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ISBN 90-77275-51-7

lSI edition

Publisher: Van Wijgerden


Drawings: Rupert van der Linden
Information: www.stappenmethode.nl
E-mail: info@stappenmethode.nl
Copyright 2005: Van Wijgerden
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in
any other fonn or by any means without pennission in writing from the publisher.

Workbook

Step 5

--

Name:

-----

Date of birth:

Street:

Place:

Club:

Trainer:

st

3rd

step completed:
step completed:

2nd step completed:

4th

step completed:

Material and time


Evaluating a position in tenns of material is easy. All you have to do is count: queen

9 points, rook

5 points, etc. Now that you have taken your chess skills to a higher level, you will find that this way of
evaluating positions is too simplistic. It is also important to take into account the dimension of time not the time on your clock, but the time on the board.

III
I'

"

... ...
Itl ,

.i

"
Itl


f1j
f1j

II <it>
II

Lead in development
In the position on the left,
White has a temporal advantage of three moves. White
has already developed both
his bishops and he has
already castled.

Badly positioned pieces


On the right, Black requires
two moves to bring the
knight on a5 back into play.

li

,
i-

,
,

'iW
,

...

X
, "

Itl

f1j f1j

IIII <it>
Itl

White not only has a slight lead in development, but he can also
exploit the poor position of Black's knight. The knight cannot
take part in the defence of the kingside. Many of White's pieces
are aimed at Black's king. The appropriate course of action is
therefore an attack on the king:

1. Qa4 (to the kingside with a gain of tempo) 1. b6 2. Qh4 h6


3. Bxh6 gxh6 4. Qxh6 Nb7 (there is no much else) s. NgS NcS 6.
Bh7+ KhS 7. Bc2+ KgS S. Re3 and 9. Rg3. White has a clear

advantage on the kingside. The black knight was unable to join

the defences.
The following three positions have been taken from a game between Leo Kerkhoff and Eddie Scholl.
Kerkhoff cleverly exploits his lead in development while Scholl rather neglects to develop his pieces.
The first diagram arises after 1. e4 d6 2. d4 Nf6 3. Nc3 g6 4. BgS c6 S. Be2 Nbd7 6. NfJ Qc7 7. Qd2

bS? (Black should have followed up with 7.... Bg7) .


The side with the temporal advantage should: find concrete targets
open up the position

.i

... *...
\iW1tl"

Itl ,

"

.i
,

f1j
f1j
VJIi
II
II
<it>

.i
*...
,
"
,
...
1tl'iW

II

White opens up the position

A bishop sacrifice that can

The position has been

to get at the uncastled king.

not be accepted. White wins

opened up and Black has not

This is well worth a pawn: S.

after 13. ... Qxf4 14. Qxf4

been able to develop his

Nxf4 15. Bxc6+ Bd7 16.

pieces. The end is near. 16.

eS dxeS 9. dxeS NxeS 10.


NxeS QxeS 11. 0-0-0 Be6
12. BfJ NdS 13. Bf4!
2

Rxd7. The game continued

QxdS Qxf4+ 17. Kbl. Black

13
Qf6 14. BxdS BxdS
15. NxdS cxdS.

resigned. The position after

..

17. . . . f6 is hopeless.

Fifth step

Mix

Test

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(4th step):

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Test

Mix

( 4 th

s te p ) :

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1:[

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FiliI! step

Getting the g uard:

Mate in two

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Mate in three:

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Fijih step

Mate

Mate in the ending:

'j

i
fj,

I.

!.

l2Jifj,i

fj,
i
ldld

i
fj,

.ii_

fj,

I.

ii

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fj,
fj,
l2J

ld

ld

Pawn ending

Breakthrough:

"

fj

fj
fj

fj

fj

Fi/ih step

Key squares:

Pawn ending

Test

Mix:

ld

.t
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, '+W

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'+W

-*. ,

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, -*.

10

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Xr@

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Fi/ih step

The use of pawns


Pawns are important. They have a number of different functions:

1.1.1.
.1.

Protecting the castled king.

Defending pieces, by cover

Controlling squares, and

ing them (Nf6, Nc3) and

thereby restricting the mobi

shielding them off (Bd6) .

l ity of enemy pieces.

In both diagrams the pawns


form a formation. We refer to

1.1.

1.1.1.

this formation as the pawn

1.1.

I.
I.
I.

structure.
The pawn structure has not
yet been full y determined. On
the left, onl y the pawns on e4
and e5 are fixed.
On the right, the structure is
almost completely fixed.

1.1.1.

1.1.1.
I.

I.

pawns can capture each other


there is tension.

I.

I.

l2J

i'l i'l
---

I.I.

.il.l.

II

1.1.1.
I.

On the left, the pawns on d4

1.1.

and e5 are attacking each


other; hence, there is tension
tension in the cluster of
pawns on c4, d4, c5 and d5 .
It is usually advantageous to
maintain the tension.

