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Battery minimum voltage =

Battery maximum voltage =


Minimum Input Voltage : Vin(min) =
Maximum input voltage: Vin(max) =
Output voltage : Vo =
Output Voltage Ripple :dVout =
Diode drop voltage : VD =
Switch voltage drop : Vsw=
Fsw =
Required output Power =

9
12.5
27
37.5
75
0.25
0.01
0.01
50000.00
500

V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
Hz
W

9
12.5
27
37.5
75
0.25
0.01
0.01
50000
500

Max output power efficiency =


100 %
Calculated power for the design : Pout =
Pdesign = Pout / Efficiency
500 W
Ts =
Ts = 1/ Fsw
2.00E-05 sec
calculate maximum output current : Io = 6.6666666667 A
Calculated from Pdesign
% load for RL calculation =
%
100
Load Resistor for % load =
11.25 ohm
Dmax =
1-((Vin(min)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
0.64
Dmin =
1-((Vin(max)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
0.50
Discontinous mode Design
To calculate Ton and Toff,
Ton/ Toff = (Vo-Vin)/Vin
Ton+Toff = 0.8Ts
Ton+Toff = 0.8*Ts =
1.60E-05 sec
"Ton" limited for DCM : Ton = 0.8*Ts*Dmax =
1.02E-05 uSec
Calculate range of inductor that will operate in discontinues mode :
Minimum Inductance, Lmin = (Vin^2*Ton) / (2*Io*Vo)
Lmin =
For DCM operation mode, we need "L" less tha
7.46 uH :
Exact inductor value calculation = L =[ (Vin^2 * Ton ) * (Ton+Toff)] / (2*Vo*Ts*Iout)
L=
Loop response will be poor
5.97 uH
Peak current calculation : Ipeak or I2 =
major ripple is from cap ESR. Maximum ripple voltage Vrr =
ESR =
For electrolytic Caps, assuming ESR*C = 80usec, C =

6.67 A
2.50E-01 V
3.75E-02 E
2133.33 uF

Continous conduction mode Design


Output average current = Io(avr) = 6.6666666667 A
Duticycle calculation
Dmax =
0.64
Dmin =
0.50
Inductor Current calculation
In Boost converter "Iin(avr)" and "IL(avr)" are same
At minimum input voltage condition:
Max average Inductor current (at Vin(max)) : Iin(max-avr)= 18.5278498209 A
At maximum input voltage condition:
Min average Inductor current(at Vin(min)) : Iin(min-avr) = 13.3386680893 A

1-((Vin(min)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
1-((Vin(max)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))

Iin(avr) = Io/(1-D)
Iin(avr) = Io/(1-D)

Maximum Inductor DC Current = IL(dc) = 18.5278498209 A


Inductor ripple current ratio selection:
Maximum ripple current occure at maximum input DC voltage (D~min) (inductor current will be small), maximum peak current value occur
at minimum input voltage (D~max) . During minimum input voltage Inductor current will be high, ripple will reduce.
Selection of ripple current ratio should be for maximum input voltage.
Target maximum current ripple ratio of "r" =
r = diL/Iin(minimum)
0.100
Inductor current at Max Input Voltage
Inductor current at maximum input voltage : IL(min-avr) = 13.3386680893 A
Inductor ripple current (AC Current) = IL(ac) =
dIL = 2*[r*IL(min-avr)]
2.668 A
Peak Inductor Current : ILpk =
ILpk = (dIL/2)+Iin(min-avr)
14.673 A
Worst case "ripple current" occures is at max line voltage

Ipeak
Iavg

Imin
I = 2.77A
Iavr= 13.8A
ton tof
ton + tof = seconds

Inductor calculation for maximum input voltage and limiting maximum ripple current.
Inductor selection limit maximum ripple current at worst case situation.
"L" value to limit ripple at maximum input voltage : L = 140.624977506 uH
(Vin(max)*Dmin*Ts) /[IL(ac)]
Inductor current at Min Input Voltage
Worst case "peak current" occures is at minimum line voltage
Vin(min) =
27 V
Dmax =
0.64
Inductor ripple current for Vin(min) : IL(ac) = 2.4573861402 A
[(Vin-Vsw)*D(max)*Ts]/L
Average Inductor current at Vin min voltage : IL(min-avr) = 18.5278498209 A
Maximum Peak Inductor Current (at Vin(min)) : ILpk =
19.756542891 A
This current value required for Core Energy cal
Ripple current percentage = 0.1326320196 A

Ipeak
Iavg

Imin
I = 2.4A

Methode #2 by fixing minimum load current and reverse calculating "r".


