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4

4A
4B
4C
4D

Rays and lines


Circles and ellipses
Combination graphs and regions
Graphs of other simple curves

Relations and
regions of the
complex plane
aReaS oF STudy

Representations of relations and regions of the


complex plane including:
Lines and rays

Combinations of the above


Regions defined through the above curves
Circles, ellipses and other familiar simple
curves
eBook plus
Digital doc

4a

Rays and lines

10 Quick Questions

introduction
We have seen in chapter 1 that relations between real variables x and y can be represented by a
set of points on the Cartesian plane. The visual display of a graph gives a better understanding of
a relationship between two variables and this can help us greatly in problem solving.
Similarly, rules or relationships defined by a complex variable can be better understood when
represented on the complex plane.
For example, to graph the complex relations
{z: Re(z) + 3Im(z) = 6} or
{z: | z 2 + 3i | = 5}
would at first appear daunting but, as we will soon see, by using our complex number
knowledge it is not too difficult and, in fact, is effectively the same as graphing on the Cartesian
plane.
First, recall the following facts from the chapter on complex numbers.
1. A complex number, z, consists of two parts:
z = x + yi
where x, y R
x is called the real part of z: x = Re(z).
y is called the imaginary part of z: y = Im(z).
2. Complex numbers can be represented on the complex plane, or
Im(z)
Argand diagram, with the origin 0 + 0i (see figure at right):
Consider the point P in the second Argand diagram. This represents
the complex number z = x + yi.

162

maths Quest 12 Specialist mathematics for the Casio Classpad

Re(z)

Im(z)

3. The modulus or absolute value of z is defined as the distance


from the origin to the point P.

z = x + yi
P = (x, y)

mod ( z ) = | z | = x 2 + y 2
Arg(z)

Re(z)

4. The argument of z, Arg(z), is defined as the angle between OP and


the positive real axis.
< Arg(z)

Rays
Consider {z: Arg(z) = }. This expression defines the set of points
which make an angle of with the positive real axis. This is
represented on the complex plane by a ray which starts at the
origin and makes an angle of with the positive real axis:
Note: An open circle at the origin shows that 0 + 0i is not a member
of the set.

Im(z)
{z: Arg(z) = }

Re(z)

Worked Example 1
5

Sketch z: Arg( z ) =
on the complex plane.
6

Think
1

Write

Draw a complex plane.

Im(z)
0

Mark a point which is approximately 5 radians from


6
the positive real axis (3rd quadrant).

Im(z)
0

5
6

Draw a ray from the origin through this point.

Re(z)

Re(z)

Im(z)
0

Re(z)

5
6

Im(z)

Translation of rays
The translation of a complex relation is similar to translations
on the Cartesian plane. For example, the relation y + 1 = (x + 2)2
is the same as y = x2 translated 2 units in the x direction and 1
unit in the y direction.
Consider the ray defined by
{z: Arg(z + a + bi) = , a, b R}.

Assuming
a, b > 0
a

Re(z)

b
a bi
{z: Arg (z + a + bi) = }

Chapter 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

163

This is the same set as {z: Arg(z) = } translated a units in the real direction and b units in
the imaginary direction.
Note: The ray starts at the point (a bi), making an angle of with the positive side of the
horizontal line passing through b on the imaginary axis.
Worked Example 2

Show z: Arg( z + 4 2 i ) = on an Argand diagram.


3

Think
1

Write

Sketch z: Arg( z ) = on a complex plane.


3

Im(z)

0
2

Translate the ray 4 units in the real direction and +2


units in the imaginary direction.

Re(z)

Im(z)

Re(z)

Lines
Consider {z: Re(z) = a, a R}. This defines the set of points whose
real part is a (that is, x = a). It is represented on the complex plane by
a vertical line passing through the point a + 0i.
Now consider {z: Im(z) = b, b R}. This defines the set of points whose
imaginary part is b (that is, y = b). It is represented on the complex plane
by a horizontal line passing through the point 0 + bi.
Im(z)
b
a Re(z)
0
Assuming
b>0
{z: Im(z) = b}

Worked Example 3

Sketch the graphs of the following on the complex plane.


7

a {z: Re(z) = 2 } b {z: Im(z) = 2}


Think
a Sketch a vertical line through the point

complex plane.

164

Write
7
2

+ 0i on the

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

Im(z)
0

7
2

Re(z)

Im(z)
0

a Re(z)

Assuming
a>0
{z: Re(z) = a}

b Sketch a horizontal line through the point 0 2i on

Im(z)

the complex plane.

Re(z)

Translation of lines

Im(z)

The graph of {z: Re(z + a + bi) = c, where a, b, c R} is the


same as the graph of {z: Re(z) = c} translated a units in the
real direction and b units in the imaginary direction.
Note: Since the graph is a vertical line the translation in the
imaginary direction is meaningless.

ca

a
0

c Re(z)

b
{z: Re(z + a + bi) = c}
Assuming a, b, c > 0 and a > c

Likewise the graph of {z: Im(z + a + bi) = c, where


a, b, c R} is the same as the graph of {z: Im(z) = c}
translated a units in the real direction and b units in the
imaginary direction.
Note: Since the graph is a horizontal line the translation in the
real direction is meaningless.

Im(z)
c
b
a

cb

0
Re(z)
b
{z: Im(z + a + bi) = c}
Assuming a, b, c > 0 and b < c

Worked Example 4

Show on an Argand diagram:


a {z: Re(z 2 + 3i) = 1}
b {z: Im(z 5i) = 3}.
Think
a

Write

Sketch the graph of {z: Re(z) = 1} on a


complex plane.

1 Re(z)

Translate the line +2 units in the real direction


(and 3 units in the imaginary direction).

Sketch the graph of {z: Im(z) = 3} on a


complex plane.

Im(z)

Im(z)

2
0 1

3 Re(z)

Im(z)

Re(z)

Chapter 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

165

Translate the line +5 units in the imaginary


direction.

Im(z)
2
0

Re(z)

REMEMBER

1. The graph of {z: Arg(z) = } is a ray starting at the origin and making an angle of
with the positive real axis.
2. The graph of {z: Arg(z + a + bi) = } is the same as {z: Arg(z) = } translated a units
in the real direction and b units in the imaginary direction.
3. The graph of {z: Re(z + a + bi) = c} is a vertical line passing through the point
(c a) + 0i.
4. The graph of {z: Im(z + a + bi) = c} is a horizontal line passing through the point
0 + (c b)i.

Exercise

4A

Rays and lines


1 WE1 Sketch each of the following on separate complex planes.

a z: Arg( z ) =
6

b z: Arg( z ) =

c z: Arg( z ) =

d z: Arg( z ) =

e {z: Arg(z) = }

f z: Arg( z ) =

2 WE2 Show each of the following on separate Argand diagrams.

166

a z: Arg( z 2) =
2

b z: Arg( z + 3) =

c z: Arg( z 1) =

d z: Arg(z + 2i) =

e z: Arg( z 3i) =

f z: Arg( z + i) =

g z: Arg( z + 2 i) =
3

h z: Arg( z 3 + 2i) =

i z: Arg( z 4 + 3i) =
2

j z:Arg( z + 2) =
5

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

3 MC Consider the ray represented by z: Arg( z ) =


.
4

a If the ray is translated 2 units in the imaginary direction it could be described by:
3

A z: Arg( z 2i) =

B z:Arg( z + 2) =

C z: Arg( z + 2i) =

D z: Arg( z + 2i) =

E z: Arg( z 2) =
4

b If the ray is translated 3 units in the real direction and +2 units in the imaginary direction
then it can be described by:
3

A z: Arg( z 3 + 2i) =
4

B z: Arg( z + 3 + 2i) =

C z: Arg( z 3 2i) =

D z: Arg( z + 3 2i) =

E z: Arg( z + 3 2i) =

4 MC Which one of the following graphs represents z: Arg ( z + 1 i) =


?
4

A Im(z)
C Im(z)
B
Im(z)

