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378 vizualizări34 paginiCh04 Relations and Regions of the Complex Plane specialist math

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Ch04 Relations and Regions of the Complex Plane specialist math

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378 vizualizări34 paginiCh04 Relations and Regions of the Complex Plane specialist math

© All Rights Reserved

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4A

4B

4C

4D

Circles and ellipses

Combination graphs and regions

Graphs of other simple curves

Relations and

regions of the

complex plane

aReaS oF STudy

complex plane including:

Lines and rays

Regions defined through the above curves

Circles, ellipses and other familiar simple

curves

eBook plus

Digital doc

4a

10 Quick Questions

introduction

We have seen in chapter 1 that relations between real variables x and y can be represented by a

set of points on the Cartesian plane. The visual display of a graph gives a better understanding of

a relationship between two variables and this can help us greatly in problem solving.

Similarly, rules or relationships defined by a complex variable can be better understood when

represented on the complex plane.

For example, to graph the complex relations

{z: Re(z) + 3Im(z) = 6} or

{z: | z 2 + 3i | = 5}

would at first appear daunting but, as we will soon see, by using our complex number

knowledge it is not too difficult and, in fact, is effectively the same as graphing on the Cartesian

plane.

First, recall the following facts from the chapter on complex numbers.

1. A complex number, z, consists of two parts:

z = x + yi

where x, y R

x is called the real part of z: x = Re(z).

y is called the imaginary part of z: y = Im(z).

2. Complex numbers can be represented on the complex plane, or

Im(z)

Argand diagram, with the origin 0 + 0i (see figure at right):

Consider the point P in the second Argand diagram. This represents

the complex number z = x + yi.

162

Re(z)

Im(z)

from the origin to the point P.

z = x + yi

P = (x, y)

mod ( z ) = | z | = x 2 + y 2

Arg(z)

Re(z)

the positive real axis.

< Arg(z)

Rays

Consider {z: Arg(z) = }. This expression defines the set of points

which make an angle of with the positive real axis. This is

represented on the complex plane by a ray which starts at the

origin and makes an angle of with the positive real axis:

Note: An open circle at the origin shows that 0 + 0i is not a member

of the set.

Im(z)

{z: Arg(z) = }

Re(z)

Worked Example 1

5

Sketch z: Arg( z ) =

on the complex plane.

6

Think

1

Write

Im(z)

0

6

the positive real axis (3rd quadrant).

Im(z)

0

5

6

Re(z)

Re(z)

Im(z)

0

Re(z)

5

6

Im(z)

Translation of rays

The translation of a complex relation is similar to translations

on the Cartesian plane. For example, the relation y + 1 = (x + 2)2

is the same as y = x2 translated 2 units in the x direction and 1

unit in the y direction.

Consider the ray defined by

{z: Arg(z + a + bi) = , a, b R}.

Assuming

a, b > 0

a

Re(z)

b

a bi

{z: Arg (z + a + bi) = }

163

This is the same set as {z: Arg(z) = } translated a units in the real direction and b units in

the imaginary direction.

Note: The ray starts at the point (a bi), making an angle of with the positive side of the

horizontal line passing through b on the imaginary axis.

Worked Example 2

3

Think

1

Write

3

Im(z)

0

2

units in the imaginary direction.

Re(z)

Im(z)

Re(z)

Lines

Consider {z: Re(z) = a, a R}. This defines the set of points whose

real part is a (that is, x = a). It is represented on the complex plane by

a vertical line passing through the point a + 0i.

Now consider {z: Im(z) = b, b R}. This defines the set of points whose

imaginary part is b (that is, y = b). It is represented on the complex plane

by a horizontal line passing through the point 0 + bi.

Im(z)

b

a Re(z)

0

Assuming

b>0

{z: Im(z) = b}

Worked Example 3

7

Think

a Sketch a vertical line through the point

complex plane.

164

Write

7

2

+ 0i on the

Im(z)

0

7

2

Re(z)

Im(z)

0

a Re(z)

Assuming

a>0

{z: Re(z) = a}

Im(z)

Re(z)

Translation of lines

Im(z)

same as the graph of {z: Re(z) = c} translated a units in the

real direction and b units in the imaginary direction.

Note: Since the graph is a vertical line the translation in the

imaginary direction is meaningless.

ca

a

0

c Re(z)

b

{z: Re(z + a + bi) = c}

Assuming a, b, c > 0 and a > c

a, b, c R} is the same as the graph of {z: Im(z) = c}

translated a units in the real direction and b units in the

imaginary direction.

Note: Since the graph is a horizontal line the translation in the

real direction is meaningless.

Im(z)

c

b

a

cb

0

Re(z)

b

{z: Im(z + a + bi) = c}

Assuming a, b, c > 0 and b < c

Worked Example 4

a {z: Re(z 2 + 3i) = 1}

b {z: Im(z 5i) = 3}.

Think

a

Write

complex plane.

1 Re(z)

(and 3 units in the imaginary direction).

complex plane.

Im(z)

Im(z)

2

0 1

3 Re(z)

Im(z)

Re(z)

165

direction.

Im(z)

2

0

Re(z)

REMEMBER

1. The graph of {z: Arg(z) = } is a ray starting at the origin and making an angle of

with the positive real axis.

2. The graph of {z: Arg(z + a + bi) = } is the same as {z: Arg(z) = } translated a units

in the real direction and b units in the imaginary direction.

3. The graph of {z: Re(z + a + bi) = c} is a vertical line passing through the point

(c a) + 0i.

4. The graph of {z: Im(z + a + bi) = c} is a horizontal line passing through the point

0 + (c b)i.

Exercise

4A

1 WE1 Sketch each of the following on separate complex planes.

a z: Arg( z ) =

6

b z: Arg( z ) =

c z: Arg( z ) =

d z: Arg( z ) =

e {z: Arg(z) = }

f z: Arg( z ) =

166

a z: Arg( z 2) =

2

b z: Arg( z + 3) =

c z: Arg( z 1) =

d z: Arg(z + 2i) =

e z: Arg( z 3i) =

f z: Arg( z + i) =

g z: Arg( z + 2 i) =

3

h z: Arg( z 3 + 2i) =

i z: Arg( z 4 + 3i) =

2

j z:Arg( z + 2) =

5

.