tonDCM
tofat low load condition.
Reducing risk when possibility to enter
"Io" maximum = 6.6666666667
(10% of Io) Minimum load current "Io" minmum = 0.6666666667
Inductor ripple current ratio estimation (modified r ): r =
0.200
Re calculating "L"
"L" value to limit ripple at Dmin (Worse case) : Lmax = 101.2394810053
Output Capacitor :
C >= 224.9999640096
Selected capacitor =

A
A
r = 2*Io(min) / Io(max)
uH

(Vin(max)*Dmin*Ts) /(r*Iin(mmax)(avr)

uF
uF

C >= Dmin*Vout / Fsw*RL*dVout

Icrms =
RESR low =
RESR high =

2.33 mA
0.036 ohm @ TA = 20degC, 100KHz
0.13 ohm @ TA = -10degC , 100KHz

Ripple voltage calculation :


peak to peak ripple voltage = Iout/C*Fsw
C > Dmin*Vout/Fsw*RL*Vripple = 266.773319113 uF

Boost Inductor design :


Material : Iron Powder E core
1. Compute the product of LI^2 where:
L = inductance required with DC bias
I = DC current (A)
Minimum Inductance; L = 140.624977506 uH
Maximum Peak Inductor Current (at Vin(min)) : ILpk =
19.756542891 A
Peak current calculated from Vin(min) conditio
LI^2 =
54.89 mH*A^2
Core selection from manufacture CORESELECTORCHARTS
Selected core number : ol Mu 77439-A7

Selected Core = K5528E060, pg 4-36


Part number : 00K5528E / (DIN 55/21)
all are in mm
A= 54.860.813
B= 27.560.406

C=
D=
E=
F=
L=
M=

20.60.381
18.5
37.49
16.80.381
8.38
10.2

Bobbin number : PCB5528WC \ OOB5528B1


Electric /Magnetic specification
AL =
219 nH/TURNS 8%
Magnetic Path length Le =
12.3 cm
Core area Ae =
350 mm2
Permeability :u =
60
Window area =
302 mm2
Step#1: Calculation of turns for inductance at zero current.
"L" value to limit ripple at maximum input voltage : L = 140.624977506 uH
Assume 50% roll off, wind for: L(mod) = 281.249955012 uH
u=
60
Inductance factor from datasheet =
219 nH/T^2
Tolerance considered = (-%) =
0 %
Current = 19.756542891 A
Actual (AL) of this core : AL =
219 nH/T^2
; Inductance at 0Ampere current, Load current inductance will be less.
calculate Turns at 0Ampere "N" = sqrt ([L*1e3]/AL) : N =
36 Turns
Magnetic Path Length : le =
12.3 cm
Step#2 : Calculate DC Bias level,
determine the DC Bias level: H= NI/le= AT/cm
DC Bias Level : H = (N*I)/Ie : H =
57.8 A*T/cm
DC Biase calculation by using Amperes law = 72.6638165932 Oe

; Tolerance is AL 8%

;From core datashet

; Ie = path Lenth in "cm"


; 0.4pi*N^2*I/le

Fit Formula to find rolloff in per unit of initial permeability for the previously calculated bias level.
r "60" Kool Mu Core, (/ui) = a + bH + cH^2 + dH^3 + eH^4
a=
###
c= -8.76E-05
e= -2.62E-09
b=
###
d= 9.45E-07
tizing force(dc bias), yielding 48.5% of initial permeability =
60.4 %
The inductance at xxAmpere will decrease the inductance by xx% compared with 0Ampere. The permeability versus
DC bias curve shows xx% of initial permeability at xx AT/cm.
% rolloff value =
0.604
Step#3: Iteration: Recalculation of Inductance :
ecalculated Inductance with scaledown by %rolloff value ;L=
171.429696 uH ; %rolloffvalue*N^2*AL
This roll off value is less than target inductance at full load.
Recalculate Inductor Current
At High input Voltage ;
Initial Ipk =
14.673 A
DC Biase calculation by using Amperes law = 149.9028547828 Oe
DC Biase calculated in H = 42.9440045801 A*T/cm
% rolloff value =
0.713
Step#4: Iteration: Recalculation of Inductance :
ecalculated Inductance with scaledown by %rolloff value ;L=
202.366512 uH
Vin(max) =
37.5 VDC
Dutycycle when Vin(max) applied = Dmin = 0.5001999733
Recalculate Inductor ripple current:
Recalculated maximum Inductance ripple current at Vin(max)=

