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-.

------

- ..-----

..-.-.--.---

Fonnula Sheet

A: Formula Sheet
1-

Activity A (Bq) is defined as: A

= NA.

where: N is the number of radioactive


disintegration constant ( S-1.)

atoms in the sample and A. is the

2- The radioactive decay law A = A, e-At


or

A=Ao/2D

n=tlT1I2)

where:
t expresses the time at which the activity was Ao , and A.is the disintegration
constant, T 112 is the half-life time.

3-

A. = 0.693
TI/2
where:

T 1/2 is the half-life time.

4- The effective dose rate DO for y-emitters is given as

n0 = O.142AE

(JlSvlh)

d2

Where:
A - activity in ( Mega Bq )
E - energy in (MeV)
f - the ratio of the 'number of a given gamma photon per decay
d - the distance from the source to the point of interest in meters.

5- The effective dose rate D" f0G-mitters


DO=

rA

may also be defined as:

(JlSv/h)

d2

where:
-I' - is the gamma specific factor.
A -activity. ( Mega Bq )
d - distance from the source to the point of interest in meters

6- The effective dose rate DO from a thin point beta source is given as:

n =

5A~
d

.(JlSv/h)

Where:
A - activity in (Mega Bq).
E - energy in MeV averaged over the spectrum.
D - the distance in meters.

7- The effective neutron dose rate DO is given as


DO = 0. 08CA
(JlSv/h)
d2

Where:

V-

C is the neutron to dose conversion factor


A is the number of neutrons emitted from the source per second.

7., P iHl."P

..-.~,..;ii~i:__~

Formula Sheet

8- The annual limit of intake ALl represents the maximum number


of a certain radio nuclide intake, which delivers the annual dose
limit for occupational exposure.
9- The Annual Limit on Intake (ALl) for occupational workers:

ALl

(Bq) = 20 x 10 -31 c,

Where:
Ci: Dose Conversion Coefficient for certain radionuclide in (SvlBq)

10- The Derived Air Concentration (DAC):

(DAC)

(Bq/m3) = ALl

(Bq) 12500

Where:

2500: the inhaled volume of air during the 2000 working hours/year is
3

2500m

,or (breathed air during the work hours)

11- The accumulated doseD with time t is given as


D = DO.t

where DO is the dose rate.

12- The "Inverse Square Law" for dose assessment


D1Sl2 =D2S;
Where:

D} is the dose rate at distance 1.


D2 is the dose rate at distance 2.
S 1 is distance l.
S2is distance 2.

13 - Attenuation equation

Where:

attenuation coefficient.
x thickness of the absorber.
J..L

.."......

Page

..-."

'~"-- .. -.-

30-6-2008

- -------~

._--_._---_._"

--~-

Formula Sheet

14- Effect of build up factor


When build up in the absorber
absorber is given as:
a)
D = B Do e-JU

b)

IS

important,

the dose attenuation

of an

I = B 10 e-ux
Where:
B is the build up factor.

15- Standard Deviation in the gross,count rate


G

-fG

Gross count rate = - c-

Where:
C is the multiple representing the confidence level of interest
G gross count
T count time

16- Standard Deviation


1 N
-'L(Xj
N-1i-!
Where:
CJ'

_X)2

X is the mean value of separated measurement


N

XI, X2, X3, ....

x,

is the total number of measurements.

17- The net count rate N:

N=

-----O'N

t gross

t back

Where:
tgross
tBKG

G
B

the time of gross count


the time of background count only
gross count
background only

18- The standard deviation


calculated from:
Ngross

N back

tgross

t back

aN in the net count

rate

N can be

-2-+-2-

or

,n-n-7,nnR

Formula Sheet

In case of one reading N, which can be considered as a real mean value, the
standard deviation in that reading is calculated as:

19-Percentage statistical error E is defined as:


E%

= (0'I m) x 100

Number of
counts in the
reading

1
4
16
25
100
400
1000
10000
100000
1000000

The standard
deviation 0'

The percentage

1
2
4
5
10
20
31.6
100
316
1000

Error

10'

20-

30'

100
50
. 25
20
10
5
3.16
1
0.316
0.1

200
100
50
40
20
15
6.32
2
0.632
0.2

300
150
75
60
30
20
9.48
3
0.948
0.3

....

