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Electro-Pneumatics

Module 3: Logic Operations in ElectroPneumatics

PREPARED BY

Academic Services
August 2012

Applied Technology High Schools, 2012

ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electropneumatics


Module Objectives
After the completion of this module, the student will be able to:
1- Explain the concept of logic operation (OR circuits).
2- Explain the concept of logic operation (AND circuits).
3- Describe, Explain and construct a simple AND/OR circuits.
4- Describe and use the latching circuits.

Module Contents
1

Logic operations-OR circuit

Truth table of the OR circuit

Logic operations-AND circuit

Truth table of the AND circuit

Practical Task 1

Practical Task 2

Latching Circuits

15

Types of latching

16

Practical Task 3

17

10 References

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

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Logic Operations
In

order

to

produce

the

required

movements by pneumatic cylinders under


certain conditions, it is often necessary to
combine

signals

from

several

control
4

elements through some logic operations


such as:

Y1
5

1. OR circuits

2. AND circuits.
1- Logic operation - OR circuit
The OR circuit has two inputs and a single
(a)

output. The aim is to be able to extend


the piston rod of a cylinder with two
different input elements, pushbutton S1
and S2. The contacts of the pushbuttons
S1

and

S2 are

arranged

in

24V+

parallel

S1

3
S2

branches in the circuit diagram as shown

in Fig. 3.1.b.

As long as no pushbutton is pressed,


the solenoid valve remains in the

Y1
0V

normal position. The piston rod is


(b)

retracted.

If at least one of the two pushbuttons


is pressed, the solenoid valve switches
to the actuated position. The piston rod Fig. 3.1:
advances.

(a): Pneumatic circuit

When both switches are released. The (b): Parallel connection


of two contacts (OR circuit)
solenoid valve switches to the normal
position. The piston rod is retracted.
Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics
Truth table of the OR circuit:
The truth table depicts the status of the output in relation with specific
inputs. Let us assume the following

0: push buttons are not pressed and thus there is no input signal.

1: push button pressed and thus the input signal exists.

Y1 is 0 means the solenoid valve is not activated

Y1 is 1 means the solenoid valve is activated

The table below shows the possible outputs based on the input operating
conditions.
S1

S2

Y1

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
1
1
1

Fig. 3.2: Truth table of the OR circuit.

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics

2- Logic operation - AND circuit


The AND circuit has two inputs and a
single output. The output of the AND
circuit exists only when both inputs are
existing. In this case the piston rod of a
cylinder will be advanced only if both
pushbuttons S1 and S2 are pressed at the

Y1
5

same time. The Two pushbutton switches


are arranged in series in the circuit
diagram as shown in Fig.3.3.b

(a)

As long as neither or only one of the


two

pushbuttons

is

pressed,

the

solenoid valve remains in the normal


position and the piston rod is retracted.

24V+

If both pushbuttons are pressed at the

S1
4
3

same time, the solenoid valve switches


to the actuated position and the piston

S2
4

rod advances.

Y1

When at least one of the switches is

0V

released, the solenoid valve switches


to the normal position and the piston
rod retracted.

(b)
Fig. 3.3:
(a): Pneumatic circuit
(b): Series connection
of two contacts (AND circuit)

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics
Truth table of the AND circuit:
The truth table depicts the status of the output in relation with specific
inputs. Let us assume the following

0: push buttons are not pressed and thus there is no input signal.

1: push button pressed and thus the input signal exists.

Y1 is 0 means the solenoid valve is not activated

Y1 is 1 means the solenoid valve is activated

The table below shows the possible outputs based on the input operating
conditions.
S1

S2

Y1

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
0
0
1

Fig. 3.2: Truth table of the AND circuit.


Practical Task 1
Title: Operating a pneumatic press directly
Objectives:
Upon the completion of this task, the student should
1- Explain and use the AND connection practically to ensure a safe
operation.
2- Explain and use the OR connection practically.
3- Explain the direct (without using relays) control circuit with AND/OR.
4- Be able to use the FluidSIM software as well as workstations.

Problem description:
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The pneumatic press that is shown in the Fig.3.3 has to be operated by
two switches at the same time in order to protect the operator hands from
any possible injury during the press operation. The press will be released
automatically by a limit switch. However, another switch has to be
provided to release the press in case of the limit switch malfunction.

Fig.3.3

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics

Required components:
1- Double acting cylinder
2- 5/2 Directional control valve, double solenoid
3- Power supply
4- Switch blocks
Required procedures:
1. Draw the elector-pneumatic circuit using the FluidSim software
2. The speed of the forward and backward stroke of the cylinder rod is
adjustable
3. Test the circuit functions against any errors or mistakes.
4. Construct the circuit on the workstation
5. Write down your notes and observations.
Pneumatic circuit

Electric circuit

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics

Observations and notes


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Practical Task 2
Title: Operating a pneumatic press indirectly
Objectives:
Upon the completion of this task, the student should
1- Explain and use the AND connection practically to ensure a safe
operation.
2- Explain and use the OR connection practically.
3- Explain the indirect (using electric relays) control circuit with AND/OR.
4- Be able to use the FluidSIM software as well as workstations.
Problem description:
The problem description for this task is the same as for the above task
(task 1)
Required components:
1- Double acting cylinder
2- 5/2 Directional control valve, double solenoid
3- Power supply
4- Switch blocks
5- Relay blocks
Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics
Required procedures:
1- Draw the elector-pneumatic circuit using the FluidSim software
2- Test the circuit functions against any errors or mistakes.
3- Construct the circuit on the workstation
4- Write down your notes and observations.
Pneumatic circuit

Electric circuit

Observations
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ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics
Class work (1)
1.