1.8533201778 A

Recalculate Inductor peak Current


Inductor current at maximum input voltage : IL(min-avr) =
Ipeak = Iavr+(Iripple/2) =
DC Biase calculation by using Amperes law =
DC Biase calculated in H =
% rolloff value =
Recalculate Inductor Current
At Low input Voltage ;
Maximum Peak Inductor Current (at Vin(min)) : ILpk =
DC Biase calculated in H =
% rolloff value =
Step#5: Iteration: Recalculation of Inductance :
Iterate: Recalculate Inductance ;L=
Recalculate Inductor ripple current with scaled inductance :
Inductor ripple current for Vin(min) : IL(ac) =
Recalculate Inductor peak Current
Average inductor current at Vin(min) =
Maximum Peak Inductor Current (at Vin(min)) : ILpk =
DC Biase calculated in H =
% rolloff value =
Step#6: Iteration: Recalculation of Inductance :
Iterate: Recalculate Inductance ;L=

13.3386680893 A
14.2653281782 A
145.7426022948 Oe
41.7521800337
0.722

19.756542891 A
57.8240279737 A*T/cm
0.603
169.5937228722 uH
2.0383885741 A
18.5278498209 A
19.547044108 A
57.2108608039
0.608
170.9999726473 uH

Final Inductorvalue :
No Load Inductance ; L(nl) = 281.249955012 uH
Full load inductance L(fl) = 170.9999726473 uH
Inductor Max Ripple = 13.2632019577 %
Inductor Wire selection:
Turns =
AWG =
Resistance =
Wire area =
max current capacity =
Window area =
Fill Factor of the inductor =

Vin =
Vout=
75
Fs
50000
L=
140
rsense=
0.1
Fc=
5000
s = 2*pi*Fc 31415.9
Vramp =
5.2

36
11
0.00414
0.0445
20.8
302
0.5304635762

v
v
Hz
uh
ohm
Hz
V

ohm/meter
sq.cm2
A
sqcm2
%

Closed loop Voltage mode controller design


Gid = (Vou*Rsense)/(s*L*Vramp) = 0.32793
Gain of controller = Gea =

3.04944
9.6844 db
Rf = 3.04944 k
Ri=
1 k
The zero of the compensation network (fz) is placed at the crossover freq
Fz = Fc = Cz = 1/(2piRf*fc)
Fz =
5000 Hz
Rf = 3.04944 Kohm
C1 , Cz =
10.4383 nF
(switching frequency) and fs to attenuate noise,
fp =
25000 Hs
fp = 1/(2pi*Rf*(Cz*Cp/Cz*Cp))
C2, Cp = 1/(2pi*Rf*fp) = 2.08766 nf

0.05

System transfer function with standard negative feedback.


Vout(s)/Vcont(s) = G(s)/(1+G(s)H(s)) ;with H(s)=1
Considering open loop transfer function G(s)
G(s) = Gctr(s)*Gckt(s)
where Gctr(s) is propotional and integral controller
Gctr(s) = Kp+1/sTi
where Ti = RiCi
Gain of converter hardware.

For the converter 1.5V input yields Vout (scaled) = 1.5V in steady state. So the gain of the converter is 1.0
Converter transfer function : Gckt(s) =
Where T =
C=
R=
So open loop transfer function G(s) =

1/(1+sT)
RC
output DC capacitor.
Thevenin equivalent resistor
(Kp+1/sTi)*1/(1+sT)

Control to output transfer function given by,


Vout/Vcont=

Kp/T*(s+(1/Ti*Kp))
s2+s((1+kp)/T)+1/TTi

From standard second-order system equation form,


s2+2zns+n2
n2 =
1/ TTi
2zns = 1+Kp/T
Calculating Kp from above equation,
Kp = 2zns - 1 =2zsqrt[(T/Ti)-1]
As thumb rule, Considering Ti = 80%T and z > 0.447

out / Efficiency

rom Pdesign

)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
x)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))

peration mode, we need "L" less than.

off)] / (2*Vo*Ts*Iout)
nse will be poor

)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))

1.9V

maximum peak current value occures


will reduce.

IL(min-avr)]
/2)+Iin(min-avr)

Dmin*Ts) /[IL(ac)]

*D(max)*Ts]/L
value required for Core Energy calc

Dmin*Ts) /(r*Iin(mmax)(avr)

*Vout / Fsw*RL*dVout

0.0199
50.251256
0.0122
0.6130653

t calculated from Vin(min) condition

Discontinues mode

Lenth in "cm"

bias level.

Analysis in Discontinues Mode Operation;


During Ton :
D1 = Off
VL = Vd
For inductor : VL = L (dI2(t)/ dt)
Or
I2 = (Vd Ton / L)

During Toff :
D1 = On
VL = Vd - Vo
VL = L (dIL(t)/dt)
IL(t) = 1/L integ(VL(t)dt + I2
:: I2 = Inductor peak cur
Or
0 =1/L (integ[(Vd-Vo)dt + I2] Lim(Ton-Ton+Toff)
Or
I2 = ((Vo-Vd)
L) * Tofpeak current
:: I2 = /Inductor
To Ensure discontinues mode choose Td = 0.2Ts
Ton + Toff <= 0.8Ts
Power balance : avg power delivered by source.
Pd = Vd <IL>
During Ton+Toff <IL^> = I2/2
So over Ts,
<IL> = <IL^> (Ton+Toff) / Ts
`= I2*0.5* ( (Ton+Toff)/Ts)
Or
Pd = ((Vd^2* Ton)/(2*L*Ts))*(Ton+Toff)

current boundry to maintain discontinuos mode :


Io <= ((Vd*Ton)/2L)*(Vd/Vo)
Capacitor RMS Ripple current:

During Toff Inductor supplies Io and charges Capacitor.