4

a If the ray is translated 2 units in the imaginary direction it could be described by:

3

A z: Arg( z 2i) =

B z:Arg( z + 2) =

C z: Arg( z + 2i) =

D z: Arg( z + 2i) =

E z: Arg( z 2) =

4

b If the ray is translated 3 units in the real direction and +2 units in the imaginary direction

then it can be described by:

3

A z: Arg( z 3 + 2i) =

4

B z: Arg( z + 3 + 2i) =

C z: Arg( z 3 2i) =

D z: Arg( z + 3 2i) =

E z: Arg( z + 3 2i) =

?

4

A Im(z)

C Im(z)

B

Im(z)

0 1 Re(z)

(1, 1)

(1, 1) 1

1 0

Im(z)

0 Re(z)

1

(1, 1) 4

1

Re(z)

Im(z)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

0 Re(z)

0 Re(z)

B

A

Im(z)

Im(z)

0

Re(z)

Im(z)

0 Re(z)

3 Re(z)

0 Re(z)

C Im(z)

Im(z)

3

0 Re(z)

3

6 WE3a,b Sketch the graph of each of the following on a separate complex plane.

a {z: Re(z) = 5}

b {z: Re(z) = 2}

c {z: Re(z) = 4}

d z: Re( z ) =

5

2

167

{z: Im(z) = }

3

2

e {z: Im(z) = 4}

g {z: Im(z) = 1}

h {z: Im(z) = 3}

a {z: Re(z 2) = 3}

b {z: Re(z i) = 2}

c {z: Re(z + 3) = 2}

d {z: Re(z 1 + 2i) = 1}

e {z: Im(z + 3i) = 2}

f {z: Im(z 2i) = 1}

g {z: Im(z + 2) = 3}

h {z: Im(z 2 4i) = 2}

8 Sketch each of the following on a separate complex plane.

2

a z: Arg( z ) =

c {z: Im(z 2 + i) = 2}

e {z: Re(z + 3 + 2i) = 1}

3

g z: Arg( z + i) =

8

4b

b {z: Re(z 5) = 3}

d z: Arg( z 1 + 3i) =

2

h {z: Im(z 3i) = 0}

Im(z)

r

Circles

Since |z| is defined as the distance of a point from the origin on the

complex plane, it follows that {z: |z| = r} is the set of all the points on

the complex plane that are r units from the origin.

Re(z)

Worked Example 5

Think

Write

0 + 0i.

Im(z)

5 0

5 Re(z)

Translation of circles

Consider {z: |z + a + bi| = r, a, b R}. This defines the same set of

points as {z: |z| = r} but translated a units in the real direction and

b units in the imaginary direction.

{z: |z + a + bi| = r} defines a circle of radius r and centre

(a bi).

Im(z)

r

r

r

a bi

0 r Re(z)

Assuming a, b > 0

168

WoRked example 6

a {z: | z + 1 | = 2}

b {z: | z 2 + 3i | = 3}

Think

WRiTe

centre 1 + 0i.

Im(z)

2

1

3 2 1 0 1 Re(z)

1

2

b Im(z)

0

1

3

2

2 3i

5 Re(z)

ellipses

The Cartesian equation of an ellipse of centre (0, 0) is:

x2 y2

+

=1

a2 b2

Since z = x + yi where x = Re(z) and y = Im(z), an ellipse can be expressed as a complex relation:

(Re( z ))2 (Im( z ))2

+

=1

a2

b2

This represents an ellipse which has centre 0 + 0i with semi-major

axis length of a and semi-minor axis length of b. The real axis

intercepts are a and imaginary axis intercepts are b.

Im(z)

b

a

a Re(z)

WoRked example 7

a Express

x2

[3Re(z)]2

eBook plus

[2Im(z)]2

y2

int-0374

+

= 1.

a 2 b2

b Hence sketch the relation on the complex plane.

Think

a

Tutorial

Worked example 7

WRiTe

the Cartesian equation.

a (3x)2 + (2y)2 = 36

9x2 + 4y2 = 36

Chapter 4

169

x2 y2

+

=1

4

9

form of an ellipse.

x2 y2

+

=1

2 2 32

b The relation is an ellipse with centre 0 + 0i, real axis

Im(z)

3

0

2 Re(z)

where the sum of the distances from each point P to two fixed

points A and B is a constant. That is, PA + PB = C

or P = {z: |z A| + |z B| = C} where A and B are two points in

the complex plane and C is a real constant.

b

a

Worked Example 8

Cartesian equation.

Think

1

|z 2| and |z + 2| in terms of

x and y.

Write

Let z = x + yi

| z 2 | = ( x 2)2 + y 2

| z + 2 | = ( x + 2)2 + y 2

( x 2)2 + y 2 + ( x + 2)2 + y 2 = 8

and y.

both sides.

( x 2)2 + y 2 = 8 ( x + 2)2 + y 2

x 2 4 x + 4 + y 2 = 64 16 ( x + 2)2 + y 2 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 + y 2

8x

64 = 16 ( x + 2)2 + y 2

x + 8 = 2 ( x + 2)2 + y 2

170

x2 + 16x + 64 = 4(x2 + 4x + 4 + y2)

= 4x2 + 16x + 16 + 4y2

48 = 3x2 + 4y2

Simplify.

10

3x 2 4 y 2

+

=1

48

48

x2 y2

+

=1

16 12

This is an ellipse whose centre is (0, 0), whose semi-major

axis is of length 4 and whose semi-minor axis is of length

12 .

Translation of ellipses

( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2

+

= 1 is an

a2

b2

ellipse with centre (h, k).

As seen previously the equivalent complex equation is

obtained by replacing x with Re(z) and y with Im(z), which

gives:

The Cartesian equation

[Re( z ) h]2

a2

[Im( z ) k ]2

b2

Im(z)

b+k

a + h

b + k

where h, k R

=1

h + ki

a + h Re(z)

axis length of a and semi-minor axis length of b.

WoRked example 9

Think

WRiTe

( x 1)2

+ ( y + 2)2 = 1

4

axis of 2 and semi-minor axis of 1.

Im(z)

11 0 1

2

3

WoRked example 10

and | z 1 | in terms of x and y.

3 Re(z)

1 2i

eBook plus

{z: | z 3 | + | z 1 | = 4}.

Think

Tutorial

int-0375

Worked example 10

WRiTe

Let z = x + yi

| z 3 | = ( x 3)2 + y 2

| z 1 | = ( x 1)2 + y 2

Chapter 4

171

( x 3)2 + y 2 + ( x 1)2 + y 2 = 4

and y.

both sides.