1.1.

in the centre. At right, there is

In those positions where

Demolishing the structure of


your opponent can give you
the advantage.
On the left, Black demolishes
the white structure with 1. ...

b4. This move leaves White

with a weak doubled b-pawn.


On the other side White plays
the strong 1. f5. On the right,

1. f6 demolishes the castled

king's protective pawn shield.

1.1.1.

da,.\

lu/id

Zl

.,

tf> V

v v

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Mix:

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1..
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13

Test

Mix:

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1..1. I..!
I.
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8
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'if

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8 81:fJ
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1..

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Fijih step

Pawn race
The march of passed pawns towards their promotion squares can be likened to a race. A lot of things can
happen during such a race.

The race in this diagram is not

Both pawns require a further

Reaching the finish line at the

very exciting. The white pawn

three moves. But note that

same time does not always

no further than the 3rd rank: 1.

White will queen with check

lead to a draw. Here White

on b8: 1. b6 g3 2. b7 g2 3.

b6 g4 2. b7 g3 3. b8Q.

b8D+.

has a winning X-ray check: I.


h7 b2 2. h8Q blQ 3. Dh7+.

Another tie. This time there is

A one-sided race. White's

White is ahead, but the black

no X-ray check. Rather, Black

pawn simply marches on, but

king is inside the square of the

is mated: 1. e7 f2 2. e8D f1 Q
3. Qa4 mate.

Black's pawn can be stopped.

pawn. White can shield off

Black's king is outside the

the king and win: 1. Kb5

square of the pawn: 1. g6 d3


2. Kf3 and White wins.

Kd6 2. Kb6 Kd7 3. a6 Kc8


4. a7.

queens; the black pawn gets

l. Kb6 Black queens with

Racing with 1. ... e5 is bad.

The white pawn is doomed

White will pick up the new

while the black pawn is free

check. White must assist the

queen with Qf8+ and Qe8+.

to go. All the same, White can

pawn by 1. Ka6 g2 2. c7 Kd7

Black should go after the a

draw with 1. Kti (threatening

3. Kb7.

pawn with 1. ... Ke7.

2. e6) 1. ... Kxe5 2. Kg6.

White must be careful. After

15

Pawn ending

16

Pawn race:

Fifth step

Pawn ending

Pawn race:

17

<C

..i

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Q)
en

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--

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III

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mate:

I
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Luring away

Eliminating the defence

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IX

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l::.l:l:
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19

Discovered attack
A double attack can be set up with the help of five different types of preparatory move:

luring
chasing

eliminating the defender


clearing

aiming

The same types of preparatory move can be used to prepare a discovered attack. As you will probably
recall, a discovered attack requires the presence of a battery. In some positions, the battery may not yet
be effective or must first be set up. This is where the preparatory move comes in.

.I

.i.'lH

.i.

ii
.Ii

This position does not contain

The battery Rd IIBd3 is in

..t
ltJ

W/i

ii
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The battery on the d-file does

a battery yet. White sets up a

place. It is as yet ineffective,

not yet work, since the rook is

lethal battery with l . Qf2+.

since 1. Bxg6 Qxg6 does not

obstructed by two of White's

The target piece (the queen

give White anything. White

pieces. White needs to play

on d4) is already in place. It

must therefore chase away the

two clearing moves. The best

does not matter how Black

knight on g6 with 1. h5. The

gets out of check. On the next

knight is lost. If it moves

move White gives check with

away, White will unleash the

the rook and then picks up the

battery with 2. Bh7+.

queen.

Preparatory move:

Preparatory move: aiming

eliminating the defence

.I

ii

.I
.i.

..tltJi

i.i

I.

ii

.t.

method is 1. Bxb7 Bxb7 2.


Nf5+, winning the queen.

Preparatory move: clearing

!.

i
i

ltJ

1d

1d

The battery on the c-file lacks

The battery Bb3/Nc4 lacks an

This position concludes our

an attacking target. White can

attacking target. The front

overview of preparatory

lure the queen into the rook's

piece (the knight) can give

moves. The back piece (Bb3)

range with 1. Nc7, the point

check. What is needed is a

and the front piece (Rc4) are

being that l . ... Qxc7 is met by


2. Bf8+. If Black does not

target for the back piece. We

both ready. The back piece

can find one by chasing the

has an obvious target (Qf7) .

take the knight, then White

rook to g8; White wins the

But what about the target of

will win the exchange.

exchange after 1. Bg7 Rg8 2.

the rook? Is it the king? No.

Preparatory move: luring

Nd 6+.

Preparatory move: chasing

20

Material? No. A square? Yes !


It is mate after 1. Rh4 Qe7 2.
Rxh7+ Kxh7 3. Qh4#.

Fifth step

Preparatory move:

Discovered attack

i
*

t3J
i

i
E

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t3J

E*

ii

t3Ji

l:t

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t3J

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i

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t3Jt3J
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iii

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ii
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t3J
t3J

J:

@l

ii

t3J
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l:t

ii

t3Jt3J

ii

.i..
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'i i

'lW

t3J

t3Jt3Jt3J
<;it

k!