During Toff, the average inductor currnt is,


Ix = I2/2

gain of the converter is 1.0

Ipeak : Ipk =
Turns : N =
Area : A =

14.673 A
40 turns
2 cm^2

calculation to check peak flux density for a selected core = Bpk =

0.18568 Tesla

MOSFET Power Dissipation calculation for Boost Converter


Rds (on) =
0.025 Ohm
IRMS is the RMS of the switch current : IRMS = 14.830555 ARMS
For verification : IRMS = 14.824379 ARMS
To calculate the conduction loss of a mosfet = Pcond =
5.50 W

:: I2 = Inductor peak current

on-Ton+Toff)

Bpk = (L*Ipk)/(N*A)

ation for Boost Converter


IRMS = [Io/(1-Dmax)]*[sqrt(Dmax*(1+r^2/12))]
IRMS ~= IL(dc)*sqrtDmax

Discontinues mode

Analysis in Discontinues Mode Operation;


During Ton :
D1 = Off
VL = Vd
For inductor : VL = L (dI2(t)/ dt)
Or
I2 = (Vd Ton / L)
During Toff :
D1 = On
VL = Vd - Vo
VL = L (dIL(t)/dt)
IL(t) = 1/L integ(VL(t)dt + I2
:: I2 = Inductor peak current
Or
0 =1/L (integ[(Vd-Vo)dt + I2] Lim(Ton-Ton+Toff)
Or
I2 = ((Vo-Vd)::/I2
L)=*Inductor
Tof
peak current
To Ensure discontinues mode choose Td = 0.2Ts
Ton + Toff <= 0.8Ts

Power balance : avg power delivered by source.


Pd = Vd <IL>
During Ton+Toff <IL^> = I2/2
So over Ts,
<IL> = <IL^> (Ton+Toff) / Ts
`= I2*0.5* ( (Ton+Toff)/Ts)
Or
Pd = ((Vd^2* Ton)/(2*L*Ts))*(Ton+Toff)

current boundry to maintain discontinuos mode :


Io <= ((Vd*Ton)/2L)*(Vd/Vo)
Capacitor RMS Ripple current:

During Toff Inductor supplies Io and charges Capacitor.

During Toff, the average inductor currnt is,


Ix = I2/2

page 166
Minimum Input Voltage : Vin(min) =
Maximum input voltage: Vin(max) =
Output voltage : Vo =
Output Voltage Ripple :dVout =
Diode drop voltage : VD =
Switch voltage drop : Vsw=
Fsw =
Required output Power =

85
260
370
0.25
0.01
0.01
65000.00
650

V
V
V
V
V
V
Hz
W

150
480
600
1
1.5
60000
3000

Max output power efficiency =


96 %
Calculated power for the design : Pout = 677.0833333333 W
Ts =
1.54E-05 sec
calculate maximum output current : Io =
1.829954955 A

Pdesign = Pout / Efficiency


Ts = 1/ Fsw
Calculated from Pdesign

To calculate Ton and Toff,


Ton/ Toff = (Vo-Vin)/Vin
Ton+Toff = 0.8Ts
Ton+Toff = 0.8*Ts =
1.23E-05 sec
Dmax =
1-((Vin(min)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
0.77
Dmin =
1-((Vin(max)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
0.30
"Ton" limited for DCM : Ton = 0.8*Ts*Dmax =
9.48E-06 uSec
Discontinous mode Design
Calculate range of inductor that will operate in discontinues mode :
Minimum Inductance, Lmin = (Vin^2*Ton) / (2*Io*Vo)
Lmin =
For DCM operation mode, we need "L" less t
50.57 uH :
Exact inductor value calculation = L =[ (Vin^2 * Ton ) * (Ton+Toff)] / (2*Vo*Ts*Iout)
L=
Loop response will be poor
40.46 uH
Peak current calculation : Ipeak or I2 =
major ripple is from cap ESR. Maximum ripple voltage Vrr =
ESR =
For electrolytic Caps, assuming ESR*C = 80usec, C =

