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Lecture notes

Wireless Techniques by Jorma Kekalainen

Wireless Techniques
Jorma Kekalainen

Contents
Introduction to wireless systems and
accompanied problems and their solutions

Introduction to Wireless Networks

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Lecture notes

Wireless Techniques by Jorma Kekalainen

Information Sources
1.

Usually, the most precise sources are the original


sources, i.e. standards, recommendations or other
specifications.
You can pull them from the Internet e.g.
-

ITU-T www.itu.int/ITU-T/
IETF www.ietf.org
3GPP www.3gpp.org

or from elsewhere.
2. You can look for material from corresponding
courses in the Internet
3. Some may find that the books are easier to read.
4. Many slides are adapted from the following books or
lecture notes based on those books
3

Books

Elbert: The Satellite Communication Applications Handbook


Freeman: Radio System Design for Telecommunications
Forouzan: Data Communications and Networking
Geier: Wireless LANs
Goldsmith: Wireless Communications
Jamalipour: The Wireless Mobile Internet Architectures, Protocols and
Services
Kolawole: Satellite Communication Engineering
Kurose et al.: Computer Networks: A Top Down Approach
Murthy et al.: Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols
Pahlavan et al.: Principles of Wireless Networks: A Unified Approach
Rappaport: Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice
Roddy: Satellite Communications
Skolnik: Introduction to Radar Systems
Stallings: Wireless Communication and Networks
Tse: Fundamentals of Wireless Communication

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Wireless Techniques
Chapter1: Introduction to Wireless
Networks

What is wireless network?


A wireless network is a type of network that
uses unguided high-frequency radio waves
rather than wires to communicate between
nodes.
A wireless network is a flexible data
communication system used as an alternative
to, or an extension of a wired network.
Digital connections through radio waves

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Wireless communication systems


Wireless communication system
Any electrical communication system that uses a
naturally occurring communication channel, such as
air, water, earth

Examples:
Broadcast: Radio, TV, pagers, satellite TV, etc.
Two way: walkie talkie, cell phones, satellite
phones, Wireless Local Area Networks, etc.

Fundamentally different from wired networks

What is wireless communication?


Any form of communication that does not require the
transmitter and receiver to be in physical contact
through guided media
Electromagnetic wave propagated through free-space
RF, Microwave, IR, Optical

Simplex: one-way communication (e.g., radio, TV)


Half-duplex: two-way communication but not simultaneous
(e.g., push-to-talk radios)
Full-duplex: two-way communication (e.g., cellular phones)
Frequency-division duplex (FDD)
Time-division duplex (TDD)

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What is wireless networking?


The use of infra-red (IR) or radio frequency
(RF) signals to share information and resources
between devices
Promises anytime, anywhere connectivity
Two important challenges
communication over wireless link
handling mobile user who changes point of
attachment to network

Media buzzword
Mobile Internet

Unguided media = Wireless


Unguided media transport electromagnetic
waves without using a wire.
This type of communication is often referred
to as wireless communication using

radiowaves
microwaves
infrared
light

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Wireless systems
Cellular
With a big emphasis on voice communication

Terrestrial microwave and satellite systems


WiFi
Local networks over wireless, with infrastructure
802.11a,b,g,n

WiMAX
Internet provider last mile replacement

Ad Hoc Network
Local networks over wireless, without infrastructure

Sensor network
Radar and radio telescope systems
11

Some wireless applications


Technology
FM radio
Cordless phones
802.15.4 (Zigbee)
Cellphones
Satellite radio (XM, Sirius)
802.11b/g (Wi-Fi)
802.15.1 (Bluetooth)
802.15.3 (WiMedia)
802.11a (Wi-Fi)
802.16 (WiMAX)

Frequency
100 MHz
800 MHz, 2.4GHz, 5.8GHz
860 MHz, 915MHz, 2.4GHz
900MHz, 1.8GHz, 1.9GHz
2.3 GHz
2.4GHz
2.4GHz
3-11GHz
5.1-5.3GHz, 5.8GHz
2-10, 11-66GHz

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TV-channels Ch5 Ch69 and corresponding frequencies ~180MHz 860MHz

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Wireless is hot
The number of worldwide mobile cellular subscribers
increased from 34 million in 1993 to ~5 billion
subscribers by the end of 2010
The many advantages of cell phones are evident to all
anywhere, anytime, unwired access to the global telephone
network via a highly portable lightweight device.

A similar explosion in the use of wireless Internet


devices is just in progress.