( x 3)2 + y 2 = 4 ( x 1)2 + y 2

x 2 6 x + 9 + y 2 = 16 8 ( x 1)2 + y 2 + x 2 2 x + 1 + y 2

4x

8 = 8 ( x 1)2 + y 2

x + 2 = 2 ( x 1)2 + y 2

(x + 2)2 = 4[x - 1)2 + y2]

0 = 3[(x - 4x + 4) - 4] + 4y2

0 = 3[(x - 2)2 - 4] + 4y2

0 = 3(x - 2)2 - 12 + 4y2

10

3( x 2)2 4 y 2

+

=1

12

12

11

Simplify.

( x 2)2 y 2

+

=1

4

3

12

semi-major axis is of length 2 and whose semi-minor axis

is of length 3.

13

Im(z)

x2 + 4x + 4 = 4(x2 - 2x + 1 + y2)

= 4x2 - 8x + 4 + 4y2

0 = 3x2 - 12x + 4y2

3

0

3

1 2 3 4 Re(z)

REMEMBER

1. The relation {z: |z + a + bi| = r} defines a circle of radius r and centre a bi.

[Re( z ) + h]2 [Im( z ) k] 2

+

= 1 is an ellipse with centre h + ki,

a2

b2

semi-major axis length of a and semi-minor axis length of b.

3. {z: |z A| + |z B| = C} describes an ellipse where A and B are two points in the

complex plane and C is a real constant.

172

Exercise

4b

1 WE5

a {z: |z| = 1}

d {z: |z| = 10}

b {z: |z| = 4}

e {z: |z| = 9}

c {z: |z| = 3}

f {z: |z| = 2}

A |z + 2 + i| = 2

B |z 2 i| = 2

C |z 2 + i| = 2

D |z 2 i| = 4

E |z + i + 2| = 4

Im(z)

3

2

1

0

2+i

1 2 3 4 Re(z)

A |z 3 + 2i| = 16

B |z 3 2i| = 4

C |z + 3 + 2i| = 4

D |z + 3 2i| = 4

E |z + 3 2i| = 16

4 WE6 Sketch the graph of each of the following on separate complex planes.

a {z: |z 3| = 1}

b {z: |z + 2| = 2}

c {z: |z 4i| = 3}

d {z: |z + i| = 4}

e {z: |z 2 i| = 3}

f {z: |z + 3 2i| = 1}

g {z: |z + 4 + 3i| = 5}

h {z: |z 5 + 5i| = 2}

x2 y2

+

= 1 is:

5 MC The complex equation for the ellipse with Cartesian equation

10

5

A [Re(z)]2 + 5[Im(z)]2 = 10

B 2[Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2 = 10

2

2

C [Re(z)] + 2[Im(z)] = 10

D [Re(z)]2 + [2Im(z)]2 = 10

E [2Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2 = 1

6 MC The graph which represents (Re(z))2 + 2[Im(z)]2 = 2 on the complex plane is:

A Im(z)

2

1 0 1 Re(z)

Im(z)

1

1 0 1 Re(z)

B Im(z)

(2, 1)

Im(z)

2

2 Re(z)

Im(z)

1

2 Re(z)

2 1

2 Re(z)

x2 y2

+

= 1.

a2 b2

b [Re(z)]2 + [3Im(z)]2 = 9

d [Re(z)]2 + 4[Im(z)]2 = 16

f 9[Re(z)]2 + 4[Im(z)]2 = 1

a [2Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2 = 4

c 3[Re(z)]2 + 4[Im(z)]2 = 12

e 4[Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2 = 1

9 WE8 Show that the locus described by each of the following is an ellipse, and find its

Cartesian equation.

a |z + 1| + |z - 1| = 4

b |z + 3| + |z - 3| = 10

c |z + 2i| + |z - 2i| = 6

d |z + 4i| + |z - 4i| = 10

173

b 4[Re(z) 3]2 + 16[Im(z) 1]2 = 16

a [Re(z) 2]2 + 9[Im(z) + 1]2 = 9

2

2

c [Re( z ) + 2] + [Im( z ) 3] = 1

25

9

g 9[Re(z) 2]2 + 16[Im(z) 3]2 = 1

2

d [Re( z ) 4] + [Im( z ) + 3] = 1

16

36

f 3[Re(z) + 3]2 + 5[Im(z) + 2]2 = 15

h 4[Re(z) + 1]2 + 25[Im(z) 1]2 = 1

11 We10 Sketch and describe the subset of the complex plane defined by each of

the following.

a {z: | z + 3 | + | z + 1 | = 4}

b {z: | z 3 | + | z + 1 | = 6}

c {z: | z 2 | + | z 4 | = 10}

d {z: | z + 2i | + | z + 4i | = 10}

e {z: | z 3i | + | z i | = 4}

f {z: | z + 3i | + | z i | = 6}

12 Show that the locus described by | z + 3 | | z 3 | = 4 is a hyperbola.

State its Cartesian equation.

eBook plus

Digital doc

WorkSHEET 4.1

4C

eBook plus

Combination graphs

Clearly it is feasible to represent more than one relationship on the complex plane.

The representation of more than one relationship is usually indicated using the union

symbol .

For example, sketch {A} {B} means sketch both relationship A and relationship B on

the same plane.

Interactivity

int-0345

Combination

graphs and

regions

WoRked example 11

Think

WRiTe

radius 4.

vertical line passing through the point 1 + 0i but

translated +3 units in the real direction.

Im(z)

4

0

4 Re(z)

Regions

< Arg( z ) .

3

2

For the boundaries, a solid line is used to represent or and a broken line is used to

represent < or >.

The region required can be shaded in or shaded out as long as it is indicated somewhere

on the graph. We will use the convention of shading out because, as will be seen later in this

section, it shows the combination of regions more clearly.

Regions are described by complex inequations, for example,

174

WoRked example 12

eBook plus

2

Represent the region defined by z:

< Arg ( z )

on a complex plane.

4

3

Think

1

WRiTe

Arg( z ) =

on a complex plane.

4

Tutorial

int-0376

Worked example 12

Im(z)

0

2

boundary Arg( z ) =

.

3

Leave the region between the two rays (minor region)

unshaded but shade the rest of the plane and indicate

that the unshaded region is the region required.

2

3

Re(z)

Im(z)

0

Region

2

3 required

4

Re(z)

WoRked example 13

a {z: Im(z + 4i) > 2}

b {z: 1 < Re(z + 2 3i) 5}.