.I.

I.

0J
t3Jt3J

I.

ii

iii

1:.

I.

t3J

.iV

i 'iV

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I.

ii

t3Jt3J
1:.

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t3J

t3J

'iV iii
i

0J.t3J
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t3J

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iii
iii
t3J.
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t3Jt3Jt3J
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X.
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t3Jl:t
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I.

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ii
'iVi
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1- 'i
t3Jt3J
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0J
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21

Discovered attack

K
.

-t.

'YW

t2J.t

.t

'YW

.1&.

<;t

-t.

t2J
.t t2J

l:i <;t

t2J

KK*,

.-t.

.t
<;t
K.I
'YW-t.

.t
<;t

22

.t'YAVJ:

-t..

.

t2J
.t
.t

<;t

1:Ikt

'YAVK.t

..

.-t.


.
.t
t2J
t2J

'ii .t<;t

.t'YAV

J.

.i.

'YAV

.t.t.l

'if

kt <;t

.-t..

.t

'YW.t.t

n
I:t<;t



<;t
I
K

I.'YWK

. .. .t2J .

'if t2J
.t
.t

<;t

.t

.t

K.

'if

Preparatory move:

I.

I.

.t
-t.
.t

.i..
'iW-t.

.t t2J
.t


llkt <;t
-

Fijil! step

Discovered attack:

Double attack

J:
,

1d

.I.

'iV'

III

'IV

,
,

ttJ 1.
.i.

"A

1.1.
,

.1*
"

,
ttJ

8.i.
'JjJj

tttt

1Il
"

,
ttJ,

tt

.IttJ1.

.i.

.I

,
,
,

!:

1.
, ,
!:
"
.i.''

tt
1d

.I

.i.

"

"

J.

.i.*'

ttJ

1Il.l
*'.1
,
'Ill

"
.i.1.
,
,

'8
.i.

ttJ

.I

, J. , ,

!:*

,
'1. '.i.
ttJ

8
tt

.I Ill.
,
,

,
.i.

.I

*
'iW'

,ttJ,1.
,

23

Double attack

Discovered attack:

.I
*d .I
ii
i
..t.
i
i
i i
itI
iV
Cfjt3J
t3J
t3Jt3Jt3J
.:
.:

.!

ii

itI
\\W

ii
i
t3J

iV

.i

.i

iiV i
i

i'YW

t3Jt3J
t3J

i
t3J

.I

t3Jt3J

Cfjt3J'YWt3J
.:
.:

..1
i.i

.:

.:

24

t3J

t3Jt3J
t3Jt3J
<;t>

.i

iV
t3Jt3J

t3J

..t..I
..t.

iii

i
t3JWJj
t3J Cfj
t3J

iVt3J t3J
.:
:

i
i

.:

t3J

.!

iii
i
t3J
lai

t3J
Cfj
t3Jt3Jt3J
.J:I

'YW
ii

t3Jt3J

.I
i
i

ii
i
ii

..t.

t3J

.I

ii

t3J
iVt3Jt3J

.:

.:itli

i
Cfj
t3Jt3J

.!

t3J t3J
t3J Cfj
.:
iV

t3Jt3J

iii

t3Jt3J
.:

i i
i

.1*
..t.iii

Cfj

.!

.i
i

t3J
t3J
.:

.:

t3J

t3Ji

ii
..t.

t3J

iCfji
t3J
itI
t3J
t3J iV

.I

!.

ii

i
..t. t3J t3Jt3Ji
t3J
iVCfj t3J
t3J.1

.:
.:

Fi/ill step

Preparatory move:

Pin

:!

1.1.'iV
1.1.1.
I.
I.

I.

ltJ'iV

1:t

.i

*K

I.

I.

.t.'iV
I.
I. ll --

ltJ
1:t

tfl. I.
'iV 1tI .t.
I.
'fI

1:t

.I
.,
1.1.1.
.t.
ltJ
'YJJf
'fI
1:t

1:t

I. I. 'it'

llitl

.t.

ItI

I.

.!.

r..--

L._ r--

.t.

I.

I.

I.i
'iV
I.I.I.

ItI

'fI

I. i -l.

ItI

.i

ltJ
'fIltJ

I..t.
I.
.i

1:t

'fI
1:t

I.i-I.
I.
ltJ'fI .t.

ltJ

'iV
1:t
g

I.

.t.

t.l*

1.1.
I.
I.
I.

1.1:t
.I
'YJJf

I:

.t.
tf
I.
I.
I.
I.

1:t

.i

i.
1..1
i
iltll.'iV
ltJ
I. I.

25

m
a;

;
as

D.

<J <J .
..go
[Gl
,

-t1..t]

_',_lj'

= -I r-' J
"

l Gl

L <J
I 'I r <J
[

-Gil

... ,

-ani

...