Give an application example of where an AND circuit is used.

..

2.

Give an application example of where an OR circuit is used.

3.

The circuit below illustrates an electro-pneumatic system, answer the


following questions :

a) Explain how to extend and retract the cylinder.

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b) For the electro- pneumatic system above, write the truth table.
S1

c)

S2

S3

Convert the above electric circuit to control the pneumatic


circuit directly.

12

Y1

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics
Home Work (1)
1.

The

circuit

below

illustrates

an

electro-

pneumatic system. Answer the following questions:

a) Is the above electric circuit direct or indirect control? Explain why.

b) What is the name of the part which is labeled as Y1?

..
c) What is the difference between K1 in branch 2 and K1 in branch 4?

d) What is the difference between K1 in branch 2 and Y1 in branch 4?

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

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ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics
e) How to extend the piston of the above cylinder?

2.

The truth table below represents a logic circuit


controlling a single solenoid 5/2 DCV, based on the table below draw
the electric and the pneumatic circuit.
S1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1

S2
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1

S3
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1

Y1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1

Latching Circuits
Definition of latching: It is a process where the relay contacts remain on
without keeping the relay coil energized. In other words, it is required
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Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics
sometimes to keep the circuit powered for a certain function even though
a pushbutton switch is released to the open position. Fig. 3.4 illustrates
the concept of latching before activating the switch S1 and Fig.3.5 after
activating switch S1.

Fig.3.4 Before latching

Fig.3.5 After latching

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

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ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics
Way of operation:
When the ON pushbutton switch is
actuated as shown in Fig.3.5.a, the relay
coil is energized and thus the contact K1
closes. Even after the ON pushbutton
switch is released the electric current
continues to flow via contact K1 through
the coil, and the relay remains in the
actuated position. The on signal is
stored. When the OFF pushbutton is
pressed the current flow is interrupted

(a)

and the relay becomes de-energized.


Types of latching:
1- dominant ON:
In Fig.3.5.a, if the ON and OFF
pushbuttons are both pressed at the
same time, the relay coil is energized.
Thats why the circuit in Fig.3.5.a is
called a dominant ON latching circuit.
1- dominant OFF:
In Fig.3.5.b, If both pushbuttons are
pressed simultaneously: the relay coil is
not energized. Thats why the circuit in
Fig.3.5.b

is

called

latching circuit.

dominant

OFF

(b)
Fig. 3.5: Relay circuit with
latching
(a): Dominant ON
(b): Dominant OFF

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Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

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Practical task 3
Title: Latching circuit
Objectives:
Upon the competition of this task, the student should be able to control
an electro-pneumatic system by using an electrical latching circuit.
Problem description:
Parts are to be pushed away from a multi-track gravity feed magazine
into a clamping device as shown below in Fig.3.6. By pressing a
pushbutton switch the parts are pushed out of the multi-track gravity feed
magazine by a slide. After the slide has reached the forward end position
it has to return to its start position.
Hint: A relay with latching function is to be used for signal storage.

Fig3.6
Required components:
1-

Double acting cylinder

2-

5/2 DCV, single solenoid

3-

Power supply

4-

Switches block

5-

Relay block

6-

Limit switch
Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

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ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics

Required procedures:
1- Draw the electro-pneumatic circuit using the FluidSim software
2- Test the circuit functions against any errors or mistakes.
3- Construct the circuit on the workstation
4- Write down your notes and observations.
Pneumatic circuit

Electric circuit

Observations and notes


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Class work (2)
1. Explain briefly the meaning of latching in electrical circuits

..
2. The circuit below illustrates an electro-pneumatic system. Answer the
following questions.
1

24V+
S1
4

2
S2
1

13 K1
14

3
3
4
K1

Y1
5

K1
0V

2
A1

3
4

Y1

A2

2
3

a) Which one is the latching circuit? Indicate the circuit number.

b) What type of switch are switches S1 and S2?

c) What is the meaning of the symbol shown under circuit 1?

Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics

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d) What is the function of switch S2?

e) How to extend and retract the cylinder piston?

f) State whether the above electro-pneumatic system is controlled


directly or indirectly. Justify your answer

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ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics

Home Work (2)


The circuit below illustrates an electro-pneumatic system. Answer the
following questions:

a)

Is

the

electric

circuit

above

directly

or

indirectly

controlled? Why?

b)

Which switch is used to operate the circuit?

..

c)

Which branch represents the latching circuit?

..
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ATM-414 Electro-Pneumatics
d)

Which switch is used to release (unlatch) the circuit?

e)

Explain, how to extend the piston of the above cylinder?

f) Explain, how to retract the above cylinder?

References
1.

Electro-pneumatic text book TP 201 2005 Festo

2.

Electro-pneumatic work book TP201 2005 Festo

3.

Electro-pneumatic work book TP202 advanced level


Festo

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Module 3: Logic Operations in Electro-pneumatics