Think

a

2

3

WRiTe

through the point 0 + 2i translated 4 units in

the imaginary direction.

line through the point 0 2i.

Shade the region below the line and indicate

the unshaded region as the region required.

Im(z)

0

Re(z)

Re(z)

2

Im(z)

Region

required

2

b

through the point 1 + 0i and translated 2

units in the real direction and +3 units in the

imaginary direction.

line passing through the point 3 + 0i and

shade the region left of this line.

through the point 5 + 0i and translated

2 units in the real direction and +3 units in

the imaginary direction.

Im(z)

passing through the point 3 + 0i and shade the

region right of this line.

lines as the region required.

Chapter 4

Region

required

3 Re(z)

175

Worked Example 14

a {z: |z| > 1} b {z: 2 |z + 1 4i| < 3}

Think

a

Write

and radius 1 on a complex plane. Use a broken

line.

Im(z)

1

0

1 Re(z)

1

2

the unshaded region as the region required.

Im(z)

1

Region

required

1 Re(z)

1

b

1

2

radius 2.

Draw this circle with a solid line on the

complex plane and shade the region inside the

circle.

Im(z)

6

1 + 4i 4

2

1

3 1

3

4

and radius 3.

On the same plane draw this circle with a

broken line and shade the region outside this

circle.

Indicate the unshaded region between the two

circles as the region required.

Region

required

1 Re(z)

Im(z)

7

6

1 + 4i 4

2

1

43 1

1 2 Re(z)

Combining regions

Two or more regions are combined by representing the area where the regions overlap or

intersect. The combining of two or more regions is indicated by the intersection symbol, .

For example, sketch {A} {B} requires the intersection of the regions described in A and B

to be indicated.

Worked Example 15

Think

1

176

Write

2

2

translated +1 unit in the real direction.

Arg( z 1) =

+1 unit in the real direction.

Im(z)

Re(z)

Im(z)

4

3

0 1

5 Re(z)

4

8

Shade out the region inside this circle and indicate the

unshaded region remaining as the region required.

Im(z)

4

3

0 1

4

5 Re(z)

Region

required

Note: Wherever practicable, check that the region required is correct by selecting a point in the

region and make sure that it satisfies the inequation(s).

REMEMBER

1. More than one graph or region can be represented on the complex plane.

2. For regions:

(a) The boundaries are represented by:

(i) solid lines where or apply

(ii) broken lines where < or > apply.

(b) Shade the regions not required.

3. Wherever practical, check that the region required is correct by selecting a point in the

region and making sure that it satisfies the inequation(s).

Exercise

4c

1 WE11 Show each of the following on an Argand diagram.

a {z: |z| = 2} {z: Re(z + 2) = 1}

b {z: |z| = 3} {z: Im(z 3i) = 1}

3

4

f {z: Re(z + 4) = 2} {z: Im(z + 10 4i) = 0}

g {z: | z + 3 3i | = 2} z: Arg( z 2 + i) =

177

2

A z: Arg( z ) =

{z: Im( z ) = 2}

3

Im(z)

3

0 Re(z)

3

3

E z: Arg ( z ) =

{z: Im( z 2i) = 0}

3

Arg( z ) <

Arg ( z )

A z:

B z:

3

3

2

3

2

Arg( z ) <

C z:

2

3

2

< Arg( z )

D z:

2

3

Im(z)

0 Re(z)

Region

required

Arg( z )

E z:

2

3

4 MC The graph which represents the region described by {z: 2 Im(z + 1 2i) < 3} is:

A Im(z)

C Im(z)

B Im(z)

3

2

0

Region

required

Region

required

Im(z)

Re(z)

Im(z)

5

Region

required

0 Re(z)

Re(z)

Region

required

Region

required

0 Re(z)

0 Re(z)

B Im(z)

A

C

Im(z)

Im(z)

3

1 + 0i

0 1 Re(z)

4

1 + 0i

2 0 1 4 Re(z)

3

Region required

Region required

Im(z)

1 + 0i Re(z)

4 1 0 2

3

Region required

3

1 + 0i Re(z)

4 1 0 2

Im(z)

Re(z)

3 1 0

0i

Region required

a z: 0 < Arg ( z )

6

178

2

b z:

< Arg ( z )

3

2

Region required

c z:

Arg( z ) <

3

d z: 0 Arg ( z + 1) <

5

f z: < Arg ( z 3 + i) <

6

6

3

e z:

Arg( z 2i)

4

2

a {z: Re(z) > 3}

b {z: Re(z) 2}

c {z: Im(z) 1}

d {z: Im(z) < 4}

e {z: Re(z + 2) 1}

f {z: Re(z 4) > 3}

g {z: Im(z + 3i) > 2}

h {z: Im(z 5i) 4}

i {z: Re(z + 3 2i) 3}

j {z: Im(z 1 + 4i) < 3}

a {z: 1 < Re(z) < 5}

b {z: 6 < Im(z) 3}

c {z: 0 < Re(z 3) < 1}

d {z: 2 < Im(z + 2i) < 4}

e {z: 2 < Re(z 1 + 2i) 3}

f {z: 4 Im(z 3 + 3i) < 0}

9 WE14a Illustrate each of the following on an Argand diagram.

a {z: |z| 2}

b {z: |z| > 5}

c {z: |z 2| < 3}

d {z: |z + 3i| 1}

e {z: |z 3 + 2i| 4}

f {z: |z + 5 i| > 3}

10 WE14b Illustrate each of the following on an Argand diagram.

a {z: 1 < |z| 3}

b {z: 3 |z| < 4}

c {z: 2 < |z 1| 5}

d {z: 1 < |z 2i| < 2}

e {z: 3 |z 2 + 3i| 4}

f {z: 4 |z + 3 4i| < 6}

11 WE15 Sketch the graph of each of the following.

3

< Arg( z ) {z: | z | 2}

a z:

4

2

b {z: Re(z) 3} {z: Im(z) < 2}

Arg( z ) < {z: Re( z ) < 2}

c z:

2

4

2

d {z: | z + 3 | > 2} z: < Arg ( z + 3)

6

3

f {z: 4 < Re(z 3) 2} {z: 1 < Im(z 1) 3}

4d

The types of graphs we have looked at up to now can be sketched from the complex relation by

recognition. These include rays, vertical lines, horizontal lines, circles and ellipses. However,

if the given complex relationship is unfamiliar then it should be converted to the more

recognisable Cartesian form and graphed accordingly.