<J

... 1

Ii:

t
l

--,

<J ..go
<J

1_

"'-GiI

J Gl <J
L <J
"'
'l ... '! r <J

'-

<J '
<J
J:O
<J
- <J

...

iJJ'"

L-.J

__

- "'LLL_ ' <J


,__1 <J Gl
<J
-ani in
1

.ri

<J
<J
<J
<J

I L, '"
-ani : LJL
_.
I,. rl_ _ iT
Gl

_,

....
...

"'L
_

_,

-----,

., ...

... .

Gl

L"'L

-ani

L
I '" i

<J

<J
.1

<J

.,

II

L_

.--

'" <J ,

<J Gl

<J ..gor <J


<J ..go

II

--wi - [ -ani
---: II
-cui II
11 ... [... <J J .
II
n n 1
I

_..., L-J

'---l-

.J

L-

'--_

"

'

.... t-+

-II

-ani

-ani ...

L--J

-;"'L
L---1'"

...

<J

rl ... r
il ...

-ani

<J

l-J
!lJJ]

II
-

<J

<J

Gl

<J L I
<J 1 n

-T-
_,

<J

...

--"_L . . L
_: L II
- 8J
L

[..tl l <J
<J..go
l
... !

----- ----

-'

r - <J
I .

.u

'

' ... U U <J I


... r-i [ <J ..go

. ... . <J
-ani'"
<J
1

T
n ,
J

. ' , , <J -ani


... <J . ,

.------
...
<J Gl
iJJ ... L <J

-ani ... r
<J
, -col r <J

..go

..

'" <J

- 1 ... <J
,

<J

...

'

-ani
ilI1Il

1_
-

...
.

Gl

Gl <J

l ... <J

"'

.... <J
... -

. ... C

<J

l ..go
l

<J

II
' ... 11 ... [ <J
-n I' <J
l

10
N

Mix:

Test

1.

l2J

1.

W1I

la

.i

l2J
l2J

la

iV"

..

l2J
'iV
la

.I

. 1..

.I " iV.1.
X

1.

"

l2J
l2J

la
la

"iV
1.

.I

"

*
la

. . .
.
l2J

la

.I "

iV.*

'iV
.l2J

la

la

iV
.

"

1. .


WiI
la

27

da/.\ If/lid

cp

8Z

, rv IJl

: IJl

l, rv
T'" ,
h1\ I

.1

1. _ I

'I

CP:

-!

l:l

rv 'Wrv
rv 1$

l_L

CP:

rv

rv

rv

_'

Aif.

rv

C
Ii

rv

IJl
rv

-,

: XUI\I

0
' r

t...

cp

-'

[T

, 'W

:I

+' rv ,

',

L- ,

cp

rv

rvrvrv

_ L-

-,

rv

rv
,

, rv

rv

: :

IJl l

L-

rv ,!

:I

rv

[
rv

,. ,-r, T'
..

l:i -r ,

'"

CP:

"1--=-

'i

rv
rv 'W
rv
IJlrv rv'W

rvrv

' L-"
'

'i

Aff.

-L,

'W

r-i

L_I

"

1:1

"

_,L-

L :

..!

rvrv

' rv

rv'Wrv
rv
lJl rv
rv
,
-'- -r-=-ll.

, .--,

.:1

J. L

T,

'

'

_ __

:I

'W

1Jl
rv

rv
,

. T.

!'

'W
:
l:l
rv

rv
rv rv
rv rv '-, I.

't

:I

cp

T,-

'Wrvrv
rvrvlJl .J

1. __

CP:

- '

rv II L
rv , ,- rv
rv
;!
Trv .J
[ T
'W ,r"
rv

'

CP:

rv rv

II
0
1: II '
II C
n
:I

T.I'I

rv

_L-,""

'

rv rv
rv
IJl

rv

m'

'

cp

rvrv

L ..
" [!J

1-

I'

[Y

!'

CP:

rv:

1$ rv

.-

!'
, ,

.:1
sa.l

Rook against pawn


The struggle between rook and pawn is tense if the king of the side with the rook is not too close by. If
the following principles are correctly applied, this type of ending can be played correctly.
The win is easy if the king of the
side with the rook is inside the
square of the pawn and can
approach it unhindered. On the
left, White picks up the pawn
after 1. Kc3 e3 2. Kd3.
The side with the pawn has an
easy draw if the enemy king is too
far away. At right, Black draws
after 1. Kb6 e2 2. Kc5 Kfl.

Strategy for the rook side:


The king must approach the pawn
from the side opposite to the ene
my king. Thus, on the left White
plays 1. Kc6 c3 2. Kb5 Kd3 3.

Kb4 c2 4. Kb3. On the right, the


king is unable to approach, so the
rook side must drive away the
enemy king: 1. Ra2+ KO 2.Ra8

e3 3.Rf8+ Ke2 4. Kg2 Not I.