19.92 A
2.50E-01 V
1.26E-02 E
6373.47 uF

Continous mode Design


Output average current = Io(avr) =
1.829954955 A
Duticycle calculation
Dmax =
1-((Vin(min)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
0.77
Dmin =
1-((Vin(max)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
0.30
Inductor Current calculation
In Boost converter "Iin(avr)" and "IL(avr)" are same
At minimum input voltage condition:
Max average Inductor current (at Vin(max)) : Iin(max-avr)= 7.9668388385 A
Iin(avr) = Io/(1-D)
At maximum input voltage condition:
Min average Inductor current(at Vin(min)) : Iin(min-avr) = 2.6043372164 A
Iin(avr) = Io/(1-D)
Maximum Inductor DC Current = IL(dc) = 7.9668388385 A
Inductor ripple current ratio selection:
Maximum ripple current occure at maximum input DC voltage (D~min) (inductor current will be small), maximum peak current value occur
at minimum input voltage (D~max) . During minimum input voltage Inductor current will be high, ripple will reduce.
Selection of ripple current ratio should be for maximum input voltage.
Let target maximum current ripple ratio of "r" =
r = diL/Iin(minimum)
0.400
Inductor current at Max Input Voltage
Inductor current at maximum input voltage : IL(min-avr) = 2.6043372164 A
Inductor ripple current (AC Current) = IL(ac) =
dIL = 2*[r*IL(min-avr)]
2.083 A
Peak Inductor Current : ILpk =
A
ILpk = (dIL/2)+Iin(min-avr)
3.646
Worst case "ripple current" occures is at max line voltage

Ipeak
Iavg

Iavg

Imin
I = 2.08A
Iavr= 2.6A
ton tof
ton + tof = seconds
Inductor calculation for maximum input voltage and limiting maximum ripple current.
Inductor selection limit maximum ripple current at worst case situation.
"L" value to limit ripple at maximum input voltage : L = 570.8617785305 uH
Inductor current at Min Input Voltage
Worst case "peak current" occures is at minimum line voltage
Vin(min) =
85 V
Dmax =
0.77
Inductor ripple current for Vin(min) : IL(ac) = 1.7643525949 A
Average Inductor current at Vin min voltage : IL(min-avr) = 7.9668388385 A
Maximum Peak Inductor Current (at Vin(min)) : ILpk =
8.8490151359 A
Ripple current percentage = 0.2214620668 A

(Vin(max)*Dmin*Ts) /[IL(ac)]

[(Vin-Vsw)*D(max)*Ts]/L

This current value required for Core Energy c

Ipeak
Iavg

Imin
I = 1.7A
Ipeak 8.4A
Iavr 7.9A

ton tof

Methode #2 by fixing minimum load current and reverse calculating "r".


Reducing risk when possibility to enter DCM at low load condition.
"Io" maximum =
1.829954955
(10% of Io) Minimum load current "Io" minmum = 0.1829954955
Inductor ripple current ratio estimation (modified r ): r =
0.200
Re calculating "L"
"L" value to limit ripple at Dmin (Worse case) : Lmax = 746.4524413602
Output Capacitor :
C >= 2599.616714539
Selected capacitor =
Icrms =
RESR low =
RESR high =

1500
2.33
0.036
0.13

A
A
r = 2*Io(min) / Io(max)
uH

(Vin(max)*Dmin*Ts) /(r*Iin(mmax)(avr)

uF

C >= Dmin*Vout / Fsw*RL*dVout

uF
mA
ohm @ TA = 20degC, 100KHz
ohm @ TA = -10degC , 100KHz

Boost Inductor design :


Material : =on Powder E core
1. Compute the product of LI^2 where:
L = inductance required with DC bias
I = DC current (A)
Minimum Inductance; L = 570.8617785305 uH
Maximum Peak Inductor Current (at Vin(min)) : ILpk =
8.8490151359 A

Peak current calculated from Vin(min) condit

LI^2 =
44.70 mH*A^2
Core selection from manufacture CORESELECTORCHARTS
Selected core number : ol Mu 77439-A7

Step#1: Calculation of turns for inductance at zero current.


"L" value to limit ripple at maximum input voltage : L = 570.8617785305
Assume 50% roll off, wind for: L(mod) = 1141.723557061
u=
60
Inductance factor from datasheet =
135
Tolerance considered = (-%) =
0
Current = 8.8490151359
Actual (AL) of this core : AL =
135
; Inductance at 0Ampere current, Load current inductance will be less.
calculate Turns at 0Ampere "N" = sqrt ([L*1e3]/AL) : N =
92
Magnetic Path Length : le =
10.74
Step#2 : Calculate DC Bias level,
determine the DC Bias level: H= NI/le= AT/cm
DC Bias Level : H = (N*I)/Ie : H =
75.8
DC Biase calculation by using Amperes law = 95.2551242722

uH
uH
nH/T^2
%
A
nH/T^2

; Tolerance is AL 8%

Turns
cm

;From core datashet

A*T/cm
Oe

; Ie = path Lenth in "cm"


