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CE 3500 Fluid Mechanics / Fall 2014 / City College of New York

Assignment #3

1 Flow from a Tank


Water is discharging from a tank through a convergent-divergent mouthpiece. The exit from the
tank is rounded so that losses there may be neglected and the minimum diameter is D 2 =0.05 [ m ] .

If the head in the tank above the centre-line of the mouthpiece is h=1.83 [ m ] . The absolute
pressure at the minimum area is p 2 = w 2.44 [ m ] and the atmospheric pressure p 0 = w 10 [ m ]
a) What is the discharge?
b) What is the diameter ( D 3 ) at the exit?
c) What would the discharge be if the divergent part of the mouth piece were removed.

a)

2 ( p 0 p2 + w h )
U 22
p 0 + w h= p 2 +w
U 2 =
w
2

2 ( p 0 p 2+ w h )
4Q
=
Q= D 22
2

w
D2

Q=( 0.05 [ m ]) 9.81 [ m s2 ]


2

p0 p 2 + w h
8 w

10 [ m ]2.44 [ m ]+1.83 [ m ]
8

Q=0.0025 [ m 2 ] 11.51 [ m 2 s2 ] =0.026 [ m3 s ]

CE 3500 Fluid Mechanics / Fall 2014 / City College of New York


Assignment #3
b)

U 23
U 23
p 1= p 3 , p 1 + w h= p 3+w
w h=w
U 3= 2 g h
2
2

D 23
Q
Q
Q
4Q
U 3=
A3=

=
D 3=
=0.0752 [ m ]
A3
4
2 g h
2 g h
2 g h
c)

U 22
U 22
p 1= p 2 , p 1 + w h= p 2+ w
w h= w
U 2= 2 g h
2
2
D 22
Q =U 2 A2 Q = 2 g h Q=0.0118 [ m3 s1 ]
4

CE 3500 Fluid Mechanics / Fall 2014 / City College of New York


Assignment #3

2 Variable Area Horizontal Pipe (3.3)


Water flows steadily through the variable area horizontal pipe shown in the figure below. The
centerline velocity is given by U =10 (1+ x) i ft / s , where x is in feet. Viscous effects are
p
neglected. (a) Determine the pressure gradient,
(as a function of x ) needed to produce this
x
flow. (b) If the pressure at section (1) is 50 psi , determine the pressure at (2) by (I) integration of
the pressure gradient obtained in (a), (II) application of the Bernoulli equation.

a)

p
U
p
= U

= 100 ( 1+ x )
x
x
x
l

b)

px dx=100100 x dx=100 l + 12 l 2
0
0

( )
1
slug
ft
p =50 [ psi ]100 [ ]1.94
7.5 [ ft ] 1
[ ft ]
[ in. ]=39.896 [ psi ]
s
p 2 = p1 100

l2
+l
2

U =10 ( 1+ x ) , U 1 =10 [ ft s1 ] , U 2 =10 ( 1+l ) [ ft s1 ]


p 1 +

( )

U 21
U2
l 2 +2l +12 1
l2
= p 2 + 2 p2= p1 102
= p1 100 +l
2
2
2
2

CE 3500 Fluid Mechanics / Fall 2014 / City College of New York


Assignment #3

3 Circular Streamlines (3.12)


Water flows around the vertical two-dimensional bend with circular streamlines and constant
velocity as shown in the figure below. If the pressure is P 1 [ F L2 ] at point (1), determine the
pressure at point (2), (3). [ P 2 [ F L 2] , P 3 [F L2 ] ]. Assume that the velocity profile is uniform as
indicated.

= , =r , a =r 2 = U
c
r
n
r

p
U2
dz
p
U2
dz

=0

+ =0 ;
r

dn
r
r
dr
p U 2 ln r + z=C ; p 1 U 21 ln r 1+ z 1= p 2 U 22 ln r 2 + z 2

( )

d
d
2
d
z 1=0 and z 2= p 2 = p1 + U 2 ln
g
2
R+d
2
R+

z 1=0 and z 3=d p 3= p 1 + U 2 ln

( R+R d ) g d

CE 3500 Fluid Mechanics / Fall 2014 / City College of New York


Assignment #3

4 Confined Flows (3.44)


Water flows steadily through the large tanks in figure below. Determine the water depth, h A [ L] .
Hint: Since water is incompressible, with regards to Mass Conservation, Q=Q A=Q B known as
Continuity equation, where Q A=V A AA ,and Q B=V B AB . V A o r B is velocity of flow, and A A o r B
is the cross-section area of the tubes with diameters d A or d B .

U A= 2 gh A And U B= 2 gh B
Q=

UA UB
A
=
U A=U B B
A A AB
AA

( )

2 g h A=

dB
dA

( )

2 g h B h A=

dB 4
h
dA B

CE 3500 Fluid Mechanics / Fall 2014 / City College of New York


Assignment #3

5 Flow through Pipe Contraction (3.52)


Water flows through the pipe contraction shown in figure below. For the given h[ L ] determine
the flow rate as a function of the diameter of the small pipe, D[ L] . Hint : Since water is
incompressible, with regards to Mass Conservation, Q =Q d =Q D known as Continuity equation,
where Q d=U d A d ,and Q D =U D A D . U d and U D are velocities of flow at two cross-sections
with area Ad and A D and diameters d or D .

p d +
U d=

U 2d
U2
U2
+ g z d = p D + D + g z D = p d + g h+ g z D d = g h U d = 2 g h
2
2
2

Q
d2
Q= 2 g h
Ad
4

CE 3500 Fluid Mechanics / Fall 2014 / City College of New York


Assignment #3

6 Two layer Tank (3.80)


If the viscous effects are neglected and the tank is large, determine the flow rate from the tank
shown in figure below. Hint: flow rate of a fluid passing through a certain cross-section is equal
to the product of Velocity and Area of that cross-section.

p 1 +

U1
U
+ g z 1= p 2 + 2 + g z 2
2
2

p 1=water g h1 +oil g h2= g ( h 1+SGh2 ) , p 2 =0 U 1=0 , z 1 =z 2=0


U 22
water g ( h1 + SGh 2) =
U 2 = 2 g ( h1 + SGh 2 )
2
Q =U 2 A2 =

d2
2 g ( h1 +SGh 2 )
4