Ra8 e3 2. Rf8+ Kgl. Kgl.

The king is on the right side, but


approaching the pawn directly
does not work:

1.

Kf7 e4 2. Kf6

e3 3. Kf5 e2 4. Kf4 Kd3 5. Kf3


Kd2. The rook is misplaced.
Correct is 1. Rd1+ Kc3 2. ReI

Kd4 3. Kti and White is in time.


The diagram on the right shows
that cutting off the enemy king
h
on the 5t rank or higher is always
winning: 1. Rf5 d3 2. RO.

Strategy for the pawn side:


Shielding off and advancing the
pawn is all the pawn side can do.
The former is usually better than
the latter. On the left, Black
draws with 1

Kf4. He is lost

after I .. Kf2 2. Ke4 g3 3. Ra2+.


On the right, I . . .. d3 loses. The


.

right method is 1.

Kd3 2. Kb5
Kc3 3. Rc8+ Kb3 4. Rd8 Kc3.
..

29

Endgame

30

Rook against pawn:

Fijil! step

Endgame

Rook

against pawn:

31

Strong square
A square is strong if:

it cannot be controlled by one of the opponent's pawns;


it is, or can be, occupied by one of your own pieces.

Strong squares are significant only if they are on or close to the part of the board where the action
takes place. The battle for strong squares includes the following elements:

Creating a strong square


With

1. c4 White gains control

of the square d5. This square

cannot be controlled by any of

.!

ii
i
1..

the black pawns.


On the right, White can create a
strong square on d5 by taking
on d6. The c7-pawn can then

tjj
tjj
888

.:1

no longer control d5.

The route to a strong square


On the left Nd7 is better off on

the strong square d4. This can

iii
i
8
888
.:1

.!

be achieved with Nb8-c6-d4 or,

even better, with gain of tem


po: Nd7-c5-e6.
White is down an exchange but
has compensation in the form
of a strong square on c4. He
can reach c4 by 1. Nd2. Note
the function of the pawn on a5.

.I.

.t

iii
i
888 8
tjj8

.. *'

ii

Eliminating the defender


On the left White cannot
occupy d5, since it is pro
tected by the c6-pawn. White
can exchange this pawn with

1. b5, securing d5.


On the right, Black can elimi
nate the defender of d4 by 1

ii

8i
8 8
8 8
8

Bg4 and 2

Bxf3.

Denying your opponent a


strong square
On the left, Black threatens to
occupy a strong square with

1.

... Nd7 and 2. ... Nc5. Hence,


White must play 1. Bh3.

On the right, White threatens


to play his knight to d5. Black
can prevent this with 1.

.!

ii

!.

1..iii
i
1..
i

tjj 8
tjj88

a6
2. Bxc6 (otherwise 2.... b5).

Black conquers d5.

32

Fifth step

Strong square:

Strategy
I-

,.I.

I. *

, .t.

I.

.t. .
,
,
fj,

,
fj

fjCjj fj
fjfj

fj

Cjj

fjJl.fj

Jl.
Jl.n

fj

fj

I-

''ii'

.I

,.t. ,
,

,
,fj
fj Cjj fjJl.
fj
fj
fjfj
fjW;j
nll

,
,

.--

.I

'ii'

l-

.t. ,

.t. "

,fjJl.

So

.I

''ii'

fj

fjfj

fj

Jl.Cjj

fjfjfj

Cjj.a:

fjfj
n.a:

,
,

.I

fj
Cjj
'Wifjfj
n

,
.t. "
,
'fj
fj

Cjj
fjfjfj'W/

.I.t.
,

fj fj
nn

.I

,
.t.
fj ,
,
,
Jl. ,fj
fj Cjj
fjVjjj
fjfj

l:t

33

Eliminating the defence

K .I

*'

A "

' 'iV

,
,
8
&
'iV 8
8
'iV la 8
tD

l:t

.I

, I. ' 'iV

8
8
8 8
la

.I

"

'iV

*'

I.

.I

I. , ,

.I

.,

8 8 8

' 'iV

8 8 8

8
la

I. .
,

*'

.i..

8
8

8 8

A 'iV

-*. 8

.i

, I.

8
'lW 8
:t tD

.i.. '

,
' 8

.I

'lW
8
8 8 8

la
, tD

,
8
kI
8 8

,
8 8

kI

@
, I. ,

.i..

&

,
& 8
8 8 8

tD tt

'iV

B
,

8 8 8

34

8 8

' 'iV

@> .I

I.

8 8
la

mate:

'iV

&

8 8 8
tD

,
8

.I

,
' 8

tD

Luring away

8
8
kI kt

!I

, I.
tD

kI '

' 'iV 8

.l.-......-.t

Fi/ih step

Mix:

Test

!.

' "
,
'iV
' iV

tjj


.&t
.&t

.&t
,

'lW


.&t

'Y1V

, "

, ltJ
tjj

tjj
'lW
.&t

.&t

.t.

