coke is also
used during iron ore smelting as a reducing agent.
Coal is a naturally-found fossil fuel that is formed by the
anaerobic decay of plant life. Coke is what remains when the
impurities in coal, such as coal-tar and coal-gas, are removed by
high temperatures in an oxygen-free furnace.

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PRODUCTION & STOARAGE:According to the Energy Information Administration, the


petroleum refining industry converts crude oil into more than
2,500 refined products, including liquefied petroleum gas,
gasoline, kerosene, aviation fuel, diesel fuel, fuel oils,
lubricating oils, and feed stocks for the petrochemical Industry.
Petroleum cookers are installed in refineries to convert the
crude residue separated during the distillation of crude oil that
produces transportation fuels including gasoline, diesel fuel and
jet fuel, as well as lubricating oils and waxes. Coking is a
thermal cracking process used to convert low value crude
residue to higher value gas oil, petcoke and lighter petroleum
stocks. Delayed coking is the most widely used thermal process
today.

TRENDS IN PRODUCTION:Petcoke production in the United States is increasing at a


significantly slower pace than overall worldwide production.
From 2007 to 2012, U.S. production increased by two percent,
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while world (excluding U.S.) production increased by 35


percent. World petcoke production increased approximately 20
million MT from 2007 to 2012.

MANUFACTERING OF PETCOCK:

Petroleum coke or Petcoke is the co-product of


several processes used in petroleum refining to upgrade
residuum into gasoline and middle distillate-range fuels.

Residuum (or reside) remains after refineries initially


distill heavy crude oils.

Petcoke is a black-colored solid composed primarily


of carbon, and may contain limited amounts of elemental
forms of sulfur, metals, and non-volatile inorganic
compounds.

The petroleum industry and federal regulators


characterize petcoke as a co-product because it may have
some commercial value as a boiler fuel and as a raw
material in manufacturing.

Nearly half of U.S. petroleum refineries employ


coking processes.

Coking is a thermal cracking process used to convert


low value crude residue to higher value gas oil, petcoke and
lighter petroleum stocks.

Refineries also produce petcoke as a by-product of


catalysis, which refineries later consume as a fuel.
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Petroleum coke is a carbonaceous solid delivered


from oil refinery cooker units or other cracking processes.

Coking processes that can be employed for making


petcoke include
1. Contact coking
2. Fluidized coking,
3. Flexi coking and
4. delayed coking.

Delayed coking is the most widely used thermal


process today.

DELAYED COKING

A thermal cracking process that converts residuum


into gasified products streams and concentrated carbon
coke. It is called delayed coking.

A delayed cooker is a type of cooker whose process


consists of heating a residual oil feed to its thermal
cracking temperature in a furnace with multiple parallel
passes. This cracks the heavy, long chain hydrocarbon
molecules of the residual oil into cooker gas oil and
petroleum coke.

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drum delayed coking unit in a petroleum refinery


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The residuum is heated in a furnace first, and then fed


into

The residuum is heated in a furnace first, and then fed


into the bottom of the coke drum. The cracked light
products are drawn off at the top of the drum and sent to a
fractionators which separates out gasoline, naphtha, gas oil,
and lighter products. The drums are de-coked by
hydraulic or mechanical cutting processes. In delayed
coking, one coking drum is filled while a second is decoked (emptied).

Delayed coking is one of the unit processes used in


many oil refineries. The adjacent photograph depicts a
delayed coking unit with 4 drums. However, larger units
have tandem pairs of drums, some with as many as 8
drums, each of which may have diameters of up to 10
meters and overall heights of up to 43 meters.
The yield of coke from the delayed coking process ranges from
about 18 to 30 percent by weight of the feedstock residual oil,
depending on the composition of the feedstock and the operating
variables. Many refineries world-wide produce as much as 2,000
to 3,000 tons per day of petroleum coke and some produce even
more.