20- Formula for dead time correction of the count rate

Where:
Cc: corrected (true) count rate
Co: experimental count rate or observed count rate.
t: detector dead time

21- Relation between Half Value Layer (HVL) & Tenth Value
Layer (TVL):
HVL= O.693//J.

& TVL

2.3/1-1

& TVL = 3.32 HVL

22-The effective decay constant Aeff=Ap+Ab


Where:

Ap - is the physical Half- Life


Ab _ is the biological Half- Life
and hence, the effective Half-life

5-Page

Teff=

rr, *Tp) / rr, +Tp)


30-6-2008

--------------~-"""I

Formula Sheet

23- Range of Alpha Particles


Range of a. particle in air

Rair(em)

= 0.325E312

Where:
R: alpha particle range in em
E: alpha particle energy in MeV
Range of a. particles in other materials can be found from the range in air using the
Bragg-Kleeman rule:

-where:
Rm: is the range in a substance m (em)
p : density ( gm/cnr' )of m
M : atomic weight of m
24- Range of Beta Particles

p particles from a source are not monoenergetic. So it ~ difficult to assign


one range for all the particles.. Therefore, a "Maximum Range" is defined as the
thickness of the absorber required to stop the most energetic p particles.
R(cm) . p(gmlcm3)
3

R(cm) . p(gmlem

= 0.412

= 0.530

E - 0.106

(1.265-0.0954

forE <2.5 MeV


forE >2.5 MeV

In E)

Where:

R: Range in (em)
p : Density of material in (g/cm')
E : Maximum beta energy in Me V
The quantity (R.p) is called the Arial Density or Density TIrickness or Equivalent
Thickness (g/cm").
25- Absorption of

f3 particles

Where:
~ is called Linear Absorption Coefficient in em", defined as the probability of
absorption per unit length in the absorber.
X is shielding thickness
J.lm Mass Absorption
Coefficient, in (cm2/g), may be defined which IS
independent of chemical or physical-state of an absorber, as
p density in (gm/cm3)
....__ ._

6-Page

~._ _ ...

._

.....

~_._...... _ ..'... _, ....

.,...__ ...._._ ........

'0" ..... ;. _ .., ... - ... _- ....,

....

_....., _.' ,,-,.,0.,

_ .....

- ..-_._,,~__

30-6-2008

Formula Sheet
j.lm = !lip
26-

Intrinsic and Absolute Efficiency of the Detector (

l1intr, l1abs )

Tlintr or

= (No of counts recorded)/ (No. of radiation incident on the detector)

Tlabs =

(No of counts recorded )/(No of radiations emitted by the source


llabs=

FEn

Where:
Intrinsic Efficiency

E :

n : Solid
F:

angle (Steradian)
Correction factor (equals one in most cases)

27- Solid Angle

n= ~

(Steradian)

4d2

Where:
S: Area of the detector (cm'')
d : Distance of the detector from the source( em)

28- Counting Rate (C)

C=FE&2A

(count! see)

;/

Where:
Intrinsic Efficiency
Q : Solid angle (Steradian)
A: Activity (Bq)
E :

F:

Correction factor

26.:.Shielding calculation

X=n.HVL
Where:

X:

Shielding thickness
N: number of half value layer thicknesses

27- Gamma Factor


n

r = O.142L:Ej;
.

i=l

Where:
I" - (u Sv.m2/hr. MBq) = (Rm. m2/hr. Curie) /3.7
Ej _- energy in (MeV)
fj - the ratio of the number of a given gamma photon per decay
----- -----

---."

7-Page

~------ ..:...-.---

._._-- --.-~--.. ----

..---~..-.

--. --... -.~'- --- -~-..... - ------._---.-------

.. .._ .....
"

- -- -~- --.- ..---. --- _.


.

---"----

30-6~2008

Information Sheet

-BInformation
bee

B. Information $ht:(~t-3Q-QG-20088

.......

__

_-_

_ ..