0 1 Re(z)
(1, 1)

(1, 1) 1

1 0

Im(z)

0 Re(z)
1
(1, 1) 4
1

Re(z)

Im(z)
(1, 1)

(1, 1)

0 Re(z)

0 Re(z)

5 MC The graph which represents {z: Re(z) = 3} is:


B
A
Im(z)
Im(z)
0

Re(z)

Im(z)

0 Re(z)

3 Re(z)

0 Re(z)

C Im(z)

Im(z)
3

0 Re(z)
3

6 WE3a,b Sketch the graph of each of the following on a separate complex plane.
a {z: Re(z) = 5}
b {z: Re(z) = 2}
c {z: Re(z) = 4}

d z: Re( z ) =

5
2

Chapter 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

167

{z: Im(z) = }
3
2

e {z: Im(z) = 4}

g {z: Im(z) = 1}

h {z: Im(z) = 3}

7 WE4a,b Show each of the following on a separate Argand diagram.


a {z: Re(z 2) = 3}
b {z: Re(z i) = 2}

c {z: Re(z + 3) = 2}
d {z: Re(z 1 + 2i) = 1}
e {z: Im(z + 3i) = 2}
f {z: Im(z 2i) = 1}
g {z: Im(z + 2) = 3}
h {z: Im(z 2 4i) = 2}
8 Sketch each of the following on a separate complex plane.
2

a z: Arg( z ) =

c {z: Im(z 2 + i) = 2}
e {z: Re(z + 3 + 2i) = 1}
3

g z: Arg( z + i) =
8

4b

b {z: Re(z 5) = 3}

d z: Arg( z 1 + 3i) =
2

f {z: Im(z + 5i) = 3}


h {z: Im(z 3i) = 0}

Circles and ellipses

Im(z)
r

Circles
Since |z| is defined as the distance of a point from the origin on the
complex plane, it follows that {z: |z| = r} is the set of all the points on
the complex plane that are r units from the origin.

Re(z)

{z |z| = r} defines a circle of radius r and centre 0 + 0i.


Worked Example 5

Illustrate {z: |z| = 5} on an Argand diagram.


Think

Write

The equation defines a circle of radius 5 and centre


0 + 0i.

Sketch this circle on the complex plane.

Im(z)

5 0

5 Re(z)

Translation of circles
Consider {z: |z + a + bi| = r, a, b R}. This defines the same set of
points as {z: |z| = r} but translated a units in the real direction and
b units in the imaginary direction.
{z: |z + a + bi| = r} defines a circle of radius r and centre
(a bi).

Im(z)
r
r
r
a bi

0 r Re(z)

Assuming a, b > 0

168

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

WoRked example 6

Sketch each of the following on a separate complex plane.


a {z: | z + 1 | = 2}
b {z: | z 2 + 3i | = 3}
Think

WRiTe

a This represents a circle of radius 2 and

centre 1 + 0i.

Im(z)
2
1
3 2 1 0 1 Re(z)
1
2

b This represents a circle of radius 3 and centre 2 3i.

b Im(z)
0
1
3

2
2 3i

5 Re(z)

ellipses
The Cartesian equation of an ellipse of centre (0, 0) is:
x2 y2
+
=1
a2 b2
Since z = x + yi where x = Re(z) and y = Im(z), an ellipse can be expressed as a complex relation:
(Re( z ))2 (Im( z ))2
+
=1
a2
b2
This represents an ellipse which has centre 0 + 0i with semi-major
axis length of a and semi-minor axis length of b. The real axis
intercepts are a and imaginary axis intercepts are b.

Im(z)
b
a

a Re(z)

WoRked example 7
a Express

x2

[3Re(z)]2

eBook plus

[2Im(z)]2

= 36 as a Cartesian equation of the form

y2

int-0374

+
= 1.
a 2 b2
b Hence sketch the relation on the complex plane.
Think
a

Tutorial
Worked example 7

WRiTe

Replace Re(z) with x and Im(z) with y to obtain


the Cartesian equation.

Expand the brackets.

a (3x)2 + (2y)2 = 36

9x2 + 4y2 = 36

Chapter 4

Relations and regions of the complex plane

169

x2 y2
+
=1
4
9

Divide both sides by 36 to obtain the simplest


form of an ellipse.

x2 y2
+
=1
2 2 32
b The relation is an ellipse with centre 0 + 0i, real axis

intercepts of 2 and imaginary axis intercepts of 3.

Im(z)
3
0

2 Re(z)

An ellipse can also be described as the set of points, P, in a plane


where the sum of the distances from each point P to two fixed
points A and B is a constant. That is, PA + PB = C
or P = {z: |z A| + |z B| = C} where A and B are two points in
the complex plane and C is a real constant.

b
a

Worked Example 8

Show that the locus described by |z 2| + |z + 2| = 8 is an ellipse, and find its


Cartesian equation.
Think
1

Let z = x + yi and then express


|z 2| and |z + 2| in terms of
x and y.

Write

Let z = x + yi
| z 2 | = ( x 2)2 + y 2
| z + 2 | = ( x + 2)2 + y 2
( x 2)2 + y 2 + ( x + 2)2 + y 2 = 8

Rewrite the equation in terms of x


and y.

Subtract one square root term from


both sides.

( x 2)2 + y 2 = 8 ( x + 2)2 + y 2

Square both sides.

( x 2)2 + y 2 = 64 16 ( x + 2)2 + y 2 + ( x + 2)2 + y 2

Expand and simplify.

x 2 4 x + 4 + y 2 = 64 16 ( x + 2)2 + y 2 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 + y 2
8x

64 = 16 ( x + 2)2 + y 2
x + 8 = 2 ( x + 2)2 + y 2

170

Square both sides.

Expand and simplify.

(x + 8)2 = 4[(x + 2)2 + y2]


x2 + 16x + 64 = 4(x2 + 4x + 4 + y2)
= 4x2 + 16x + 16 + 4y2
48 = 3x2 + 4y2

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

Divide both sides by 48.

Simplify.

10

Describe the relation found.

3x 2 4 y 2
+
=1
48
48
x2 y2
+
=1
16 12
This is an ellipse whose centre is (0, 0), whose semi-major
axis is of length 4 and whose semi-minor axis is of length
12 .

Translation of ellipses
( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
+
= 1 is an
a2
b2
ellipse with centre (h, k).
As seen previously the equivalent complex equation is
obtained by replacing x with Re(z) and y with Im(z), which
gives:
The Cartesian equation

[Re( z ) h]2
a2

[Im( z ) k ]2
b2

Im(z)
b+k
a + h

b + k

where h, k R

=1

h + ki

a + h Re(z)

Assuming h, k > 0 and a > b

This represents an ellipse with centre h + ki, a semi-major


axis length of a and semi-minor axis length of b.
WoRked example 9

Illustrate the graph of [Re(z) 1]2 + 4[Im(z) + 2]2 = 4 on an Argand diagram.


Think

WRiTe

Express the equation in Cartesian form.

(x 1)2 + 4(y + 2)2 = 4

Simplify by dividing both sides by 4.

( x 1)2
+ ( y + 2)2 = 1
4

The relation is an ellipse with centre 1 2i, semi-major


axis of 2 and semi-minor axis of 1.

Im(z)
11 0 1
2
3

WoRked example 10

Let z = x + yi, and express | z 3 |


and | z 1 | in terms of x and y.

3 Re(z)

1 2i

eBook plus

Sketch and describe the subset of the complex plane defined by


{z: | z 3 | + | z 1 | = 4}.
Think

Tutorial

int-0375
Worked example 10

WRiTe

Let z = x + yi
| z 3 | = ( x 3)2 + y 2
| z 1 | = ( x 1)2 + y 2

Chapter 4

Relations and regions of the complex plane

171

( x 3)2 + y 2 + ( x 1)2 + y 2 = 4

Rewrite the equation in terms of x


and y.