Schematic flow diagram and description


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The flow diagram and description in this section are


based on a delayed coking unit with a single pair of coke

drums and one feedstock furnace. However, as mentioned


above, larger units may have as many as 4 pairs of drums
(8 drums in total) as well as a furnace for each pair of coke
drums.

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A typical schematic flow diagram of a delayed coking


unit Residual oil from the vacuum distillation unit
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(sometimes including high-boiling oils from other sources


within the refinery) is pumped into the bottom of the
distillation column called the main fractionator.

From there it is pumped, along with some injected


steam, into the fuel-fired furnace and heated to its thermal
cracking temperature of about 480 C. Thermal cracking
begins in the pipe between the furnace and the coke drums,
and finishes in the coke drum that is on-stream. The
injected steam helps to minimize the deposition of coke
within the furnace tubes.

Pumping the incoming residual oil into the bottom


of the main fractionator, rather than directly into the
furnace, preheats the residual oil by having it contact the
hot vapors in the bottom of the fractionator. At the same
time, some of the hot vapors condense into a high-boiling
liquid which recycles back into the furnace along with the
hot residual oil.

As cracking takes place in the drum, gas oil and


lighter components are generated in vapor phase and
separate from the liquid and solids. The drum effluent is
vapor except for any liquid or solids entrainment, and is
directed to main fractionator where it is separated into the
desired boiling point fractions.

The solid coke is deposited and remains in the coke


drum in a porous structure that allows flow through the
pores. Depending upon the overall coke drum cycle being
used, a coke drum may fill in 16 to 24 hours.

After the drum is full of the solidified coke, the hot


mixture from the furnace is switched to the second drum.
While the second drum is filling, the full drum is steamed
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out to reduce the hydrocarbon content of the petroleum


coke, and then quenched with water to cool it.
The top and bottom heads of the full coke drum are removed,
and the solid petroleum coke is then cut from the coke drum
with a high pressure water nozzle, where it falls into a pit, pad,
or sluiceway for reclamation to storage.

PROXYMATE & ULTIMATE ANAYLYSIS OF


COKE
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Proximate Analysis:
In this analysis indicates the percentage by weight of the fixed
carbon, volatiles, ash, and moisture content in coal. The amount
of fixed carbon and volatile combustible matter directly
contribute to the heating value of coal. Fixed carbon acts as a
main heat generator during burning. High volatile matter content
indicates easy ignition of fuel. The ash content is important in
the design of the furnace grate, combustion volume , pollution
control equipment and handing systems of a furnace.

TABLE 1.5 TYPICAL PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF


VARIOUS COALS (IN PERCENTAGE)
Parameter

Indian Coal

Indonesian Coal

South African
Coal

Moisture

5.98

9.43

8.5

Ash

38.63

13.99

17

Volatile matter

20.70

29.79

23.28

Fixed Carbon

34.69

46.79

51.22

a) Fixed carbon:
Fixed carbon is the solid fuel left in the furnace after
volatile matter is distilled off. It consists mostly of carbon
but also contains some hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and
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nitrogen not driven off with the gases. Fixed carbon gives a
rough estimate of heating value of coal

Volatile matter:
Volatile matters are the methane, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and
carbon monoxide, and incombustible gases like carbon dioxide
and nitrogen found in coal. Thus the volatile matter is an index
of the gaseous fuels present.
Typical of volatile range of matter is 20 to 35%.
Proportionately increases flame length, and help in
easier ignition of coal.
Sets minimum limit on the furnace height and volume.
Influences secondary air requirement and distribution
aspects.
Influences secondary oil support

Ash content:
Ash is an impurity that will not burn. Typical range is 5 to
40% ash
Reduces handing and burning capacity.
Increases handing costs.
Affects combustion efficiency and boiler
efficiency
Causes clinkering and slagging.
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Moisture content:
Moisture in coal must be transported, handled and stored.
Since it replaces combustible matter, it decreases the heat
content per kg of coal. Typical range is 0.5 to 10%
Increases heat loss, due to evaporation and superheating of
vapour
Help, to a limit, in binding fines.