13

, but note
If you are not mobile user, it is often more
efficient to go wired (especially optical)
No interference
If you need more bandwidth: just add a bunch of
fibers
As fiber is much cheaper than digging and
resurfacing streets, put in more fiber than you
would ever need (dark fiber)

Often only the last mile is wireless

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Introduction to Wireless Networks

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Early forms of wireless communication


Primitive
Sound (e.g., beating of drums)
Sight (e.g., smoke signals)

Disadvantages of these forms of communication

Limited alphabets
Noisy
Broadcast (no privacy or security)
Limited distance (or requires relaying which is
unreliable)
Require line-of-sight between transmitter and
receiver
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Wireless history
1893: Tesla demonstrated the first ever wireless information
transmission in New York
1897: Marconi demonstrated transmission of radio waves to a ship at
sea 30 km away
1915: Wireless telephony established
1920's: Radio broadcasting became popular
1930's: TV broadcasting began
1940: Radar
1945: Geostationary communication satellite idea
1946: First public mobile telephone service in US
1947: Cellular concept
1960's: Bell Labs developed cellular concept-- brought mobile
telephony to masses
1960s: Communications satellites launched
1970's: IC technology advances cellular telephony-- modern cellular
era
1980s: NMT
16
1990s: GSM

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Wireless vs. cable


Difficult media
interference and noise
quality varies over space
and time
shared with unwanted
wireless devices

Full connectivity cannot


be assumed
hidden node problem

Multiple international
regulatory requirements
Justification:

Cable
medium characteristics
are very stable
nearly interference
immunity
most links are switched
point-to-point

Network Capacity
Easier to run more cable
or fiber to expand
capacity than to find
unused spectrum.

Convenience
Cost
17

Characteristics of wireless
communications
Convenience and reduced cost
Service can be deployed faster than fixed service
No cost of cable plant
Service is mobile, deployed almost anywhere

Complicated design and management


Device limitations (power supply, display)
Shared medium
Other users create interference
Must develop ways to share the channel

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Characteristics of wireless channel


Strongly random (unreliable) channel
(attenuation, fading, shadowing, interference)
Noisy, time-varying channel
BER varies by orders of magnitude
Environmental conditions affect transmission

Limited bandwidth
Authorities determine the frequency allocation
ISM band for unlicensed spectrum (902-928 MHz,
2.4-2.5 GHz, 5.725-5.875 GHz)

Requires intelligent signal processing and


communications to make efficient use of
limited bandwidth in error-prone environment
19

Electromagnetic spectrum for


telecommunications

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Introduction to Wireless Networks

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Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication

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Propagation methods

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RF bands

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Radio wave propagation


Propagation of the radio wave in free space
depends heavily on the frequency of the
signal and obstacles in its path.
There are some major effects on signal
behavior

Reflection and multipath


Diffraction or shadowing
scattering
Building and vehicle penetration
Fading of the signal
Interference

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Factors affecting wave propagation

(1) direct signal


(2) diffraction
(3) vehicle penetration
(4) interference
(5) building penetration

25

Physical media: radio


signal carried in
electromagnetic
spectrum
no physical wire
propagation
environment effects:

reflection
obstruction by objects
interference
etc.

Radio link types:


terrestrial microwave
LAN
Wi-Fi

wide-area
cellular

satellite

geosynchronous versus low


altitude

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Introduction to Wireless Networks

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Wireless transmission

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Note

Radio waves are used for broadcast


communications, such as radio and
television, and paging systems.

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Note

Microwaves are used for communication


such as cellular telephones, satellite
networks, and wireless LANs.

29

Note

Infrared signals can be used for shortrange communication in a closed area


using line-of-sight propagation.

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EM Spectrum for telecom


Most spectra licensed; license can be very
expensive (cellular);
Infrared, ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical)
band, and amateur radio bands are licensefree

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Licensed and unlicensed spectrum


Licensed
Cell phones, police & fire radio, taxi dispatch, etc.

Unlicensed
All unlicensed bands impose power limits
Industrial, Scientific, Medical (ISM) bands
e.g. (900MHz, 2.4GHz, 5.8GHz)

Unlicensed Personal Communication System (UPCS)


e.g. 1.910-1.920 GHz and 2.390-2.400 GHz

Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure


(UNII) bands
e.g. 5.2GHz
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ISM (Industry Science Medical)


2400-2483,5 MHz (USA, Europe)
2471-2497 MHz (Japan)
Max effective radiated power 100 mW (USA 1W)

5150-5350 MHz
Max effective radiated power 200 mW, only available in
indoor applications

5470-5725 MHz
Max effective radiated power 1 W

Utilized radio technology should be robust against


interference (spread spectrum)

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2.4 GHz interference

Micro-wave oven
Bluetooth
802.11b/g WLAN
Cordless phone
Analog video link

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Evolution of wireless systems


Marconi invented the wireless telegraph in 1896
Communication by encoding alphanumeric characters in signal
Sent telegraphic signals across the Atlantic Ocean