Subtract one square root term from


both sides.

( x 3)2 + y 2 = 4 ( x 1)2 + y 2

Square both sides.

( x 3)2 + y 2 = 16 8 ( x 1)2 + y 2 + ( x 1)2 + y 2

Expand and simplify.

x 2 6 x + 9 + y 2 = 16 8 ( x 1)2 + y 2 + x 2 2 x + 1 + y 2
4x

8 = 8 ( x 1)2 + y 2

x + 2 = 2 ( x 1)2 + y 2
(x + 2)2 = 4[x - 1)2 + y2]

Square both sides.

Expand and simplify.

Complete a perfect square in x.

0 = 3(x2 - 4x) + 4y2


0 = 3[(x - 4x + 4) - 4] + 4y2
0 = 3[(x - 2)2 - 4] + 4y2
0 = 3(x - 2)2 - 12 + 4y2

Add 12 to both sides.

3(x - 2)2 + 4y2 = 12

10

Divide both sides by 12.

3( x 2)2 4 y 2
+
=1
12
12

11

Simplify.

( x 2)2 y 2
+
=1
4
3

12

Describe the relation found.

This is an ellipse whose centre is (2, 0), whose


semi-major axis is of length 2 and whose semi-minor axis
is of length 3.

13

Sketch the relation.

Im(z)

x2 + 4x + 4 = 4(x2 - 2x + 1 + y2)
= 4x2 - 8x + 4 + 4y2
0 = 3x2 - 12x + 4y2

3
0
3

1 2 3 4 Re(z)

REMEMBER

1. The relation {z: |z + a + bi| = r} defines a circle of radius r and centre a bi.
[Re( z ) + h]2 [Im( z ) k] 2
+
= 1 is an ellipse with centre h + ki,
a2
b2
semi-major axis length of a and semi-minor axis length of b.
3. {z: |z A| + |z B| = C} describes an ellipse where A and B are two points in the
complex plane and C is a real constant.

2. The complex equation

172

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

Exercise

4b

Circles and ellipses


1 WE5

Illustrate each of the following on a separate Argand diagram.

a {z: |z| = 1}
d {z: |z| = 10}

b {z: |z| = 4}
e {z: |z| = 9}

c {z: |z| = 3}
f {z: |z| = 2}

2 MC The equation of the circle at right is:


A |z + 2 + i| = 2
B |z 2 i| = 2
C |z 2 + i| = 2
D |z 2 i| = 4
E |z + i + 2| = 4

Im(z)
3
2
1
0

2+i
1 2 3 4 Re(z)

3 MC The equation of a circle with centre 3 + 2i and radius 4 is:


A |z 3 + 2i| = 16
B |z 3 2i| = 4
C |z + 3 + 2i| = 4
D |z + 3 2i| = 4
E |z + 3 2i| = 16
4 WE6 Sketch the graph of each of the following on separate complex planes.
a {z: |z 3| = 1}
b {z: |z + 2| = 2}
c {z: |z 4i| = 3}
d {z: |z + i| = 4}
e {z: |z 2 i| = 3}
f {z: |z + 3 2i| = 1}
g {z: |z + 4 + 3i| = 5}
h {z: |z 5 + 5i| = 2}
x2 y2
+
= 1 is:
5 MC The complex equation for the ellipse with Cartesian equation
10
5
A [Re(z)]2 + 5[Im(z)]2 = 10
B 2[Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2 = 10
2
2
C [Re(z)] + 2[Im(z)] = 10
D [Re(z)]2 + [2Im(z)]2 = 10
E [2Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2 = 1
6 MC The graph which represents (Re(z))2 + 2[Im(z)]2 = 2 on the complex plane is:
A Im(z)
2

1 0 1 Re(z)

Im(z)
1

1 0 1 Re(z)

B Im(z)
(2, 1)

Im(z)
2

2 Re(z)

Im(z)
1

2 Re(z)

2 1

2 Re(z)

x2 y2
+
= 1.
a2 b2
b [Re(z)]2 + [3Im(z)]2 = 9
d [Re(z)]2 + 4[Im(z)]2 = 16
f 9[Re(z)]2 + 4[Im(z)]2 = 1

7 WE7a Express each of the following as Cartesian equations in the form


a [2Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2 = 4
c 3[Re(z)]2 + 4[Im(z)]2 = 12
e 4[Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2 = 1

8 WE7b Sketch each of the relations in question 7 on separate complex planes.


9 WE8 Show that the locus described by each of the following is an ellipse, and find its
Cartesian equation.
a |z + 1| + |z - 1| = 4
b |z + 3| + |z - 3| = 10
c |z + 2i| + |z - 2i| = 6
d |z + 4i| + |z - 4i| = 10

Chapter 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

173

10 We9 Illustrate each of the following on separate Argand diagrams.


b 4[Re(z) 3]2 + 16[Im(z) 1]2 = 16
a [Re(z) 2]2 + 9[Im(z) + 1]2 = 9
2
2
c [Re( z ) + 2] + [Im( z ) 3] = 1
25
9

e 2[Re(z) + 3]2 + 6[Im(z) 2]2 = 6


g 9[Re(z) 2]2 + 16[Im(z) 3]2 = 1

2
d [Re( z ) 4] + [Im( z ) + 3] = 1
16
36
f 3[Re(z) + 3]2 + 5[Im(z) + 2]2 = 15
h 4[Re(z) + 1]2 + 25[Im(z) 1]2 = 1

11 We10 Sketch and describe the subset of the complex plane defined by each of
the following.
a {z: | z + 3 | + | z + 1 | = 4}
b {z: | z 3 | + | z + 1 | = 6}
c {z: | z 2 | + | z 4 | = 10}
d {z: | z + 2i | + | z + 4i | = 10}
e {z: | z 3i | + | z i | = 4}
f {z: | z + 3i | + | z i | = 6}
12 Show that the locus described by | z + 3 | | z 3 | = 4 is a hyperbola.
State its Cartesian equation.

eBook plus
Digital doc

WorkSHEET 4.1

4C
eBook plus

Combination graphs and regions


Combination graphs
Clearly it is feasible to represent more than one relationship on the complex plane.
The representation of more than one relationship is usually indicated using the union
symbol .
For example, sketch {A} {B} means sketch both relationship A and relationship B on
the same plane.

Interactivity

int-0345
Combination
graphs and
regions

WoRked example 11

Show {z: | z | = 4} {z: Re(z 3) = 1} on an Argand diagram.


Think

WRiTe

The graph of {z: | z | = 4} is a circle of centre 0 + 0i and


radius 4.

The graph of {z: Re(z 3) = 1} is the same as the


vertical line passing through the point 1 + 0i but
translated +3 units in the real direction.

Represent both graphs on the same complex plane.

Im(z)
4
0

4 Re(z)

Regions

< Arg( z ) .
3
2
For the boundaries, a solid line is used to represent or and a broken line is used to
represent < or >.
The region required can be shaded in or shaded out as long as it is indicated somewhere
on the graph. We will use the convention of shading out because, as will be seen later in this
section, it shows the combination of regions more clearly.
Regions are described by complex inequations, for example,

174

maths Quest 12 Specialist mathematics for the Casio Classpad

WoRked example 12

eBook plus

2

Represent the region defined by z:
< Arg ( z )
on a complex plane.
4
3

Think
1

WRiTe

Use a broken line to represent the boundary

Arg( z ) =
on a complex plane.
4

Tutorial

int-0376
Worked example 12

Im(z)
0

On the same plane use a solid line to represent the


2
boundary Arg( z ) =
.
3
Leave the region between the two rays (minor region)
unshaded but shade the rest of the plane and indicate
that the unshaded region is the region required.

2
3

Re(z)

Im(z)
0

Region
2
3 required

4

Re(z)

WoRked example 13

Sketch the graph of each of the following:


a {z: Im(z + 4i) > 2}
b {z: 1 < Re(z + 2 3i) 5}.
Think
a

2
3

WRiTe

Im(z + 4i) = 2 is a horizontal line passing


through the point 0 + 2i translated 4 units in
the imaginary direction.