Aids radiation heat transfer.

Sulphur content:
Typical range is 0.5 to 0.8% normally.
Affects clinkering and slagging tendencies
Corrodes chimney and other equipment such as air heaters
and economizers
Limits exit flue gas temperature.

Chemical properties:
Ultimate analysis:
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The ultimate analysis indicates the various elemental


chemical constituents such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
sulphur, etc. it is useful in determining the quantity of air
required for combustion and the volume and composition
of the combustion gases. This information is required for
the calculation of flame temperature and the flue duct
design etc.
TABLE 1.5 TYPICAL PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF
VARIOUS COALS (IN PERCENTAGE)
Parameter
Indian
Indonesia
Coal
n Coal
Moisture
Ash
Volatile matter
Fixed Carbon

5.98
38.63
20.70
34.69

9.43
13.99
29.79
46.79

South
African
Coal
8.5
17
23.28
51.22

SPECIFICATION
Parameter Unit

Value

Significanc
e

Fixed Carbon

85-91

It indicate high
calorific value
Low indicates
difficulty i9n

%(m/m)

Volatile matter %(m/m)

<12

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G.C.V.

Kcal/Kg

7800-8000

ignite.
Key from
customer
prospective.

Key Parameter
Parameter Unit

Value

Significanc
e

Sulphur

%(m/m)

<7.5

H.G.I.

38-52

Lower value is
preferable.
Low value
indicates
difficulty in
grinding.

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EQUIPMENTS

STA 8000 Simultaneous Thermal analyze

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HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT IMPACT


Environmental issue
Most chemical analyses of petcoke, as referenced by EPA, find
it to be highly stable and nonreactive at ambient environmental
conditions. Due to the extreme conditions under which petcoke
is produced; qualities such as melting point, boiling point, vapor
pressure, and water solubility exist well outside the range of
ambient conditions. If released to the environment, petcoke
would not be expected to undergo many of the environmental
fate pathways which could lead to environmental risks.
Depending on the particle size and density of the material,
terrestrial releases of petcock become incorporated into the soil
or transported via wind or surface water flow. If released to the
aquatic environment, pet coke incorporates into sediment or
floats on the surface, depending on the particle size and density
in relation to water. Chemically, pet coke is essentially inert.
That is, pet coke does not vaporize into the atmosphere, does not
react chemically in the presence of water, and does not react
chemically in the presence of light. Furthermore, it is not
biodegradable, nor does it bio-accumulate substancessuch as
toxic chemicalsinto its structure.

Human Health Effects


Most toxicity analyses of petcoke, as referenced by EPA, find it
has a low health hazard potential in humans, with no observed
carcinogenic, reproductive, or developmental effects. Only
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animal cases studies of repeated-dose and chronic inhalation


have shown respiratory inflammation attributed to the nonspecific effects of dust particles rather than the specific effects
of petcoke. Inhalation of and skin contact with petcoke were
assessed to be the most likely exposure routes to humans. Most
repeated-dose inhalation exposure studies (on rats and primates)
found cases of irreversible respiratory effects and significantly
increased lung weights. These effects were considered to be
non-specific responses of the respiratory tract to high
concentrations of dust particles rather than compound specificinduced effects. Petcoke was not found to be carcinogenic via
inhalation. No excess skin or visceral cancers were observed in a
lifetime skin painting study. Petcoke was not found to produce
genetic mutations in bacteria and mammalian cells in standard in
vitro toxicity tests or to produce chromosome aberrations of
bone marrow instandard in vivo toxicity tests. Petcoke was not
found to produce any reproductive or developmental effects
following repeated inhalation or exposure to the skin

CONTROL OF THE SOx EMISSIONS DURING


THE PETROLEUM COKE COMBUSTION
FLUIDIZEDBED
Petcoke is considered a fuel interesting because generally
cheaper than coal. The higher level of sulphur in petroleum coke
result in higher Sox pollutant emissions, is one of the reasons the
petcoke is not burned, but one option is available here is two use

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the fluidized bed combustion. generally there are two types of


FBD.I will show you only diagram..