First public mobile (car-based) telephone system


(MTS) introduced in 1946
Analog frequency modulation
High power BS tower to cover 80 km radius
Inefficient

Improved mobile telephone system (IMTS) developed


in 1960
Full duplex services and direct-dialing
A couple of dozen FM channels with BWs of 25-30 kHz
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Pre-cellular wireless
One highly-elevated, high-powered
antenna in a large service area
Small number of channels (few users)
Analog transmission, inefficient use of
spectrum (no frequency reuse)
Very low capacity, power-inefficient

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Evolution of wireless systems


Cellular concept
originally proposed by D. Ring in 1947
Exploits the attenuation of radio signal with distance to achieve
frequency reuse.
Bell Labs began work on cellular telephone system in the late 1960s.

Handover was not solved until the development of


microprocessor, efficient remote-controlled RF
synthesizer, and switching center.
1G Cellular System
Designed in 1970s, deployed in early 1980s
Handover performed at BS based on received power

The term handover or handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing


call, when the phone is moving away from the area covered by one cell and entering
the area covered by another cell the call is transferred to the second cell in order
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to avoid call termination when the phone gets outside the range of the first cell

Cellular systems

Re-use channels maximizes capacity


Geographic regions are divided into cells
Frequencies/timeslots/codes reused at spatially separated locations.
Base stations/MTSOs (Mobile Telephone Switching Offices) coordinate
handover and control functions
Shrinking cell size increases capacity - but also networking burden.
Note: Co-channel interference (between same-color cells below).

BASE
STATION

MTSO

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Cellular architecture
- Infrastructure-based networks
- All units are fixed in location except mobile units
- BS and MSC are connected via wirelines
- Communication between BS and mobile unit is wireless

WIRELINE

Cell
Base Station (BS)
Mobile unit

NETWORK

Wireless Links
Wired Links
Mobile Switching Center (MSC)

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Cellular phone networks


Los Angeles

BS

BS

Internet
MTSO

PSTN

New York
MTSO

BS

40

Public ServiceTelephone Network (PSTN)

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Wireless revolution
Cellular has been the fastest growing sector of
communication industry; over 5 billion users worldwide
Modern-day generations of wireless (pre-cellular: 0G):
First Generation (1G e.g. NMT, ca. 1982 - ): Analog 25 or 30
kHz FM, voice only, mostly vehicular communications.
Second Generation (2G e.g. GSM, ca. 1992 - ): Narrowband
TDMA and CDMA, voice and low bit-rate data, portable units.
2.5G - 2.75G: Enhancements to 2G network for increased data
transmission capabilities (e.g. GPRS + EDGE, ca. 2000 - ).
Third Generation (3G - UMTS/IMT-2000, ca. 2002- ):
Wideband TDMA and CDMA, voice and high bit-rate data
4th Generation (4G/B3G, ca. 2010 - ): Heterogeneous network
of several interacting systems/networks, multitude of services
including high-capacity multimedia

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WWAN WPAN
Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN )& Cellular
3G

Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN)


802.16

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)


802.11, Hiperlan2

Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)


802.15.1 ~ Bluetooth, 802.15.4 ~ Zigbee

Note:

Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN)


IEEE 802.15.3 (UWB)
Wireless sensor network (WSN)
IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee)
IEEE 1451.5 Intelligent actuators

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Hierarchy of networks

WirelessWAN

integration of heterogeneous fixed and


mobile networks with varying
transmission characteristics
regional

WirelessMAN
metropolitan area

WirelessLAN
campus-based

WirelessPAN
in-house
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Wireless access networks


shared wireless access
network connects end system
to router
via base station aka access
point
router
wireless LANs: 802.11

base
station

mobile
hosts

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Why use wireless access networks?


Provides mobility
A moving user station can send and receive messages
no matter where it is located

Added convenience / reduced cost


Enables communications without adding expensive
infrastructure
Cheaper to use cellular telephony rather than laying
wires to each home
Can easily setup temporary wireless LANs (e.g.
disaster situations)
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Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)


Internet
Access
Point

WLANs connect local computers (~100 m range)


Breaks data into packets
Channel access is shared (random access)
Backbone Internet provides best-effort service
- Poor performance in some applications
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802 wireless standards


WWAN

IEEE 802.22

Range

IEEE 802.20
WMAN

WiMax
IEEE 802.16

WLAN
ZigBee
802.15.4 Bluetooth
802.15.1

WPAN
0.01

0.1

WiFi
802.11

1
10
Data Rate (Mbps)