We have already seen that:

z = x + yi

and

x = Re(z)

y = Im(z)

x2 + y2 = | z |

We will now consider the translations of these expressions in the following worked example.

179

Worked Example 16

a Re(z + 5)

b Im(z 2 3i)

c |z 4 + 2i|

d Repeat parts a , b and c using a calculator.

Think

a

b

Write

component only.

components separately.

= |(x 4) + (y + 2)i|

expression.

= ( x 4)2 + ( y + 2)2

O

Basic Format

Under Advanced check the Complex

Format and Variable is Real.

On the Main screen, complete the entry

line as:

x + yi W z

Then press E.

To answer part a, tap:

Action

Complex

re

Complete the entry lines as:

re(z + 5)

im(z - 2 - 3i)

abs(z - 4 + 2i)

Press E after each entry.

Re(z + 5) = Re(x + yi + 5)

=x+5

=y3

c |z 4 + 2i| = |x + yi 4 + 2i|

For a , Re(z + 5) = x + 5.

For b , Im(z - 2 - 3i) = y - 3.

For c , | z 4 + 2i | = x 2 8 x + 4 y + 20 .

1. Re(z + a + bi) = x + a

2. Im(z + a + bi) = y + b

3. | z + a + bi | = ( x + a)2 + ( y + b)2

(where a, b R), then

4. manipulate the equation until the type of curve is recognised.

Note: A CAS calculator can be used to obtain the graph in Cartesian form if it is not recognised

after manipulating the equation.

180

WoRked example 17

a FindtheCartesianequationfor5Re(z) 4Im(z) = 20.

b Sketch the graph on the complex plane.

Think

WRiTe

a 5Re(z) 4Im(z) = 20

5x 4y = 20

Cartesian form.

b 1 This is a straight line with an x-intercept of 4 (real

axis) and a y-intercept of 5 (imaginary axis).

2

Im(z)

0

4 Re(z)

5

WoRked example 18

eBook plus

a FindtheCartesianequationfor| z + 2 i | = | z 1 |.

b Sketch the graph on the complex plane.

Tutorial

int-0377

Think

a

WRiTe

| z + 2 i| = |z 1 |

Cartesian form.

Worked example 18

4x + 4 2y = 2x

6x + 4 2y = 0

y-intercept of 2 and gradient 3.

Sketch the straight line on the complex plane.

x2 + 4x + 4 + y2 2y + 1 = x2 2x + 1 + y2

3x + 2 y = 0

y = 3x + 2

b

Im(z)

2

2

3

0 Re(z)

Reciprocal graphs

WoRked example 19

If Im(z) Re(z) = 4, find its Cartesian equation and sketch the graph on the complex plane.

Think

1

WRiTe

Cartesian form.

Chapter 4

Im(z) Re(z) = 4

yx = 4

181

asymptotes through x = 0 and y = 0 and passing through

(1, 4) and (1, 4) on a Cartesian plane.

y=

Im(z)

4

x

1 + 4i

Re(z)

1 4i

Graphs of parabolas

Worked Example 20

For Im(z) = [Re(z 1)]2 find the Cartesian equation and sketch its graph on the complex plane.

Think

1

express in Cartesian form.

point (1, 0) and y-intercept (0, 1) on a Cartesian plane.

Write

y = [Re(x + yi - 1)]2

y = (x 1)2

Im(z)

1

1

0 1 Re(z)

Worked Example 21

Show that the locus described by |z| = Im(z) + 1 is a parabola. Write the parabolas Cartesian

equation and state its turning point and type.

Think

and y.

Let z = x + yi

x2 + y2 = (y + 1)2

x2 + y2 = y2 + 2y + 1

Simplify.

x2 = 2y + 1

y=

1

(0, 2 ) .

182

Write

x2 + y2 = y + 1

1 2 1

x

2

2

WoRked example 22

eBook plus

a {z: Im(z) 2 < [Re(z + 3)]2}

b {z: Im(z) Re(z) 1} {z: Im(z) < 2}

Think

a

int-0378

Worked example 22

WRiTe

to express in Cartesian form.

y 2 < (x + 3)2

y < (x + 3)2 + 2

represents a parabola with a minimum turning

point (3, 2) on a Cartesian plane.

complex plane and shade the region above

the parabola leaving the unshaded area as the

region required.

Tutorial

express the first inequation in Cartesian form.

Im(z)

2

Region required

0 Re(z)

b Im(z) Re(z) 1

yx 1

y

represents a negative reciprocal function with

asymptotes x = 0 and y = 0 and passing through

the points (1, 1) and (1, 1) on a Cartesian

plane.

on the complex plane and shade out the region

below each branch of the curve.

1

x

Im(z)

1 + i

Re(z)

0

1i

below the horizontal line passing through

0 + 2i.

Im(z)

1 + i 2

the same complex plane and shade the region

above the line.

Show the unshaded region as the region

required.

Re(z)

0

1i

Im(z)

1 + i

2

Re(z)

0

Region

required

Chapter 4

1i

183

REMEMBER

1. Re(z + a + bi) = x + a

2. Im(z + a + bi) = y + b

3. | z + a + bi | = ( x + a)2 + ( y + b)2 where a, b R

then manipulate the equation until the type of curve is recognised.

Exercise

4d

A CAS or graphics calculator can be used where necessary to assist with the sketch graphs in

the following exercise.

a Re(z 8)

e |z + 3|

i Re(z 7 + 3i)

b Im(z + 2i)

f |z 5i|

j |5 4i z|

c Re(z + 5 4i)

g |z + 4 + 6i|

d Im(z 2 3i)

h |z 1 + 5i|

a

d

ii sketch its graph on the complex plane.