; 0.4pi*N^2*I/le

Fit Formula to find rolloff in per unit of initial permeability for the previously calculated bias level.
for "60" Kool Mu Core, (/ui) = a + bH + cH^2 + dH^3 + eH^4
a= 1
c= -8.76E-05
e= -2.62E-09
b= -4.45E-03
d= 9.45E-07
netizing force(dc bias), yielding 48.5% of initial permeability =
48.5 %
The inductance at xxAmpere will decrease the inductance by xx% compared with 0Ampere. The permeability versus
DC bias curve shows xx% of initial permeability at xx AT/cm.
% rolloff value =
0.485
Step#3: Iteration: Recalculation of Inductance :
Recalculated Inductance with scaledown by %rolloff value ;L=
554.1804 uH ; %rolloffvalue*N^2*AL
This roll off value is less than target inductance at full load.
Recalculate Inductor Current
At High input Voltage ;
Initial Ipk =
3.646 A
DC Biase calculation by using Amperes law = 42.6609807559 Oe
DC Biase calculated in H = 31.2326474365 A*T/cm
% rolloff value =
0.802
Step#4: Iteration: Recalculation of Inductance :
Recalculated Inductance with scaledown by %rolloff value ;L=
916.39728 uH

Vin(max) =
Dutycycle when Vin(max) applied = Dmin =
Recalculate Inductor ripple current:
Recalculated maximum Inductance ripple current at Vin(max)=
Recalculate Inductor peak Current
Inductor current at maximum input voltage : IL(min-avr) =
Ipeak = Iavr+(Iripple/2) =
DC Biase calculation by using Amperes law =
DC Biase calculated in H =
% rolloff value =
Recalculate Inductor Current
At Low input Voltage ;
Maximum Peak Inductor Current (at Vin(min)) : ILpk =
DC Biase calculated in H =
% rolloff value =
Step#5: Iteration: Recalculation of Inductance :
Iterate: Recalculate Inductance ;L=
Recalculate Inductor ripple current with scaled inductance :
Inductor ripple current for Vin(min) : IL(ac) =
Recalculate Inductor peak Current
Average inductor current at Vin(min) =
Maximum Peak Inductor Current (at Vin(min)) : ILpk =
DC Biase calculated in H =
% rolloff value =
Step#6: Iteration: Recalculation of Inductance :
Iterate: Recalculate Inductance ;L=

260 VDC
0.297343315
1.2978295997 A
2.6043372164 A
3.2532520162 A
38.0647770369 Oe
27.8677081463
0.827

8.8490151359 A
75.8016194138 A*T/cm
0.485
553.7359251746 uH
1.8191342167 A
7.9668388385 A
8.8764059468 A
76.0362520584
0.483
551.4524780605 uH

Inductor final value :

No Load Inductance ; L(nl) = 1141.723557 uH


Full load inductance L(fl) = 551.4524781 uH
Inductor Max Ripple = 22.14620668 %
Inductor Wire selection:
Turns =
AWG =
Resistance =
Wire area =
max current capacity =
Window area =
Fill Factor of the inductor =

92
14
0.00828
23.1
10.4
4.27
770.49180328

ohm/meter
23.1

sq.cm2
A
%

Ipeak : Ipk =
Turns : N =
Area : A =

3.646 A
40 turns
2 cm^2

calculation to check peak flux density for a selected core = Bpk =

0.3402024278 Tesla

Bpk = (L*Ipk)/(N*A)

MOSFET Power Dissipation calculation for Boost Converter


Rds (on) =
0.025 Ohm

IRMS is the RMS of the switch current : IRMS =


For verification : IRMS =
To calculate the conduction loss of a mosfet = Pcond =

7.0387109901 ARMS
6.9922503438 ARMS
1.24 W

IRMS = [Io/(1-Dmax)]*[sqrt(Dmax*(1+r^2
IRMS ~= IL(dc)*sqrtDmax

out / Efficiency

rom Pdesign

)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
x)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))

peration mode, we need "L" less than.

f)] / (2*Vo*Ts*Iout)
nse will be poor

)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))
)-Vsw)/(V0+VD))

aximum peak current value occures

IL(min-avr)]
/2)+Iin(min-avr)

Dmin*Ts) /[IL(ac)]

*D(max)*Ts]/L
value required for Core Energy calc

Dmin*Ts) /(r*Iin(mmax)(avr)

*Vout / Fsw*RL*dVout

t calculated from Vin(min) condition

Lenth in "cm"

ias level.