802.15.3c

100

1000

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Some 802 standards


IEEE 802.22 is a standard for Wireless Regional Area Network
(WRAN) using white spaces in the TV frequency spectrum.
The development of the IEEE 802.22 WRAN standard is aimed
to bring broadband access to hard-to-reach, low population
density areas.
By using just one TV channel (a bandwidth of 6 or 7 or 8 MHz)
the approximate maximum bit rate is 19 Mbit/s at a 30 km
distance.
IEEE 802.20 - Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA)
operating in licensed bands below 3.5 GHz, optimized for IPdata transport, with peak data rates per user in excess of 1
Mbps.
It supports various vehicular mobility classes up to 250 km/h in
a MAN environment.
802.15.3c - This millimeter-wave WPAN operates in clear band
including 57-64 GHz unlicensed band.
In addition, the mm-wave WPAN allows very high data rate (over
3 Gbit/s) applications such as high speed internet access (video
on demand, HDTV, etc.), real time streaming and wireless data
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bus for cable replacement.

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Some wireless LAN standards (Wi-Fi)

802.11b

802.11a

Standard for 5GHz


OFDM
Up to 54 Mbps, 100-200m range
HiperLAN in Europe

802.11g

Standard for 2.4GHz ISM band


Frequency hopped spread spectrum
Up to 11 Mbps , < 500 m range

Standard in both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands


OFDM
Speeds up to 54 Mbps, 100-200m range

802.11n

Standard in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz band


Adaptive OFDM /MIMO (2-4 antennas)
Speeds up to 600Mbps, approx. 200 m range
Other advances in packetization, antenna use, etc.

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) - the total frequency band is split into a number of channels.
The broadcast data is spread across the entire frequency band by hopping between the channels in a
pseudorandom fashion.
OFDM - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a multi carrier transmission technique capable of
supporting high speed services whilst still being bandwidth efficient. It achieves this by forcing multiple
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sub-carriers together. However, to ensure these adjacent sub-carriers do not cause excessive
interference, they must be orthogonal or 90 to one another.

IEEE 802.15 (WPANs)


802.15.1 adoption of Bluetooth standard into
IEEE
802.15.2 coexistence of WPANs and WLANs
in the 2.4GHz band
802.15.3 high rate WPAN
802.15.3a (UWB) has been withdrawn

802.15.4 low rate WPAN


Zigbee

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802.15: Wireless Personal Area


Network
less than 10 m diameter
replacement for cables
(mouse, keyboard,
headphones)
ad hoc: no backbone
infrastructure
master/slaves:

S
radius of
coverage

slaves request permission to


send (to master)
master grants requests

802.15: evolved from


Bluetooth specification
2.4-2.5 GHz radio band
up to 1 Mbps

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Bluetooth

Cable replacement RF technology (low cost)


Short range (10m, extendable to 100m)
2.4 GHz ISM band (crowded)
Data rate 1 Mbit/s
Widely supported by telecom, PC, and
consumer electronics companies
Interesting applications starting to emerge

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IEEE 802.15.4: ZigBee radios


Low-Rate WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) - for
communications < 30 meters.
Data rates of 20, 40, 250 kbps
Star topology or peer-to-peer operation, up to 255
devices/nodes per network
Support for low-latency devices
CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision
avoidance) channel access
Very low power consumption: targets sensor networks
(battery-driven nodes, lifetime maximization)
Frequency of operation in ISM bands
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Ultra Wide Band radio (UWB)


Impulse radio: sends pulses of tens of
picoseconds (10-12) to nanoseconds (10-9) - duty
cycle of only a fraction of a percent
Uses a lot of bandwidth (order of GHz)
Low probability of detection by others +
beneficial interference properties: low transmit
power (density) spread over wide bandwidth
This also results in short range.
Excellent positioning (ranging) capability +
potential of high data rates
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Why is UWB interesting?


Unique location and positioning properties
Low power transmitters
10 times lower than Bluetooth for same range/data rate

Very high data rates possible


7.5 GHz of free spectrum in the U.S.
FCC (Federal Communications Commission) recently legalized UWB for
commercial use in the US
Spectrum allocation overlays existing users, but allowed power level is
very low, to minimize interference

55

Worldwide interoperability for


Microwave Access (WiMAX)

Standard based IEEE 802.16 Wireless MAN family/ETSI HiperMAN


technology, enabling delivery of last mile (outdoor) wireless
broadband access, as an alternative to cable and DSL. Several bands
possible.

OFDM-based adaptive modulation, 256 subchannels.

Antenna diversity/MIMO capability.

Fixed, nomadic, portable, and mobile wireless broadband connectivity


without the need for direct line-of-sight (LOS) to base station.

In a typical cell radius deployment of 3 to 10 kms, expected to deliver


capacities of up to 50 Mbps per channel, for fixed and portable access.

Mobile network deployments are expected to provide up to 15 Mbps of


capacity within a typical cell radius deployment of up to 3 kms.

