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Anchoring Junction (Adhering Junction/Desmosome) A cell junction

that resists stretching to hold tissues together (ex. skin)

Peroxisome Contains enzymes for breaking down/detoxifying certain


Cell Wall The hard outermost layer of a plant cell that is made of

Plasmodesmata Channels between adjacent plant cells.

Chloroplast Site of photosynthesis in plant cells.

Chromatin The structure in the nucleus that contains DNA and
associated proteins.
Cilium (Cilia) Organelle made of microtubules and used for
movement. Resembles many oars moving at once.
Cistern (Cisternae) Flattened membranous sacs in the Golgi body.
Compound Light Microscope An instrument used to see objects that
are too small for the naked eye.
Cristae The folds of the mitochondria.
Cytoplasm Everything between the cell membrane and the nucleus
of the cell.
Cytosol The fluid portion of the cytoplasm.
Cytoskeleton The system of protein fibers. Literally means "Cell

Plasma Membrane The phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins

that surrounds a cell.
Prokaryote A cell with non-membrane bound organelles.
Ribosome Organelles that synthesize proteins.
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) An electron microscope that
sees the surface of a cell.
Stroma The liquid interior of the chloroplast.
Thylakoid Membrane The membrane containing the sites of light
dependent reactions.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) An electron microscope
that sees the interior structure of a cell.
Tight Junction A cell junction which prevents substances from
passing in between adjacent cells. Ex: small intestines
Vacuole A membranous sac that is used for storage.
Vesicle A membranous transport vehicle.

Endosymbiosis Theory Eukaryotic cell evolved organelles like

mitochondria and chloroplasts as a larger prokaryote engulfing a
smaller prokaryote.

9+2 Microtubule Arrangement An arrangement of 9 microtubule

doublets surrounding a central pair of microtubules.

Endoplasmic Reticulum Interconnected tubules that transport,

modify, and synthesize molecule (mostly lipids and proteins). Smooth
and Rough.

chemistry study of matter and its reactions

Eukaryote A cell that has membrane-bound organelles and

Flagellum Organelle made of microtubules and used for movement.
Uses a whip-like movement to move.
Gap Junction (Communication Junction) A junction that allows
chemicals to pass directly from the cytoplasm of one cell to the
cytoplasm of an adjacent cell. Ex: Cardiac cells
Granum (Grana) A stack of thylakoid discs in the chloroplast.
Golgi Body The flattened membranous sacs involved in transport,
packaging, sorting, and addressing of molecules.

matter anything that has mass and takes up space

properties characteristics used to describe a substance
gas phase of matter that has no definite shape or volume
liquid phase of matter with a definate volume, but no definite shape
phase form of matter
solid phase of matter with a definite shape and volume
condensation change from gas to a liquid
evaporation change from a liquid to a gas at the surface of the liquid

Intermediate Filament One of the types of filaments in the

cytoskeleton. It is more permanent than microfilaments and smaller
than microtubules.

freezing change from a liquid to a solid

Lysosome A specialized vesicle containing hydrolytic/digestive


chemical change change that produces new substances

Matrix The structure inside/outside of the cell that provides structural

Microfilament The smallest type of filament in the cytoskeleton. It is
made of actin proteins arranged in a twisted double chain.
Microtubule The largest type of filament in the cytoskeleton. It is
made of tubulin. Makes the track for motor proteins dynein and
Mitochondria Site of cellular respiration which is the synthesis of ATP
from Glucose.
Nuclear Envelope The double phosopholipid membrane surrounding
the nucleus.
Nucleoid Region The region in prokaryotes that contains the genetic

melting change from a solid to a liquid

physical change change that does not produce new substances

elements simple substances that cannot be broken down into
simpler substances
chemical symbols shorthand way of writing the names of the
group vertical column of elements in the periodic table
period horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
periodic repeating pattern
atom smallest part of an element that can be identified as that
electron negatively charged particle
neutron neutral particle

Nucleolus The structure inside of the nucleus which assembles

ribosomal subunits from rRNA and proteins.

nucleus center, or core, of an atom

Nucleoplasm The space inside of the nucleus.

proton positively charged particle

Nucleus The organelle containing chromatin, which is DNA, in

Eukaryotic cells.

atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom,

measured in atomic mass units
mass number number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an
energy level place in an atom where an electron is most likely to be
compound substance made up of two or more elements chemically
molecule smallest part of a substance that has all the properties of
the substance
substance any element or compound
mixture two or more substances that have been mixed together but
not chemically combined
chemical formula way of writing the name of a compound using
chemical symbols

Displacement the length of the line between the starting and ending
Vector An example of displacement, it has both magnitude and
Magnitude Can be length, size or amount.
Scalars Magnitude
Speed How fast an object moves
Velocity How fast something is going and it's direction
Free Fall Object falls through the air and air resistance is negligible.
Acceleration A change in speed or direction (or both) aka a change
in velocity
Force A push or a pull that acts on an object.
Net Force overall force (Fnet)
Terminal Velocity The fastest an object can fall.

subscript number written to the lower right of a chemical symbol

K shell can hold up to 2 electrons
L shell can hold up to 8 electrons
M shell can hold up to 18 electrons
kinetic energy of motion
balance intrument used to measure mass
graduated cylinder instrument used to measure volume of a liquid
meniscus ability of liquid to cling to the side of container. Proper
measurement is at the bottom of the curve
product a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical

Fluid Friction Resistance to the motion of an object through a fluid;

includes air resistance.
Friction resistance to motion
Static Friction Resistance to starting motion, always greater than
sliding friction.
Sliding friction Resistance to a moving object sliding over a surface.
Always less than static friction.
Inertia is the tendency of an object to maintain it's state of motion
Newton's 1st Law The state of motion of an object does not change
(stats still or moves with constant velocity) as long as the net force
acting on it is zero.

reactant a chemical substance that is present at the start of a

chemical reaction

Newton's 2nd Law The Acceleration of an object is equal to the net

force acting on it divided by the object's mass. In essence it is a
formula, A=Net Force/Mass

Physics The Study of the physical world (general definition).

Newton's 3rd Law When a force is applied from one object to

another, an equal force is applied from the second object back to the

More Specifically it is everything in between Biology and Chemistry.

Weight force of gravity action on an object's weight.

Frame Of Reference FOR is what is needed to describe motion. It

is a system of objects moving with respect for one another.

Mass Measure of inertia of an object.

Relative Motion Movement in relation to frame of reference.

Distance The length of a path between two points.

Momentum The product (multiply) of an objects mass and velocity.

In other words, to find momentum multiply mass and velocity.
Conservation of Momentum When objects interact and mostly
collide, their total momentum remains constant.