On the complex plane draw a broken horizontal


line through the point 0 2i.
Shade the region below the line and indicate
the unshaded region as the region required.

Im(z)
0

Re(z)

Re(z)

2
Im(z)
Region
required

2
b

Re(z + 2 3i) = 1 is a vertical line passing


through the point 1 + 0i and translated 2
units in the real direction and +3 units in the
imaginary direction.

On the complex plane draw a broken vertical


line passing through the point 3 + 0i and
shade the region left of this line.

Re(z + 2 3i) = 5 is a vertical line passing


through the point 5 + 0i and translated
2 units in the real direction and +3 units in
the imaginary direction.

Im(z)

On the same plane draw a solid vertical line


passing through the point 3 + 0i and shade the
region right of this line.

Indicate the unshaded region between the two


lines as the region required.

Chapter 4

Region
required

3 Re(z)

Relations and regions of the complex plane

175

Worked Example 14

Illustrate each of the following on an Argand diagram.


a {z: |z| > 1} b {z: 2 |z + 1 4i| < 3}
Think
a

Write

Draw a circle with its centre at the point 0 + 0i


and radius 1 on a complex plane. Use a broken
line.

Im(z)
1
0

1 Re(z)

1
2

Shade the region inside the circle and indicate


the unshaded region as the region required.

Im(z)
1

Region
required

1 Re(z)

1
b

1
2

|z + 1 4i| = 2 is a circle of centre 1 + 4i and


radius 2.
Draw this circle with a solid line on the
complex plane and shade the region inside the
circle.

Im(z)
6
1 + 4i 4
2
1
3 1

3
4

|z + 1 4i| = 3 is a circle with centre + 4i


and radius 3.
On the same plane draw this circle with a
broken line and shade the region outside this
circle.
Indicate the unshaded region between the two
circles as the region required.

Region
required

1 Re(z)

Im(z)
7
6

1 + 4i 4
2
1
43 1

1 2 Re(z)

Combining regions
Two or more regions are combined by representing the area where the regions overlap or
intersect. The combining of two or more regions is indicated by the intersection symbol, .
For example, sketch {A} {B} requires the intersection of the regions described in A and B
to be indicated.
Worked Example 15

Sketch the graph for { z:

< Arg ( z 1) 0} { z: | z 1 | > 4 }.

Think
1

176

Write

is the same as the ray Arg( z ) =


2
2
translated +1 unit in the real direction.
Arg( z 1) =

On a complex plane draw this ray with a broken line.

Arg(z 1) = 0 is the same as the ray Arg z = 0 translated


+1 unit in the real direction.

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

Im(z)

Re(z)

Draw this ray with a solid line on the same plane.

Shade out the major region between the two rays.

|z 1| = 4 is a circle of centre 1 + 0i and radius 4.

Draw this circle on the same plane with a broken line.

Im(z)
4
3

0 1

5 Re(z)

4
8

Shade out the region inside this circle and indicate the
unshaded region remaining as the region required.

Im(z)
4
3

0 1
4

5 Re(z)
Region
required

Note: Wherever practicable, check that the region required is correct by selecting a point in the
region and make sure that it satisfies the inequation(s).
REMEMBER

1. More than one graph or region can be represented on the complex plane.
2. For regions:
(a) The boundaries are represented by:
(i) solid lines where or apply
(ii) broken lines where < or > apply.
(b) Shade the regions not required.
3. Wherever practical, check that the region required is correct by selecting a point in the
region and making sure that it satisfies the inequation(s).

Exercise

4c

Combination graphs and regions


1 WE11 Show each of the following on an Argand diagram.
a {z: |z| = 2} {z: Re(z + 2) = 1}
b {z: |z| = 3} {z: Im(z 3i) = 1}

c z: Arg ( z ) = {z: Re( z 2) = 3}


3

d {z: | z 2 | = 2} z: Arg( z + 2i) =


4

e {z: |z + 1 3i| = 1} {z: Re(z 3 + 2i) = 2}


f {z: Re(z + 4) = 2} {z: Im(z + 10 4i) = 0}

g {z: | z + 3 3i | = 2} z: Arg( z 2 + i) =

h {z: | z 2i | = 3} {z: Re( z + 2) = 1} z: Arg( z 4 3i) =

Chapter 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

177

2 MC The graph shown is described by:


2

A z: Arg( z ) =
{z: Im( z ) = 2}
3

Im(z)

B z: Arg( z ) = {z: Im( z ) = 2}


3

0 Re(z)

C z: Arg( z ) = {z: Im( z ) = 2}


3

D z: Arg( z ) = {z: Im( z 2) = 0}


3

E z: Arg ( z ) =
{z: Im( z 2i) = 0}
3

3 MC The region shown is described by:



Arg( z ) <
Arg ( z )
A z:
B z:
3
3
2
3

2

Arg( z ) <
C z:

2
3

2

< Arg( z )
D z:

2
3

Im(z)

0 Re(z)
Region
required

Arg( z )
E z:

2
3

4 MC The graph which represents the region described by {z: 2 Im(z + 1 2i) < 3} is:
A Im(z)
C Im(z)
B Im(z)
3

2
0

Region
required

Region
required

Im(z)

Re(z)

Im(z)
5

Region
required

0 Re(z)

Re(z)

Region
required

Region
required

0 Re(z)

0 Re(z)

5 MC The graph representing the region described by {z: |z + 1| 3} is:


B Im(z)
A
C
Im(z)
Im(z)
3
1 + 0i
0 1 Re(z)
4

1 + 0i
2 0 1 4 Re(z)
3

Region required

Region required

Im(z)

1 + 0i Re(z)
4 1 0 2
3

Region required

3
1 + 0i Re(z)
4 1 0 2

Im(z)

Re(z)

3 1 0
0i

Region required

6 WE12 Represent the following regions on the complex plane.

a z: 0 < Arg ( z )
6

178

2
b z:
< Arg ( z )
3
2

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

Region required



c z:
Arg( z ) <
3

d z: 0 Arg ( z + 1) <

5

f z: < Arg ( z 3 + i) <

6
6


3
e z:
Arg( z 2i)

4
2

7 WE13a Sketch the graph of each of the following.


a {z: Re(z) > 3}
b {z: Re(z) 2}
c {z: Im(z) 1}
d {z: Im(z) < 4}
e {z: Re(z + 2) 1}
f {z: Re(z 4) > 3}
g {z: Im(z + 3i) > 2}
h {z: Im(z 5i) 4}
i {z: Re(z + 3 2i) 3}
j {z: Im(z 1 + 4i) < 3}

8 WE13b Sketch the graph of each of the following.


a {z: 1 < Re(z) < 5}
b {z: 6 < Im(z) 3}
c {z: 0 < Re(z 3) < 1}
d {z: 2 < Im(z + 2i) < 4}
e {z: 2 < Re(z 1 + 2i) 3}
f {z: 4 Im(z 3 + 3i) < 0}
9 WE14a Illustrate each of the following on an Argand diagram.
a {z: |z| 2}
b {z: |z| > 5}
c {z: |z 2| < 3}
d {z: |z + 3i| 1}
e {z: |z 3 + 2i| 4}
f {z: |z + 5 i| > 3}
10 WE14b Illustrate each of the following on an Argand diagram.
a {z: 1 < |z| 3}
b {z: 3 |z| < 4}
c {z: 2 < |z 1| 5}
d {z: 1 < |z 2i| < 2}
e {z: 3 |z 2 + 3i| 4}
f {z: 4 |z + 3 4i| < 6}
11 WE15 Sketch the graph of each of the following.
3

< Arg( z ) {z: | z | 2}
a z:
4
2
b {z: Re(z) 3} {z: Im(z) < 2}


Arg( z ) < {z: Re( z ) < 2}
c z:
2
4
2

d {z: | z + 3 | > 2} z: < Arg ( z + 3)

6
3

e {z: Im(z) > 3} {z: 1 |z 2i| < 2}


f {z: 4 < Re(z 3) 2} {z: 1 < Im(z 1) 3}

4d

Graphs of other simple curves


The types of graphs we have looked at up to now can be sketched from the complex relation by
recognition. These include rays, vertical lines, horizontal lines, circles and ellipses. However,
if the given complex relationship is unfamiliar then it should be converted to the more
recognisable Cartesian form and graphed accordingly.
We have already seen that:

z = x + yi
and
x = Re(z)

y = Im(z)
x2 + y2 = | z |
We will now consider the translations of these expressions in the following worked example.