/(1-Dmax)]*[sqrt(Dmax*(1+r^2/12))]
(dc)*sqrtDmax

Boost converter 150V- 480V input ; 600V output


Legend:
Parameter

Value

Unit

Vg_min
Vg_max

150 V
480 V

Vo

600 V

Po

3000 W

Io

5.000 A

Dmax
Actual Dmax
Dmin
Actual Dmin
Ig_max

0.750
0.767
0.200
0.206
21.431 A

Ig_min
R

6.298 A
120.000 ohms

Rl
Rg
Rc
alpha

0.200 ohms
0.200 ohms
0.200 ohms
3.33E-03

beta

Vsw

1.580 V

Vd

1.000 V

efficiency_min

0.933

efficiency_max

0.992

Pg_max

3214.680

Pg_min

3022.915

0.25
di

5.000 %

fs

6.00E+04 Hz

Ts

1.67E-005 s

L_min
L_max
L
K
Kcrit
Actual Current Ripple for
Vgmin
Actual Current Ripple for
Vgmax

Worst case inductor peak


current

Output voltage ripple

Output capacitor
rms capacitor current

1.79E-03
1.79
5.24E-03
5.235258777
5.24E-03
5.24
5.235258777
0.041732064

H
mH
H
mH
H
mH

0.017 A
0.050 A

21.440 A

0.1 %

106.49 uF
9.06 A
Losses in the converter for a specified operating condition.

IGBT
(a). Conduction losses
Operating Vg
Operating Duty ratio
Current ripple

420 V
0.307
0.410 A

Onstate drop

1.580 V

Average Inductor Current

7.213 A

Peak switch current


Isw, min.

9.418 A
7.008 A

Average switch current


rms switch current
Conduction loss in IGBT
(b). Switching Losses
tr
tf
Pon
Poff
Total Switching losses

2.213 A
3.995 A
3.496 W
115
390
14.506
52.072
66.578

ns
ns
W
W
W

Diode
(a). Conduction Losses
Vd

1.000 V

Diode peak current


Diode min. current

7.418 A
7.008 A

Average diode current


rms diode current
Conduction loss in Diode

5.000 A
6.006 A
5.000 W

Dynamic resistance of
diode at the operating
current
Loss in dynamic res.

0.010 ohms
0.361 W

Total conduction loss in


diode
(b). Switching Losses
trr
Irr
Qrr
Pdiode_sw
Output capacitor
ESR
Icp
Ic rms
Loss in ESR
ripple current in cap.
Voltage ripple due to ESR
Inductor
rms current in Inductor
Peak current in Inductor
Rl
Cu. Loss in the inductor

5.361 W
200.000 ns
2.000 A
2.000E-07 coloumb
3.600 W

0.02
4.418
9.064
1.643
7.418
0.148

ohms
A
A
W
A
V

7.214
7.418
0.200
10.407

A
A
ohms
W

Magnetic losses
Source
Source resistance

0.200 ohms

Source rms current

7.214 A

Loss in the source res.

Total losses
Efficiency

10.407 W

101.492 W
96.73 %

onverter 150V- 480V input ; 600V output


blue cells are design/spec inputs, orange cells are op.
Details

Formula if any

Further Comments

Minimum Input Voltage


Maximum Input Voltage
Output Voltage
Output Power; to be calculated from the actual op and
efficiency of the second stage.
Output Current

Po/Vo

1-(Vgmin/Vo)
Maximum Duty ratio

Cross check Vo=


1-(Vgmax/Vo)

Max. average input current; Corresponding to Dmax

Io/(1-Dmax)

Min. average input current; Corresponding to Dmin


Equivalent Load resistance

Io/(1-Dmin)
Vo/Io

Parasitic resistance of the boost inductor


Parasitic resistance of the source
ESR of the output capacitor
Factor for loss resistances, which affect the efficiency

(Rl+Rg)/R

Switch voltage drop; Vce(sat) of IGBT from Data sheet


Diode voltage drop; from data sheet.
Minimum approx. efficiency; Dmax ; switching losses neglected
Maximum approx. efficiency; Dmin; switching losses neglected
Corresponds to Dmax
Corresponds to Dmin

Only losses in Rg, Rl, approx. conducti

current ripple percentage of nominal inductor current


Switching frequency
Switching period

1/fs

Inductance for the required ripple current. Corr. To Vgmin

Vgmin*Dmax*Ts/(di)

This will ensure minimum current ripple in all conditions.


The boost inductor for ensuring less ripple.
Conduction parameter.

Percentage of output voltage.


This is the minimum value required to satisfy the output ripple
spec. Output ripple content due to ESR is present. To reduce
that, capacitor value chosen must be more. To reduce ESR,
several capacitors need to be parallelled, subject to space
availability and layout considerations.

converter for a specified operating condition.