Re(z) + Im(z) = 4

b 2Re(z) Im(z) = 6

1

Im(z) = 4Re(z) + 1

e Im(z) = 2 Re(z) 3

c 3Re(z) + 2Im(z) = 6

f 3Im(z) 4Re(z) = 12

i express the equation in Cartesian form

ii sketch its graph on the complex plane.

a |z + 2| = |z + i|

b |z 3| = |z + 3i|

c |z 1 + 2i| = |z + 3 + i|

d |z 2 3i| = |z + 1 4i|

e |z + 3 2i| = |z + 3 + 3i|

f |z + 4 3i| = |z + 2 3i|

4 MC The rule which describes the relationship shown by the graph at

right is:

A 3Im(z) 2Re(z) = 6

B 2Im(z) 3Re(z) = 6

C 3Re(z) 2Im(z) = 6

D Im(z) = 32 Re(z)

E 2Re(z) 3Im(z) = 6

5 MC The Cartesian equation which represents |z + 2 i| = |z + i| is:

A y = x + 1

B y = x 1

C x + y = 1

D y = 1 x

E y2 = x2 + 1

6 MC a The Cartesian equation which describes the graph shown

at right is:

1

A y =

x

1

B y = 2

x

2

C y =

x

2

D y = 2

x

2

E y = 2

x

184

Im(z)

3

0 Re(z)

Im(z)

Re(z)

0

1 2i

1 2i

B Im(z) [Re(z)]2 = 2

A Im(z) Re(z) = 2

D Im(z) = 2[Re(z)]2

E Im(z) = [2Re(z)]2

C Im(z) [R(z)]2 = 2

We19 Find the Cartesian equation and sketch the graph on the complex plane for each of the

following.

a Im(z) Re(z) = 2

b Im(z) Re(z) = 2

c Im(z) Re(z 1) = 3

d Im(z) (Re z)2 = 1

2

e Im(z) (Re z) = 4

f Im(z) [Re(z + 1)]2 = 2

We20 Find the Cartesian equation and sketch the graph on the complex plane for each of the

following.

a Im(z) = [Re(z)]2

b Im(z) = [Re(z)]2 + 2

2

c Im(z) = 2[Re(z)] 1

d Im(z) = [Re(z 4)]2

2

e Im(z + 1) = [Re(z + 2)]

f Im(z 3i) = 2[Re(z + 1)]2 + 2

2

g Im(z + 2i) = 1 [Re(z 2)]

a Im(z) = [Re(z)]3

b Im(z 2i) = [Re(z + 1)]3

c zz =4

d zz =3

| z +3|

|z+i|

e

= 2

f |z 3i| = 2

| z 1|

2

10 We21 Show that the locus described by each of the following is a parabola.

i Write the Cartesian equation.

ii State the turning point and its type.

a | z | = Im(z) 1

b | z | = Im(z) + 2

c | z | = Im(z) 3

11 We22 Sketch the following on the complex plane.

a {z: Im(z) [Re(z)]2}

b {z: Im(z) Re(z) 4}

c {z: | z + 3| | z 3i |}

d {z: 5Im(z) 4Re(z) 10}

e {z: Im(z) > [Re(z 2)]2} {z: Re(z) 2}

f {z: Im(z) [Re(z)]2 1} {z: Im(z) > Re(z)}

g {z: Im(z) Re(z + 1) > 1} {z: Im(z 2i) < 1 + [Re(z 1)]2}

eBook plus

Digital doc

WorkSHEET 4.2

Chapter 4

185

Summary

Rays and lines

The graph of {z: Arg(z) = } is a ray starting at the origin and making an angle of with the positive real

axis.

The graph of {z: Arg(z + a + bi) = } is the same as {z: Arg(z) = } translated a units in the real direction

and b units in the imaginary direction.

The graph of {z: Re(z + a + bi) = c} is a vertical line passing through the point (c a) + 0i.

The graph of {z: Im(z + a + bi) = c} is a horizontal line passing through the point 0 + (c b)i.

Circles and ellipses

The relation {z: |z + a + bi| = r} defines a circle of radius r and centre a bi.

[Re( z ) 4] 2 [Im( z ) k ]2

+

= 1 is an ellipse with centre h + ki and semi-major axis

a2

b2

length of a and semi-minor axis length of b.

{z: |z A|+ |z B| = C} describes an ellipse where A and B are two points in the complex plane and C is a

real constant.

The complex equation

More than one graph or region can be represented on the complex plane.

For regions:

1. The boundaries are represented by:

(a) solid lines where or apply

(b) broken lines where < or > apply.

2. Shade the regions not required.

Wherever practicable, check that the region required is correct by selecting a point in the region and make

sure that it satisfies the inequation(s).

Graphs of other simple curves

1. Re(z + a + bi) = x + a

2. Im(z + a + bi) = y + b

(where a, b R), then

3. |z + a + bi| = ( x + a)2 + ( y + b)2

4. manipulate the equation until the type of curve is recognised.

186

chapter review

10 A graph is defined as {z: |z| = Im(z) + 2}.

a Write the equation in Cartesian form.

b Describe the locus of the graph.

c State the turning point and its type.

d Sketch the graph {z: |z|< Im(z) + 2}.

4

Short answer

an Argand diagram.

} on

complex plane.

3 Illustrate {z: |z 3 + 3i| = 1} on the complex plane.

below.

on an Argand diagram.

5 Write down the complex relation that describes the

graph shown.

Im(z)

Im(z)

5

2

1

3 2

1

3 2 1

3Re(z)

1

0 1 2 3 Re(z)

on an Argand diagram.

in Cartesian form.

8 Show the graph of {z: Im(z + i) Re(z 3) > 2}

{z: Im z [Re(z + 1 + 3i)]2} on the complex plane.

a sketch the graph {z: Im(z) Re(z) = 1}

b write the Cartesian equation of the graph.

c From part a, describe the series of translations

required to sketch the graph below.

2+ 2

. Explain

8

2

why any values are rejected.

c Hence show that the exact value of

sin =

8

Im(z)

3

2

3 2 1

straight line which passes through the

points z1 and -z1, in terms of z1.

2 2

.

2

the correct steps in manipulating surds. Also, the

hence instruction implies that the answer for

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Re(z)

cos is to be used.

8

[VCAA 2006]

e Write the Cartesian equation of graph.

f Sketch the region for {z: Im(z + 2)

Re(z + 2 ) 1}.

2+ 2

2 2

d Evaluate

+

i ,

2

2

giving your answer in polar form.

187

Multiple choice

n

2+ 2

2 2

+

i a real number?

2

2

f Plot the roots of z8 = 1 on the Argand diagram

below.

z: Arg ( z 4i) =

5

A Im(z)

B Im(z)

plot the points.

is:

0

4

[VCAA 2006]

Im(z)

3 2

3Re(z)

E Im(z)

4

Re(z)

0

[VCAA 2006]

+ bz + c, where a, b and

c are real numbers, has three roots; two of them are

5 and 1 3i.

a State the third root.

b Find the values of a, b and c.

c Plot the three roots on an Argand diagram. Label

the real root R and the complex roots P and Q.

d State the equation of the line passing through

the complex points P and Q.

e If point M is the midpoint of line PQ, what is

the equation of the circle with centre M whose

circumference passes through P and Q?

z3

Re(z)

Re(z)

5

az2

a the roots of the equation

b the sum of the roots

c the product of the roots.

d Using your results from parts b and c, find the

quadratic equation which has roots 3 + 2i

and 3 2i.