Chapter 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

179

Worked Example 16

Express each of the following expressions in Cartesian form.


a Re(z + 5)
b Im(z 2 3i)
c |z 4 + 2i|
d Repeat parts a , b and c using a calculator.
Think
a
b

Write

Replace z with x + yi.

Write down the real component only.

Replace z with x + yi.

Write down the imaginary


component only.

Replace z with x + yi.

Collect the real and imaginary


components separately.

= |(x 4) + (y + 2)i|

Take the absolute value of the


expression.

= ( x 4)2 + ( y + 2)2

First, the settings need to be changed. Tap: d


O
Basic Format
Under Advanced check the Complex
Format and Variable is Real.
On the Main screen, complete the entry
line as:
x + yi W z
Then press E.
To answer part a, tap:
Action
Complex
re
Complete the entry lines as:
re(z + 5)
im(z - 2 - 3i)
abs(z - 4 + 2i)
Press E after each entry.

Write the answers.

Re(z + 5) = Re(x + yi + 5)
=x+5

b Im(z 2 3i) = Im(x + yi 2 3i)

=y3
c |z 4 + 2i| = |x + yi 4 + 2i|

For a , Re(z + 5) = x + 5.
For b , Im(z - 2 - 3i) = y - 3.
For c , | z 4 + 2i | = x 2 8 x + 4 y + 20 .

To convert a complex equation to a Cartesian equation, use:


1. Re(z + a + bi) = x + a
2. Im(z + a + bi) = y + b
3. | z + a + bi | = ( x + a)2 + ( y + b)2
(where a, b R), then
4. manipulate the equation until the type of curve is recognised.
Note: A CAS calculator can be used to obtain the graph in Cartesian form if it is not recognised
after manipulating the equation.

180

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

Further straight line graphs


WoRked example 17
a FindtheCartesianequationfor5Re(z) 4Im(z) = 20.
b Sketch the graph on the complex plane.
Think

WRiTe
a 5Re(z) 4Im(z) = 20

a Replace Re(z) by x and Im(z) by y to express in

5x 4y = 20

Cartesian form.
b 1 This is a straight line with an x-intercept of 4 (real
axis) and a y-intercept of 5 (imaginary axis).
2

Im(z)
0

4 Re(z)

Sketch the straight line on the complex plane.


5

WoRked example 18

eBook plus

a FindtheCartesianequationfor| z + 2 i | = | z 1 |.
b Sketch the graph on the complex plane.

Tutorial

int-0377

Think
a

WRiTe

Replace | z + 2 i | by ( x + 2)2 + ( y 1)2

| z + 2 i| = |z 1 |

( x + 2)2 + ( y 1)2 = ( x 1)2 + y 2

and | z 1 | by ( x 1)2 + y 2 to express in


Cartesian form.

Worked example 18

(x + 2)2 + (y 1)2 = (x 1)2 + y2

Square both sides to remove the square root signs.

Expand the brackets.

Subtract x2, y2 and 1 from both sides.

4x + 4 2y = 2x

Collect like terms.

6x + 4 2y = 0

Divide the equation by a common factor of 2.

Express the equation in a recognisable form.

The equation is a straight line with a


y-intercept of 2 and gradient 3.
Sketch the straight line on the complex plane.

x2 + 4x + 4 + y2 2y + 1 = x2 2x + 1 + y2

3x + 2 y = 0
y = 3x + 2
b
Im(z)
2
2
3

0 Re(z)

Reciprocal graphs
WoRked example 19

If Im(z) Re(z) = 4, find its Cartesian equation and sketch the graph on the complex plane.
Think
1

WRiTe

Replace Im(z) with y and Re(z) with x to express in


Cartesian form.

Chapter 4

Im(z) Re(z) = 4
yx = 4

Relations and regions of the complex plane

181

Divide both sides by x.

The equation represents a reciprocal function with


asymptotes through x = 0 and y = 0 and passing through
(1, 4) and (1, 4) on a Cartesian plane.

Sketch the graph on the complex plane.

y=

Im(z)

4
x

1 + 4i

Re(z)

1 4i

Graphs of parabolas
Worked Example 20

For Im(z) = [Re(z 1)]2 find the Cartesian equation and sketch its graph on the complex plane.
Think
1

Replace Im(z) with y and Re(z 1) with x 1 to


express in Cartesian form.

The equation represents a parabola with a minimum turning


point (1, 0) and y-intercept (0, 1) on a Cartesian plane.

Sketch the graph on the complex plane.

Write

Im(z) = [Re(z -1)]2


y = [Re(x + yi - 1)]2
y = (x 1)2

Im(z)
1
1

0 1 Re(z)

Worked Example 21

Show that the locus described by |z| = Im(z) + 1 is a parabola. Write the parabolas Cartesian
equation and state its turning point and type.
Think

Let z = x + yi, and express the equation in terms of x


and y.

Let z = x + yi

Square both sides and expand the brackets.

x2 + y2 = (y + 1)2
x2 + y2 = y2 + 2y + 1

Simplify.

x2 = 2y + 1

Make y the subject.

y=

State the turning point and its type.

There is a minimum turning point at


1
(0, 2 ) .

182

Write

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

x2 + y2 = y + 1

1 2 1
x
2
2

Regions involving simple curves


WoRked example 22

eBook plus

Sketch the following on the complex plane.


a {z: Im(z) 2 < [Re(z + 3)]2}
b {z: Im(z) Re(z) 1} {z: Im(z) < 2}
Think
a

int-0378
Worked example 22

WRiTe

Replace Im(z) with y and Re(z + 3) with x + 3


to express in Cartesian form.

a Im(z) 2 < [Re(z + 3)]2

y 2 < (x + 3)2

y < (x + 3)2 + 2

Add 2 to both sides.

The boundary curve of the inequation


represents a parabola with a minimum turning
point (3, 2) on a Cartesian plane.

Sketch the parabola with a broken line on the


complex plane and shade the region above
the parabola leaving the unshaded area as the
region required.

Tutorial

Replace Im(z) with y and Re(z) with x to


express the first inequation in Cartesian form.

Im(z)
2
Region required

0 Re(z)

b Im(z) Re(z) 1

yx 1
y

Divide both sides by x.

The boundary curve of the inequation


represents a negative reciprocal function with
asymptotes x = 0 and y = 0 and passing through
the points (1, 1) and (1, 1) on a Cartesian
plane.

Sketch the reciprocal function with a solid line


on the complex plane and shade out the region
below each branch of the curve.

1
x

Im(z)

1 + i

Re(z)
0
1i

The second inequation represents a half-plane


below the horizontal line passing through
0 + 2i.

Im(z)
1 + i 2

Sketch this straight line with a broken line on


the same complex plane and shade the region
above the line.
Show the unshaded region as the region
required.

Re(z)
0
1i

Im(z)
1 + i

2
Re(z)
0

Region
required

Chapter 4

1i

Relations and regions of the complex plane

183

REMEMBER

To convert a complex equation to a Cartesian equation, use:


1. Re(z + a + bi) = x + a
2. Im(z + a + bi) = y + b
3. | z + a + bi | = ( x + a)2 + ( y + b)2 where a, b R
then manipulate the equation until the type of curve is recognised.