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802.16: WiMAX
point-to-point

like 802.11 & cellular:


base station model
transmissions to/from
base station by hosts
with omnidirectional
antenna
base station-to-base
station backhaul with
point-to-point antenna

point-to-multipoint

unlike 802.11:
range ~ 10 km (city
rather than coffee
shop)
~14 Mbps

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Satellite systems

Cover very large areas


Different orbit heights
GEOs (~40000 km) via MEOs (2000-10000 km) to LEOs (<2000
km)
Trade-off between coverage, rate, and power budget

Optimal for one-way transmission:


Radio (e.g. DAB) and TV (SatTV) broadcasting

Many two-way systems struggling or bankrupt...


Too expensive alternative to terrestrial systems
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Paging systems
Broad coverage for (very) short messaging
Message broadcast from all base stations
Simple terminals
Optimized for 1-way transmission
Answer-back is hard
Overtaken by cellular obsolete

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New systems
Ad hoc wireless networks
Sensor and distributed control networks

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Ad hoc networks
Self-configuring mobile networks with no
infrastructure
Rapid deployment and reconfiguration
Robust to node failure
Despite much research activity, there remain
many significant technical challenges

Note: Ad hoc (Latin) means for this only. It generally signifies a solution designed for a specific
problem or task, non-generalizable, and not intended to be able to be adapted to other purposes.
61 to
E.g., the term ad hoc networking typically refers to a system of network elements that combine
form a network requiring little or no planning.

Ad hoc networks

Peer-to-peer communications.
No backbone infrastructure (no base stations)
Truly wireless!

Routing can be multihop.


Topology is dynamic in time; networks self-organize.
No centralized coordination.
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Mobile ad hoc networks


Characteristics
- Infrastructure-less
- All nodes are potentially mobile
- Network topology is dynamic
- All nodes act as individual routers
Examples
- Disaster recovery situations
- Battlefield communications
- Law enforcement operations
- Civilian applications
Objectives
- Maintain connectivity between mobile devices
- Provide congestion-free routing for multimedia traffic
- Support scalability
- Minimize memory, bandwidth and energy consumption
Note: Scalability, as a property of systems, is a highly significant issue in electronics systems,
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databases, routers, and networking. A system whose performance improves after adding hardware,
proportionally to the capacity added, is said to be a scalable system.

Design issues
Ad hoc networks provide a flexible network
infrastructure for many emerging applications.
The capacity of such networks is however yet
generally unknown (hot research topic).
Transmission, access, and routing strategies
for ad hoc networks are generally also still ad
hoc...

Application
Transport
Cross-layer design critical and very
Network
challenging.
Data Link (MAC)
Energy constraints impose interesting design
Physical
tradeoffs for communication and networking
Channel
(nodes typically battery-driven).
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Sensor networks
Wireless sensor networks consists of group of sensor
nodes to perform distributed sensing task using
wireless medium.
Characteristics
- low-cost, low-power, lightweight
- densely deployed
- exposed to failures
- two ways of deployment: randomly, pre-determined
Objectives
- Monitor activities
- Gather and fuse information
- Communicate with global data processing unit
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Sensor networks

Data (sensor measurements) flow to one centralized location (sink


node, data fusion center).
Low per-node rates - but up to 100,000 nodes.
Sensor data highly depended on in time and space.
Nodes can cooperate in transmission, reception, compression, and
signal processing.
By cooperating, nodes can save energy
Nodes typically powered by non-rechargeable batteries.
Energy is the driving constraint
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Sensor networks: Applications


Engineering:
industrial automation,
precision agriculture,
structural monitoring

Science:
ecology, seismology, oceanography

Daily life:
traffic control, health care, home automation/security,
disaster recovery, forest fire detection, flood detection etc.

Military:
Battlefield surveillance and damage assessment
Nuclear, biological, chemical attack detection
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Energy-constrained nodes
Each node can only send a finite number of bits.

Transmission power can be minimized by maximizing bit time


On the other hand circuit energy consumption increases with
bit time
a delay versus energy tradeoff for each bit

Transmit, circuit, and processing energy must consider


jointly.
Most sophisticated transmission techniques not necessarily
most energy-efficient
Sleep modes save energy - but complicate networking.

Changes everything about the network design:

Bit allocation must be optimized across all protocols.


Delay vs. throughput vs. node/network lifetime tradeoffs.
Optimization of node cooperation.

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Spectrum regulation
Spectrum is a limited natural resource used by many.
The worldwide radio spectrum is controlled by ITU-R
(International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication Sector)
In Europe, by ETSI (European Telecommunications
Standardization Institute).
In the US, by FCC (Federal Communications Commission;
commercial) and OSM (Office of Spectral Management;
defense).