14 Factorise P(z) = 9z3 + 9iz2 4z + 4i, where z C,

and hence state the solutions to P(z) = 0.

15 For the complex numbers u = 3 + i and

v = 3 3i,

a write u and v in polar form

b find u3v2 in polar and Cartesian form

c solve z4 = u3v2, where z C.

188

D Im(z)

0

Re(z)

C Im(z)

Re(z)

Im(z)

Re(z)

B {z: Re(z) = 7}

D {z: Im(z) = 7}

A {z: Re(z) = 7}

C {z: Im(z) = 7}

E {z: Re(z 7) = 0}

Im(z)

3

4

3 + 4i

0 Re(z)

A z: Arg( z 3 + 4i ) =

B z: Arg( z 3 ) =

C z: Arg( z + 3 4i ) =

E Im(z)

D z: Re( z + 3 4i) =

3

2

1

E z: Arg( z + 3 4i) =

represents {z: |z 2i| = 4} is:

0 + 2i

0

Im(z)

2

4 Re(z)

2 Re(z)

Im(z)

C { z: | z + 2 | = 4} z: Arg ( z 1) =

6

D { z: | z + 2 | = 2} z: Arg ( z + 1) =

6

2 + 0i

0 2 4 Re(z)

E { z: | z 2 | = 4} z: Arg ( z i) =

6

Im(z)

Im(z)

Region

required

0 1 Re(z)

B { z: | z + 2 | = 2} z: Arg ( z 1) =

6

2 0 + 2i

4 2

A { z: | z 2 | = 2} z: Arg ( z ) =

6

Im(z)

4

4 2 0

4 Re(z)

0 2i

Re(z)

4 Re(z)

Im(z)

2

1

2

2

2

B Im(z)

Im(z)

6

1

2

3 i

Re(z)

1 0

5

8

Re(z)

A {z: |z 3 i| = 2}

C {z: |z + 3 i| = 4}

E {z: |z + 3 + i| = 4}

B {z: |z 3 i| = 4}

D {z: |z + 3 + i| = 2}

5

3

B z:

< Arg ( z ) <

8

7

relation {z: 4[Re(z)]2 + [Im(z + 2i)]2 = 1} is:

B

Im(z)

A Im(z) 0

12

1

2

1

2

Re(z)

Re(z)

C Im(z) 0

12

2

4

1

2

1

2

3

Im(z)

Re(z)

5

2

5

3

z: Arg ( z )

A z:

8

7

Re(z)

2 3 1 0

2 1

3

5

C z:

Arg ( z ) <

7

8

z: Arg( z )

D z: Arg ( z ) <

7

8

5

3

< z: Arg( z )

E z:

8

7

3

4

189

Im(z)

2

3

3

4

Re(z)

3

1 0

4

Im(z)

3

4

Region required

Im(z)

3

2

3

1 0

2 3

3 4

4

Im(z)

Re(z)

0 1i

Re(z)

1 + 3i

2

0 Re(z)

E Im(z)

0

1i

Region required

3

4

3+i

2 Re(z)

diagram below, where a is a real constant,

could be defined by:

Im(z)

Re(z)

1 0

Im(z)

1 + 3i

2

1 3i

Re(z)

Re(z)

3 1 0

Im(z)

2

3

4

Region required

Region required

Im(z)

4

3

2

1

3 1 0

2

Region

required

a + 2i

Re(z)

Region required

expressed in Cartesian form as:

A y = 1

B y = x2 + 1 C y = 3x 1

D y = 3 x

E y = 1 3x

11 The graph shown can be described by:

4Re(z)

A y = 2x

B y = 2x 4

D 2x + y + 4 = 0 E y = 4 2x

12 The graph that represents

{z: Im(z 2i) Re(z) = 1} is:

A

Im(z)

2

1 + i

C 2y + x = 4

Im(z)

1 + 3i

0 Re(z)

1+i

1 i

B |z - (a + 2i)| 1

D |z - (a + 2i)| 2

[VCAA 2006]

a graph that is a straight line passing through the

origin?

A z + z = 0

B 3 Re(z) = Im(z)

C z = zi

D Re(z) - 2 Im(z) = 0

E Re(z) + Im(z) = 1

[VCAA 2006]

Im(z)

2

A |z - (a + 2i)| 1

C |z - (-a + 2i)| 1

E |z + a - 2i)| 1

0 Re(z)

Argand diagram, would be:

A a circle of radius 4 with centre at (-2, 0)

B a circle of radius 2 with centre at (2, 0)

C a circle of radius 4 with centre (2, 0)

D a circle of radius 2 with centre (-2, 0)

E a circle of radius 2 with centre at (0, -2)

[VCAA 2008]

Extended response

a |z 1 i| = 1

b |iz 1 i| = 1

d |i3z 1 i| = 1

e |i4z 1 i| = 1

Comment on the result.

190

c |i2z 1 i| = 1

i |z 3| = |2z|

ii |z + 16 16i| = |3z|

b Without graphing show that the two graphs do not intersect.

c Find the exact area of the region defined by {z: |z 3| |2z|} {z: |z + 16 16i| |3z|}.

3 Let z1 = 1 + 2i and z2 = -2 - i.

a Show z1 and z2 on an Argand diagram.

b Draw a straight line passing through z1 and z2, and find its Cartesian equation.

c Express the complex relation |z - 1 - 2i| = |z + 2 + i| in Cartesian form.

d Add the graph of the complex relation |z - 1 - 2i| = |z + 2 + i| to the Argand diagram in part a.

e Prove that the locus of the points described by the complex relation |z - 1 - 2i| = |z + 2 + i| is a

perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining z1 and z2.

f Generalise this result for any two complex numbers z1 and z2.

5

4 aFind the Cartesian equation of the complex relation desribed by | z 4 | + | z + 4 | = .

2

b State the domain for the relation in a.

c Identify the shape of the locus of the points, described by the equation in a.

d Sketch the graph of the above relation on an Argand diagram.