-.--- ..-.- .. -

Information Sheet

B. 1. Interactions of Gamma Rays and X Rays with Matter


Photoelectric

Effect

An incident photon spends all its energy to eject an electron (photoelectron) from the atom of
the material

'X,"~ys'orALi~er .

... ...

E1~tro.rf'

r-'

Gamma ray

..

....

N~i:reus...

phCitcn

Domination process for gamma ray energies between 0.0 1 MeV and 0.5 MeV.
Along with the photoelectric, X rays or Auger electrons are emitted
Kinetic Energy of the ejected photoelectron Ee is given by
_

Ee

= Ey.Ben

By = Energy of the incident gamma ray photon


Ben= Binding Energy of the electron in the atom

Compton scattering
Incident photon loses parts of its energy in the ejecting an electron from the atom and is itself
scattered with a lower energy

.:

".-~.

iY""~~:\.

. .. :' ..

.:.:

.:

..::S~r~~~Ray
.

....

... Nucleu$

Most dominant process in the photon energy range between 0.01 -10 MeV
The scattered photon energy is given by :
E'
r

Ey
Ey/
1+ ( IO.511Mev)(1- cose')

Pair production pr:ocess


Photon passing near a nucleus of the material disappears, giving up all its energy to create an
electron - positron pair. Position is electron with a positive charge.

___ .t.u.

---.~-.,

i:
Information Sheet

..

Gamma Ray

Positron

Nucfeus
,-",

:.. :

'.":

..

Dominant process at photon energy above 10 Me V


Minimum photon energy necessary for pair production is :

1.02 MeV

= Sum

of the Rest Mass Energy of the positron and the electron

Rest Mass Energy of an Electron or Positron:


Erest= m, c2 = 0.511 MeV

Relative probability of photon interaction in the iron (Fe) versus energy E

.... :

MeV

B. Information Sh~~t-30-0Q-ZQQ~~

... ... .
:;"

.....

..

r
----_ ... ---

--------------_

..

-------------

Information Sheet

">'I

~
.

: .. "i.';'

iftl

.:,.

;.;.

'~H

~..
,

<

-11' -~hI~!:!Ii~

'~r!

"4-~"-'

:wi

l
....

-,-

.:;

.1

~.1
i

..~.~.

~.
i.

! ~*.-IW.I'j.

MW

~lLiil

..

~_~~!'1

~!F

Information Sheet

";"t

~
:

-,

;,;l

\;':~
:.,

..

::.:::

.:."

.
";-~"~~~:~~

""

"

"

..

.... "li
"U~;"

Information Sheet

::.:':

-:'r

..;

..

-. ., ..
:::.::.t
-?
~'. ::.:

:j

:
.

":'-,:,:,,:, :i..;.

.t:'

Information Sheet

B.2 Interactions

of Heavy Charge Particle

EXCITATION PROCESS
Electron
jump- .
.
.

..~

'.'

,"

'"

..

X-ray Photon

'

. ...

'.

Nucleus

Charged Particl e

IONIZATION PROCESS

..

Electron jump.

...