Exercise

4d

Graphs of other simple curves


A CAS or graphics calculator can be used where necessary to assist with the sketch graphs in
the following exercise.

1 WE16 Express each of the following expressions in Cartesian form.


a Re(z 8)
e |z + 3|
i Re(z 7 + 3i)

b Im(z + 2i)
f |z 5i|
j |5 4i z|

c Re(z + 5 4i)
g |z + 4 + 6i|

d Im(z 2 3i)
h |z 1 + 5i|

2 WE17 For each of the following equations:




a
d

i express the equation in Cartesian form


ii sketch its graph on the complex plane.
Re(z) + Im(z) = 4
b 2Re(z) Im(z) = 6
1
Im(z) = 4Re(z) + 1
e Im(z) = 2 Re(z) 3

c 3Re(z) + 2Im(z) = 6
f 3Im(z) 4Re(z) = 12

3 WE18 For each of the following equations:



i express the equation in Cartesian form
ii sketch its graph on the complex plane.
a |z + 2| = |z + i|
b |z 3| = |z + 3i|
c |z 1 + 2i| = |z + 3 + i|
d |z 2 3i| = |z + 1 4i|
e |z + 3 2i| = |z + 3 + 3i|
f |z + 4 3i| = |z + 2 3i|
4 MC The rule which describes the relationship shown by the graph at
right is:
A 3Im(z) 2Re(z) = 6
B 2Im(z) 3Re(z) = 6
C 3Re(z) 2Im(z) = 6
D Im(z) = 32 Re(z)
E 2Re(z) 3Im(z) = 6
5 MC The Cartesian equation which represents |z + 2 i| = |z + i| is:
A y = x + 1
B y = x 1
C x + y = 1
D y = 1 x
E y2 = x2 + 1
6 MC a The Cartesian equation which describes the graph shown
at right is:
1
A y =
x

1
B y = 2
x

2
C y =
x

2
D y = 2
x

2
E y = 2
x

184

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

Im(z)
3

0 Re(z)

Im(z)
Re(z)
0
1 2i

1 2i

b The relationship described in complex form is:


B Im(z) [Re(z)]2 = 2
A Im(z) Re(z) = 2
D Im(z) = 2[Re(z)]2
E Im(z) = [2Re(z)]2

C Im(z) [R(z)]2 = 2

We19 Find the Cartesian equation and sketch the graph on the complex plane for each of the
following.
a Im(z) Re(z) = 2
b Im(z) Re(z) = 2
c Im(z) Re(z 1) = 3
d Im(z) (Re z)2 = 1
2

e Im(z) (Re z) = 4
f Im(z) [Re(z + 1)]2 = 2

We20 Find the Cartesian equation and sketch the graph on the complex plane for each of the
following.
a Im(z) = [Re(z)]2
b Im(z) = [Re(z)]2 + 2

2
c Im(z) = 2[Re(z)] 1
d Im(z) = [Re(z 4)]2

2
e Im(z + 1) = [Re(z + 2)]
f Im(z 3i) = 2[Re(z + 1)]2 + 2
2
g Im(z + 2i) = 1 [Re(z 2)]

9 Sketch the following complex relations on a complex plane.


a Im(z) = [Re(z)]3
b Im(z 2i) = [Re(z + 1)]3
c zz =4
d zz =3
| z +3|
|z+i|
e
= 2
f |z 3i| = 2
| z 1|
2
10 We21 Show that the locus described by each of the following is a parabola.
i Write the Cartesian equation.
ii State the turning point and its type.
a | z | = Im(z) 1
b | z | = Im(z) + 2
c | z | = Im(z) 3
11 We22 Sketch the following on the complex plane.
a {z: Im(z) [Re(z)]2}
b {z: Im(z) Re(z) 4}
c {z: | z + 3| | z 3i |}
d {z: 5Im(z) 4Re(z) 10}
e {z: Im(z) > [Re(z 2)]2} {z: Re(z) 2}
f {z: Im(z) [Re(z)]2 1} {z: Im(z) > Re(z)}
g {z: Im(z) Re(z + 1) > 1} {z: Im(z 2i) < 1 + [Re(z 1)]2}

eBook plus
Digital doc

WorkSHEET 4.2

Chapter 4

Relations and regions of the complex plane

185

Summary
Rays and lines

The graph of {z: Arg(z) = } is a ray starting at the origin and making an angle of with the positive real
axis.
The graph of {z: Arg(z + a + bi) = } is the same as {z: Arg(z) = } translated a units in the real direction
and b units in the imaginary direction.
The graph of {z: Re(z + a + bi) = c} is a vertical line passing through the point (c a) + 0i.
The graph of {z: Im(z + a + bi) = c} is a horizontal line passing through the point 0 + (c b)i.
Circles and ellipses

The relation {z: |z + a + bi| = r} defines a circle of radius r and centre a bi.
[Re( z ) 4] 2 [Im( z ) k ]2
+
= 1 is an ellipse with centre h + ki and semi-major axis
a2
b2
length of a and semi-minor axis length of b.
{z: |z A|+ |z B| = C} describes an ellipse where A and B are two points in the complex plane and C is a
real constant.
The complex equation

Combination graphs and regions

More than one graph or region can be represented on the complex plane.
For regions:
1. The boundaries are represented by:
(a) solid lines where or apply
(b) broken lines where < or > apply.
2. Shade the regions not required.
Wherever practicable, check that the region required is correct by selecting a point in the region and make
sure that it satisfies the inequation(s).
Graphs of other simple curves

To convert a complex equation to a Cartesian equation use:


1. Re(z + a + bi) = x + a
2. Im(z + a + bi) = y + b
(where a, b R), then
3. |z + a + bi| = ( x + a)2 + ( y + b)2
4. manipulate the equation until the type of curve is recognised.

186

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

chapter review
10 A graph is defined as {z: |z| = Im(z) + 2}.
a Write the equation in Cartesian form.
b Describe the locus of the graph.
c State the turning point and its type.
d Sketch the graph {z: |z|< Im(z) + 2}.

11 a iLet z1 = cis . Plot and label carefully the


4

Short answer

1 Sketch the graph of {z: Arg(z 5 3i) =


an Argand diagram.

} on

2 Sketch the graph of {z: Im(z + 20 + 3i) = 1} on the


complex plane.
3 Illustrate {z: |z 3 + 3i| = 1} on the complex plane.

points -z1, z1 and z1 on the Argand diagram


below.

4 Represent {z: 4[Re(z + 1)]2 + 3[Im(z 2i)]2 = 12}


on an Argand diagram.
5 Write down the complex relation that describes the
graph shown.

Im(z)

Im(z)
5

2
1

3 2
1

3 2 1

3Re(z)

1
0 1 2 3 Re(z)

6 Show {z: Im(z + 5i) < 4} {z: 1 < |z 2 + 2i| 3}


on an Argand diagram.

7 Express the complex relation |z 4| = |z + 2 3i|


in Cartesian form.
8 Show the graph of {z: Im(z + i) Re(z 3) > 2}
{z: Im z [Re(z + 1 + 3i)]2} on the complex plane.

b Use a double angle formula to show that the

9 On the complex plane:


a sketch the graph {z: Im(z) Re(z) = 1}
b write the Cartesian equation of the graph.
c From part a, describe the series of translations
required to sketch the graph below.

2+ 2

exact value of cos =


. Explain
8
2
why any values are rejected.
c Hence show that the exact value of

sin =
8

Im(z)
3
2

3 2 1

ii Write down the complex equation of the


straight line which passes through the
points z1 and -z1, in terms of z1.

2 2
.
2

Exam tip In this case, show that will require


the correct steps in manipulating surds. Also, the
hence instruction implies that the answer for

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Re(z)

cos is to be used.
8

VCAA Assessment report 2006

[VCAA 2006]

d Write the equation of the graph.


e Write the Cartesian equation of graph.
f Sketch the region for {z: Im(z + 2)
Re(z + 2 ) 1}.