5 aIf z = x + yi, find the Cartesian equation defined by the complex relation zz = 16.

b Identify the curve described in a, and sketch it on an Argand diagram.

c Find the Cartesian equation defined by the relation zz = a , where a R+.

d Identify the curve described in c, and hence complete the following statement: If z = x + yi, the graph of

zz = a , where a R+ is a .............. .

e Find the Cartesian equation defined by the relation [ z (2 + 3i)][ z (2 3i)] = 4.

f Identify the curve described in e, and sketch it on an Argand diagram.

g If z = x + yi and w = u + vi, where x, y, u, v, , R, find the Cartesian equation defined by the complex

relation ( z w)( z w) = a , where a R+.

h Identify the curve in g, and hence complete the following statement:

If z = x + yi and w = u + vi, where x, y, u, v, the graph of ( z w)( z w) = a , where a R+ is a ........ .

6 aVerify that

3

2

Im(z)

2

1

3 2

3 Re(z)

1

2

1

3

Im( z ).

191

1

3

Im(z)

2

1

3 2

3 Re(z)

1

2

e On the Argand diagram above shade the region given by {z: | z i | 1} z: Arg( z )

f Find the area of the shaded region in part e, correct to two decimal places.

2

3

}.

[VCAA 2008]

eBook plus

Digital doc

Test Yourself

Chapter 4

192

eBook plus

aCTiviTieS

Chapter opener

Digital doc

questions on relations and regions of the complex

plane. (page 162)

4B

Tutorial

complex relation as a Cartesian equation and sketch

the resultant graph. (page 169)

We10 int-0375: Watch a tutorial on how to describe

and sketch a complex relation on a complex plane.

(page 171)

Digital doc

the complex plane. (page 174)

4C

Interactivity

your understanding of relations and regions of the

complex plane. (page 174)

Tutorial

defined by a complex inequation on a complex

plane. (page 175)

4D

Digital docs

plane. (page 185)

Chapter review

Digital doc

your progress. (page 192)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to

www.jacplus.com.au

Tutorial

on a complex plane. (page 181)

We22 int-0378: Watch a tutorial on sketching regions

on a complex plane. (page 183)

Chapter 4

193

EXAM PRACTICE 1

Short answer

25 minutes

2 marks

2i

b Write down the polar form for -6 + 2 3i.

(Note root 3.)

2 marks

2

2 a + bi is a solution of 5x - 3x + 4 = 0.

Write down the second solution in terms

of a and b.

1 mark

3 a Show that z = 1 - 2i is a solution of

z3 + (1 + 2i) z2 - (1 - 4i)z - 1 + 2i = 0.

b Find the remaining solutions.

3

1

4 a Given that cot (x) = 2 and x , ,

2

determine the value of sin (x).

b Hence find an exact value for cos (2x).

4 marks

Evaluate a, b, c and d.

Multiple choice

and y = -2 + sin (t). The coordinates of the centre of

the ellipse and the horizontal semi-axis length are:

c (-2, 1), 1

a (1, 2), 3

B (1, -2), 1

-2), 3

E (1, 2), 9

D (1,

2 A hyperbola has an asymptote of y = -2x + 3.

The asymptotes intersect at x = 2. The Cartesian

equation of the hyperbola is:

a

( x 2)2 ( y + 1)2

( x 2)2 ( y + 1)2

= 1 B

=1

2

1

4

16

( x 2)2 ( y 1)2

( x + 1)2 ( y 2)2

= 1 d

=1

1

2

4

16

( x + 2)2 ( y + 1)2

=1

4

16

a 1 , 1

b

1

2

0.6

1.8 x

1.4

12 minutes

f(x) = aarcsin (bx + c) + d is:

y

4

3

2

1

1.8 1.4

Chapters 1 TO 4

4 marks

Argand diagram below. Plot and label points

corresponding to:

a z2

b z

c z

c

b

c 1 c, 1 + c

a

+ d,

+ d .

B

2

2

+ d , + d .

d

2

2

c 1 c + 1

,

e

b

b

4 The following diagram illustrates all the roots of a

polynomial equation.

Im(z)

Im(z)

4

3

2

1

4 3 2 1 0

1

2

3

4

194

Re(z)

1 2 3 4 Re(z)

{a, b} R+?

a z3 = a

B z3 + a + bi = 0

3

c z + z - a = 0

d z3 + (a + bi)z2 + z + 1 = 0

e (z2 - a) (z2 + ax + b)

3 marks

hyperbola in an Argand diagram?

A zz = 1

B ( z 3i)( z + 3i) = 1

C |z 3| |z + 2| = 1

D | z 3 | | z + 2i | = 0

E

1

=1

z

1

is equal to:

1 z

1 + i

1 i

5 3i

A

B

C

6

6

34

5 + 3i

4 + 3i

D

E

34

25

2

3

7 If z = 8 cis

then z equals:

3

6 If z = 4 3i then

2

A 2 cis

9

2

8

cis

3

9

2

D 2 cis 3

2

C 2 cis

9

E 2

A

B

8 The partial fraction

can be written

+

x

c

2

x

+c

as:

a

A

2 x 2 c2

ax + b

B

( x c)(2 x + c)

ax 2 + bx

C

( x c)(2 x + c)

D

a

( x c)(2 x + c)

ax + b

2 x 2 c2

where A a, B b and a, b, A, B and c R.

E

exTended ReSponSe

18 minutes

cis ( ) cis () = cos ( ) cos () sin ( ) sin () + i [cos ( ) sin () + sin ( ) cos ()].

b Hence obtain an expression for cos ( + ).

c Show that cos (2 ) = 2 cos2 ( ) 1.

d Hence obtain an exact expressions for cos (a) if cos (2a) = k.

e Obtain an expression for cos (4 ) in terms of cos ( ) only.

2 a z1 = 1 i and z2 = z1 are plotted below. Plot and label z1 on

the diagram.

b Express z1 in polar form.

c Show that z = 2 cis

satisfies the complex

4

relationship.

| z z1 | + | z z2 | = 4.

d Plot an additional point on the diagram above which satisfies

the complex relationship. | z z1 | + | z z2 | = 4.

e The Cartesian equivalent relationship is 3x2 + 3y2 2xy = k.

Evaluate k.

f Sketch the region defined by

{| z z1 |<| z z2 | | z z1 | + | z z2 | 4}.

5 marks

Im(z)

2

z2

2 Re(z)

1

z1

1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 = 7 marks

eBook plus

Digital doc

Exam practice 1

Solutions

exam practice 1

195