. :....:.:...:.;;...
__
~~~~C;::::l.:=::;~--~~~e

ChargedParticle

..
.

.
.

.
. . ..
. -.-..
:
..

. ~.",.
.

.
...
..

'. .
.

..
..

..

... .

'

'

....
. .. . .

. Nu6leu~

-The maximum energy for Phosphor is 1,7 MeV

B.

Irr("Qrma.tion Shr.r,t-ln-nn-7nn~~

..
. ..
.

..

....

'

.
....

...

..

.
..

.~
.

...
".,

.. .

.. .

'

..

..

X-ra.y Photon ...

Information Sheet

B.3 Radiation Reactions


Inelastic Scatttering
KE

+ KEN (before) = KEN + KE n + E, (after)

Radioactive Capture Reaction


Neutrons are absorbed giving y radiation

Charged Particle Reaction

Fission Reactions
235U

+ n = Fission Fragments + (2 to 3) n

BA Energy Spectrum of Radiation

.-:

.-

..

.'Yfrornsources.

ene.tgy. .

Information Sheet

B.5 relationship between applied voltage .and the pulse size in gas detector

...

~
':

:- .:"

j .:
i'

:z

.0

.8".
~

C;.,.

[2J

i31

'.j

I
The six region curve, showing the relationship between applied voltage and the pulse size,
which indicate the number of electrons collected on the anode.

B.6 An illustration of the finite solid angle of a radiation detector

..

...

. .
.

'.Detector .
: ::j.': ..
.' :i ;

./

;.

/
/

,.-

..
'
~J'''

..
,

.. ..

.."...... /
"'....d

:~~,~.

.~
!

~
I
I

.!

I
,I.

,.

.,.

-- ..----.--------~--....--..... -.---- ... ------.-----.------------~-

Information Sheet

B.7 Gamma Factor, Half Value Thickness and Total Value Thickness

0.022
0.059

0.351
J).O~ /

0.13
0.226
0.019

8.1d
14.3d

136
257

5.25a
30a
28a
74d
1620a
60d
458a

9.5
70
13000
20
8100

12.3a
127d

12

803-d

65000

2.79

2000000

10

a: Year

r
HVT
TVT

0.72

2.4

1.1
0.66

4.0
2.2

2.0
1.6

.0.55

1.9

1.3

4.7

15.7

6.7
5.4

6.3
4.9

20.3
16.7

4.3

4.3

14.0

1.7

11

d: day, h: hour

Gamma Factor for some gamma emitting radionuclide (tt Sv.m2/hr.MBq)


Half Value Thickness (em)
Total Value Thickness (em)

B.8 Values of C, The flux to equivalent dose rate conversion factor


( (Ps,/()/
)

/cYm

'S>

Neutron Energy
1 Kev
10 Key
100 Key
500 Key
1 Mev
5 Mev
10Mey
,-

C, conversion factor
3.74 x 10-6
3.56 x 10-6
2.17 x 10-3
9.25 x 10-3
1.32 x 10-4
1.56 x 10-4
1.47 x 10-4

Information Sheet

B.9 Properties of the natural radiation decay chains

NATURAL RAiJIOfSOTO.PES DECAY CHAINS


. URAN1UM'OECAY

.' .

THORiuM DECAY
232

.'.
.90

. ....

lQ

a .

Th:tAx'
..

,.lo:

228 no..

5.8

r.cI.

88

: .Jp.

228 'f
. agAC

6.13

228~~/~ .
1,~1.:y

.. go.

t~

let
224J

~l
. .Ra:l.S~

220

'.

86 Rri
10:

.' d

55.6

216"

0.'

Po

84 ..',.....
'.
a. .'

.'1:.'

212 , .

e,04

212 ......

S3S j.

la:

.: y
208'
.'
1:

1.01 h

.
.

s .T I. 3,.q5
.

mln

~~~
. . 20S
40

. 9.

.19K

1.3xl0

. tee
T

. ..(0

1itA

B. InfqrmatiQn~hr.r.t-l0-0n-7,OORR

11

.....'

r STABLE

Pb ..

.82,

. STABLE

Y"~
-

..__ .__._. __._- -_ ..._._ .


;.,....
-='Ii

Information Sheet

B.lO Radiation weighting factors:


Type and energy range
Photons, all energies
Electrons, all energies
Neutrons, energy
< 10 keV
10 keV to 100 keV
> 100 keV to 2 MeV
> 2 MeV to 20 MeV
>20MeV

Radiation weighting
factor, WR
1
1

5
10
.
20
10
5

Protons, other than recoil protons,


Energy >2 MeV

Alpha particles, fission fragments,


heavy nuclei

20

Information Sheet

n.n Tissue

weighting

factors:
Tissue or organ

Tissue weighting
factor, WT
0.20
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.01V'
0.01
0.05

Gonads
Bone marrow (red)
Colon
Lung
Stomach
Bladder
Breast
Liver
Esophagus
Thyroid
Skin
Bone surface
Remainder

'<,

Note that tissue weighting factors are radiation independent and radiation weighting factors
are tissue independent.

B. 12 The Avo
ber isdefined as the number of atoms or molecules
In 0
-gram mole. Which
als = 6.022E23
B.13

sotopes - DECAY
Cs-l

B-DECAY

Cs"""137
Parent state: G.S.
Half life: 30.04 Y(3
Q(gs): 1175.63(17) keY
Branch ratio: 1:0

Beta

...