Spectrum can be auctioned, paid fixed price for, or


given away (unlicensed bands).
Some spectrum typically set aside for universal use.
Note. Regulation, although necessary, can also block or delay innovation,
69 or
even cause economic disasters (e.g. UMTS spectrum auctions in Europe)

Standards
Interacting systems require standardization
(compatibility, interoperability)
Typically companies want their own systems adopted as
standard or de-facto standards (~dominant system or
procedure)
Worldwide standards determined by ITU-T
(International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector )
In Europe, by ETSI
In the US by TIA (Telecommunications Industry
Association)
IEEE standards often adopted (also worldwide)

Standards and spectral allocation heavily impact the


evolution of wireless technology.

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IEEE
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers) is one of the leading standards-making
organizations in the world
IEEE performs its standards making through the
IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA).
One of the most notable IEEE standards is the
IEEE 802 LAN/MAN group of standards which
includes the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard and
the IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networking standard.

71

Underlying techniques and


technologies
Electromagnetics
Antennas, wave propagation, channel modeling

Signal processing
Filtering, Fourier transforms, equalization, spread-spectrum,
source coding (data compression)

Communications
Modulation, noise analysis, channel capacity, channel coding, error
correction, encryption

Digital integrated circuits


RF generation devices (efficient power amplifiers,
improved oscillators, sleep modes, smart antennas)
Multiple-access techniques (increase number of users)
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Network model - Protocol stack


Application
Transport
Network
Data Link (MAC)
Physical

Packet re-ordering (e.g., TCP)


Routing (e.g., IP)
Error correction, encryption
Modulation, power control, filtering

Channel
Provides abstraction when designing layers
73

Exciting developments
Internet and smartphone use exploding
Wireless LANs and PANs growing rapidly
Huge cell phone popularity worldwide
Emerging systems such as Bluetooth opening new
doors
Military and security wireless needs
Sensor networks

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Trends in wireless communication


Mobile personal communications
Higher system capacity/data rate
Higher frequency efficiency
Advanced multimedia applications/Improved QoS
Improved security and authentication
Global coverage
Global roaming
All IP based
75

All IP based
Past

Today

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Wireless vision
Ubiquitous communication among people and devices
Wireless Internet access
Nth generation Cellular
Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Sensor Networks
Wireless Entertainment
Smart Buildings/Homes/Spaces
Automated Cars and Highways
All this and more

Hard delay constraints


Hard energy constraints

77

Main challenges
Unreliable channels
The wireless channel is a difficult and capacity-limited broadcast
communications medium
Traffic patterns, user locations, and network conditions are
constantly changing
Traffic is nonstationary, both in space and in time

Scarce spectrum and resource management


Stringent power budget
Security
Location and routing
Interfacing with wired networks
Energy and delay constraints change design principles across all
layers of the protocol stack ( cross-layer design)

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Wireless issues
Wireless link implications
Communications channel is the air
poor quality: fading, shadowing, weather, etc.

Regulated by governments
frequency allocated, licensing, etc.

Limited bandwidth
Low bit rate, frequency planning and reuse, interference

Power issues
Power levels regulated (safety issues), conserve mobile
terminal battery life

Security issues
wireless channel is a broadcast medium!

79

Mobility issues
Mobility types
User mobility : user can access network while mobile
must handoff calls/connections in progress as user moves
track users as they move so they can receive info/calls

Service mobility: users services follow them


Need to have authentication and services follow user

Mobile devices
Carry own power supply (limited power)
Limited memory and CPU power
Limited user interface

Degree of mobility
Geographic range + speed (e.g., cordless vs. car phone)
Note: Wireless mobile ! Wireless node may be static and fixed.
E.g., WiMAX or IEEE 802.16 Broadband wireless access (BWA).

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Main points
The wireless vision encompasses many
systems and applications
Technical challenges extend across all layers
of the system design
Wireless systems today have limited
performance and interoperability
Standards and spectral allocation heavily
impact the evolution of wireless technology

81

Many wireless techniques


Application Layer

E.g., wireless e-mail,

Transport Layer

Wireless TCP (end-to-end virtual


connection)

Network Layer

Mobile IP, mobility/location


management, GPS (routing problem)

Data Link Layer

MAC (CDMA, CSMA/CA in WLAN),


Error Control (FEC), (wireless access)

Physical Layer

Propagation (fading, multipath, path-loss


model), modulation, encoding, antenna
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Technical challenges
Hardware

Small, lightweight, low power


High-frequency components

Communication link design

Channel models
Fast, robust, spectrally efficient communication techniques

Multiple access and resource allocation

Efficient schemes that maximize system capacity


Dynamic resource allocation and efficient spectral reuse

Networking

Routing and mobility management for mobile users


Network reliability, flexibility, and scalability
Deliver QoS (Quality of Service) to applications
Performance gap with wire-line systems.