.t.

,
.t. "
,
,
'Y1V

.&t

I.

.t.

.t.

'V)JJ
X .&t

.I "

,
tjj L_,
.._+_
il.
.t

L-.
..
----'-- .&t
-=

35

Defending
The following 9 positions contain examples of various defensive strategies. These include defending

against mate, the loss of material and pawn promotion. We recommend that you study them well !

I.
.i
1t\ , 'YW
"
.,---,<-- ,----,'---'"-i----'----!
---

White threatens mate on g7.

White threatens mate on e8.

Black survives with the help

Black cannot protect g7, but

Black can protect e8 by

of a pin and an in-between

he can save himself with a

means of a double attack: 1.

move: 1. ... Qt7 2. Rxt7


Rxdl +.

counter pin : 1. ... Df4 2.


Dxf4 Bxe5.

t::,

. , , I.

.i.

..

1:.

,
t::,

t::,

Rh4+ 2. Kg3 Rh8.

"

.i.

'iV

1:. .i.

'iV "-..-----

t::,

t::, t::,
Black can escape the X-ray
attack with a gain of tempo:

Rc4 2. Rxc4 Rd8+ (a

check in-between) 3. bxc4.


The rook is safe.

Sadly, I ... Kf8 2. Rxe7 Dxe7

3. Dxc8+ fails. The double

Black's gamble 1.

e2 ( 1. ...

Bf6 ! ) paid off; after 2. fxe7

attack can be avoided by

Bd4+ White resigned. White

trapping the rook: I


Qt7
2. Rxe7 Qxe6+ 3. Rxe6 Kt7.

could have won with 3. Ne3!

(X-ray protection of fl )

fl

a better move than I. Qd2?

The c-pawn cannot be won

The knight can cover

without losing material, but

a gain of tempo: 1. KaJ ! b5

Rxd4, and 2
Nc2 is met
by 3. Be4+. White remains

the new queen can. After I.

BaJ cl Q 2. Rxb2 White wins


with a discovered attack.

2. b4+ Kb6 3. Nd5+ Kc6 4.


Ne3 winning. The passed

Black counterattacks. Is there


There is ! 1. Qxh7+ Kxh7 2.

an exchange up.
36

with

pawn is stopped with the


help of a double attack.

Fifth step

Defending

Defending against mate:

i
i ii.

.i

ii.

*
i i
.t.

.I
ii.

'if

i
'i

i l.

'if l. .i .
i i

.t.

ii.

.,

i i i
ii.

.i

'if

'iV

.i
i tlJ

'if

1.
'if

tlJ

tlJ

ii.

i
tlJ

tlJ

*
i i
.t.

tlJ

*
i
i i

.t.

.t. 'i

ii.

.I *'

.i

tlJ

37

Defending

!J

.t

{jj

I-

Defending against a passed pawn :

i
!J

i !J

1:I

*
i {jj
i

!J

{jj

!J

38

Fijih step

l:r

tI

11

1f

\l
\l \?(

\?( \l \l
\l 1f
\l
\l
\?( \l \l
.,

\l

-l

., .

., . .,

1:

11

l:r

'

\l

-'-

.,

, L

.,

.11m
:I

\l

. 1. .

.!It.

cp

l:r

\l 1f
\l

II

_ U 1f

l:r

\?(

;J '

-., r
., -g T

1-

\l

\l

...J

\l

\l

fM.

l:r

'W

\?(
\l \l

.,

\l

\l

\l

cp
\l

.11m ., - .,
:I

I I

l:r

\l \l

1I
\l

' 1f

LI
.'
j . L:

cp
\l \l

1f \l
\l \l \?(

:1

., . T 'I
., .,

.. L.._._

. :1

.- -

-g

cp . J tI tI
\l \l
\l \l \l 1
_,-- J_ \?(

1f

.,

L...- __

\l \l

\l

- ry

.,
T
.,
.,
,
1
.11m . .,
:I
T I:
l:r

\l \l

CP l:t
\l \l -",- ;'- l \l
\l . 1f
\?( \l

.,

,- .-

.,

: Sle a J 4 l lSUle 6 e 6 UIP u alaa

:I

\l \l

l:r

. : ., \l .,
.,

., 1f

., .-

.,

-..

J:

Aft.

:l

6u IP u alaa

Eliminating the defence

Mix:

K
'iV
tf
, I.
'"
' 'iV
, .t.
' llJ
,

x .

.t.
, I.

I. '"
.t.
,
,
,
'itV
,

'iV

'itV

l:t

'iV

l:t

'iV

40

llJ

n

'iV

l:t

x x @>
,
,
, 'itV
, I.

.t.

llJ

,
llJ '

'iV

llJ

.!
l:t

.t.

"

x x

X
n

'iN '"

llJ

"' , I.
,
,

.t.
,

'iV

l:t

l:t

Fi/ih step

Rook ending
Rook endings occur quite often. It is therefore important to be able to recognize winning and drawn
positions. In each of the following positions White is a pawn up. In some cases this is sufficient to win
the game, but not in others.