...

,~~;~4Y'

ray:

Max.E(keV)
1176( 1)
892.1( -)
514.03(23)
Gamma

Avg.E(keV)
416.264 (72)
300.570(68)
174.320(61)

Intensity(rel)
5.6 ( 2)
5.8E-4(8)
94.4 ( 2)

ray:

Energy(keV)
283.5( 1)
661.657( 3)

s,

7/'2,.+:

Intensity (rel)
5.8E-4( 8)
85.1 ( 2)

Inf<JITnation Shr.r.t-'O-On-7,OORR

13

Spin

7/2+
3/2+
1/2+
11/2-

Information Sheet

CO-60

B- DECAY (5.2714 Y)

Co-so ..,
5+.'

...

,5.2714

Parent state: G.S.


Half life: 5.2714
Y(5)
Q(gs): 2823.64(11)
keV
Branch ratio:
1.0

Beta

-.

a.~~.:

ray:

.Max. E (ke V)
1492.(20)
670(20)
317.88 (10)
Gamma ray:
Energy(keV)
346.93(7)
826.28 ( 9)
1173.237 ( 4)
1332.501 ( 5)
2158.77(
9)
2505

Intensity (rel)
0.057(20)
0.022(LT)
99.925(20)

Avg.E(keV)
625.87(
5)
274.93(
5)
95.77 ( 4)

5+

Spin

2+
2+
4+

Intensity(rel)
0.0076(
5)
0.0076(
8)
99.9736(
7)
99.9856(
4)
0.00111(18)
2.0E-6(
4)

TC- 99 IT DECAY
Parent state: 142.6836(11)
keV
Half life: 6.01 H(l)
Q(cp): () keV
Branch ratio:
0.999963
6)

V~:-'...
.. '"

T(:--9.9.
" ~.~~ii
6~81
. .....

.......... \3.~_,._~iiii+_ .

.TC"-99'

Gamma ray: for absolute intensity


Energy (keV)
Intensity(rel)
2.1726(
4)
140.511(
1)
100
142.63(
3)
0.021(
2)

multiply

by 0.8906(24)

..

_.,".. 6

_:r_/2_+_ -.
H ..... , .

__

aa.. e14a.kl.!il.
s ".
e

Information Sheet

1-131 B- DECAY
Parent
state:
G.S.
Half life:
8.02070
0(11)
Q(gs):
970.8(6)
keV
Branch
ratio:
1.0

I-13t
.a~02a7aD

_-__7;2:+

. ..

,s:eZliH0....
D

_~-I!I
_
...e~$I788
.=? 113

? .

8,65, ?

7.'2.7 7-

.. 89.98",.- ---""L'
EI'.85 7.
8'.48 ?

","-T5"2?'i::::+'~~-~"-----l,,;--,-..,....r-r-~-~--'-"-~~~~

0~7229

~~"''':~':::;::====:=:;:''''l=FH~=FF:;::;:~:::;::=====:::;::~:
g~~

:';";;;;;;;;;$;~~*t!#~~*i~~~.~~~~;~

,.~3~;'2~+~

',-,1:;.;:1-,/2:;;..,::-_"
.-:1:.::.,!',::::..2+"-3/2+

-"-,--,--,--:-,-,,..::.1t.,.-"+.',..-'----.:1:.--1-'""'"'--+. .,.''-1' f-"'t-J.Lo.r-' "- 0.1639


....,.--..::.8i-' "'------j-....,:...;...,.-t-"<...,jf-"'--+-r 1- 0.8882
.S ~-IIIIIII_....lIiI_

__-

:Xe-131'
Beta ray:
Max.E(keV)
806.9(
-)
629.7(
-)
606.3(
-)
333.8(
-)
303.9(
-)
247.9(
-)