Multimedia requirements
Voice

Data

Video

Delay

<100ms

<100ms

Packet Loss
BER

<1%
10-3

0
10-6

<1%
10-6

Data Rate

8-64 kbps
Continuous

1-100 Mbps
Bursty

1-100 Mbps
Continuous

Traffic

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Current wireless systems

Fixed wireless access


Cellular systems
Wireless LANs
Satellite systems
Paging systems
Wireless ad hoc network
Bluetooth
Sensor networks
etc.
85

Example: Cellular network


architecture
Cellular systems:

provide wireless coverage to a geographic area with a set of


slightly overlapping cells

Cellular/PCS network components


Mobile Station (Terminal) handset
Base Station (cell site) - provides radio channels between mobile
units and network.
Base Station Controller (BSC) - manages a cluster of BS, channel
assignment, handoff, power control, some switching, etc.
Mobile Switching Center (MSC) - provides switching functions,
coordinates location tracking, call delivery, handoff, interfaces
to HLR,VLR, AUC, etc..
HLR/VLR/AUC (Home Location Register/Visitor Location
Register/Authentication Center) databases to track, bill and
authenticate users
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System capacity
System capacity is the number all users that
can communicate (use the system) at the
same time.
A base station (cell) has a fixed number of
channels available, hence at a given time a
fixed number of users can talk simultaneously

87

System capacity (C) and coverage area (d2)


System 1

System 2

d1

d2

Low cost base-stations covering


a small area

High cost base-stations covering


a large area

Each base station has a fixed number of channels for both systems
All channels in System1 = 9 x all channels in System2
C1 / C2 = (d2 / d1)2
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4G cellular design
Reasons to have 4G
Support interactive multimedia services: teleconferencing,
wireless Internet, etc.
Wider bandwidths, higher bit rates.
Global mobility and service portability.
Low cost.
Scalability of mobile networks.

What's new in 4G
Entirely packet-switched networks.
Higher bandwidths to provide multimedia services at lower
cost (up to 100Mbps).
Tight network security.
89

Satellite based mobile systems


Categorized as
Two-way (or one-way) limited quality voice or data
transmission
Very wide range and coverage
Large regions
Sometimes global coverage
Very useful in sparsely populated areas: rural areas, sea,
mountains, etc.

Target: Vehicles and/or other stationary/mobile


uses
Expensive base station (satellites) systems
Different orbit heights
GEOs (~40000 km) versus LEOs (2000 km)

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Wireless Ad-Hoc networks

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET)


No fixed infrastructure
Nodes connect via wireless links
Network devices are part of the network
act as routers for traffic without a direct wireless link (multi-hop connections)

Nodes are mobile and can move in arbitrary fashion


Topology and connections change frequently

Mobile Ad-Hoc networks have network architecture:

that can be rapidly deployed


that do not rely on pre-existing infrastructure
whose set of nodes is continuously changing
which self-adapts to the connectivity and propagation patterns, and
which adapts to the traffic and mobility patterns

91

Characteristics of Ad-Hoc networks


The distinctive differences between ad-hoc
networks and cellular networks are:
No fixed infrastructure is present
Peer-to-peer operation
Frequent changes of associations

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Use of the Ad-Hoc technology for military


communications

93

Challenges in Ad-Hoc networks


The challenges in the design of Ad-Hoc networks
stem from the following facts:
The lack of centralized entity self-organizing and
distributed protocols
The possibility of rapid platforms movement (highly
versatile topology) efficient and robust protocols
All communication is carried over the wireless medium
power and spectrum efficient communications

Compare this with the fixed (cellular) networks

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Future wireless networks


Ubiquitous communication among people and devices
Next-generation cellular
Wireless Internet access
Wireless multimedia
Sensor networks
Smart homes/spaces
Automated highways and
cars
In/on-Body networks
All this and more

Hard delay constraints


Hard energy constraints

95

Cellular systems

Future networks want better performance and reliability


- Gbps rates, low latency, 99% coverage indoors and out

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Design Challenges
Wireless channels are a difficult and capacity-limited
broadcast communications medium
Traffic patterns, user locations, and network conditions are
constantly changing
Applications are heterogeneous with hard constraints that
must be met by the network
Energy and delay constraints change design principles across
all layers of the protocol stack

97

Wireless network design issues

Multiuser communications
Multiple and random access
Cellular system design
Ad-Hoc network design
Network layer issues
Application support and cross-layer design

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Multiuser channels: Uplink and


downlink
Uplink (Multiple Access
Channel or MAC):
Many transmitters
to one receiver.

