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Derivation of hydrodynamic Force on submerged body

Ratnakar Gadi
January 12, 2017
Abstract
The expression for hydrodynamic force on a structure is derived from the principles of
conservation of moment.

Refering to Fig(1),where SB is the body surface,SC is the control surface and V(t) is the volume
of fluid entrapped between these surface,a derivation of the hydrodynamic force is provided in
the case of submerged body.The hydrodynamic force is generally obtained by integration of the
pressure on the body surface as shown in eq(1)(hydrostatic contribution neglected).
ZZ
1
+ )ds
(1)
F =
(
2
SB t
Now,lets look at the momentum of the fluid,applying gauss theorem and following it up with
reynolds transport theorem,yields (2).
ZZ
ZZZ
D
D

nds =
dv
Dt
Dt
SB +SC
V (t)
ZZ
ZZZ

()dv +
(U n)ds
=
S +S
V (t) t
ZZZ
ZZ B C
(2)

=
( )dv +
(U n)ds
t
V (t)
SB +SC
ZZ

=
( n + (U n))ds
SB +SC t
Since SB and SC are independent surfaces,the above equations can be related to their respective

surfaces.On the body,the no leak condition plays its role(U n = n


) and on the control surface(U
n = 0).Substituting,we get:
ZZ
ZZ
D

nds =
( n + )ds
(3)
Dt
t
n
SB
SB
Adding up eq(1) and eq(3),yields an expression for hydrodynamic force on the submerged body.
ZZ
ZZ
D
1
F =
nds +
(
n)ds
(4)
Dt
n 2
SB
SB
Now performing the following operations(using Gauss theorem),
ZZ
ZZZ
1
1

(
n)ds =
(2 2 ) = 0
n 2
2
S +S
V (t)
Z ZB C
ZZ
1
1
(
n)ds =
(
n)ds
n 2
n 2
SB
SC
Substituting eq(5) into (4) yield an alternate expression for the fluid.
ZZ
ZZ
D
1
F =
nds
(
n)ds
Dt
n 2
SB
SC
If the control surface at infinity allows for no flux,the expression simplies.
ZZ
D
F =
nds
Dt
SB

(5)

(6)

(7)

Thus,the hydrodynamic force acting on submerged body equals the time derivative of the impulse(product of velocity potential with the normal) on the body.
1

Figure 1: Hydrodynamic Force derivation