CONCLUSION
Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler technology is an
advanced method for utilizing coal and other solid fuels in an
environmentally acceptable manner.The low combustion
temperature allows SO2 capture via limestone injection, while
minimizing NOx emissions. The technology provides the
capability to burn a wide range of fuels including coal,
petroleum coke, and blends of the two. Also, fluidized bed
systems are generally capable of removing over 98% of SO2.
The use of Ca/S ratio during the combustion process can be
contributed of the sulphur retention in the fluidized bed. FBC is
an excellent choice due to its fuel flexibility and lower operating
and maintenance cost. Fluidized Bed combustion technology has
demonstrated the capability of producing very low emissions of
nitrogen oxides, considerably much lower than conventional
combustion technologies. This system, reduce NOx emissions
productions and control (SO)x emissions by addition of
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limestone, due to lower combustion temperatures between(850900C).

Desulphurization of Petcoke:During heat treatment (up to 2 400 C), partial desulphurization


of analyzed petroleum cokes took place. Separation of sulphur
depends on the composition of the coking feedstock and strength
of C-S bond in the coke structure. Longer heat-soak time results
in higher loss of mass, and in higher density of coke. In view of
that, it can be concluded that risk factors for possible coke
puffing caused by separation of sulphur, particularly in the case
of heating of coke 2, are lower.

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PETCOCK IN CEMENT INDUSTRY

Petroleum coke is derived from petroleum or crude oil


as a fraction in distillation column.

petroleum coke is characterized as a highly grade fuel


with calorific value of more than 8000 kcal/kg having low
ash content and low volatile matter but high sulphur
content up to 7%.

There are generally 4 types of petroleum coke

1-needle coke-highly crystalline petroleum coke


USE-production of electrode for steel and aluminum
MAN. It is produced from coal tar pitch.

2- Honeycomb coke it is an intermediate coke with


ellipsoidal pores that are uniformly distributed.
-honey comb coke has lower coefficient of thermal
expansion and lower electrical conductivity with compare
needle coke.

3 and 4 types are sponge coke and shot coke are used
for power generation in coal fired boiler.

.Petcoke provides scope for manufacturing higher


grade of cement with the same raw material or same grade
of cement using marginal and low grade limestone
contributing to resource conservation. Due to higher
calorific value compared to coal, less quantityofpetcoke
needs to be moved from source to plant site, which reduces
the cost of transport. However, as the sulphur content in
petcoke is high, its larger use increases the sulphur cycle
and aggravates build-up formation in the kiln system. The
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total sulphur content in the clinker needs to be maintained


below 2 per cent from product quality point of view.

Modification

A need for changes in raw mix design and finess of


fuel and modifications in burner, calciner and cooler so that
a trouble-free and cost effective operation is achieved.

Cements haveshown that fuel costs can be reducedby


promoting the use of petcoke. Fuel alone accounts for about
40 percent of the cost incurred by the cement
industry.Alternate fuels like petcoke can reduce fuel costs
to a great extent. They have identified that green
delayed petcoke is suitable for use in calciner, fluid
petcoke is suitable for use in burning zone and
calciner.They suggested that petcoke should be used when
the plant is equipped with multi-chanel burner, when alkali
deposits are high, when there is a margin in coal milling
capacity and primary air fan quantity and when riser duct is
fitted with coatingrepellentrefactory.

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With the help of sample analysis result we will try to search for
a better use of Petcock in industry as a reducing agent. Having
comparatively higher calorific value and higher carbon content it
may be useful in other feasible application like reducing iron ore
or aluminum, which is economical as well as environment
friendly

REFRENCES:www.wikipedia.org
www.oxbow.co.in
www.googlewebligfht.com
www.gagancoalco.com
www.platts.com
education.afpm.org

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