Change this value to get the performance at different ip volts.


Considering a closed loop control to maintain the output Vo.
Peak to peak current ripple
Vce, sat, to be entered from datasheet

Irr effect of diode is counted here


effect of Irr neglected in this calc.

Rise time of IGBT, from datasheet: for worst case, look at the curves.
Fall time of IGBT, from datasheet.
Off-On losses
On-Off losses.
Switching losses in IGBT

To be entered from datasheet

To be entered from datasheet

Reverse recovery time, from datasheet


Reverse recovery current, from datasheet and circuit conditions
Reverse recovery charge, from datasheet/calculation

To be entered from datasheet


Peak capacitor current
rms current through capacitor.
Power loss in the capacitor.

To be entered from Inductor design, consider skin effect.

Magnetic losses in L
Magnetic design of L

600 V

ActualDmax
a
b
c
Dmax_disc
Dmax_act 1
Dmax_act 2

599.420
-1050.42
453.000
17233.136
0.9856987
0.7666953

Actual Dmin
a
b
c
Dmin_disc
Dmin_act 1
Dmin_act 2

599.420
-720.42
1.23E+02
4.73E+02
0.9957974
0.2060644

in Rg, Rl, approx. conduction loss in switch, diode are considered.

Actual Dmin
a
b
c
Dmin_disc
Dmin_act 1
Dmin_act 2

599.420
-780.42
1.83E+02
4.13E+02
0.9951869
0.3067716

Boost Inductor physical design: Area-Product method.

Value of L

5.24E-03 H

Max. possible
average current
in the inductor

21.431 A

Peak current
through the
Inductor

21.440 A

rms inductor
current

7.214 A

Obtained from the design of boost stage. Specifies the ripple


current

kw

0.4

Winding factor

Bm
J

0.2 T
3.5 A/mm^2

Max. flux density. 0.2T for ferrite


Current density

Ap= AcAw

Selected Ac
N

2.891691 mm^4

0.01 mm^2
56 turns

aw

2.061029 mm^2

Air gap lg.

7.539928 mm

Area prouct.

Input the selected core area in mm^2 here.; from core data sheet.
Number of turns.
Area of c.s of wire. Choose a gauge greater than this.

Check the core reluctance Rc << Rg, or l/mu_r << lg


Is lg <<

0.1 ??

If not, redesign

core data sheet.

L=
I=

600 uH
5 A (average)
LI^2 =
15000.00 mH*A^2
Select core from core selector sheet;\
Selected core =
55083
Inductance factor from datasheet =
81 nH/T^2
; Tolerance is AL 8%
Tolerance considered = (-%) =
8 %
Actual (AL) of this core =
74.52 nH/T^2
Step#1: Calculation of turns for inductance with DC bias
Turns "N" = sqrt ([L*1e3]/AL) =
90 Turns
Magnetic Path Length : le =
9.84 cm
;From core datashet
Step#2 : To calculate Turns for full load, fist calculate DC Bia
determine the DC Bias level: H= NI/le= AT/cm
DC Bias Level : H = (N*I)/Ie =
45.7 A*T/cm
; Ie = path Lenth in "cm"
Step#3 : from DC Bias level, find initial permiability using fi
Fit Formula to find rolloff in per unit of initial permeability for the previously calculated bias level.
for "60" Kool Mu Core, (/ui) = a + bH + cH^2 + dH^3 + eH^4
a= 1
c= -8.76E-05
e= -2.62E-09
b= -4.45E-03
d= 9.45E-07
Determine the per unit of initial permeability =
69.3 %
;The permeability versus DC bias curve shows
69.33% of initial permeability at 45.59 AT/cm.

Step#4: from per unit initial permiability, scale turns required for full load.
ated Turns to adjusted with rolloff value; "T" =
130 Turns
Step#5: To find modified AL value now calculate "H" value,
ecalculate "H" from modified Turns value; "H" =
66.1 A*T/cm
Step#6: from modified DC Bias level, find initial permiability.
Recheck formula for per unit rolloff value =
54.6 %
Step#7: Re-calculate
AL value
checkingAInductance
value with
Multiply
thefor
minimum
by
L

; Modified Turns vlaue, 90/0.69=130


; Ie = path Lenth in "cm"
;The permeability versus DC bias curve shows 54% of
initial permeability at 65.75 AT/cm.

initial permeability value in step#7; new AL


=
40.7 nH/T^2
Step#8: Calculate inductance of the core with recalculated Turns and 40.7
L = Turns^2 * AL /1000 =
687.83 uH
; using Turns 130, AL =40.7nH/T^2
Step#8: Calculate inductance of the core with recalculated Turns and 66.6
L = Turns^2 * AL /1000 = 1259.388 uH
; using Turns 130, AL =74.52nH/T^2