The black king is in front of

A similar situation, but much

This position differs from the


previous one in one crucial

the pawn. This is the best

less favourable for Black,

spot for a defending king.

whose pieces are restricted to

respect: the kings and pawn

All the black rook needs to

the back rank. Since the rook

have been moved one file to

do is switch back and forth

is tied, the defensive method

the right. This one file means

on the

as illustrated in the previous

the difference between a win

example is not available.

and a draw. After 1 . Rh7+

6th rank

until the pawn

reaches e6. Then the rook

must be played to the I st rank

to give checks ' from behind':

1 . ... Ra6 2. e5 Rb6 3. Ra7


Re6 4. e6 Re I 5. Kf6 Rf1+.
Black continues to give check

White has an easy win; after

Kg8 2. Rg7+ Kh8 the board

1 . Rg7+ Kf8 2. Rh7 Kg8 3.


f7+ KfS 4. Rh8+ he nets the

thus White is unable to win.

black rook with an X-ray

There is not enough room for

check.

the white rook to the right of

or else wins the pawn. Draw.

turns out to be too small, and

the king.

The defending king is cut

The distance between king

off. This costs Black half a

and enemy rook is an impor

the white king and the black

point. White wins with 1 .

tant factor in rook endings.

rook is sufficiently large for

Re1 + Kd7 2. Re4! (a move


to remember ! ) 2
Rhl 3.
Kf7 Rf1+ 4. Kg6 Rg1 + 5.
Kf6 Rf1+ 6. Kg5 Rg1 + 7.
Rg4. This winning method is
called building a bridge.
..

Here the distance between

The more distant the check,

a draw. If Black keeps giving

the more effective it is. In

check, he can obtain a draw :

this position the distance is

1 . ... Rh7+ 2. Ke6 Rh6+ 3.


Ke5 (3. KfS Rd6) 3
Rh5+
4. Ke4 Rh4+ 5. Kd3 Rh8

too small. After 1 . ... Rg7+ 2.

Ke8 Rg8+ 3. Kf7 Rh8 (3. ...

..

and Black wins the pawn. It

White cannot make any pro

Rd8 4. Ke 7 ) 4. Rhl Rd8 5.

gress without 2. Re4. 2. Kf7 is

better, Black will still draw

of positions the defending

met by 2. ... Rt2+ 3. Kg6 Rg2+

the short straw after 5. d8Q.

4. Kf6 Rt2+ S. KeS Rg2 and


the king is forced to retreat.

Ke7. Although 4

Rxhl is

is important that in this type

7th rank, and


8th rank.

king is on the
not on the

41

Mate:

Rook ending

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Files without pawns are called open files. Open files can be used to invade the opponent's position.
Such an invasion is most effective on the

ih rank, since this is where most of the opponent's pawns are

positioned. Using an open file involves four different, but related aspects :

opening a file
using an outpost

;..

gaining control of an open file

;.>

preventing the opponent from using an open file

I.

,
,

, I.
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Using an outpost

Opening a file

Opening a file

White opens the d-file by 1 .

Although White can open the

dxe5, thereby undoubling

a-file with I . axb6, he cannot

Black's f-pawns. The first is

actually conquer it. The right

more important, since White

strategy in this position is to

can occupy the open file.

wait. White should first play

White cannot gain control of


the c-file immediately. He
must threaten to double his

rooks WIth I . ReS . Black now


faces an unpleasant choice.

rook can go to d7. We know

1. Ra3 and 2. Rea l and only

then take on b6. Black will

After 1.

from the lesson on the

then have to give up the a

c-pawn, while Black is left

A fter I

. .

fxe5 2. Rd I the

ih

Rxc5 2. dxc5

White gets a protected passed


with a vulnerable pawn on

file.

rank that the rook is very

d5 . If Black does not take, he

active there.

will lose control of the c- fiIe.

I.

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In this position White and

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i.

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It would appear as though

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the d-file. White can chase

White is controlling the d

rook from invading the

away the black rook with 1 .

file. Black is unable to

rank. Exchanging on d4 does

8f6. White gains control of

oppose rooks. However, he

not help; rather, Black must

the d-fiIe, regardless of

can make sure that the white

create an outpost with I

Black are both controlling

whether Black takes on d J or


moves away his rook.

46

rooks will not invade his


position. Black can seal off

the d-file with 1. ... Nd5 .

ih

Rd5. After 2 . Rxd5 exd5 3.


ReI Kf6 th e white rooks are

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..

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49

Draw
In bad positions you can try to play for a draw. This can be achieved by forcing stalemate or by
making sure that your opponent is left with insufficient material to win.

A piece can still play

Forcing stalemate

The king can still play

When your own king cannot

The black bishop can take the

play anymore, the strategy to

queen, but the retulting pawn

play with his king, his queen,

force stalemate is simple: give

ending is totally lost. Again,

and his a-pawn. However, he

away your last pieces.