R3

Downlink (Broadcast Channel or


BC):
One transmitter
to many receivers.

R2
R1

Uplink and downlink typically duplexed in time or frequency


99

Bandwidth sharing
Code Space

Frequency Division
Time Division

Time
Code Space

Frequency

Time

Code Division
Multiuser Detection

Space (MIMO Systems)


Hybrid Schemes

Frequency

Code Space
Time

Frequency

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Multiuser Detection (MUD)


Signal 1

Signal 1
Demod

Signal 2

Signal 2
Demod

Code properties of CDMA allow the signal separation and subtraction


101

Random access
Dedicated channels wasteful for data
use statistical multiplexing

Techniques

Aloha
Carrier sensing

Collision detection or avoidance

Reservation protocols
PRMA (Packet-Reservation Multiple Access)

Retransmissions used for corrupted data


Poor throughput and delay characteristics under heavy
loading
Hybrid methods

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Wireless spectrum

$$$
scarce and expensive

103

Spectral reuse
Due to its scarcity, spectrum is reused

In licensed bands

and unlicensed bands

BS

Cellular

WiFi, UWB,

Reuse introduces interference

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Interference: Friend or Foe?


If treated as noise: Foe

SNR =

P
N+I

Increases BER
Reduces capacity

If decodable (Multiuser Detection): Neither friend nor


foe

If exploited via cooperation and cognition: Friend


(especially in a network setting)
105

MIMO in cellular: Performance


Benefits
Antenna gain extended battery life,
extended range, and higher throughput
Diversity gain improved reliability, more
robust operation of services
Multiplexing gain higher data rates
Interference suppression improved
quality, reliability, robustness
Reduced interference to other systems

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Coexistence
Many devices use the same radio band
Need better coexistence

Technical solutions
Interference cancellation
Smart/Cognitive radios

107

Transmission over a MIMO multihop network

Antennas can be used for multiplexing, diversity, or


interference cancellation
M-fold possible capacity increase via multiplexing
M2 possible diversity gain
Can cancel M-1 interferers
Errors occur due to fading, interference, and delay
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Cognition: Intelligence beyond


cooperation
Cognitive radios can support new wireless users in existing
crowded spectrum
Without degrading performance of existing users

Utilize advanced communication and signal processing


techniques
Coupled with novel spectrum allocation policies

Technology could
Revolutionize the way spectrum is allocated worldwide
Provide sufficient bandwidth to support higher quality and
higher data rate products and services

109

Cognitive radio alternatives


Underlay
Cognitive radios constrained to cause minimal
interference to noncognitive radios

Interweave
Cognitive radios find and exploit spectral holes to
avoid interfering with noncognitive radios

Overlay
Cognitive radios overhear and enhance noncognitive
radio transmissions
Knowledge
and
Complexity
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Underlay systems
Cognitive radios determine the interference which
their transmission causes to noncognitive nodes
Transmit if interference below a given threshold

IP
NCR
NCR

CR

CR

The interference constraint may be met


Via wideband signalling to maintain interference below the
noise floor (spread spectrum or UWB)
Via multiple antennas and beamforming
111

Interweave systems
Measurements indicate that even crowded spectrum is not used
across all time, space, and frequencies
Original motivation for cognitive radios (CRs)

These holes can be used for communication


Interweave CRs periodically monitor spectrum for holes
Hole location must be agreed upon between TX and RX
Hole is then used for opportunistic communication with minimal
interference to non-cognitive users

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Overlay systems
Cognitive user has knowledge of other users
message and/or encoding strategy
Used to help noncognitive transmission
Used to presubtract noncognitive interference

CR

NCR

RX1

RX2
113

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)

Energy (transmit and processing) is driving constraint


Data flows to centralized location (joint compression)
Low per-node rates but tens to thousands of nodes
Intelligence is in the network rather than in the devices

Smart homes/buildings
Smart structures
Search and rescue
Event detection
Battlefield surveillance

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Energy-constrained nodes

Each node can only send a finite number of bits.


Transmit energy minimized by maximizing bit time
Circuit energy consumption increases with bit time
Introduces a delay versus energy tradeoff for each bit
Short-range networks must consider transmit, circuit, and processing
energy.
Sophisticated techniques not necessarily energy-efficient.
Sleep modes save energy but complicate networking.
Changes everything about the network design:
Bit allocation must be optimized across all protocols.
Delay vs. throughput vs. node/network lifetime tradeoffs.
Optimization of node cooperation.

115

Cross-layer design in wireless


networks
Application
Network
Access
Link
Hardware

Delay Constraints
Rate Constraints
Energy Constraints
Adapt across design layers
Provide robustness via diversity

Tradeoffs at all layers of the protocol stack are


optimized with respect to end-to-end performance

This performance is dictated by the application

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