Avg.E(keV)
283.24(23)
200.22(23)
191.58 (23)
96.62(20)
86.94 (20)
69.36(19)

intensity
Ga=a ray: for absolute
Energy (keV)
Intensity
(z e L)
80.l85(
2)
3.21 ( 4)
85.9 ( 2)
O.OOOll(
6)
163.930(
8)
0.330(
4)
177.214(
2)
232.18(15)
O.0039(
5)
272.498(17)
0.0707(13)
7.51 ( 6)
284.305(
5)
0.0022(10)
295.8(
2)
0.0058(
7)
302.4(
2)
O.095(
2)
318.088(16)
324.651(25)
0.026(
3)
0.335(26)
325.789(
4)
358.4(
2)
O.020(
7)
100.0(
7)
364.489(
5)
404.814(
4)
0.067(
2)
O.OOg( 3)
449.6(
2)
503.004(
4)
0.441(
4)
636.989(
4)
8.78(11)
0.266(
5)
642.719(
5)
722.911(
5)
2.17 ( 3)

Intensity(rel)
0.48(
1)
0.050(23)
89.9 ( 8)
7.27 (10)
0.651(23)
2.10 ( 3)
multiply

1'1

Spin

by

0.817(5)

7/2+
11/29/25/2+
7/2+
7/25/2+

.J/,\;

0.088a

Information Sheet

c- 14

B- DECAY

Parent state: G.S.


Half life: 5730 Y(40)
Q(gs): 156.473(9)
keV
Branch ratio:

Beta

. C....14.
5730'1'

0+

5730

Y..

. .

....
.....
<0,).:565

lae;a0~

........
....: ...
. ."1+
... __
a.eeee

. ~1--14 ..

ray:
Max.E(keV)
156.5(
-)

P-32

Avg.E(keV)
49.47((null))

Intensity(rel)
100

Spin

0+
1+

Intensity(rel)
100.

Spin

1+
0+

B-DECAY
. j+

Parent state: G.S.


Half life: 14.26
0(4)
Q(gs): 1710.3(6)
keV
Branch ratio:
1. 0 .

Beta

ray:

Max.E(keV)
1710.3(
-)

Avg.E(keV)
694.9( 3)

Information Sheet

IR -192 B- DECAY (73.827 D)

Ir-192
4+

73.821 D 73.821 D
1.4597

.u:~"'_

59.46

3+ .

4+

5.8H

43.55

Parent state: G.S.


D(13)
Half life: 73.827
1459.7(19)
keV
Q (gs) :
0.9513
Branch ratio:

hjg~i

4+

1U
It

2+

0+

Max.E (keV)
672 ( 4)
535( 2)
240(15)
81.7 ( -)
75.7 ( -)
53.5 ( -)

intensity

Avg.E (keV)
209.9( 7)
162.1 ( 7)
71. 6 ( 6)
21.1 ( 5)
19.5 ( 5)
5)
13.6(

Gamma ray: for absolute intensity


Intensity (zeL)
Energy (keV)
3)
0.199(25)
136.3426(
176.98(
0.0043(12)
4)
-r214.7 ( 5)
5)
280.27(24)
0.009(
28.72(14)
295.95650(15)
308.45507(17)
29.68(15)
314.80(25)
316.50618(17)
82.71(21)
31~L32 (25)
5)
415.4(
7)
416.4688(
0.669(21)
3)
468.0688(
47.81(24)
5)
0.0023(
485.30(11)
7)
58B.5810(
4.517(22)
593.49(13)
0.0421(17)
599.41(15)
0.0039(17)
604.41105
(25)
8.20 ( 4)
612.4621(
3)
5.34 ( 8)
739( 1)
765.8 ( 3)
0.0013( 6)
7)
884.5365(
0.291 ( 7)
1061.48(
4)
1)
0.053(
2)
1089.9(
0.0012(
3)
3)
1378.20(15)
0.0012(

multiply

~, Information

Shf'f't.1n.nfi.7nn~~

by

1.0512(14)

Intensity(rel)
48.0( 3)
41. 43 (20)
5.60(
3)
0.1027(25)
0.0039(17)
0.0035(
5)
multiply

17

B.7846

9.6125

by

0.3165
0.aaae

Pt-192
for absolute

0.92B9

2+

Beta ray:

1.2010

Spin

1. 0512

4+
4+
3+
4+
3(5) .,
3+

Information Sheet

IR-192 B-DECAY (1.45 M)

Ir-192
Parent (9)state:
56.74
keV

1-

1.45

Half life: 1.45 M(5)


Q (gs): 1459.7 (19) keV
Branch ratio:
1.75E-4

M 1.45

__

14'29.~

45.71.
413.1313

1.4597

2+
2
'-2~+~-----4~~:---------:::t-''-r-

....8+..