2+ 2
2 2
d Evaluate
+
i ,

2
2
giving your answer in polar form.

Chapter 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

187

e For what values of n is

Multiple choice
n

2+ 2
2 2
+
i a real number?

2
2
f Plot the roots of z8 = 1 on the Argand diagram
below.

1 The graph that correctly represents

z: Arg ( z 4i) =
5

A Im(z)

Exam tip Make sure that you do not use rays

B Im(z)

from the origin to represent complex numbers. Just


plot the points.

is:

0
4

VCAA Assessment report 2006

[VCAA 2006]

Im(z)

3 2

3Re(z)

E Im(z)
4

Re(z)

0
[VCAA 2006]

12 The cubic equation +


+ bz + c, where a, b and
c are real numbers, has three roots; two of them are
5 and 1 3i.
a State the third root.
b Find the values of a, b and c.
c Plot the three roots on an Argand diagram. Label
the real root R and the complex roots P and Q.
d State the equation of the line passing through
the complex points P and Q.
e If point M is the midpoint of line PQ, what is
the equation of the circle with centre M whose
circumference passes through P and Q?
z3

Re(z)

Re(z)

5

az2

13 For the equation z2 + 10z + 169 = 0, where z C, find:


a the roots of the equation
b the sum of the roots
c the product of the roots.
d Using your results from parts b and c, find the
quadratic equation which has roots 3 + 2i
and 3 2i.
14 Factorise P(z) = 9z3 + 9iz2 4z + 4i, where z C,
and hence state the solutions to P(z) = 0.
15 For the complex numbers u = 3 + i and
v = 3 3i,
a write u and v in polar form
b find u3v2 in polar and Cartesian form
c solve z4 = u3v2, where z C.
188

D Im(z)
0

Re(z)

C Im(z)

Re(z)

2 The straight line shown below can be described by:


Im(z)

Re(z)

B {z: Re(z) = 7}
D {z: Im(z) = 7}

A {z: Re(z) = 7}
C {z: Im(z) = 7}
E {z: Re(z 7) = 0}

3 The ray shown below can be described by:


Im(z)

3
4

3 + 4i
0 Re(z)

A z: Arg( z 3 + 4i ) =

B z: Arg( z 3 ) =

C z: Arg( z + 3 4i ) =

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

E Im(z)

D z: Re( z + 3 4i) =

3
2
1

E z: Arg( z + 3 4i) =

4 The Argand diagram below that correctly


represents {z: |z 2i| = 4} is:

0 + 2i
0

Im(z)
2

4 Re(z)

2 Re(z)

Im(z)

C { z: | z + 2 | = 4} z: Arg ( z 1) =
6

D { z: | z + 2 | = 2} z: Arg ( z + 1) =
6

2 + 0i
0 2 4 Re(z)

E { z: | z 2 | = 4} z: Arg ( z i) =
6

8 The region shown can be described by:

5 The circle below is described by the relation:

Im(z)

Im(z)

Region
required

0 1 Re(z)

B { z: | z + 2 | = 2} z: Arg ( z 1) =
6

2 0 + 2i

4 2

A { z: | z 2 | = 2} z: Arg ( z ) =
6

Im(z)
4

4 2 0
4 Re(z)
0 2i

Re(z)

7 The graph shown below can be described by:

4 Re(z)

Im(z)
2

1
2

2
2

B Im(z)

Im(z)
6

1
2

3 i

Re(z)
1 0

5

8

Re(z)

A {z: |z 3 i| = 2}
C {z: |z + 3 i| = 4}
E {z: |z + 3 + i| = 4}

B {z: |z 3 i| = 4}
D {z: |z + 3 + i| = 2}

5
3

B z:
< Arg ( z ) <
8
7

6 The graph below that correctly represents the


relation {z: 4[Re(z)]2 + [Im(z + 2i)]2 = 1} is:
B
Im(z)
A Im(z) 0
12

1
2

1
2

Re(z)

Re(z)

C Im(z) 0
12

2
4

1
2

1
2
3

Im(z)

Re(z)

5
2

5
3

z: Arg ( z )
A z:
8
7

Re(z)
2 3 1 0
2 1

3
5

C z:
Arg ( z ) <
7
8

z: Arg( z )
D z: Arg ( z ) <
7
8

5
3

< z: Arg( z )
E z:
8
7

9 The graph that represents the region described by


3

{z: | z + i | > 3} z: 0 Arg ( z 3i) < is:


4

Chapter 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

189

Im(z)
2
3

3
4

Re(z)
3

1 0
4
Im(z)

3
4

Region required

Im(z)
3
2
3

1 0
2 3
3 4
4

Im(z)

Re(z)
0 1i

Re(z)

1 + 3i

2
0 Re(z)

E Im(z)
0
1i

Region required

3
4

3+i
2 Re(z)

13 The region represented on the Argand


diagram below, where a is a real constant,
could be defined by:
Im(z)

Re(z)

1 0

Im(z)
1 + 3i

2
1 3i

Re(z)

Re(z)
3 1 0

Im(z)
2

3
4

Region required

Region required

Im(z)
4
3
2
1
3 1 0
2

Region
required

a + 2i

Re(z)

Region required

10 The complex equation |z 3 + 2i| = |z + 3| can be


expressed in Cartesian form as:
A y = 1
B y = x2 + 1 C y = 3x 1
D y = 3 x
E y = 1 3x
11 The graph shown can be described by:

4Re(z)

A y = 2x
B y = 2x 4
D 2x + y + 4 = 0 E y = 4 2x
12 The graph that represents
{z: Im(z 2i) Re(z) = 1} is:
A

Im(z)
2
1 + i

C 2y + x = 4

Im(z)

1 + 3i

0 Re(z)

1+i
1 i

B |z - (a + 2i)| 1
D |z - (a + 2i)| 2

[VCAA 2006]

14 Which one of the following relations does not have


a graph that is a straight line passing through the
origin?
A z + z = 0
B 3 Re(z) = Im(z)
C z = zi
D Re(z) - 2 Im(z) = 0
E Re(z) + Im(z) = 1

[VCAA 2006]

Im(z)
2

A |z - (a + 2i)| 1
C |z - (-a + 2i)| 1
E |z + a - 2i)| 1

0 Re(z)

15 The relation ( z + 2)( z + 2) = 4, when graphed on an


Argand diagram, would be:
A a circle of radius 4 with centre at (-2, 0)
B a circle of radius 2 with centre at (2, 0)
C a circle of radius 4 with centre (2, 0)
D a circle of radius 2 with centre (-2, 0)
E a circle of radius 2 with centre at (0, -2)


[VCAA 2008]

Extended response

1 Using z = x + yi sketch each of the following on separate complex planes.


a |z 1 i| = 1
b |iz 1 i| = 1
d |i3z 1 i| = 1
e |i4z 1 i| = 1
Comment on the result.