Black can save himself by

can obtain a draw with 1 . ...

On the left, White gives away

stalemating his king.

Qa3+. If the queen is taken,

his pawns: 1. d8Q+ Kxd8 2.

After 1. ... Kh8 White has

the pawn on a3 blocks the a

c7+ and Black is forced to

nothing better than 2. Qxti

pawn and takes away b4 for


the king. After 2. bxa3 b2+

On the left, Black can still

take the pawn now or on the

(after a king move Black

next move.

would be winning ! ) and

Black escapes with a draw.

On the right, Black gives up

Black is stalemated.

On the right, the g-pawn is

his rook: 1. ... Rg2+ 2. Kh3

pinned. White can save

Rg3+. If White takes, it is

himself with the strong 1 .

stalemate. Black has what is

Qf4+. After 1 . ... Qxf4 it is

called a ' rampant rook'.

stalemate.

Mate is no longer possible


Winning with a knight alone

The pawn has advanced too


far

Insufficient material plus


Being an exchange up in the

is impossible. All White has

In both parts a 4-point mate

absence of pawns is usually

to do is get the black a-pawn.

rial plus does not suffice for a

insufficient for a win. On the

After 1. Kb3 Nc1 + 2. Ka4

win. On the left, the black

left, White obtains a draw

White wins the a-pawn or is

king is trapped after 1. Kc 1 .

after 1 . Nb6+ Kb7 2. Nc4 and

The knight is unable to chase

3. Nxa3.

stalemated after 2. ... Kb6.


f-pawn. He can obtain a draw

the king away from both c 1

with 1 . Ne7 f4 2. Ng6 f3 3.

keeps moving his king from

Bg3 Kg5 3. Kxh3. With

Ne5 f2 4. Ng4 fl Q (4 . ... fi N


5. Nf6 ! ) 5. Ne3+.

g7 to h8 and back. White

correct play, Black 's material

must lose the h-pawn or allow

plus is insufficient.

On the right, White is after the

and c2. On the right, Black

stalemate.
50

On the right, White wins the


h-pawn after 1. Bh4 Kg6 2.

Fifth step

D raw

Stalemate:

51

Draw

Insufficient material:

52

Fifth step

The wrong bishop


Suppose that your opponent has only his king left. You still have material on the board, but, unfortunately,
you are unable to give mate. This is the case when you have a knight, a bishop or a pair of knights (a six
point plus ! ) . Tough luck ! Under very special circumstances, the combination of a bishop and a pawn is
also insufficient to win the game. In such cases we call the bishop the wrong bishop.
On the left, the side with bishop
and pawn has an easy win. For
instance: 1. a6 Kb8 2. Kb6 Ka8

3. Be4+ Kb8 4. a7+.


On the right, we have a similar
position, but a quite different
result! The bishop and the comer
square do not have the same
colour. After 1. h6 Kh8 2. Kg6

Kg8 3. h7+ or 3. Bb3+ Black is


stalemated.
A bishop whose colour is different
from that of the comer square is a
' wrong bishop'. If the defending
side has his king in the comer or
within reach of the comer, the
game will end in a draw. On the
left, this is not the case. The

pawn marches on after 1 . Bb4

Kb3 2. Kb5. On the right, the

king cannot reach a8: 1. Kd5 Kd7

2. Bf4! Ke8 4. Ke6. White wins.


1

'-

On the left, the combined force of


bishop and pawn denies the black
king access to the comer. Black is
helpless after t . ... Ke8 2. Kb2.

The same is true on the right of the


diagram. Here 1 . Kh2 Ke7 2. h7
wraps up.
On the right, assistance of the king
is required: 1 . Bh7! Kf6 2. Kf4

Kf7 3. Kf5 KfS 4. Kf6 winning.

In the final two positions the de


fending king manages to reach the
comer.
On the left, Black salvages a draw
with 1. ... Ke4 (and not

1.

. . . Kf4

2. Kd4) 2. h5 Ke5, and Black is


en route to the sanctuary on h8.
The correct move on the right is

1. ... Ke7. Bad is I . . . . Ke8? 2.

Bd5 Ke7 3. Kg5 , and the king


will not reach the comer.

53

Endgame

Wrong bishop :

,
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54

Fifth step

Test

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Fi/ill step

Learning chess Step by Step


The Step by Step learning system is an officially acknowledged method by the Dutch Chess
Federation. It has been successfully adopted by the majority of chess clubs and schools in the
Netherlands and Belgium.
The whole system consists of workbooks with exercises and manuals for teachers and trainers.

Appeared in English up till now:


Manual for chess trainers:
Workbook:

Step 1, Step 2, Step 3. Step 4, Step 5


Step 1, Step 2, Step 3, Step 4, Step 5

You will find updated information on our website at: www.stappenmethode.nl

ISBN 90-77275-51 -7