..

Pt-192
Beta

ray:

for absolute

Max.E(keV)
1511
1185
898
Gamma ray:
Energy(keV)
295.95650 (15)
316.50618(17)
612.4621(
3)

intensity

Avg.E (keV)
537.4(8)
409.2(
8)
294.2(
8)

by 5714.29

Intensity(rel)
0.007
0.008
0.0025

Intensity(rel)

fM
11

multiply

[II

Spin

10+
2+
2+

B.6125

e. 3165
B. 0008

Information Sheet

CO-57 EC DECAY

C0-57
211.14 D 271.74 D
~
_a.
711:-

Parent state: G.S.


Half life: 271.74 0(6)
Q(gs): 836.0(4) keV
Branch ratio:
1.0.

a'7a68

..;;.3t2..;;.-

..~~_=_...._Fe-57
....512""'"-

EC: total

intensity

Gamma ray:
Energy (keV)
14.4129( 6)
122.06065(12)
136.47356(29)
230.4( 4)
339.69(21)
352.33(21)
366.8( 3)
570.09(20)
692.41( 7)
706.54(22)

= 100.0

Intensity(rel)
9.16(15)
85.60(17)
10.68( 8)
4E-4 ( 4)
3. 7E-3 ( 3)
3.0E-3( 3)
1.2E-3( 3)
0.0158(10)
0.149(10)
5. OE-3 ( 5)

B. Information Sheet-;?Q-QG-20088

19

0.3669

0.1365

MM~

--

---

-------------------- -----~

..~;;"..

Information Sheet

B.14

Materials density:
1

Water

-0.001293

air at ooC, 760 mm Hg


air at 200C, 760 mm Hg'

0.001205

- Aluminum
Iron
Cadmium
Gold
Lead

19.32
11.35

Indium
Silver
Co er
Iron
Uranium

7.28
10.50
8. 94
7.86
18.68

2.79
7.8

8.65

B.IS Some Units, Constants and Conversion Factors


B.15.I. SI Prefixes

1012

Tera

10-1

Deci

109

Gega

10-2

Centi

106

Mega

10-3

Milli

103

Kilo

10-6

Micro

102

Recto

10-9

Nano

101

Deka

da

10-12

Pi co

B.IS.2 RADIOACTIVITY

1 curie (Ci)

B.15.3 Exposure

(A)

3.7 x 10

10

dps = 3.7 x 10

(X)

X =dQI dm in air by Gamma or x -ray


1 CIK
_'",/
1 R=2.58
- ?kg in air
oentgen (R)
= 1 esu/cc of standard air
1 R 1 Rad= 1 rem

_____
~~=

=:

10

Becquerel

(Bq)

,--.

Information Sheet

B.15.4

Absorbed Dose (D)


1 Rad

= 0.01

Gray (Gy)

= 0.01

JlK.g =100 ergs/g

B.15.5 Dose Equivalent (H) & Effective Dose (E)


1rem

= 0.01

Sievert (Sv)

B.15.6 The percentage of nuclei remaining radioactivity as a function of half life

1
2
3

50
25
12.5
6.25
3.125
1.56
0.78
0.39
0.195
0.0975

5
6
7

8
9
10

B.15.7 Classification of Neutrons


1. Thermal Neutrons
2. Slow Neutrons
3. intermediate Energy Neutrons
4. Fast Neutrons

E= 0.25eV
E< O. 5eV
O. 5eV <E < 10 KeV
E > 10KeV

15.8 HVL values for fast neutrons in Concrete

7
11
14

5
10
15

B.15.9

16

Concrete Equivalences for 1 MeV Neutrons

71

Information Sheet

B.16. CATEGORIES

OF PACKAGES AND OVERPACKS

Not more than 0.005 mSv/h

1- WHITE

O<TI$l

More than 0.005 mSv/h but


not more than 0.5 mSv/h

11- YELLOW

1<TI$l0

More than 0.5 mSv/h


but not more than 2 mSv/h

111- YELLOW

. 0

(a)