190

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

c |i2z 1 i| = 1

2 aFind the Cartesian equation of each of the following.



i |z 3| = |2z|
ii |z + 16 16i| = |3z|
b Without graphing show that the two graphs do not intersect.
c Find the exact area of the region defined by {z: |z 3| |2z|} {z: |z + 16 16i| |3z|}.
3 Let z1 = 1 + 2i and z2 = -2 - i.
a Show z1 and z2 on an Argand diagram.
b Draw a straight line passing through z1 and z2, and find its Cartesian equation.
c Express the complex relation |z - 1 - 2i| = |z + 2 + i| in Cartesian form.
d Add the graph of the complex relation |z - 1 - 2i| = |z + 2 + i| to the Argand diagram in part a.
e Prove that the locus of the points described by the complex relation |z - 1 - 2i| = |z + 2 + i| is a
perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining z1 and z2.
f Generalise this result for any two complex numbers z1 and z2.
5
4 aFind the Cartesian equation of the complex relation desribed by | z 4 | + | z + 4 | = .
2
b State the domain for the relation in a.
c Identify the shape of the locus of the points, described by the equation in a.
d Sketch the graph of the above relation on an Argand diagram.
5 aIf z = x + yi, find the Cartesian equation defined by the complex relation zz = 16.
b Identify the curve described in a, and sketch it on an Argand diagram.
c Find the Cartesian equation defined by the relation zz = a , where a R+.
d Identify the curve described in c, and hence complete the following statement: If z = x + yi, the graph of
zz = a , where a R+ is a .............. .
e Find the Cartesian equation defined by the relation [ z (2 + 3i)][ z (2 3i)] = 4.
f Identify the curve described in e, and sketch it on an Argand diagram.
g If z = x + yi and w = u + vi, where x, y, u, v, , R, find the Cartesian equation defined by the complex
relation ( z w)( z w) = a , where a R+.
h Identify the curve in g, and hence complete the following statement:
If z = x + yi and w = u + vi, where x, y, u, v, the graph of ( z w)( z w) = a , where a R+ is a ........ .
6 aVerify that

3
2

+ 2 i is one root of the equation z3 = i.

b Plot the three roots of i on the Argand diagram below.


Im(z)
2
1
3 2

3 Re(z)

1
2

c Find the points of intersection of the curves given by |z - i| = 1 and Re( z ) =

1
3

Im( z ).

Chapter 4 Relations and regions of the complex plane

191

d Sketch the curves given by the relations | z i | = 1 and Re( z ) =

1
3

Im( z ) on the Argand diagram below.

Im(z)
2
1
3 2

3 Re(z)

1
2

e On the Argand diagram above shade the region given by {z: | z i | 1} z: Arg( z )
f Find the area of the shaded region in part e, correct to two decimal places.

2
3

}.
[VCAA 2008]

eBook plus
Digital doc

Test Yourself
Chapter 4

192

maths Quest 12 Specialist mathematics for the Casio Classpad

eBook plus

aCTiviTieS

Chapter opener
Digital doc

10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick


questions on relations and regions of the complex
plane. (page 162)
4B

Circles and elllipses

Tutorial

We7 int-0374: Watch a tutorial on how to express a


complex relation as a Cartesian equation and sketch
the resultant graph. (page 169)
We10 int-0375: Watch a tutorial on how to describe
and sketch a complex relation on a complex plane.
(page 171)
Digital doc

WorkSHEET 4.1: Represent relations and regions in


the complex plane. (page 174)
4C

Combination graphs and regions

Interactivity

Combination graphs and regions int-0345: Consolidate


your understanding of relations and regions of the
complex plane. (page 174)
Tutorial

We12 int-0376: Watch how to represent a region


defined by a complex inequation on a complex
plane. (page 175)
4D

Digital docs

WorkSHEET 4.2: Sketch graphs in the complex


plane. (page 185)
Chapter review
Digital doc

Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test


your progress. (page 192)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au

Graphs of other simple curves

Tutorial

We18 int-0377: Watch a tutorial on sketching regions


on a complex plane. (page 181)
We22 int-0378: Watch a tutorial on sketching regions
on a complex plane. (page 183)

Chapter 4

Relations and regions of the complex plane

193

EXAM PRACTICE 1
Short answer

25 minutes

1 a Express 5 3i in the form a + bi.


2 marks
2i
b Write down the polar form for -6 + 2 3i.
(Note root 3.)
2 marks
2
2 a + bi is a solution of 5x - 3x + 4 = 0.
Write down the second solution in terms
of a and b.
1 mark
3 a Show that z = 1 - 2i is a solution of
z3 + (1 + 2i) z2 - (1 - 4i)z - 1 + 2i = 0.
b Find the remaining solutions.
3
1
4 a Given that cot (x) = 2 and x , ,

2
determine the value of sin (x).
b Hence find an exact value for cos (2x).

4 marks

5 The graph below is of y = a sec b (x + c) + d.


Evaluate a, b, c and d.

Multiple choice

1 An ellipse has the parametric form x = 1 + 3 cos (t)


and y = -2 + sin (t). The coordinates of the centre of
the ellipse and the horizontal semi-axis length are:
c (-2, 1), 1
a (1, 2), 3
B (1, -2), 1
-2), 3
E (1, 2), 9
D (1,
2 A hyperbola has an asymptote of y = -2x + 3.
The asymptotes intersect at x = 2. The Cartesian
equation of the hyperbola is:
a

( x 2)2 ( y + 1)2
( x 2)2 ( y + 1)2

= 1 B

=1
2
1
4
16

( x 2)2 ( y 1)2
( x + 1)2 ( y 2)2

= 1 d

=1
1
2
4
16

( x + 2)2 ( y + 1)2

=1
4
16

a 1 , 1
b

1 0.6 0.2 0 0.2


1
2

0.6

1.8 x

1.4

12 minutes

Each question is worth one mark.

3 The domain of the function f :D R where


f(x) = aarcsin (bx + c) + d is:

y
4
3
2
1
1.8 1.4

Chapters 1 TO 4

4 marks

6 The complex number z has been plotted on the


Argand diagram below. Plot and label points
corresponding to:
a z2
b z
c z

c
b

c 1 c, 1 + c

a
+ d,
+ d .
B
2
2

+ d , + d .
d
2
2

c 1 c + 1
,
e

b
b
4 The following diagram illustrates all the roots of a
polynomial equation.
Im(z)

Im(z)
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4

194

Re(z)

1 2 3 4 Re(z)

Which of the following could be the equation if


{a, b} R+?
a z3 = a
B z3 + a + bi = 0
3
c z + z - a = 0
d z3 + (a + bi)z2 + z + 1 = 0
e (z2 - a) (z2 + ax + b)
3 marks

Maths Quest 12 Specialist Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad

5 Which of the following expressions correspond to a


hyperbola in an Argand diagram?
A zz = 1
B ( z 3i)( z + 3i) = 1
C |z 3| |z + 2| = 1
D | z 3 | | z + 2i | = 0
E

1
=1
z

1
is equal to:
1 z
1 + i
1 i
5 3i
A
B
C
6
6
34
5 + 3i
4 + 3i
D
E
34
25
2
3
7 If z = 8 cis
then z equals:
3
6 If z = 4 3i then

2
A 2 cis
9

2
8
cis
3
9

2
D 2 cis 3

2
C 2 cis
9
E 2

A
B
8 The partial fraction
can be written
+
x

c
2
x
+c
as:
a
A
2 x 2 c2
ax + b
B
( x c)(2 x + c)
ax 2 + bx
C
( x c)(2 x + c)
D

a
( x c)(2 x + c)

ax + b
2 x 2 c2
where A a, B b and a, b, A, B and c R.
E

exTended ReSponSe

18 minutes

1 a cis ( ) = cos ( ) + i sin ( ) Show that


cis ( ) cis () = cos ( ) cos () sin ( ) sin () + i [cos ( ) sin () + sin ( ) cos ()].
b Hence obtain an expression for cos ( + ).
c Show that cos (2 ) = 2 cos2 ( ) 1.
d Hence obtain an exact expressions for cos (a) if cos (2a) = k.
e Obtain an expression for cos (4 ) in terms of cos ( ) only.
2 a z1 = 1 i and z2 = z1 are plotted below. Plot and label z1 on
the diagram.
b Express z1 in polar form.

c Show that z = 2 cis
satisfies the complex
4
relationship.
| z z1 | + | z z2 | = 4.
d Plot an additional point on the diagram above which satisfies
the complex relationship. | z z1 | + | z z2 | = 4.
e The Cartesian equivalent relationship is 3x2 + 3y2 2xy = k.
Evaluate k.
f Sketch the region defined by
{| z z1 |<| z z2 | | z z1 | + | z z2 | 4}.

5 marks

Im(z)
2
z2

2 Re(z)

1
z1

1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 = 7 marks

eBook plus
Digital doc

Exam practice 1
Solutions

exam practice 1

195