TI>IO

More than 2 mSv/h but


not more than 10 mSv/h

(a) (TI is not greater than 0.005)


(b) Shall also be transported

under exclusive use

Ill- YELLOW
Under exclusive use

",',"1

,~:11

B.17. SUMMARY OF PORTABLE RADIATION SURVEY INSTRUMENTS

G.M. DETECTORS
Detector

a.' End Window,


Pancake

Type of
Radiation
Measured

Typical Units

Primary Use

a,~,y,

CPM (mR/hr)*

Personnel Surveys
Contamination surveys

x-ray

Typical
Background

< 100 CPM

b. Side Wall

~,y, x-ray

CPM (mRlhr)*

Personnel Surveys
Contamination surveys

23

100 CPM

Advantages

Disadvantages

Inexpensive
Simple, reliable
Rapid response
Sensitive to most
contamination.

Large dead time (loss of


.counts at high count rates)
Will not detect low energy
alphas and betas (a < 4
Mev, ~ < 70 key)
Energy dependent.

Inexpensive
Simple, reliable
Rapid response
Easily adjusted to
respond to only
gammas .x-rays,

Large dead time


Will not detect alphas of
all or low energy betas and
betas 300 kev)
3. Energy dependent.

t;;;;;
\'

---,-

__I

.l'U);J,_,n .

"

lum:JJlInTJ.rHiuILiCWr""I,

1i'l.lllJ1Wlik~H'1

.-

Information

Sheet

PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS
Detector

Advantages

Disadvan tages

Type of
Radiation
Measured

Typical Units

Primary Use

Typical
Background

a. Gas Flow

CPM

Alpha surveys

Near 0

Detects alpha only


Good counting gas
Insensitive to himidity

Relatively
heavy
Flammable gas

b. Air

a.

CPM

Alpha Surveys

Near 0

Detects alphas only


Light weight
No special gas required

1. Humidity
sensitive

Near 0

Detects neutrons only


Can be designed to
read out in mrern/hr.

Often heavy,
cumbersome.

.
CPM (mRlhr)*

c. BF-3

B. Information Sheet-30-06-20088
-

Neutron Surveys

:24
~

\1")

;I UI!Lu., . ".,

'-'".1..."""11"

,_....

I~)

,~,~ll
j~~

SCINTILLATION
Type of
Radiation
Measured

Detector

a. NaI
( Sodium iodide)

b.ZnS
( Zink sulphide)

y,

x-ray

Typical Units

Primary Use

CPM(flRJhr)*

Very low level surveys

DETECTORS
Typical
Background

1000's CPM

fory and x-rays

CPM

Alpha Surveys

Disadvantages

Advantages

Near 0

Very sensitive
Rapid Response.

Detects only y' s,


x-rays Relatively
expensive High
background
Fragile.

Detects alphas only


Light weight

Sensitive to light
leaks
Misalignment of
prism

IONIZING
CHAMBERS

* Appropriate

y, x-ray

mR/hr, RIhr

(~)*

(flR/hr) *
(mrad/hr for ~)*

factor and/or instrument

Measurement of
radiation hazard from
y and x-ray sources

Near 0
(l 0-1 OOflR/hr)*

Directly measures mR/hr


Virtually no deadtime
Can measure very high
levels (RJmin).

Slow response
Sensitive to
temperature,
pressure,
humidity.

6-:-.-

design required.

25

B. Information Sheet-

~n

-.

, , 'jtjlnmll'lnl..

~__

. __ ",ml~!mHIII"L_

= ..
,::-__~]!llm]uIIL

--,,,,."I~111111~1~lJu.,
__

u.IJ.1~1I~1.1~1.s1.iUL.:II.....-iIlUIIII.I.w

._~u'UIl(I~.~I.W

~~
""--'uu

C4
WUll~loII.n.lfi-----'i